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GRAMMAR

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GRAMMAR KEY.............................................................................................................25/30

Version: 5.1

02/2015

GRAMMAR
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Remember the word SVOMPT. It will help you to construct English sentences:
S

V

O

M

Subj
ect
I

verb

object

saw

Robert

He

passed

the exam

manner

P

T

place

time

at school

on Monday.

easily.

Questions:
(W)
V
S
(V)
O
M
||
what – who – when – where – why – which – how

P

T

1. Yes/No questions:
Inversion: a. verb to be:
b. modal verbs:
c. have got:
Auxiliary: other verbs:

I am late. - Am I late? – Yes, you are. / No, you are not.
He can type. - Can he type? – Yes, he can. / No, he can’t.
I have got a computer. - Have you got a computer? – Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
They finished yesterday. – Did they finish yesterday?
– Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.

2. Wh- questions (using what, who, when, where, why, which, how):
No auxiliary – when asking about the subject:
Who made the cake? – Rosie made it.
Auxiliary – when asking about the object, manner, place or time:
Who did you meet? – I met Paul.
Where does he work?

Version: 5.1

02/2015

........ please.. Arrange these words in the right order... till / afternoon / worked / 4 o’clock / the students / this Version: 5..... this chapter / you should study / more carefully ………………………………………....... smoke / students / in the lab / may / ? …………………………………………………. decomposes / acid / at once / carbonic ………………………………………………….... (yes/no questions) Exercises: 1...... a... 2. b... f....1 02/2015 ...... enjoyed / the lectures / have / the students ……………………………………………... Arrange these words in the right order....... in the lab / you shouldn’t work / at night ………. h. e... a. Alternative questions (choice): Would you like tea or coffee? – Tea. c......V) I don’t know what she wants..... your article / I / in / quickly / last night / bed / read ……………………………………...... electricity / water power / can / make / cheap ………………………………………….... Indirect questions: Who are those people? What does she want? Can he help us? Do you know who those people are? (no inversion: S .. the project / when / finish / the students / did / ? ……………………………………… d.……………………………………... g..... b.. 4.. saw / the experiment / who / ? …………………………………………………………........ (no auxiliary) I don’t know if/whether he can help us.Preposition at the end of the sentence: Who do you live with? What are you looking at? What’s the weather like? 3.

. what or where..…………………… d. The scientist has found a new chemical element. ………………………………. At the end of each semester every student must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations... We will have to redistill the compound……….. The researchers published their new findings………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………. and then write questions for the answers. …………………………………………. Make questions to ask about the underlined statements using who. destroy / can / micro-organisms / cooking / the / only / completely …………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………. Read the text. David took the pictures. f.... oxide / released / in / coal / nitrous / of / burning / is / the …………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………… c.1 02/2015 .. e..……. c. The educational programme is divided into Academic Years. each year being divided into two semesters. h. f.. d. I met Dr Seusse last night. 4. All studies proceed on the basis of a curriculum of studies. In addition to these. gases / to / dioxide / allow / carbon / sun’s / and / enter / rays / other / the ………………………………………………………………………………………. with the main vacation in July and August. The undergraduate studies take three years for the Bachelor Degree and five for the Master Degree. 3. Version: 5. This process occurs naturally under certain conditions. The condensate flows down the column………………………………………………. a.. ……………………………………………………………. climate / models / warming / indicate / computer / of / changes / consequences / of / some / Earth / a ………………………………………………………………………………………….. b... g. e. Distillation consists in vaporizing a substance…………………………………………. the Institute provides also postgraduate courses for PhD students..

