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KLM Technology
Group

Rev: 05

Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing
Plant Solutions

KLM Technology Group
Unit 23-04
Menara Landmark
12 Jalan Ngee Heng
80000 Johor Bahru,
Malaysia

www.klmtechgroup.com

Jan 2007

Author:

Ling Ai Li

Piping Fluid Flow Material
Selection and Line Sizing
(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE)

Checked by:

Karl Kolmetz

TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
Scope

5

General Design Consideration

6

DEFINITIONS

10

NOMENCLATURE

12

THEORY OF THE DESIGN
A) General Fluid Flow Theory
I) Physical Properties of Fluids

14

Viscosity

14

Density, Specific Volume and Specify Gravity

14

Mean Velocity

15

II) Flow Characteristic in Pipe

16

Reynolds Number

16

Fluid Flow Equations for the Friction Loss/Pressure Drop in Pipe

16

Straight Line Pressure Drop

19

KLM Technology
Group
Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions

Page 2 of 64

Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection
and Line Sizing

Rev: 05

(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007

Effect of Valve, Fitting on Pressure Drop

20

Enlargements and Contraction Pipe Line Pressure Drops Calculation

21

Nozzles and Orifices

23

Water Hammer

23

B) Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection

24

C) Line Sizing

25

I) Liquid Flow (In-Compressible Flow)

28

II) Gas Flow (Compressible Flow)

29

APPLICATION
Example Case 1: In-Compressible flow with Water

33

Example Case 2: In-Compressible flow with HC

36

Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam

39

Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas

41

REFEREENCES

43

SPECIFICATION DATA SHEET
Pipe Line Data Sheet (Excel format)

44

CALCULATION SPREADSHEET
Excel format: (English Unit)
Liquid Line Sizing – Water

These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design
cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final
design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will
greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines
are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.
This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied,
reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

45

Page 3 of 64

KLM Technology
Group
Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions

Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection
and Line Sizing

Rev: 05

(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007

Liquid Line Sizing – Hydrocarbon

46

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Steam

47

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Hydrocarbon

48

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Steam

49

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Hydrocarbon

50

Example Case 1: Incompressible flow with Water

51

Example Case 2: Incompressible flow with Hydrocarbon

52

Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam

53

Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas

54

Excel format: (Metric Unit)
Liquid Line Sizing – Water

55

Liquid Line Sizing – Hydrocarbon

56

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)- Steam

57

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)- Hydrocarbon

58

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)- Steam

59

Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)- Hydrocarbon

60

Example Case 1: Incompressible flow with Water

61

Example Case 2: Incompressible flow with Hydrocarbon

62

Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam

63

Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas

64

These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design
cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final
design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will
greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines
are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.
This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied,
reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

but the copyright remains with us. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 4 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 LIST OF TABLE Table 1: General Pipe Material Roughness 19 Table 2a: Example of the equivalent lengths for various kinds of fittings 20 Table 2b: Friction factor for the commercial steel pipe 21 Table 3: Guideline for the Piping Fitting and Pipe Material Selection 25 Table 4: Pipe velocities and allowable pressure drops for various fluids 27 Table 5: Optimum velocity for various fluid densities 27 Table 6: Reasonable Velocities for flow of water/fluid with almost same density through pipe 29 Table 7: Reasonable Velocities for flow of steam through pipe 32 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. It must not be copied. . The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but are very general and not for specific design cases. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.

water. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. safety. . Pipe sizing is to determine the pipe size in a system and was sized so that the substances will flow through optimally. Darcy’s Formula for general equation for flow of fluids for the friction loss in pipe line and it applying as principles calculation of compressible flow in pipe. Generally. Pipe size is determined by the length of the pipe and the allowable pressure drop in the line. Pressure drop calculations in these fitting are discussed in detail to help for the sizing for liquid and gas phase fluids. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. economics. and single phase gas flow for the hydrocarbon. This design guideline includes single phase liquid flow. This guideline also covers piping-related equipment. steam and hydrocarbon. for example. such as valve. In this guideline. but the copyright remains with us. including process requirements. but are very general and not for specific design cases. water. these differences phases were discussed in detail for the engineering design for the laminar and turbulence flow and for various substances of fluids. The theory used in this guidelines are commonly used in industrial such as Bernoulli’s Theorem for general energy equation and measurement of pressure. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The allowable pressure drop may be influenced by factors. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. there are tables that assist in making these factored calculations from the vary reference sources. It must not be copied. Included with the guideline is an example of the Data Sheet which is generally used in industrial and the Calculation Spreadsheet for the engineering design. fittings and orifices. and noise or vibration limitations. In this section. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. steam and natural gases. The application of the fluid flow theory with the example will make the engineer easier to study for the piping fluid flow and the ready to perform the actual design of the piping fluid flow sizing.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 5 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 INTRODUCTION Scope This design guideline covers the basic elements in the field of Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing in sufficient detail to allow an engineer to design a pipeline with the material selection of piping and suitable size of the piping. fluid phase can be considers as in pure liquid /gas phase.

