You are on page 1of 16

J. Eur. Orch.

47 (2-4): 501 516. 2015.

Sami Youssef, Ahmed Mahmood, Honar Mahdi and Errol Vela

New contribution on Orchids (Orchidaceae) of Duhok Province

in Kurdistan Region (N-Iraq)

Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora, Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii, Ophrys
cilicica, Flora of Iraq, Irano-Anatolian.
Youssef, S., Mahmood A., Mahdi H. & E. Vela (2015): New contribution on
Orchids (Orchidaceae) of Duhok Province in Kurdistan Region (N-Iraq).- J.
Eur. Orch. 47(2-4): 501-516.
Kurdistan Region (KRG) is a part of the Irano-Anatolian hotspot but a coldspot
for floristic knowledge. During our previous surveys (2013) in Duhok
province, we found 10 orchids taxa; One of them (Ophrys cilicica) was
considered new for Iraq. Thanks to continuity of botanical survey (2014
2015), we found new 8 Orchids taxa where majority of records were new
localities: re-discovering O. reinholdii subsp. straussii, very rare species
reported only one time in mountain of Rowanduz district (MRO), confirming
then it really occurs in KRG. Furthermore, Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora was
new confirmed taxa for KRG and for Iraq; It is a very rare species having a
small population which are strongly threatened by increasing over-gathering
their tubers. Two other taxa considered as rare: Anacamptis pyramidalis subsp.
pyramidalis (found in West Duhok Province and threatened by its habitat
degradation) and Himantoglossum comperianum considered new for mountain
of Amadiy district (MAM). The other four taxa (Orchis simia subsp. simia;
Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans; Limodorum abortivum;
Himantoglossum caprinum subsp. caprinum), have been well reported as
occasionally occurring in KRG. New localities for MAM district were added.
The easiness to find new records and localities during a short period of
botanical field surveys in a limited area (Duhok governorate) suggests that
other discoveries might be achieved in the future.

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


Youssef, S., Mahmood A., Mahdi H. & E. Vela (2015): Ein neuer Beitrag ber
Orchideen (Orchidaceae) der Provinz Duhok in der Region Kurdistan (NIrak).- J. Eur. Orch. 47(2-4): 501-516.
Die Region Kurdistan im Nordirak besitzt als Teil des Irano-Anatolischen
Hotspots eine hohe Biodiversitt, ist floristisch jedoch nur ungengend
untersucht. Bei unseren frheren Feldarbeiten in der Provinz Duhok (2013)
konnten 10 Orchideentaxa nachgewiesen werden, darunter Ophrys cilicica als
neu fr den Irak. Die Fortfhrung der botanischen Durchforschung (20142015) ergab sieben weitere, fr die Region neue Orchideentaxa, vorwiegend an
neuen Fundstellen. Dabei konnte O. reinholdii subsp. straussii, eine sehr
seltene und bislang im Bearbeitungsgebiet erst einmal in der Erbil Provinz
(MRO) angetroffene Art, besttigt werden. Damit konnten unsere frheren
Zweifel an ihrem Vorkommen in Kurdistan ausgerumt werden, die wir nach
dem Fund von Ophrys cilicica in 2013 uerten: danach kommen beide Arten
in KRG vor. Auch Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora wurde erstmals fr KRG
und Irak nachgewiesen. Diese seltene Unterart, im Gebiet aktuell nur aus einer
kleinen Population bekannt, ist durch bermiges Sammeln ihrer Knollen
stark gefhrdet. Zwei weitere Taxa werden als in der Region selten eingestuft.
Einmal Anacamptis pyramidalis subsp. pyramidalis, sie wurde in der
westlichen Duhok-Provinz nachgewiesen und ist durch Degradierung ihres
Habitats gefehrdet. Zum Anderen Himantoglossum comperianum, die neu in
den Bergen der Duhok Provinz (MAM-Distrikt) gefunden wurde. Von den
folgenden vier Taxa Orchis simian subsp. simia; Anacamptis coriophora
subsp. fragrans; Limodorum abortivum; Himantoglossum caprinum subsp.
caprinum, bislang als in Kurdistan gelegentlich vorkommend gut bekannt,
wurden neue Vorkommen im MAM-Distrik aufgefunden. Die guten Erfolge
der in kurzer Zeit in einem eng begrenztem Raum durchgefhrten
Gelndearbeit (Duhok-Provinz) lassen in Zukunft weitere Entdeckungen von
Orchideen im Bearbeitungsgebiet erwarten.