cultural or sports activities. Present Simple expresses the general validity of the claim . every student …………………………………………………………………………… f. pp. 2-9 Raymond Murphy: English Grammar in Use.Students may obtain certain scholarships. These may be granted either automatically for excellent study results or on the basis of excellent research achievements. 210-211 VERB TENSES 1. three years ……………………………………………………………………………… d. in July and August ……………………………………………………………………… c. as described processes and conditions are usually virtually without any consideration to the specific time . a. chemical and food ……………………………………………………………………… For more practice see: L.G. 98-99. Version: 5. Oxford 1997. postgraduate courses for PhD students ………………………………………………… e. Third edition..Alexander: Longman English Grammar Practice.. pp. This tense is most frequently used in professional eg chemical and other literature . and also to aid in the cases of serious social problems. Using the present tense of the verb then has nothing to do with a present time and present time there has timeless relevance . Present Simple It is a regularly recurring story in the presence of fundamental importance. Academic Years ……………………………………………………………………….1 02/2015 .. Graduates of the Institute usually find employment in plants and research laboratories of chemical and food industries as well as in various research institutes. excellent study results…………………………………………………………………. Longman 1990. 102-103 Michael Swan & Catherine Walter: How English Works. pp. b. which applies universally .. g. Cambridge 2004.

Near future . are ) + called . The question is formed using the auxiliary verb do . Future is expressed proverbial specifying time . for example . she watches. Tomorrow . Present Continuous This time is used to describe a story that takes place right now. Changes in the amount of ice floating in the polar oceans are causing sea levels to rise.1 02/2015 . etc. Mary is studying at Cambridge this year. A form of passive voice is formed forms of the verb "be" + continual shape being + Past participle ( past participle ) semantic verb   Polarographic methods are being used in the analysis of metals now. Chemistry is a science which deals with substances. at any given time . Not only in technical language .Forma: . -ing Form of a verb semantic . she. The problem is being intensively studied these days. does + basic shape without semantic verb "do"     We need a good technical dictionary in order to understand the article. it speaks he. but also in everyday expression . 2. Form: forms of the verb "to be" ( am . is . Version: 5. He doesn’t study at our university. it is the breadth conceived present time or trend. when this is an expression of confidence that the story takes place . ongoing moment. Many scientific terms are unknown to non-scientists. Negative is formed auxiliary verb do not / do not. next week . she doesn’t study. A form of passive voice is formed forms of the verb "be" and the past participle (past participle ) semantic verb   The laboratory is equipped with experimental technology. he studies.    At the moment Tom is analysing the substance. and events and activities that are planned and prepared . does not / does not + the basic form ( infinitive ) semantic word without it : I don’t work. This presence is of course to be understood more broadly than just the immediate . In the lab we don’t use these dangerous chemicals. Continuous present time is also used to express the so-called .-s: he. .

think of someone / something . action ( action verbs ) . Version: 5. just . think = thinking (being of the opinion )    This juice tastes good. = Taste something . feel and material = grappling.  According to the programme we are carrying out the experiment next Monday. explore tactile material . often. ( three . fit. notice . Lately . smell . for example . If. The most common time determinations that relate to the indefinite past and are associated with předpřítomným time . always . matter . never . once . need . past perfect .1 02/2015 . understand . taste . hate . cost . sit . future . however. travel etc. expresses the perfect storyline that began in the past and still exists in the present. like . Recently .. eg . for example . Sing . play. remember . I am seeing the director tomorrow at 5 o’clock. eg . teach . it corresponds to the Czech translation of the majority present time . eg : already . not + yet . Present Perfect Simple This time expresses the last action that took place in a vague . They have a new 3D printer. so far . Beware ! Non -action verbs do not form a continuous tenses ! This is the thinking of the verb ( verbs of thinking ) . taste sth . yet . look ( he looks tired ) = taste taste. This rule also applies to all other English tenses . ever .    She is having lunch at the moment. feel = sense to have = possess. Please be quiet! I’m thinking. but it is related to the presence of either their consequences or duration. 3. before . sensory perception verbs ( verbs of senses ) see . ( two years ) since . sensation ( feeling of verbs ).ie . as well as connections to use for . love . look at = to look at something . hear . Past . want . Continuous shapes form the verb action . write .  The matter consists of small particles. I think you’re right.. include . speak . forget . Some other verbs . talk . Usually expresses the consequences of past actions and translate it into Czech dokonavého past tense of the verb (often we can add " already " " already" ) . future perfect . have put in phrases = something . eg . Why are you smelling the mixture? b) Inactive = do not constitute a continuous form: = look .. not isolated from the presence of sharp boundary . Several ) times . Recognize . unspecified past. prefer . mean . Know . Beware! Some verbs have two different meanings : a) active = also form continuous form .. listen . think of / about = to think about . feeling. study. have . present perfect .