Design code and the standards are reviewed for the project of the design for the safety purposes and the verification of the applicability. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. It must not be copied. Combined with the piping design criteria. They should be included engineering calculations for the piping system design. snow or ice loading. Second. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. therefore. It is.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 6 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 INTRODUCTION General Design Consideration In designing the piping fluid flow there are many factors have to be considered for the suitability of the material selection for the application codes & standards. Internal wear and erosion also pose unseen hazards that can result in system failures. calculations define the process flow rates. Materials These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. pipe wall thickness. Compensation for the resulting expansions contractions are made in both the piping system and support systems. earthquakes. vital to select interconnecting equipment and materials that are compatible with each other and the expected environment. thermal expansion/contraction and other forces or moments that may occur simultaneously and they are used to set the stress limit of the design. and the economics of the design and other parameters which may constrain the work. temperature changes. Two instances of temperature changes must be considered as a minimum. The service conditions should be the consideration as well because the piping system is designed to accommodate all combinations of loading situations such as pressure changes. B31. Most failures of fluid process systems occur at or within interconnect points the piping. but are very general and not for specific design cases. In this design guideline generally follows the codes and the standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code for Pressure Piping. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. flanges. safety. and subsidence. winds. environmental requirements. performance of the requirements. such as fires. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but the copyright remains with us.(4) Normal environmental factors that have the potential for damage due to corrosion must be addressed in the design of process piping. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. and stress and pipe support requirements. . etc. system pressure and temperature. fittings. Physical damage may also occur due to credible operational and natural phenomena. valves. there are diurnal and seasonal changes. ASME B31 includes the minimum design requirements for various pressure piping applications. thermal expansion where elevated liquid temperatures are used must be accommodated. First.

Key evaluation factors are strength. It must not be copied. For the pressure drop calculation: the primary requirement of the design is to find an inside diameter with system design flow rates and pressure drops. pressure integrity calculation and stress analyses are repeated. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. Piping material is selected by optimizing the basis of design.9 m/s (7 ± 3 ft/s) with a maximum velocity limited to 2. That is. . The remaining materials are evaluated for advantages and disadvantages such as capital. pressure integrity calculations and stress analyses. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Basically service conditions must be reviewed to determine operational requirements such as recommended fluid velocity for the application and liquid characteristics such as viscosity. This information is useful to determine the minimum internal diameter of the pipe for the whole system network. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. Normal liquid service applications. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ductility.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 7 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 selection is an optimization process. compatibility to handle thermal cycling. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. Considerations include cost and availability. If the selected piping material does not meet those requirements. fabrication and installation costs. abrasiveness and corrosively. and catholic protection requirements. The design proceeds with pipe sizing. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but the copyright remains with us.1 m/s (7 ft/s) at piping discharge points including pump suction lines and drains. support system complexity. the selected material may not rank first in each evaluation category.(4) Pressure drops throughout the piping network are designed to provide an optimum balance between the installed cost of the piping system and operating costs of the system pumps. The highest ranked material of construction is then selected. and the material selected for an application must be chosen for the sum of its properties. Primary factors that will impact these costs and system operating performance are internal pipe diameter (and the resulting fluid velocity). but are very general and not for specific design cases. This velocity range is considered reasonable for normal applications. the acceptable velocity in pipes is 2. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.1 ± 0. The design flow rates are based on system demands that are normally established in the process design phase of a project. temperature. however. materials of construction and pipe routing. it should. toughness. then second ranked material is used to sizing. This will involves trial and error procedure to find the suitable inside diameter. solids density and settling velocity. suspended solids concentration. and corrosion resistance. be the best overall choice.

