You are on page 1of 20

Use of Carbon Fibres for Strengthening

of Concrete and Masonry Structures
¾

The work presents some aspects regarding design,
parametric studies using S&P FRP design software and
experimental testing made in INCERC.

¾

The experimental testing was made for finding the
mechanical properties of carbon fibre and the behaviour of
elements strengthened with laminates CFC.

¾

For the design and parametric studies were used
(according the design software for S&P FRP system) partial
safety factors for EC2, BS 8110 and ACI 318.

INCERC Bucharest

1

Technical and economical advantages in connection
with strengthening works execution are:
) lower execution duration
) possibility of performing the strengthening execution without activity

interruption
) small quantities of materials to handle
) lower noses (noise, dust)
) lower cost (less than classical proceedings/methods).

Main advantages regarding structure behaviour under
seismic action are:
) lower weight : construction weight is not increased so inertial forces

due to seismically action do not become greater
) increase of shear strength: allows the leading of fracture to a ductile
failure mechanism;
) increase of ultimate deformation: hysteretic dissipated energy become
greater.
INCERC Bucharest

2

Compression strength depends on the fibre type (plain or ribbed). ¾ Compression modulus: Unlike tensile modulus. fabrication control and length/diameter ratio of the sample. glass or high strength polyethylene) included/embedded in an epoxy resin. ¾ Compression strength: FRP bars have a less favourable behaviour on compression than on tensile.DATA REGARDING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS ¾ Composite materials (polymers reinforced with fibres) are manufactured from high strength and rigidity fibres (carbon. ¾ Tensile elasticity modulus: Elasticity modulus of glass fibre reinforcement is approximately 25% from steel modulus. Carbon fibre modulus is bigger than glass fibres modulus. compression modulus depends on bars diameter. Compression elasticity modulus is lower than tensile modulus. INCERC Bucharest 3 . aramide. type.

INCERC Bucharest 4 . ¾ Factors which affect the mechanical properties . temperature and moisture. so that they can be cut with saw transversal on their longitudinal axis. These factors are correlated so that it is difficult to determine each element’s influence. ¾ Fatigue strength: CFRP bars have a better fatigue strength than steel.FRP type composite properties depend on factors like: loads duration and history.¾ Shear strength: FRP shear strength is very low.

having the same section (one beam un.5 x 25cm section.REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS AND STRUCTURES STRENGTHENING Fibre strengthening effects . The most effective way is to apply carbon fibres on beam bottom face. ) Beam reinforcement was considered damaged in proportion of 100% (broken reinforcement) (Table 2.2 includes the load levels and deflection values for all 3 beams.type B . Table 2. INCERC Bucharest 5 . Experimental research regarding beam strengthening ) Experimental research was made in INCERC for studying the behaviour of beam type elements strengthened with carbon fibres.strengthened . Also. having a 12. ) Also. results obtained on strengthened beam were compared with results obtained on tests of two beams. Figure 1 shows load – deflection relation.type A with carbon strips on bottom). a main purpose is increasing of shear capacity.20m long. ) In table 2.Beam can be strengthened for increasing their flexural bearing capacity.1 test results are presented experimental researches were made for determination of bearing capacity for a beam 2.and the other strengthened . type C).2 beam.

44 6 .Technical characteristics of carbon fibre strips (SIKA CARBODUR S512) Flexural strength (N/mm2) Tensile strength (N/mm2) Bond strength (N/mm2) 2199 2796 7.1.35 5.66 INCERC Bucharest Shear strength between carbon band and resin (N/mm2) Shear strength between carbon band.Table 2. resin and concrete (N/mm2) 3.

05 1.12 2.18 0.23 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.08 1.03 1.45 0.04 failure (B) unstrengthened (reinforcement 2 φ 8mm) 0.02 0.30 0.10 0.65 0.02 1 0.71 0.26 0.09 0.09 0.5 0.0 2.25 0.10 1.51 0.60 1.08 1.25 3.25 0.08 0.01 3.08 0.15 Deflection F1 F2 F3 0.85 1.75 0.03 0.Table 2.11 0.66 0.28 failure INCERC Bucharest 7 .63 4.12 0.02 0.34 2.03 0.17 1.28 0.10 1.09 0.25 0.12 2.26 0.0 0.Load levels and deflection values for all 3 beams Beam type (A) strengthened (reinforcement 2 φ 8mm) Load step P (tf) 1.5 0.08 1.73 failure (C) strengthened (fractured reinforcement) 0.12 0.22 2.20 1.22 0.64 0.5 0.2.87 2.01 1.

Deflection unstrengthened state (beam type B).5 2 2.5 4 Load (tf) 3.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 3 be am type A be am type B 2. strengthened state (beam type A) and strengthened state (beam type C) 5 4.5 be am type C 2 1.1.5 3 Deflection (cm) INCERC Bucharest 8 .Fig.5 1 1. Load .

beam behaviour differs significantly. On bigger load levels. Brittle failure occurred but it was announced by a big crack width. the failure occurs due to strip separation. Unstrengthened beam has a typical behaviour for reinforced concrete elements subjected to flexural loads. the element does not have important deflections but cracks width become greater.5% reinforcement ratio. ¾For the beams type A and B: )On load levels up to service loads. Behaviour of strengthened beam with carbon fibres is different from flexural reinforcement elements.OBSERVATIONS REGARDING CARBON FIBRE STRENGTHENED BEAM ¾Bearing capacity of the strengthened beam with fractured reinforcement type C was similar to a reinforced concrete beam having a 0. in concrete in compression (after reinforcement yield). after reinforcement yields the element have important/big deflection to constant loads. Generally. Although it can be observed smaller values for deflection on bigger load levels for strengthened beam. )On load levels greater than service level. beam behaviour (strengthened and un- strengthened) do not substantially differ (regarding the crack and deformation aspects). INCERC Bucharest 9 . Failure mode is a ductile one.