  The laboratory has been reconstructed since 2007. We still haven’t discovered life on other planets. Past Simple This time expresses the storyline that began in the past and finished well in the past . I have known him since we met at university. The polarographic method has been known for many years. Also. He has been waiting for the results for an hour. Forma: forms of the verb “have” – have/has + been + . without its consequences extending to the present. The past tense refers to some identifiable period of previous use of time to determine the type . Czech translate it into present time.Forma : verbs    forms of the verb " have" . The barometer has been rising since yesterday. a form of passive voice is formed forms of the verb " have" . Present Perfect Continuous This time expresses the storyline that began in the past and continues at the time refers to him . mostly near future and the past is the presence of certain consequences . These results have been published regularly in some periodicals.have / has + been + past participle ( past participle ) semantic verb    Many uses of this method have been described in the literature.ing semantic form of the verb     I have been working in this institute since 2000.yesterday .1 02/2015 . uses the passive present perfect simple .have / has + past participle ( past participle ) semantic The rain has already ruined the tomato crops. He can’t drive. 5. These views have aroused considerable interest. 4. He has been drinking. Version: 5. if the plot was carried out for some time in an unspecified . last week . or if we want to express the length of this happening. Present perfect continuous tense does not passive.

three hours ago . It started during those first months when I moved there.was/were and past participles (past participle) semantic verbs   Oxygen was pumped into that container yesterday. Czech entirely consistent with the previous time in the aspect consummated . During the experiment both liquids were being slowly heated. When I was young .: he worked. test tubes and funnels. Prozac was discovered in 1972. During the experiment he was using several beakers. Fleming was studying influenza when he discovered penicillin. we travelled.1 02/2015 . I was working on my thesis (for) several months. I cried. after he went abroad. Version: 5. A form of passive voice is formed forms of the verb ' be ' . Long ago.e. people built houses of wood. Worked ( and ) I was on my dissertation ( PhD ) work for several months . or prolonged time past .was / were + being + past participle of the verb semantic  That new element was being examined for a long time. which ran past a certain point . 6. Last plot may be included in some of the past also minor sentence . a form of passive voice is formed forms of the verb ' Be ' . Irregular verbs we use a separate form intended for the last time    Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896. plot a temporary period .was / were + ing form of the verb semantic    He was working on his thesis for several months last school term. in the eighteenth century etc. Very often provides a framework or a background for the main action of the sentence. the other day . Past Tense Continuous This describes the last time the plot . Forma: forms of the verb ' be ' for the last time . We translate into czech mostly past tense form of the verb imperfect aspect . Forma: verbs use the regular terminal – i. Also expresses plot last repeated .