KLM Technology
Group
Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions

Page 8 of 64

Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection
and Line Sizing

Rev: 05

(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007

Pressure drop, or head loss, is caused by friction between the pipe wall and the fluid,
and by minor losses such as flow obstructions, changes in direction, changes in flow
area, etc. Fluid head loss is added to elevation changes to determine pump
requirements. A common method for calculating pressure drop is the Darcy-Weisbach
equation.
Normally for the line sizing the following rules should be follow
1) Calculate the Pressure drop with expressed in the term “psi/100 ft of pipe”.
2) Select the suitable Velocity which expressed in ft/sec; there is standard for
general liquid flow the range of the velocity should be in the suitable range for the
basic design.
3) Calculate the Reynolds number to determine the fluid flow. Reynolds number is a
factor of pipe diameter, flow rate, density, and viscosity of the liquid; allows
analysis of flow characteristics (slug, laminar, transition, turbulent); sanitary
systems always require full turbulence (Reynolds number > 10,000)
4) Determine the suitable of pipe diameter - the inside pipe or tube diameter is used
in the several equations to determine the pressure drops, Reynolds number,
velocity and etc.
5) Determine the roughness of pipe, the more rough the pipe, the larger the friction
factor; the larger the friction factor, the more pressure drop.
6) Incompressible flow - liquids; actual pressure is not a factor in pressure drop
calculation.
7) Compressible flow - gases and vapors; actual pressure is a direct factor in
pressure drop calculation.
Liquids (Incompressible Flow): Size longer lines for less pressure drop than shorter
lines. Most water-like liquids, long lines should be sized for 0.5 to 1.0 psi/100 ft; short
lines should be sized for 1.0 to 2.0 psi/100 ft; no hard and fast rules. For liquids with
viscosities 10 cp or less consider just like water; above 10 cp, check Reynolds number
to see what equations to use for pressure drop calculation. Careful with sizing lines in
the fractional line size range; It may cost more to install ¾” pipe and smaller than 1” pipe
due to support requirements. Usually don’t save on header sizing to allow for future
These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design
cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final
design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will
greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines
are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.
This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied,
reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

KLM Technology
Group
Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions

Page 9 of 64

Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection
and Line Sizing

Rev: 05

(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007

increase in capacity without changing out pipe. Pipeline holdup of process liquids may
be a factor; smaller pipe may be desired to limit holdup even though pressure drop goes
up.
Gases and Vapors (Compressible Flow): Supply pressure is a major factor in line sizing
calculations; also, overall pressure drop by means of typical calculation methods should
not exceed 10% of the supply pressure, otherwise, alternative calculation methods must
be used. Typically, consider all gases and vapors (including saturated steam) to
behave gases in order to calculate vapor densities (PV = nRT).

These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design
cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final
design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will
greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines
are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.
This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied,
reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

KLM Technology
Group
Practical Engineering
Guidelines for Processing Plant
Solutions

Page 10 of 64

Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection
and Line Sizing

Rev: 05

(ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007

DEFINITIONS
Compressible Fluid - Molecules in a fluid to be compacted and the density is varies.
Energy is exchanged not only among the kinetic energy and the potential energies due
to gravity and pressure, but also with the internal energy (7).
Darcy Friction Factor, f -This factor is a function of Reynolds Number and relative pipe
wall roughness, ε/d. For a given class of pipe material, the roughness is relatively
independent of the pipe diameter, so that in a plot of f vs. Re, d often replaces ε/d as a
parameter.
In-Compressible Fluid - An incompressible flow is one in which the density of the fluid
is constant or nearly constant. Liquid flows are normally treated as incompressible (6).
Molecules in a fluid to be cannot be compacted. Generally the flow energy is converted
to friction, kinetic and potential energy if available and not the internal energy.
Laminar Flow - Laminar flow occurs when adjacent layers of fluid move relative to each
other in smooth streamlines, without macroscopic mixing. In laminar flow, viscous
shear, which is caused by molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers, is the
predominant influence in establishing the fluid flow. This flow type occurs in pipes when
Re < 2,100.
Newtonian Fluids - A fluid characterized by a linear relationship between shear rate
(rate of angular deformation) and shear stress.
Non-Newtonian Liquids - Fluids may be broadly classified by their ability to retain the
memory of a past deformation (which is usually reflected in a time dependence of the
material properties). Fluids that display memory effects usually exhibit elasticity.(8) Fluids
in which viscosity depends on shear rate and/or time. Examples are some slurries,
emulsions, and polymer melts and solutions.
Relative Roughness - Ratio of absolute pipe wall roughness ε to inside diameter d, in
consistent units.
Resistance Coefficient, K - Empirical coefficient in the friction loss equation for valves
and fittings. It expresses the number of velocity heads lost by friction for the particular
valve or fitting. The coefficient is usually a function of the nominal diameter.