Kurdistan Region (KRG) has been considered as a part of the Irano-Anatolian
hotspot for biodiversity (Mittermeier et al. 2004) but a coldspot for floristic
knowledge. Its geographical position (as an intersection between
Mediterranean, temperate, arid and continental biogeographic regions) beside
to its wide range of bioclimate (from hot semi-arid to cold alpine bioclimatic


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

zone) and the topographic features' diversity (from Mesopotamia's plains to

high mountains about 3600 m a.s.l.) gave rise to high richness value for
biological diversity. It includes an important number of rare, endemic,
threatened and remarkable plant species originated from divers biogeographic
region (AL-RAWI 1964; TOWNSEND & GUEST, 1966-1985; CHAKRAVARTY,
1976; KOYUNCU, 2002, CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, 2005). For example,
TOWNSEND & GUEST (1966-1985) reported more than 3000 plant taxa in flora
of Iraq; most of them occurred in hills and mountains of KRG. However, it is
considered as a coldspot for floristic knowledge -compared to neighboring
Middle East countries- as a result of poverty of the botanical and/or
taxonomical studies, non-update of flora of Iraq since 1985, no botanical
interest for discovering new plant taxa and/or records by local researchers and
naturalists and a few numbers of botanical field survey due to geopolitics
conflicts in this region.
Nevertheless, few floristic contributions recently had been published grace to
field surveys done by botanical researchers e.g. new variety of Crataegus
azarolus var. sharania (SHAHBAZ & SADEQ, 2006), new variety of Rhus
coriaria var. zibarica (SHAHBAZ et al. 2015) and new records of Ophrys
cilicica (VELA et al. 2013). For example, in this first botanical survey on
Orchidaceae, we found 10 orchids taxa in Duhok province including 5 species
of Ophrys and one new record Ophrys cilicica for flora of Iraq. This scientific
project stimulated us to continue finding new records of Orchidaceae Family
in different locations botanically under-surveyed in Duhok province and to
publish into the flora of the whole Kurdistan region.

Study site
Our botanical survey has been done in diverse habitats and landscape locations
of Duhok Provence, in the north-western of most of Kurdistan Region. Most of
the explored districts are situated in rectangular of Duhok, Akr, Barzan and
Kani Masi or AinNuni according to Flora of Iraq (Fig. 1 & Table 1).
The vegetation community structure in these triangular is globally an open
forest with a dense ground cover of herbaceous vegetation. The main
characteristic of the vegetation structure is Oak forest formation with three
main categories: Quercetum aegilopidis (low Oak forest sub-zone),Quercetum
aegilopidis-infectoriae (middle oak forest sub-zone) and Quercetum
infectoriae-libani (high oak forest sub-zone) respectively, while in an eastern
limit between Zawita and Atrush, there are an isolated areas of a Turkish Pine
(Pinus brutia) forest formation. Beside to forest zones, we explored also the

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


thorn-cushion (sub-alpine) zone: it is an open shrub formation characterized by

the dominance of dwarf thorn-cushion vegetation forms such as Astragalus sp.,
Onobrychis sp. and Dianthus sp. associated with divers erect shrubs such as
Daphne acuminata, Lonicer arborea and the famous edible herbaceous species
Rheum ribes called Rivaz. This formation occupies a clearly-marked zone in
the mountains from about 1500 to 3000m a.s.l.. Knowing that Orchids field
surveys were made in connection with ethnobotanical projects surveys during
the spring of 2014 and 2015 in Duhok province.

Fig. 1: Localisation of Orchid Sites in the study area of Duhok or Dahok,

Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
Orchids taxa identification was done in the both of field and laboratory of
Faculty of Agriculture -University of Duhok-, initially followed WOOD (1985)
and were systematically verified following KREUTZ (1998), KREUTZ & OLAK
(2009) and BAUMANN et al. (2006), especially for complex species/subspecies
aggregates. About the genus Orchis sensu lato, we have exploited the excellent
monograph of KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007).