He showed me the latest issue of the periodical. which had just come out. Pluperfect is often used in the structures of indirect speech and sequence of tenses. after. she cleaned the entire laboratory. It was more than a month until I realized what had been happening. Forma: We use a form of the verb ' have ' ' for the last time .snake + been + ing form semantic verbs    The whole place was deserted but it was obvious that someone had been staying there. before . Everything was just as I had left it in the morning. While I had been preparing all the equipment. Past Perfect Continuous Past perfect continuous tense is used to express past happening earlier than any other previous storyline or more times before last and emphasizes its temporary duration. uses only the shape of the passive voice in the simple form . with precocity . Jim had escaped. a form of passive voice is formed by the shape of a serpent + past participle been + semantic verbs When reading the report he realized that some important information had been omitted. By the time we got to the laboratory. When .snake + past participle semantic verbs     After she had finished the experiment. yet. 8.7. already .1 02/2015 . the experiment had already started. Forma: We use a form of the verb ' have ' ' for the last time . Past Perfect Simple Pluperfect expresses and describes the last plot that ended before another storyline past or ended or was terminated within a certain time in the past. 9. Future Simple and Continuous Version: 5. just . Czech formally remains unexpressed . by the time . which this time is expressed in English. Czech to translate this process in time past . as. Past Continuous does not passive. long . Before last for a certain period of time can be referenced using the determination in sentences such .

The last train leaves at 20. hopes . offering assistance and so on. both in tzv. Shall the shape and is used to express future time for 1.1 The lecture starts on Tuesday at 10.      This container will hold 5 liters of petrol We will only perform a preliminary analysis. which will take place in the future or future state . Time is given concrete proverbial specifying the time or any other time expressions . You will be hearing from us in any case. determined according to the program schedule etc. Shall I prepare the equipment for the experiment now? A form of passive voice is formed by the auxiliary verb will + be + past participle semantic verbs    This container will be filled with sulphur acid. Forma: we create using the auxiliary verb will + be + ing form of the verb semantic    He will be leaving in a few days. Future Tense Continuous Future continuous tense expresses action .Future Tense Simple Future simple form expresses its storyline . Other ways of expressing the future:  Present simple – to express future happening that is precisely determined .osobu 1. - Version: 5. The conference will be held next week in London. 02/2015 . immediate decisions . All the experiment will be repeated several times. Forma: we create using the auxiliary verb will + infinitive verb semantic no ' ' to ' ' It will be used for all those single and plural. I will return / I shall return to this possibility later. predictions. which will take place in a certain well-known or specified time . I think he won’t finish in time.neutrální future.osobu single and plural . promises or threats . We will be working in the lab whole day tomorrow. It is used for the expression of opinion on future events .40. Its use remains mainly in the form of multimodal tinge.

We are going to carry out the experiment again to gain some better results. Future perfect continuous tense expresses what at some point in the future will have some time to run .1 02/2015 . Present continuous – to express plan or happening that is confident and prepared in advance - I am seeing the new director tomorrow morning. Future Perfect Simple and Continuous Future perfect simple tense includes the future preceding a later time future . Expresses its intention . We hope that by the end of this century a new drug against cancer will have been discovered. plan . plan . He is studying at Yale University next school term. Look! The glass is going to fall. Sequence of Tenses Version: 5. We use it for action and activities that will at some point in the future we're talking about . - 10. Forma: we create using the auxiliary verb will + have + been + ing form of meaning verb   Next year I will have been working at the Institute for fifteen years. By the time I get there. A form of passive voice is formed by the auxiliary verb will + have + been + past participle of the verb semantic  By the end of this year the new building of our university will have been finished. Binding going to . they will have been waiting for me for two hours.to represent the future . Beginning this matter or activities may relate to the past and take up to a certain point in the future . has been completed . which is dependent on the will and intention of the speaker . Is there a rule specifying a time or full time secondary sentence . Forma: we create using the auxiliary verb will + have + past participle semantic verbs  By the time we get to the classroom the lecture will have started. It is also used to express forecast events based on current events .