These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible, but are very general and not for specific design
cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final
design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor, but these guidelines will
greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines
are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.
This document is entrusted to the recipient personally, but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied,
reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

Force per unit area. there is no simple relationship between shear stress and strain rate in turbulent flow. Instantaneous properties cannot be predicted in a turbulent flow field. Transition Flow . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.Is a relative measure of weight density. Re . In this regime velocity fluctuations may or may not be present and flow may be intermittently laminar and turbulent. It must not be copied. This flow type occurs in pipes when 2. no matter how low the discharge pressure is. Shear Stress . but are very general and not for specific design cases.000. area in plane normal to velocity gradient.Flow regime lying between laminar and turbulent flow. laminar flow may persist at Re > 4. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. Under very controlled laboratory situations. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Turbulent Flow .Steam hammer is excessive pipe vibrations that occur due to the collapse of large vapor bubbles in a cool liquid stream. For engineering analyses.The maximum velocity that a gas or gas-liquid mixture can attain in a conduit at a given upstream pressure (except in certain convergingdiverging nozzles). The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. Sonic Velocity (Choked Flow) . but the copyright remains with us. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.The velocity gradient (change in velocity with position).000. This flow type occurs in pipes in industrial situations when Re > 4. temperature is only condition must be considered in designating the basis for specific gravity. Normally pressure has not significant effect for the weight density of liquid. the fluid is called a Newtonian fluid. Specific gravity . turbulent flow is handled empirically using curve-fits to velocity profiles and experimentally determinate loss coefficients. For gases this maximum velocity is equal to the speed of sound at the local conditions. Viscosity.Defined as the shear stress per unit area at any point in a confined fluid divided by the velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the direction of flow. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.Turbulence is characterized by velocity fluctuations that transport momentum across streamlines.000. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.A dimensionless number which expresses the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in fluid flow. only average values can be calculated. Shear Rate .100 < Re < 4. if the ratio is constant with time at a given temperature and pressure for any species. Steam Hammer . Force in direction of flow.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 11 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Reynolds Number. .

gal/min Individual gas constant.Water hammer is the dynamic pressure surge that results from the sudden transformation of the kinetic energy in a flowing fluid into pressure when the flow is suddenly stopped. dimensionless Friction factor for fitting Acceleration of gravity. in. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. for perfect gas c =1. It must not be copied. (mm) Weld joint efficiency or quality factor from ASME B31. dimensionless (hydrocarbon in API) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but are very general and not for specific design cases. ft3/s (m3/s) Volumetric flow rate. . in Pipe with smaller diameter in enlargements or contractions in pipes Pipe with smaller diameter in enlargements or contractions in pipes Equivalent hydraulic diameter. MR =1544 Reynolds Number. psig (kPa gage) Volumetric flow rate. miles Molecular weight Pressure drop in pipe.0 Internal diameter of pipe. in(mm) Flow coefficient for the nozzles and orifices Compressible factor. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 12 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Water Hammer . but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. in (mm) Outside diameter of pipe. but the copyright remains with us. dimensionless Length of pipe. The sudden closing of a valve can cause a water hammer. dimensionless Specific gravity of a liquid. ft/s2 (m/s2) – 32. ft (m) Length of pipe. ft (m) Ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume = cp/cv Resistance coefficient.3 Dancy’s friction factor. ft3/hr (m3/hr) Rate of flow. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. Ibf/in2(Pa) Internal design pressure. dimensionless Resistance coefficient for enlargement/contraction.2ft/s2 Head loss. ft (m) Equivalent length. ft2 (m2) Sum of mechanical allowances plus corrosion allowance plus erosion allowance. NOMENCLATURE A a C c D d d1 d2 de Do E f ft g hL k K K1 L Leq Lm M P Pi Q q Q1 R Re S Radius-sectional area. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ft (m) Internal diameter of pipe.

