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Unit: Power

Class 8 Geography Project
Power potential in Pakistan
The Material
Power potential in Pakistan
Pakistan does not have large proven reserves of fossil fuels but is fortunate enough to have
been endowed with considerable hydroelectric potential. Unfortunately Pakistan’s energy
market investment in hydel power generation has shown no significant improvement. At
present, Pakistan is generating power from a number of sources which are as follows:





Hydel
Thermal
Nuclear
Solar
Wind
Bio Fuels

Hydel
Pakistan is a water rich country. The hydel resources are mainly in the north; the resources in
the south being scarce. The hydel potential of Pakistan can be divided into six sectorial regions
namely:

KPK

Punjab

Azad Jammu & Kashmir

Gilgit-Baltistan

Sindh

Baluchistan

1

This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited.
Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only.

Pakistan is endowed with a hydel potential of approximately 41722 MW.6 13. There are a number of reasons for which it is beneficial to establish thermal power plants. . Pakistan’s hydel power generation capacities have deteriorated as a result of lower water levels in rivers. Warsak 240MWh. However. WAPDA controls the country’s major hydroelectric plants. 2 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. Following are the large existing hydel power stations of Pakistan according to their installed capacity: Name of Project Tarbela Ghazi Brotha Mangla Warsak Chashma Jagran 1 Rasool Dargai Malakand Shadiwal Chichoki Malian Installed Capacity 3478 1450 1000 240 184 30.046 MWh installed capacity.2 There are other smaller projects also generating electricity in small amounts. most of which lies in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hydro-electric power represents about a third of Pakistan’s power source. Additional hydroelectric plants in operation include Mangla 1.5 13. Due to this WAPDA and other power generation companies have to rely more on thermal power generators to cater the power demand of the country and are facing difficulties in coping with the high prices of oil on the international market. it is necessary to look for other ways of generating electricity. Northern Areas. periodic droughts affect the availability of hydroelectric production. Hydel electricity is a considerably cheaper source when compared to thermal sources.000MWh. an abundant hydel potential (about 27. However. with the largest being the Tarbela plant at 3.4 22 20 19.000MWh) is still untapped which needs to be harnessed. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. Thermal To combat the recent power crisis in Pakistan due to the underutilisation of the power potential. Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab.

Government of Pakistan is having negotiations with China National Nuclear Corporation to set up two more plants in Karachi (Kanupp II and III). growth in thermal power generation has come primarily from new IPPs (Independent Power Producers). The Guddu plant is the largest plant operated by WAPDA with a capacity of 1. This has been set up with the assistance of Japan under Cool Earth Partnership Program. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) operates these power plants. In recent years. Sind and Baluchistan. Solar Energy Pakistan is lucky to have longer sunshine hours coupled with high insolation levels and is ideally located to benefit from solar energy for power generation. Mostly thermal power stations do not cause displacement problems. Pakistan has stepped ahead by inaugurating the first ever solar power on-grid power plant in Islamabad. The program is currently under development by the International Renewable Energy Agency. 2011.     Transmission costs of thermal power are much less compared to hydel power because thermal power stations are close to the distribution centres. This project includes the installation of a Solar System each at two offices in Islamabad. Thermal power stations can be designed and constructed in relatively less time and therefore are planned for short/medium needs. Punjab. Chasnupp 2 with a capacity of 325 MWe was connected to the national grid on 14th March. Nuclear Power Generation Pakistan has three nuclear power plants. China and Pakistani private sector energy companies. with over 5000MW of installed capacity in its control. Thermal power production is more demand driven and can accommodate daily.650 MW. seasonal and annual fluctuations and peaking requirements. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. Initial capital cost of thermal projects is relatively less compared to hydel projects WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority) operates the majority of thermal power plants in Pakistan.600 MW) and Hub Power (1. 3 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. Chashma 1 or Chasnupp with a capacity of 330MWe and Kanupp with a capacity of 125MWe. some of which have been funded by the foreign investors.292 MW). Kanupp was Pakistan’s first nuclear power reactor and was set up in 1971 whereas Chasnupp 1 became operational in 2000. The two largest IPPs in Pakistan are Kot Addu (1. both of which provide power to WAPDA. . Pakistan is currently building solar power plants in Kashmir.

Pakistan’s first 50MW wind energy project at Jhimpir in Thatta District started its trial production in June 2012. This can be achieved if the Government of Pakistan utilises the potential and encourages more companies to build wind energy projects in the country. Since more than 60% of exports come from the agricultural sector. The energy crisis is badly affecting agricultural activities and the Pakistani Government needs to put a lot of stress on developing the bio fuel sector. Thatta District (Sind) Bio fuels The Government of Pakistan is focusing on promoting bio technology. The Government has handed over bio gas plants to many villages especially in Punjab to overcome the electricity problem. . 4 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. bio-technology is of utmost importance. Other local and foreign companies have shown keenness to invest in this sector as well. Wind turbines in Jhimpir.Wind Power The Government of Pakistan has developed Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) which looks after the development of wind power farms for the generation of wind power. This wind farm has been set up with the technical assistance of a Turkish company. Wind farms have not been developed on a larger scale though Pakistan has the potential to produce up to 346 gigawatts of electricity through wind energy alone.