C." If it is in English ( it also relates to other languages ) verb in the main clause in the present.V pattern ) . !!! If the main sentence in past time ( e. Roentgen reported that in 1891 he discovered a new kind of rays.in these cases. read . write . Roentgen showed that the X-rays could penetrate matter. " she thought " ) . forget. report . such as a closed unit . Version: 5. thinking and perception . or direct questions after verbs with the meaning of speaking . I She promised to send some Beware of indirect questions . tense of the verb in the subordinate clause is not affected and does not change . know . Roentgen reported that he had discovered a new kind of rays.A. Sequence of tenses ( Sequence of Tenses . Similarly . that does not infringe meaning of the sentence . the time difference is not necessary. there is a shift of the " one time back . want to know . E. It was not known if the results of tests would be useful. B. learn ( to learn ) feel. . " He Said ". She promised she would send some information. I told you I wouldn’t forget. answer . reply . past and future tense in terms of actual real presence . information. The essence of the concept of time sequence is the last story that ended in the past and does not go to the real presence or in the future . future or past perfect . ask . announce . D. "I Asked ". I told you. tell . Practically. if it is still a valid statement or general .word order is the same as notification sentence ( S . Czech term also time sequence ) understand the dependence of the shape of certain verbs in the next sentence in question time to the verb in the main or control sentence.1 02/2015 . Subordinate clause is connected to the control clutch That sentence = that which may be omitted (in particular call) . The reproduction of direct speech . Chemists found that all organic compounds contain carbon. for example . which can not use present. Indirect speech and indirect question Rules actual sequence applied in indirect speech . Say . ie . this time must also correspond to the times in the sentence side ( unlike Czech ) .g.

→ THE DAY BEFORE." "I enjoy the classes this year. He said he would travel there the following summer. in that laboratory. → THEN. Warrant or request is presented in indirect speech verbs ask . yesterday”. He said he enjoyed the classes that year. Often asks how you live. He said he didn't want to do it then.. etc . (Indirect/Reported speech): Professor Green said that he had been there. order ." THIS "I didn’t like this movie.” The teacher told (asked) his students not to do it." YESTERDAY. LAST MONTH "I called you yesterday. → THAT DAY. → THE FOLLOWING DAY." (Direct speech): Professor Green said: “I was here.. eg . He said the previous month had been very sunny." "I don't want to do it now. in this laboratory. Notice: 1 ) When you change direct speech to indirect changes and personal pronouns and adverbials of time and place. He said he would buy it the following day.." → THERE He said he would love to live there." He said he had sent the email three days before.. THIS MONTH. AGO → BEFORE "I sent the email three days ago. She did not know where her sister. THAT MONTH He said he hadn’t seen him that day. AT THAT MOMENT He said he wanted to go there at that moment.He often asks how you live. tell ." TOMORROW. THE PREVIOUS. She didn’t know where her sister was. He said he had called me the day before." TODAY.: HERE "I would love to live here. Version: 5.1 02/2015 . "I'll travel there next summer. "I haven‘t seen him today. NEXT MONTH "I'll buy it tomorrow." NOW "I want to go there now. the day before. → THAT He said he hadn’t liked that movie..." "Last month was very sunny. Imperative is yet in indirect speech changed to the infinitive :   The teacher said to his students: “Don’t do it.

I can’t find them anywhere.. The experiment with nitrate acid ... 5.. (dye) the solution inside with an intense colourant.. 1.. 2. (not finish) yet... 3.. 3. The increasing awareness of problems with food allergy and intolerance was leading/led/ has led to the requirement to state the source of certain emulsifiers on food labelling. I ……... 3. 4. (lose) my glasses yesterday. Lecithin.g... English Grammar in Use for intermediate students – Raymond Murphy Intermediate Language Practice ..1 02/2015 .. 5... The amount of water we were adding/we added for half an hour to the mixture was dependent on the pressure of the distillation.... He test/tests/is testing the content of sugar in the specimen of a newly manufactured fruit jam. I’ll have to work overtime. ………….For more details see e. Choose the correct form of Present Tense. (lose) my goggles. . 3. Earlier. (change) in the laboratory since I last……… (see) you? 5. Not all liquids boil/are boiling at 100°C..... any chemicals added to food either as pesticides in primary production or additives in processing..Michael Vince First Certificate Language Practice – Michael Vince Exercises: 1.. an emulsifier not suitable for individuals with an allergy to soya. Antioxidants are playing/play an important role in food preservation. And I . Version: 5. George is busy now. 6. 7.. The solution was white and now it is red... Look at Anne’s vessel! She ………….. 2.anything………. 1.. Give the reasons of your choice between the simple and continuous forms.. Are you regularly using/do you regularly use sweeteners in your morning tea or coffee? 4.. 4. Carbon is occuring/occurs in two crystalline forms that differ in their properties. Professor Black studies/had studied/has been studying food additives since he has started/had started/started work at this College in 2007. Mary is working/work/works in the laboratory with nitric acid every day.. 2. were considering/were considered suspect.. is not being produced/produced in this factory.. 2. They prepared/were preparing synthetic salt and therefore were placing/placed a piece of sodium in a flask with chlorine. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Simple or Continuous tense? 1.