but are very general and not for specific design cases. in (mm) θ Angle of convergence or divergence in enlargements or contractions in pipes ∆ Differential between two points These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Ibm/hr (kg/hr) Mass flow rate. from ASME B31. ft/s (m/s) Specific volume. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. in. ft3/Ibm (m3/kg) Inlet specific volume.3. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. It must not be copied. (mm) Wall thickness. in.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Sg Sm T t tm tnom V V V1 Vmax vs W w Y z Page 13 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Specific gravity of a gas. in. Ibm/s (kg/s) Expansion factor (dimensionless) Elevation of pipe. . (mm) Mean velocity. cp ε Absolute roughness. ft3/Ib The bigger velocity for enlargement / contraction. dimensionless Allowable stress. (mm) Total minimum wall thickness required for pressure integrity. Ibm/ft3 (kg/m3) µe Absolute viscosity. Ibm. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ft/s (m/s) Sonic velocity.s /ft (kg. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but the copyright remains with us.s/m) µ Absolute (dynamic) viscosity. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. ft (m) Greek letters ρ Weight density of fluid. psi (MPa) Absolute temperature. R (460+oF) Pressure design minimum thickness. ft/s (kg/s) Mass flow rate.

Specific Volume and Specify Gravity The weight density or specific weight of a substance is its weight per unit volume. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. The specific volume V is the reciprocal of the weight density. the API unit is used. or its Kinematics viscosity. Viscosity A fluid viscosity can be described by its Dynamic viscosity (sometimes called Absolute viscosity). . S (60 F / 60 F) = 141. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied. API Eq(1b) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. If was the input of the engineering design of the piping and it will determine the pipe material selection and sizing. but are linked via the fluid density. The specific gravity of a liquid is the ratio of its weight density at specified temperature to that of water at standard temperature. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. These two expressions of viscosity are not the same. Kinematics viscosity = Dynamic viscosity / fluid density Density. is expressed in the SI system as the number of cubic meter of space occupied by one kilogram of the substance. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.5 131.5 + deg . 60F S= ρ{any liquid at specific temperature} ρ(water at 60 F) Eq (1a) For hydrocarbon like oil. but the copyright remains with us.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 14 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 THEORY A) General Fluid Flow Theory I) Physical Properties of Fluids Physical properties of fluid are important for any flow problem and the accuracy of the values it affect the flow of fluids. but are very general and not for specific design cases.

Page 15 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Normal water deg. It must not be copied. Mean Velocity. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. It normally express as ratio of the volumetric flow rate (Q) to sectional area (A) of the pipe. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. . ft/s (m/s) = volumetric flow rate. w ρ = mass flow rate. that mean water S = 1. V = Q A Eq (2) which. Volumetric flow rate in the pipe line is the ratio of the mass flow rate to density of the fluid. ft2 (m2) Which. Ibm/s (kg/s) = weight density of fluid. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. Q = Eq (3) ρ which. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. w Volumetric flow rate.00 For gas the specific gravity Sg is expressed as Sg = M (gas ) M (air ) Eq (1c) Mean Velocity Mean velocity is the average velocity in flow across the given cross section as determined by the continuity equation for steady state flow. Ibm/ft3 (kg/m3) and the Sectional Area in pipe formula is expressed as Sectional area. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ft3/s (m3/s) = radius-sectional area. but the copyright remains with us. API unit is 10. V Q A = mean velocity. A = πD 2 4 Eq (4) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.

cp Fluid Flow Equations for the Friction Loss/Pressure Drop in Pipe Bernoulli’s equation is useful in calculation of the fluid flow. in = Mass flow. D V ρ µe d Q1 µ = internal diameter of pipe. and turbulent flow. Ibm /ft. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. This mean is very important for the designer to determine the type of flow of the fluid before proceed the next stage calculation.s) = internal diameter of pipe. but are very general and not for specific design cases. . There are laminar flow. This number is a dimensionless group with combination of these four variables which expressed as Re = DVρ µe Eq (5a) Re = 50. but the copyright remains with us. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ft (m) = mean velocity of flow. It must not be copied. Reynolds Number The Reynolds Number is used to determine the nature of flow in pipe whether is the laminar flow or turbulent flow.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 16 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 II) Flow Characteristic in Pipe Three differences kind of flow in pipe which determines the pipe sizing.6 Q1 ρ dµ Eq (5b) which. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.s (kg /m. the density (ρ) and absolute viscosity (µ) of the flowing fluid and it velocity ( V ) of the flow. gal/min = absolute (dynamic) viscosity. ft/s (m/s) = weight density of fluid. Ibm/ft3 (kg/m3) = absolute viscosity. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. between laminar and transition zones flow. Reynolds Number with symbol Re. which depend with pipe diameter (D). They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It was following the first law of the Thermodynamic and there it applies to calculate the energy balance in steady These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.