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

List of 7 new localities (site name, biogeographic position & vegetation

structure, GPS coordinates (WGS84), altitude (Fig. 1) where 8 orchid taxa
were found with date of observation during the 2014-2015 survey.
Atrush, Gara mountain; Open Gall oak formation, 365216" N, 432657" E,
1190 m, 25., 26., 27.04.2015.
Orchis simia subsp. simia; Limodorum abortivum var. abortivum.
Atrush bis, Gara mountain; Pine forest and open Gall oak formation,
365225" N, 432933" E, 939 m, 25., 26., 27.04.2015.
Orchis simia subsp. simia; Limodorum abortivum var. abortivum.
Bad, Hills near Duhok City; Dry open Aleppo oak formation, 365405 N,
430519 E, 841 m., 15.04.2014.
Anacamptis pyramidalis subsp. pyramidalis; Himantoglossum caprinum
subsp. caprinum.
Beduh, Mountain of Ain Nuni near Turkey border's; open oak formation,
371555 N, 432422 E, 1450 m, 16.04.2014.
Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii; Himantoglossum comperianum.
Harik, Northern aspect of Gara mountain; mixt forest of Gall and Lebanon
oak formation, 370129 N, 434221 E, 750 m, 18., 19.04.2015.
Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora; Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii;
Himantoglossum comperianum.
Mergu, Southern aspect of Matin mountain; middle open Gall oak forest,
370338 N, 434055 E, 788 m, 3., 4.04.2015.
Orchis simian subsp. simia; Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii.
Zawita, Pine forest, hills between Gara mountain and Duhok city, 365501
N, 430901 E, 839 m, 17.05.2014, 10.05.2015.
Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans; Anacamptis pyramidalis subsp.
pyramidalis; Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii; Himantoglossum caprinum
subsp. caprinum; Limodorum abortivum var. abortivum.

Result and Discussion

During the botanical survey on Orchids family in Duhok province (Table 2),
8 Orchid taxa has been found in 7 sites (Harik, Mergu, Beduh, Zawita,
Bad, and Atrush): One of them, Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora, considered as
new record for flora of Iraq because it was never been officially reported
following WOOD (1985); Two other taxa are very rare (Anacamptis
pyramidalis subsp. pyramidalis and Ophrys reinholdi subsp. straussii) both of
them have been seen only once more than thirty years ago (WOOD, 1985); and
it can be recorded several times in the different locations through our botanical

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


survey e.g. Zawita; Bad; Harik and Mergu. Himantoglossum comperianum

is rare, It was reported only in the central district MRO (mountains of Erbil
governorate) and nowaday known of two localities (Harik, Beduh) of the
MAM district (mountains of Duhok governorate). While, Orchis simia subsp.
simia and Limodorum abortivum var. abortivum, were occasionally found in
different district in Kurdistan region, we have found them as well as in
Mergu, Zawita, and Atrush sites; Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragans is
known to be quite common in the north of Iraq (WOOD, 1985).
To provide a complete ecological and biological information (Ecological
niche, biogeographic distribution, conservation status), we consulted all recent
scientific references published about Orchids taxa founded in this study,
knowing that infra-specific identification is not easy because of lack of
scientific recent publications concerning Iraq. The only useful works are the
monograph of KREUTZ (1998), KREUTZ & OLAK(2009) on Turkey, the field
guide of BAUMANN et al. (2006) and the Orchid genera of KRETZSCHMAR et al.