4. Researchers in Cagliari. Professor White will teach/will have been teaching/will be teaching at our university for ten years. Next year. Fleming ………………. is the result of chemicals. 1. By the time I arrived at the laboratory …………………………. When was the University of Chemistry and Technology in Prague being established/ established? 9. I …………… (never do) anything I ……………(feel) is against my principles. 4. …………………………. Italy. When you return from abroad next week. While excessive consumption of cola e) … craving for chocolate can lead to weakness and even muscle paralysis. d)… my colleagues had left 5. I prepared/was preparing the experiment with colouring foodstuffs the whole afternoon yesterday. have uncovered scientific evidence that ………………………………………. (consist) of small elements. ……………………………………. Translate the sentences from exercise 5 above into Czech. b) … moderate consumption of cola is completely safe 3. 1. might cut out chocolate cravings altogether.1 02/2015 .. Matter …………. the researchers said. 5. a) …acting on the appropriate nerve receptor 2. 3. The pills ………………………………. c) … the course will have finished 4. 2.8. 6. (identify) the structure of DNA in 1953. (study) influenza when he ………………(discover) penicillin. 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. Watson and Crick …………………. a Soft Drinks Association spokesperson said.... Version: 5. Fill in the gaps with fitting expressions.

Structure: subject (which is not the agent) The thesis The thesis verb to be in appropriate tense form is/was/has been/will be etc. The Curies found that pitchblende was several times more active than uranium oxide. He is said to live here (←It is said that he lives here. is/was etc. (←It is said that he lived here. had made significant progress as early as in the latter part of the 19th century. Becquerel noticed that salts of uranium possessed the property of emitting rays. understand are often used in the present simple passive followed by an infinitive. know. – The thesis will be written.1 02/2015 . I will write the thesis. At the same time. Roentgen found that the X-rays would pass through solid substances. I’m writing the thesis. think. expect. – the subject of the second sentence replaces “it” from the first sentence and the rest is connected in the form of infinitive). in the preservation of food along with the manufacture of synthetic additives. we insert being (-ing form of the verb to be) between the verb to be and the content verb. the progress in physics was very fast. PASSIVE VOICE The passive voice is widely used in scientific texts due to the fact that what goes first in the English sentence is considered to be the most important. say. I have written the thesis. Let us mention that when Thomson discovered the electron. In Czech we use passive structures less commonly. – The thesis is being written. – The thesis was written. being 3rd form of the content verb written written When the continuous form is needed.) Version: 5. not speaking of the first half of the 20th century. Scientific texts tend to use passive voice structures frequently to make sentences sound more objective and avoid using personal pronouns. I wrote the thesis. One of our teachers remarked that many people were not aware of the fact that the food industry using the achievements of chemistry that had been reached. Structure of the passive voice in combination with the infinitive (which is not used in Czech): subject + passive + infinitive The verbs believe. report. Translate into Czech (taking into account that the principles of the sequence of tenses used in English do not apply in Czech). In 1932 Chadwick reported that he had discovered the neutron. suppose. he proved that there were particles which were smaller than the smallest atom known.7. He is said to have lived here. – The thesis has been written. in particular.