2. " In calculation a single parameter variation was considered (the other remained constant).4. fig. and reinforcement type and needed moment for strengthened section on CFRP reinforcement. fig.Parametrical studies & Parametrical studies enclosed in this paper were done with S&P Clever Reinforcement Company from Germany. concrete class.2. So.5.1.4 results are presented for the following cases: - section height variation (Table 2.1) concrete compression strength variation (Table 2.4) INCERC Bucharest 10 . 2. fig. " Calculation had in view the Eurocode 2.3.3 and 2.3) needed moment variation (Table 2.2. " Studies have followed the influence of different parameters in connection with concrete section.2.2.6. in figs.2) reinforcement strength variation influence (Table 2. 2. BS 8110 and ACI 318 provisions loads coefficients and reinforced concrete section. fig.2.

¾ From graphics slope/gradient result that CFRP reinforcement depending on different parameters enframes in “classical behaviour” of reinforced concrete elements.2. ¾ Section height (fig.2. Also. Compressive strength has the smallest contribution.3).1) also influences (by level arm of internal forces) the needed CFRP quantity.4). necessary needed exterior moment influence the reinforcement (CFRP type) quantity (fig.2. But it must be mentioned the importance of the tensile strength and the quality of the concrete cover for the bond strength between CFRP and concrete. INCERC Bucharest 11 . Reinforcement strength has the main influence (fig.

030.9 0 -1.Table 1 – Comparison between mechanical proprieties of fibres and steel Steel bars Steels cable Glass fibres bars Glass fibres cables Carbon fibres cables Aramide fibres cables 483690 13791862 517-1207 13791724 16502410 1200-2068 (MPa) 276414 10341396 not the case not the case not the case not the case Tensile elasticity modulus 200 186-200 41-55 48-62 152-165 50-74 >0.010.6 1.0 7.045 0.9 1.5-1.5-2.4 1.7 9.015 0.0 2.9 7.026 276414 not the case 310-482 not the case not the case not the case 11.02-0.7 11.10 >0.05 0.04 0.25 Tensile strength (MPa) Yield limit (GPa) Ultimate elongation (mm/mm) Compression strength (MPa) Thermal dilatation coefficient (10-6/C) Specific weight (g/cm3) INCERC Bucharest 12 .0350.9 9.

4 1.1.4 0.6 2.2 3 2.2 1 0.4 2.4 3.6 1.8 2.8 1.2 2 1.2.2 0 40 45 50 55 60 65 h (cm) INCERC Bucharest 13 .8 0.Influence of the height of beam 3.6 0.2 Af FRP(cm ) Fig.

2 1 0.6 2.2 0 15 25 35 45 55 65 Strength class of concrete (N/mm2 ) INCERC Bucharest 14 .8 2.2 Af FRP (cm ) Fig.8 1.2.2 3 2.8 0.6 0.4 1.4 0.6 1. Influence of the strength class of concrete 3.4 2.4 3.2 2 1.2.

8 1.6 1.4 0.2 Af FRP (cm ) Fig.2 3 2.6 2.6 0.3.8 0.2 2 1.4 1. Influence of the reinforcing steel 3.8 2.4 2.2 1 0.2 0 200 300 400 500 600 2 Strength of reinforcement (N/mm ) INCERC Bucharest 15 .2.

4 1.8 0.6 1.2 3 2.2 2 1.8 1.4 2.4 3.Influence of the bending moment 3.2 Af FRP (cm ) Fig.6 0.2 1 0.4 0.8 2.2 0 15 20 25 30 35 M (kNm) INCERC Bucharest 16 .6 2.4.2.

2.Testing ensemble for columns Fig.Reinforced concrete column strengthened with FRP sheets Load . 2.deflection 8 6 *1000Kgf 4 -20 2 0 -15 -10 -5 -2 0 5 10 15 20 -4 -6 mm INCERC Bucharest Fig.2.5.7.Load – deflection diagram for column strengthened with FRP sheets 17 .Fig.6.

10.5 50 40 30 20 10 0 -1 -0.Testing ensemble for masonry elements Fig.2.2. Load – deflection diagram for masonry wall strengthened with FRP plates -2.8.2. Load–deflection diagram for masonry wall INCERC Bucharest (KN) (KN) Load-deflection -2 -1.5 -2 -1.9. Masonry wall strengthened with FRP plates Fig.5 Fig.5 -10 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 (cm) Load-deflection 80 60 40 20 0 0.2.11.5 -20 0 0.5 1 -40 -60 -80 (cm) 18 .Fig.5 1 1.5 -1 -0.

15.13.Strengthened beam Fig. Strengthened masonry INCERC Bucharest Fig.14.2.2. Strengthened column 19 .Fig. Strengthened slab Fig.2.2.12.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION INCERC Bucharest 20 .