) = elevation of pipe. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. dimensionless = length of pipe. but are very general and not for specific design cases. the friction factor is not only factor of the function of Reynolds number it is function of the pipe wall as well. It must not be copied.Page 17 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 state and incompressible flow. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. Normally friction factor for the laminar flow conditions (Re <2100) is simple calculated with just function of the Reynolds number only. f L = friction factor.2ft/s2 = Head loss. Mean while for the turbulent flow with the Reynolds number > 4000. In this zone the friction factor is indeterminate and has lower limits based on laminar flow and upper limits based on turbulent flow conditions. ft (m) Dancy’s friction factor. ft (m) Dancy’s formula of the friction in pipe line is expressed as hL = f L V2 . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. ft (m) = acceleration of gravity. In this zone. D 2g Eq (7) which. The piping roughness will affect the friction loss as well. . but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. P z g hL = pressure drop in pipe. f is determined experimentally. Ibf/in2(Pa – For the SI unit remember to divide the pressure head with the acceleration of gravity. the flow is either laminar or turbulent depending upon several factors. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. ft/s2 (m/s2) – 32. which can be expressed as f = 64 Re Eq (8) In the transition zone which with the Reynolds number of approximately 2100 to 4000. but the copyright remains with us. The formula for the friction term in pipe line is expressed as P V2    = h L ∆ + z + Eq (6) ρ 2g   which.

the more rough the pipe. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.Page 18 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Generally for the turbulent flow and transition flows the friction faction plot based on the Colebrook equation ε 9. but the copyright remains with us. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.35 = 1. This value is taken from standard table by difference piping material. the larger the friction factor. the larger the friction factor. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. Normally the value of roughness for the ‘commercial steel pipe’ is 0.24ε 2 (2Log[( ) 0. ε = absolute roughness. which expressed as Relative roughness = ε D Eq (10) Simplified in word relative roughness is the ratio of the pipe internal roughness to internal size of diameter of pipe. Relative roughness of the pipe normally calculated for the requirement if need to read the friction factor from Moody Chart. but are very general and not for specific design cases.00018 in.14 − 2 log + D R f f e  1     Eq (9a) which. in (mm) Or the simplify formula can be write as f= 1 7 3. It must not be copied. .9 + ( )]) Re d Eq (9b) Roughness is a factor denoting the roughness of the pipe or tube. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. the more pressure drop. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.

welded and seamless Ductile Iron Ductile Iron.0002 (0.000005 (0.0015) Straight Line Pressure Drop The pressure drop is expressed as below for the horizontal pipe line. but are very general and not for specific design cases. . This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.0015) 0.0015) 0.Page 19 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Table 1: General Pipe Material Roughness (3) Pipe Material Steel.061) 0. asphalt coated Copper and Brass Glass Thermoplastics Drawn Tubing Roughness . They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.ρ D 2g Eq (11) Common form of the Darcy Weisbach equation in units of pounds per square inch (psi) is: ∆P = 0.002 (0.00000336 fLW 2 ρd 5 Eq (12) To obtain pressure drop in units of psi/100 ft.000005 (0.000005 (0.12) 0. .61) 0. the value of 100 replaces L in Equation 12. ( ∆P)e = ρh L = ρ( ∆z) Eq (13) For the velocity change the in pressure drop the formula is expressed as ( ∆P)k = ρh L = ρ∆V 2 2g Eq (14) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.0004 (0.061) 0. In the non-horizontal pipe line pressure drop is expressed. but the copyright remains with us. ε. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. L V2 ∆P = f . in (mm) 0.0002 (0.