a/ b/ c/ d/ e/ f/ g/ h/ i/ j/ 2. My teacher has explained this to me. 3. c/ It is expected that this element can occur in two allotropic modifications. Exercises: 1. a/ It is known that many elements react this way. The economy is expected to grow by 2% this year. Transform the following sentences into the passive + infinitive.The new library is supposed to open next week. b/ It is believed that this new discovery can save many lives. Unstable conditions influenced our experiment. Students have spilt a dangerous chemical. It is said he will return soon. Acid spilled across the bench . Translate using the passive voice in the appropriate tense. She should have performed the tests more carefully. Was the mixture cool enough ? Second chance he never had . (Notice: The negative particle not precedes the particle to. – He is said to return soon. These substances are not produced. What is written there ?. The filter has caught poisonous substances.) The perfect infinitive refers to a time before that of the preceding verb: This decade is known to have been a decade of many discoveries. ex. a/ b/ c/ d/ e/ f/ g/ h/ i/ j/ He has broken another vessel.1 02/2015 . We prepared a new compound yesterday. The simple infinitive refers to the same time as that of the preceding verb: This compound is expected not to react. That program is being installed . She has sent us new laboratory records. She deleted all her experimental results by accident. She has made a huge mistake in her calculations. Not expected that it explodes . Version: 5. It is known that this compound is extremely poisonous . Transform the following sentences into passive voice. When it was founded this school ? Such things can not be tolerated .

English Grammar in Use.1 02/2015 KEY . R. It is reported that all the devices have been calibrated for our experiment. GRAF. For more practice see: MURPHY.d/ e/ f/ g/ h/ i/ It is thought that they have made a real breakthrough in the research of radioactivity. S. It is estimated that the experiment has failed due to incorrect temperature settings. Cvičebnice anglické gramatiky. It was supposed that citric acid does not display any harmful effects. units 41 – 44 PETERS. Polyglot. Cambridge University Press. unit 13 GRAMMAR SENTENCE STRUCTURE Version: 5. It was said he had really discovered seven new substances.. T. It is assumed this company does not use preservatives of any kind.

Computer models of climate changes indicate some consequences of a warming Earth. Carbonic acid decomposes at once. each year being divided into two semesters. b. You should study this chapter more carefully. h. e. f. d. c. b. what or where. When did the students finish the project? Who saw the experiment? The students have enjoyed the lectures. You shouldn’t work in the lab at night. Arrange these words in the right order. a. Only cooking can destroy the micro-organisms completely. Arrange these words in the right order.1 02/2015 . e. Version: 5. I quickly read your article in bed last night. the Institute provides also postgraduate courses for PhD students. The students worked till 4 o’clock this afternoon.1. At the end of each semester every student must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations. c. b. In addition to these. d. Water power can make cheap electricity. The educational programme is divided into Academic Years. Make questions to ask about the underlined statements using who. The undergraduate studies take three years for the Bachelor Degree and five for the Master Degree. g. f. Nitrous oxide is released in the burning of coal. e. May students smoke in the lab? 2. c. and then write questions for the answers. with the main vacation in July and August. 3. a. Who did you meet last night? What has the scientist found? Who took the pictures? What occurs naturally under certain conditions? Who published their new findings? What will we have to redistill? Where does the condensate flow? What does distillation consist in? 4. d. Carbon dioxide and other gases allow the sun’s rays to enter. All studies proceed on the basis of a curriculum of studies. h. a. Read the text. f. g.