1. Orchis spitzelii Saut. ex W. Koch subsp. latiflora Baumann & Baumann

[syn. Androrchis spitzelii (Saut. ex W.D.J.Koch) D.Tyteca & E.Klein subsp.
latiflora (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) W.Foelsche & Jakely]
Infra-specific identification (Fig. 2): Classically treated in floras under the
genus Orchis (until KRETZSCHMAR et al. 2007), it has been recently proposed
to be considered in the separated genus Androrchis thanks to morphological,
biological and phylogenetical data (cf. VLA & VIGLIONE 2015). In flora of
Iraq, Wood(1985) dont mention its presence in Iraq; Therefore we confirmed
officially its occurrence in Harik locality (see Fig. 1 and Table 2) as a new
record for Flora of Iraq. Knowing that KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007) reported
three subspecies: subsp. cazorlensis (Iberian Peninsula), subsp. nitidifolia
(endemic for the island of Crete), subsp. spitzelii (Pyrenees, over the Alps
including the foothills, Italy, Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor as far as the
Caucasus; Outposts are also found on the Island of Gotiand, in the Levant and
North Africa); But they included erroneously in the latter the recently
described subsp. latiflora from Lebanon (BAUMANN & LORENZ 2005, cf. VLA
& VIGLIONE 2015). Overall they never mention the occurrence of species for
KRG and/or Iraq. Whoever, its presence in Kurdistan region it is not really
surprising because already known in SE Turkey (KREUTZ 1998,
KRETZSCHMAR et al. 2007) close to the KRG border not very far from our
Harik locality (about 100 km), where it is easily identifiable as subsp.
latiflora also.


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

Ecological niche and distribution: It found in open dwarf shrub and thornycushion habitat at high altitude (about 1500 m a.s.l.) just above Quercus libanii
forest over limestone at north aspect of Gara mountain. This habitat
characterized by a cold winters rich in snow (for 3-4 month at least), as well as
sufficient water supply in spring. We found only one very small population
characterized by a few number of individuals (less than 10 individuals).
Consequentlly, Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora is very rare species, both in
number of locations (one locality at Iraq level) and size of population (very
few individuals). In addition, this species is very strongly endangered by
anthropogenic activities. In particular, the high mountain habitats are suffering
from annually increasing threats by local collectors of wild edible plants and
among them Orchis species (for sahlap products; perhaps price of one kilo of
tubers powder arrive to 800 $).

2. Orchis simia Lam. subsp. simia

Infra-specific identification (Fig. 3): WOOD (1985) dont given any
infraspecific precision in Flora of Iraq; While, KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007), had
mention two subspecies, subsp. simia (general area) and subsp. taubertiana
(Cyrenaica) and retain only subsp. simia for Kurdistan Region of Iraq and the
whole Middle East.
Ecological niche and distribution: It found in wide altitudinal range (700 to
1400) in open Oak forest at the bottom and middle of the southern aspect of
Mateen (Mergu site) and Gara (Atrush & Atrush bis sites) mountains. It
occurs in relatively deep soil pockets under trees and shrubs e.g. Quercus
infectoria, Quercus aegilops, Juniperus oxycedrus, Prunus sp., Crataegus
azarolus. Even though in Atrush district the weather is going to be hottest a
little bit, and O. simia found under Pinus brutia trees in compare with Mergu
locality. It presence in MAM district had well reported by WOOD (1985)
indicating its occasional frequency in western of Duhok Provence in MAM
Amadyia district (Zawita and Serseng town); while we added a new locality at
eastern of Duhok Province not far from MRO (Erbil Province).

3. Ophrys reinholdii H. Fleischm. subsp. straussii (H. Fleischm. & Bornm.)

E. Nelson
Infra-specific identification (Fig. 4): WOOD (1985) gave two subspecies for
Ophrys reinholdii; The first one is subsp. reinholdii, occurs throughout the

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


western range of the species (Greece including Aegean, Turkey westwards

from Antalya) and has not been found in Iraq, where O. reinholdii is
represented by subsp. straussii. well distributed in Irano-Touranian region
(Turkey and W Iran) eastwards from Antalya (KREUTZ 1998).
Ecological niche and distribution: Generally it has been found in hills and
mountains of Duhok district from 700 to 1500 m a.s.l.; It prefers shady and
relatively humid places under Pine trees of Zawita forest (Pinus brutia) and
Oak trees (Quercus infectoria and Quercus libani) as in Harik and Beduh.
According to flora of Iraq, it is considered as very rare species because it was
seen only once in the central district MRO (mountains of Erbil governorate)
(WOOD, 1985); And actually, it has seen several times during our botanical
survey in different locations and is now known in three localities (Harik,
Beduh) of the MAM district (mountains of Duhok governorate). In our
previous contribution on Orchids taxa (VLA et al. 2013), we hadn't found it
and therefore we postulate an hypotheses that it is possible that O. cilicica
(new record for KRG) was confused with its relative neighbour taxa O.
reinholdii subsp.straussii by WOOD (1985); Two years later, after divers
botanical field explorations, we re-discover O. reinholdii subsp. straussii and
we confirmed therefore the two taxa are really occurs in KRG/ N-Iraq.

4. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. subsp. pyramidalis

Infra-specific identification (Fig. 5): we have only seen the typical subspecies
with flowering at mid or late spring (april/may) while the early flowering
subsp. urvilleana (Sommier & Caruana) Landwehr seems to be endemic from
Malta and the summer flowering subsp. tanayensis (Chenevard) P.Quentin
endemic to the Alps (cf. VLA & VIGLIONE 2015).
Ecological niche and distribution: WOOD (1985) mentioned its high rarity in
Iraq due to its occurrence only one time at 500 m a.s.l. in intersection between
MAM and MRO. KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007) also confirmed its presence for
KRG of Iraq. During the field surveys we found two localities (Zawita &
Bad) at western of Duhok Provence not very far from Duhok city (about 15
km). It occurs in damp and shady places with deep soil near stream in open
Pine and Oak forest formation under trees and shrubs. Knowing that this
species is very threatened by habitat degradation due to the high pressure of
recreation in this two localities; In fact, during spring period, especially from
Marsh to April, an increasing numbers of Kurdish people do outdoor recreation
in both Zawita Pine and Bad Oak forest to celebrate the coming of the
Kurdish new year Newroz.


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

5. Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase

subsp. fragrans (Pollini) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase
[syn. Orchis coriophora L. subsp. fragrans (Pollini) Sudre]
Infra-specific identification (Fig. 6): WOOD (1985) treated this species in flora
of Iraq under the name Orchis coriophora while KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007)
more recently considered it in the genus Anacamptis thanks to the phylogeny
data. WOOD (1985) and KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007) both reported two
subspecies: subsp. coriophora and subsp. fragrans. The taxonomic position of
both subspecies has been discussed controversially in the botanic literature for
a long time due to the difficulty of separation on both morphological bases and
sympatric distribution of the subspecies. KRETZSCHMAR et al. (2007)
mentioned that subsp. fragrans settles on middle and low level regions that are
influenced by the Mediterranean climate, whilst subsp. coriophora mostly
found in the mountains or areas with lasting snow cover in winter.
Furthermore, WOOD (1985) reported only the presence of subsp. fragrans in
mountains of Kurdistan Region; We found it in Pine forest of Zawita, an area
under Mediterranean climate and after morphological determination, we
confirmed the presence of Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans in our
Ecological niche and distribution: Most of its individuals were found in the
circumstance of Oak and Pine forest formation in hillsides in Zawita district. It
found often in damp meadows and grassy places among trees and shrubs such
as Pinus brutia, Quercus aegilops, Pistacia eurycarpa, Juniperus oxycedrus,
etc., about the other vegetation cover prevalently the land was furnishing with
grasses. We often found its populations on small-scale areas that temporarily
collect rainfall as a sort of temporary marshlands not far from permanent
stream and spring.

6. Himantoglossum comperianum (Steven) P.Delforge

[Syn. Comperia comperiana (Steven) Asch. & Graebn.]
Infra-specific identification (Fig. 7): Classically treated in floras under the
genera Orchis or Comperia, it has been recently proposed to be considered in
the close genus Himantoglossum thanks to morphological, biological and
phylogenetical data (cf. VLA & VIGLIONE 2015). No infraspecific variation
for this monotypic species.
Ecological niche and distribution: WOOD (1985) reported this species as a rare

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


in Iraq because he only found it in two localities (i) in Handren mountain in the
middle forest zone of MRO (mountains of Erbil governorate) (ii) above
Penjwin mountain in forest zone of MSU (Sulimanya governorate); and it is
now known in most north-western mountains of KRG; in Mateen and
Berwarya mountains in the MAM district (mountains of Duhok governorate).
It often found in damp places with deep soil in open habitat characterized by
grassy clearings among Oak trees and other shrubs.