but the copyright remains with us. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but are very general and not for specific design cases. It must not be copied. General pressure drop in the fitting expressed as formula for the laminar flow and turbulent flow.Page 20 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Effect of Valve. Ibf/in2 (Pa) K = ft Leq Eq (16) D Table 2a: Example of the equivalent lengths for various kinds of fittings (1) Type of Fitting Globe valve. and etc on the pressure drop need to be take into consideration when design. wide open Angle valve. wide open Gate valve. elbows. ∆Pft ρ = K( V2 ) 2g Eq (15) which K ∆Pft = resistance coefficient. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. dimensionless = Pressure Drop in specific fitting. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. wide open Check valve (swing type) (minimum pipe velocity for full disc lift =35 V ) 90o standard elbow 45o standard elbow 90o long-radius elbow Flow thru run standard tees Flow thru branch standard tees Equivalent Length Leq/D (dimensionless) 340 150 8 100 30 16 20 20 60 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Fitting on Pressure Drop In the fluid systems the effect of valves.

reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.019 2½” 3” .012 Enlargements and Contraction Pipe Line Pressure Drops Calculation When the fluid flow from a smaller diameter pipe into a big diameter pipe in sudden it called enlargement.021 . K1 V max = resistance coefficient for enlargement/contraction.013 1824” .017 .016 .022 . All involve the pressure change and it can be expressed in the pressure drop formulation as below.027 . and vice-visa it called sudden contraction. .023 .025 .015 810” . but the copyright remains with us. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. dimensionless = the bigger velocity for enlargement / contraction. ft/s (m/s) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.018 4” 5” 6” . They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. ρVmax ∆P = K 1 2g 2 Eq (17) which. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.014 1216” . d1 V1 θ d2 V2 d2 V2 θ d1 V1 Figure 1b: Sudden/ Gradually Contraction Figure 1a: Sudden/ Gradually Enlargement Friction loss with expressed in pressure drop as below. It must not be copied. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.Page 21 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Table 2b: Friction factor for the commercial steel pipe (1) Nominal Size Friction Factor (ft) ½“ ¾“ 1” 1¼“ 1½” 2” . Generally these processes will cause the friction loss and the change in the kinetic energy. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.

but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.5 sin 2  d1   d2 Eq (19a) 4    4 2 Eq (19b) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.8 sin 1 − 1 2 2  d2 2 θ ≤ 45 o 45 o< θ ≤ 180 o K1 = K1 =  d1     d2  θ 0. but the copyright remains with us. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. .Page 22 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 For sudden and gradual enlargement θ d 2.6 sin 1 − 1 2 2  d2 2 θ ≤ 45 o K1 = 45 o 〈θ ≤ 180 o  d12  1 −   d 2 2  K1 =  4  d1     d2   d1   d2        2 Eq (18a) 4 2 Eq (18b) For sudden and gradual contraction     2  d12 1 −  d 2  2     θ d 0. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but are very general and not for specific design cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. It must not be copied.

Both formulas incorporated with the flow coefficient. should not be over designed. C. and resulted in leaks and shutdowns in process plants and terminal facilities. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.Page 23 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Nozzles and Orifices Nozzles and orifices normally used in piping systems as metering devices and are installed with flange taps or pipe taps accordance with ASME standards (1). q = CA 2g( 144 )∆P ρ q = YCA 2g( 144 )∆P ρ Eq (20a) Eq (20b) which. the total energy in the system should be minimized. but are very general and not for specific design cases. to minimize the impact of unbalanced surge forces. but the copyright remains with us. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. C Y = flow coefficient for the nozzles and orifices = net expansion factor for compressible flow Water Hammer Water Hammer or dynamic pressure surge can caused pipe to jump off its supports. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. which are the energy source. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. To minimize hydraulic surge in piping systems. designs would tend to have rigidly supported piping and a minimum number of bends. first. designing for differential thermal expansion would lead to minimizing supports and providing bends for flexibility. Pumps. damaged anchors and restraints. Second. It must not be copied. . the conflicting requirements for surge force minimization and allowance for pipe differential thermal expansion must be balanced. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. For the flow through the nozzles or orifices the velocity of the flows for the incompressible fluid and compressible fluid are expressed respectively in Eq (20a) and Eq (20b).