The total power production capacity in Pakistan is about 19. The power line losses that have gone up to about 25% are a major reason for contributing towards the current power crisis.7%. Upto the end of 2012. production and consumption of energy Electricity in Pakistan is generated. The line losses of KESC are as high as 34%. bio fuels being one of them. 5 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy in Pakistan. Under such conditions alternative energy methods need to be developed. transmitted.500 MW. The demand for the supply of electricity is increasing at the rate of 9% annually whereas the supply is increasing at a slower rate i.Most villages are away from main transmission lines or the population is not large enough to make the provision of electricity feasible. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. followed by transport and Energy Consumption Household Agriculture Transport Industry Commercial Others/Govt households. distributed and retail supplied by the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi). the country fell short of 5.000MW. Comparison between capacity.e. and the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 20 independent power producers that contribute significantly to electricity generation in Pakistan. .

Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. Contrary to Pakistani Government claims. Electricity generation in Pakistan has shrunk by up to 50% in recent years due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels.e. Thus it is very important to take concerted efforts for capacity building to increase the supply of energy from diversified sources. As a result the country would be facing a shortage of 31 percent of energy in the foreseeable future which will seriously affect the balance of payment position of the country and would make it difficult for the economy to continue moving on the present growth trajectory. i. Reasons for low productivity and transmission and line losses For years. Pakistan was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. particularly the most neglected sources of energy. The main reasons for Pakistan's poor power generation are given below:  Political instability  Under exploitation of indigenous resources  Poor governance and lack of integrated planning  Existing power plants not working to full capacity  Low efficiency of thermal power plants  Power line losses The reasons for power or transmission line losses are:  use of old transmission lines which do not have the required diameter conductor  old transformers instead of low loss transformers which are more energy efficient 6 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Load shedding and power blackouts have drastically hampered the economy and public life. . Pakistan suffers from a massive electricity shortage. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. coal.If the current growth trend in the energy supply and demand continues then it is estimated that energy consumption in Pakistan would be about 150 MTOE and the net supply from indigenous sources would be 103 MTOE by the year 2020. needs more attention from the policy makers. One major issue is the disparity between returns from foreign and domestic investors.

Harnessing energy of any kind has impacts on communities. The crisis can be overcome by sustainable use of energy which means that people need to save energy through its wise use. Pakistan is going through an energy crisis. At present. use of solid conductors instead of twisted conductors  lack of use of high temperatures super conductors  lack of monitoring of transmission equipment  low maintenance level There is a dire need for the Government to make an integrated plan and encourage the electric supply companies to minimise line losses to combat the current situation. animals and the Earth. The Project: Power Potential in Pakistan: Finding Ways to Combat the Power Crisis Introduction: The current state of energy generation and its use in Pakistan has brought the pace of production wheel to a seriously low level. In order to make hydroelectric dams work well. . Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. rivers are often diverted to provide more water to reservoirs and large areas of land may be flooded. animals and the land. Communities close to areas with high concentrations of energy resources have maximum impacts in several ways. Animal habitats and migration routes are changed. There are many reasons for this state of affairs. Careful planning is required at this stage considering all the options at hand to balance energy needs with community needs. Forested areas are cleared for transmission lines. Soil is eroded and lost. plants. Balancing energy needs with community needs Energy needs grow as the population grows and a country’s economy progresses. Plants which rot under water increase mercury levels all the way up the food chain. These activities have impacts on people. 7 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited.

diagram. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. . The students have to present the answers to the following questions:         Power generating sources in Pakistan (use maps) Provincial sources of power generation (use maps) Power generating companies (use a table or chart) Sector wise consumption of energy (use graphs) How electricity gets to you (use description. maps) Gap in supply and demand (facts and figures) Reasons for low productivity.You have recently been given the responsibility to head a task force which is going to look into the ‘Power Potential in Pakistan’ and observe the problems at hand while suggesting ways to overcome the problems. The Process: Divide the class into four groups. The group leader will be the ‘Head of Task Force’ and the rest will be the advisors. The findings will have to be presented through power point presentation/OHTs/Flip charts. transmission and line losses (facts and figures – use graphs or tables) How can energy needs be balanced with community needs (use description) Success Criteria:      The duration of power point presentation or OHT will not be more than 10 minutes. The presentation will include slides beginning with the details of members of group to references in this order  Main topic  Group details  Introduction (problem at hand)  Answers (suggesting ways to overcome the problem)  Materials used  Conclusion  References (for materials used) Every group member has to present a part in front of the audience Slides should be relevant to the topic Slides should not be overwhelmingly colourful or contain too much information Suggestions: 8 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited. They will assign the roles in their respective groups after going through the reading material and task at hand. The Task: All the groups will be working on the same task. Give them the reading material.

. Any amendments in this document shall be controlled by the Studies Department only. maps. 9 This document is the intellectual property of The City School and any unauthorised use is prohibited.   Information can be gathered from multiple sources Students can use different sources which may include facts and figures. diagrams Library period can be integrated with this project. tables. charts.