7. Himantoglossum caprinum (M.Bieb.) Spreng. subsp. caprinum

[Syn. Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. subsp. affine; Himantoglossum
hircinum auct. non (L.) Spreng)]
Infra-specific identification (Fig. 8): WOOD (1985) described this species under
the name Himantoglossum hircinum (L.) Spreng. and given one subspecies
affine (Boiss.) Sunderm. with two varieties: var. affine (Boiss.) J. Wood (occur
occasionally in the central sector of the middle forest zone of Iraq (MAM &
MRO) and var pseudocaprinum J. Wood (very rare found only in MRO
district). While BAUMANN et al. (2006) replaced the species into
Himantoglossum affine (Boiss.) Schltr. with the subsp. affine, SRAMKO et al.
(2012) recently corrected the historical mistake and consider H. affine as a
posterior synonym of H. caprinum which became the priority name of these
plants. Nevertheless the exact identification between variety pseudocaprinum
(from Kurdistan) and H. caprinum sensu stricto (from Crimean) would benefit
from being confirmed (or denied).
Ecological niche and distribution: It is found in open dry grassy places among
shrubs e.g. Juniperus oxycedrus, Cratagus azarolus and Prunus sp., and/or
Quercus aegilops and Q. infectoria trees.

8. Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw. var abortivum

Infra-specific identification (Fig. 9): WOOD (1985) described the species
without any precision of infra-specificity. Our findings concern only the
typical variety (var. abortivum) with a long spur and an open flower with
complete labellum.
Ecological niche and distribution: It is found in shady places with deep soil in
dry Oak and Pine forest; It occurs in two localities (Zawita and Atrush) with
small populations (less than 20 individuals), often under Pinus brutia and
Quercus aegilops trees. It has well reported by WOOD (1985) in lower forest


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

mountains of MAM and MRO district.

Our botanical survey about searching on Orchids taxa has been done during a
short period, and majority of records were new localities (not previously
reported): the most remarkable being O. reinholdii subsp. straussii, very rare
species (previously found only one time in MRO); And actually, it has been
seen several times during our botanical survey in different locations of MAM
district. After re-discovering O. reinholdii subsp. straussii with presence of
Ophrys cilicica (VLA et al. 2013), we confirmed therefore the two taxa are
really occurs in KRG / N-Iraq. Furthermore, Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora
was a new confirmed taxa for Kurdistan autonomous region and for Iraq; It is
very rare species, with small population which strongly threatened by
increasing over-gathering the tuberous. The easiness to find new records and
localities during a short period of botanical field surveys in a limited area
(Duhok governorate) confirms that Kurdistan is hotspot for plant diversity but
coldspot for knowledge and other discoveries can be achieve in the future.
Consequently, these recent new floristic contribution to flora of Iraq highlight
(i) the occurrence of a lot of other new taxa in this region rich in terms of
biodiversity (ii) the urgent need to carry out a national program strategies for
discovering and conserving the biological diversity heritages. Therefore, the
results of this study may stimulate scientific researchers and naturalists to do
more botanical field survey in Kurdistan region which in turn will update the
Flora of Iraq.

We are highly grateful to local people of Mergu and Harik villages
especially for Zervan Mergey for his cooperation and assistance helps during
our botanical field surveys; And we also would like to express our deepest
gratitude and sincere thanks to Faculty of Agriculture, Univesity of Duhok for
supporting encouragement of our botanical field surveys.