cultural or sports activities. What may certain scholarships be granted for? g. and also to aid in the cases of serious social problems. works 2.Students may obtain certain scholarships. In what kind of industries do graduates of the Institute usually find employment? VERB TENSES 1. b. d. Simple or Continuous tense? 1. a. Give the reasons of your choice between the simple and continuous forms. c. 1. boil 5. has led Version: 5.1 02/2015 started 4. Choose the correct form of Present Tense. What is the educational programme divided into? When is the main vacation? How long do the undergraduate studies take for the Bachelor Degree? What does the Institute also provide? Who must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations at the end of each semester? f. is testing 3. These may be granted either automatically for excellent study results or on the basis of excellent research achievements. were considered 3. has been studying 2. 3. I last saw you has not finished 3. play . Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. 1. e. has dyed have lost lost Has anything changed …. Graduates of the Institute usually find employment in plants and research laboratories of chemical and food industries as well as in various research institutes. 5.. do you…use… 2. 4. 2.

Translate into Czech (taking into account that Czech does not apply the principles of the sequence of tenses used in English. we were adding they were preparing placed occurs is not produced was established was preparing will have been teaching 4.4. my colleagues were already gone . Chadwick announced in 1932 that he had discovered the neutron. 1d) 2c) 3e) 4 a) 5b) 6. R. One of our teachers said that many people are not aware that the food industry uses chemistry successes that were achieved mainly in food preservation . Translate the sentences from exercise 5 above into Czech. not to mention the first half of the 20 . 1. was studying have never done consists identified discovered feel 5. Researchers in Cagliari . along with the production of synthetic ingredients . moderate consumption of beverages wheel is completely safe . Let us mention that when Thomson discovered the electron . Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. It was also very rapid progress in physics. Becquerel found that uranium salts have the ability (= property ) of the radiation beam . 4. 2. 10. 5. 2. Pills acting on the nervous receptor could completely eliminate the desire for chocolate . you come back from abroad . 8. 3. 7. proved that they are ( exist) particles that are smaller than the smallest known atom .století . 9. Until next week. 4. PASSIVE VOICE Version: 5. 5. 1. Roentgen discovered Xrays that pass through solids. achieved significant progress in the second half of the 19th century . When I came into the lab . ( Spouses ) Curies discovered that pitchblende is many times more active than uranium oxide . said a spokesman for Soft Drinks Association. a course it will be terminated. 3.1 02/2015 . 6. 7. Italy received scientific evidence that craving Chocolate with chemicals . While abuse of wheels may lead to weakening and even paralysis of muscles. Fill in the gaps with fitting expressions. as noted by the researchers .

/ It was expected (that) it would explode. This new discovery is believed to be able to save many lives. This element is expected to occur in two allotropic modifications. d/ The tests should have been performed more carefully. a/ b/ c/ d/ e/ f/ g/ h/ i/ These substances are not produced here. b/ Our experiment was influenced by unstable conditions. a/ b/ c/ d/ e/ f/ g/ Many elements are known to react this way. This company is assumed not to use preservatives of any kind. Transform the following sentences into passive voice. It is said he will return soon. j/ It was expected to explode. The program is just being installed. Transform the following sentences into the passive+infinitive. a/ Another vessel has been broken.1. f/ A new compound was prepared yesterday. 2. – He is said to return soon. When was this school established? Such things cannot be tolerated. 3. / It is known (that) this compound is highly poisonous. Translate using the passive voice in an appropriate tense. What is written there? Has this mixture been cooled sufficiently? He has never been given a second chance/A second chance has never been given to him. Version: 5. They are thought to have made a real breakthrough in the research of radioactivity. Ex. e/ Poisonous substances have been caught by the filter.1 02/2015 . c/ New laboratory records have been sent to us. i/ A dangerous chemical has been spilt (by students). Citric acid was supposed not to display any harmful effects. All the devices are reported to have been calibrated for our experiment. h/ This was explained to me (by my teacher) last lesson. An acid has been spilt all over the laboratory table. g/ All her experimental results were deleted by accident. This compound is known to be highly poisonous. j/ A huge mistake has been made in her calculations.

i/ He was said to have discovered seven new substances.1 02/2015 .h/ The experiment is estimated to have failed due to incorrect temperature settings. Version: 5.