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


BAUMANN, H. & R. LORENZ (2005): Beitrge zur Taxonomie europischer und
mediterraner Orchideen, Teil 2.- J. Eur. Orch. 37: 939-974.
BAUMANN, H., KNKELE, S. & R. LORENZ (2006): Orchideen Europas, mit
angrenzenden Gebieten.- Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. 333 p.
AL-RAWI, A. (1964): Wild Plants of Iraq (with their distribution). Ministry of
Agriculture and Irrigation, Baghdad, Iraq.
CHAKRAVARTY, H.L. (1976). Plant Wealth of Iraq (A dictionary of Economic
Plants).Vol1 + 2, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Baghdad,
CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL (The Irano-Anatolian hotspot) 2005.
KOYUNCU, M. (2002): Some Ornamental Geophytes from the East Anatolia.
In: Biodiversity: biomolecular aspects of biodiversity and innovative
utilization (ener B., ed.), pp 247-251.
KRETZSCHMAR, H., ECCARIUS, W. & H. DIETRICH (2007): The Orchid Genera
Anacamptis, Orchis, Neotinea.- Echinomedia, Brgel, DE: 544 p.
KREUTZ, C.A.J. (1998): Die Orchideen der Trkei.-C.A.J. Kreutz, Landgraaaf,
NL: 766 p.
KREUTZ, K. & A.H. OLAK (2009): Trkiye Orkideleri (Botanik zellikleri,
Ekolojik stekleri, Doal Yayl Alanlar, Yaam Tehditleri, Koruma
nlemleri).-Rota Yaynlar. stanbul, TR: 850 p.
Hotspots revisited: Earths biologically richest and most endangered
ecoregions.- CEMEX, Mexico City, Mexico.
SHAHBAZ, S.E. & Z.A. SADEQ (2006): Crataegus azarolus var. sharania
(Rosaceae), a new variety for the flora of Iraq. Nordic Journal of Botany
23: 713717.
SHAHBAZ, S. E., SALEEM, J. I. & S.S. ABDULRAHMAN (2015): Rhus coriaria var.
zebaria (Anacaridaceae), a new variety from Iraq. Nordic Journal of
Botany 33: 5056.
BATEMAN, R.M. & A.V. MOLNR (2012): Unravelling a century of
misuse: typification of the name Himantoglossum caprinum
(Orchidaceae: Orchideae).- Phytotaxa 66: 21-26.
TOWNSEND, C.C. & E. GUEST (1966-1985): Flora of Iraq, Volume 1-9.Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Iraq, Baghdad.
VLA, E. & J. VIGLIONE (2015): Recent inputs to Lebanese orchid flora and an
essay of a national checklist for Orchidaceae family.- Acta Botanica


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

Gallica Botany Letters 162 (4): DOI:10.1080/12538078.2015.1105148

VLA E., YOUSSEF S. & MAHMOOD A., 2013. First survey on orchids
(Orchidaceae) of Duhok province in Kurdistan region (N-Iraq). Journal
Europascher Orchideen, 45: 235-254.
WOOD J.J. (1985): Orchidaceae. In: TOWNSEND C.C. & E. GUEST; Flora of
Iraq, Volume 8: Monocotyledones.- Bentham-Moxon Trust : 267-310.

Address of the authors

Sami Youssef, Ahmed Mahmood & Honar Mahdi, Department of Recreation
and Ecotourism, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Duhok, ,SumailDuhok 1063 BD.;;
Errol Vela, University of Montpellier, UMR AMAP (botAny and bioinforMatics of Plant Architecture), CIRAD TA A51/PS2, 34398 Montpellier
cedex 5, France.

Fig. 2: Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora, Harik.

fig. 2a (left): 27.04.2015; fig. 2 b (right):, 01.05. 2015.

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


Figs. 3a, 3b: Orchis simia subsp. simia, Mergu, 03.042015.

Fig. 4: Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii.

Fig. 4a (left):Zawita, 09.05.2015; fig. 4 b (rigth): Harik, 15.05.2015.


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.

Fig. 5: Anacamptis pyramidalis subsp. Fig. 6: Himantoglossum comperianum,

pyramidalis, Bad, 17.05.2014.
Beduh, 16.04.2014.

Figs. 7a, 7b: Anacamptis coriophora subsp. fragrans, Zawita, 09.05.2015.

Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.


Figs. 8a, 8b: Himantoglossum caprinum subsp. caprinum, Bad, 21.04.2014.

Figs. 9a, 9b: Limodorum abortivum var. abortivum, Zawita, 01.05.2015.


Journal Europischer Orchideen 47 (2-4): 2015.