closure times of valves in pipes up to 24 in. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied. (600 mm) in diameter should exceed 15 seconds. allowing for maintenance and replacement for the piping (3). B) Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection Many factors have to be considered when selecting engineering materials for the piping. Valve operators of the air pneumatic piston type should be avoided. Limit flow velocity to a maximum of 10 ft/sec (3 m/s) in pipes. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. and 35 ft/sec (10 m/s) in loading arms. (600 mm) or larger. but the copyright remains with us. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. Normally the material selections of piping it depend on the application. including safety valves or rupture disks for tube split protection on high pressure exchangers. Use the largest enclosed angle and radius possible for bends.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 24 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 General design recommendations for minimizing surge forces are:        Minimize the number of bends used in the system. General rule. The most economical material that satisfies both process and mechanical requirements should be selected. If surge forces are unavoidable. Provide supports near all large components. refer Table 3. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. this will be the material that gives the lowest cost over the working life of the plant. Provide bypasses at pump stations. LPG line surge drums. . Install control valves on pump discharges. Bend to bend distance should be as far as possible. For pipe diameters of 24 in. but are very general and not for specific design cases. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. protection devices should be used. the closure time should be at least 30 seconds. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. pulsation bottle for positive displacement pumps. etc. because they may cause pressure surges due to sudden closing of valves. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.

Type of Material & Features Stainless Steel — A corrosion-resistant material that provides high strength at high temperatures. and retains a lustrous appearance. Brass — This soft. but has a higher nickel content as well as molybdenum for stronger resistance to heat and corrosion. It’s harder than brass. but are very general and not for specific design cases. It’s sanitary and no contaminating which also makes it a good choice for use in pharmaceutical. It can be used interchangeably with copper where heavier walls are required. General Applications For use with water. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. and paper processing as well as for oil refining and pollution-control equipment. Aluminum — Lightweight and strong. Steel — This carbon. Type 316 stainless steel is similar to Type 304. this metal is ductile and malleable. maintains cleanliness. Good for chemical. and gas. Commonly petrochemical. Good for fire protection applications. Cast Iron: For use with water (heating and cooling) and steam. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. For low-pressure systems with waterbased fluids in agricultural and some food-processing applications. Good for industrial plumbing. oil. Malleable Iron: For use with gas. (standard) and Schedule 80 (extra strong) (5). Type 304 stainless steel is a low-carbon chromium-nickel stainless steel. dairy.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 25 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Table 3: Guideline for the Piping Fitting and Pipe Material Selection. Also good for use in pneumatic and marine applications. beverage. and food industries. and water. copper-based metal provides tight seals and is easier to install than other metals. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Primarily used with water for plumbing and heating. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It resists corrosion from salt water as well as fresh water polluted with waste from mineral acids and peaty soils. brewery. helps prevents contamination of product being transported. more brittle iron while malleable iron is a softer. . pulp. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. It can be anodized for better corrosion resistance. hydraulic. oil. and used steel pipe ratings are Schedule 40 pneumatic applications. oil refinery. but the copyright remains with us.and iron-based For high-pressure systems in metal is hard and strong. Iron — Cast iron is a harder. more ductile iron. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.

(mm) = Sum of mechanical allowances plus corrosion allowance plus erosion allowance. in.10 2.3. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.875. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. wall thickness of pipe can be calculated as using the formula below with subject to internal pressure: t t nom = m Eq (21a & 21b) 0.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 26 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Once the material of construction is selected. in. tnom tm t a P Do Sm E =Wall thickness. American Standard ASME B36.19 3. from ASME B31. psi (MPa) = Weld joint efficiency or quality factor from ASME B31. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. Below are the standards codes covers: 1. in. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. the minimum wall thickness can be as low as 87. psig (kPa gage) = Outside diameter of pipe. pipe diameter (inside or outside diameter) and pipe wall thickness which cover under the standards codes.3. It must not be copied. in selecting the pipe schedule. (mm) = Allowable stress. E = 1. .0 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us. Most piping specifications allow the manufacturer a 12. American Standard ASME B36. (mm). American Petroleum Institute Standard API 5L 4. (mm) = Internal design pressure.875 tm = t + a t= PDo 2S m E Eq (21c) which. tm should be divided by 0. (mm) =Total minimum wall thickness required for pressure integrity. in. Example seamless pipe. the selected piping it should be selected base on piping schedule. but are very general and not for specific design cases. New United States Legal Standard for Steel Plate Gauges From the above standard codes. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. Therefore.5% dimensional tolerance on the wall thickness. = Pressure design minimum thickness. in.5% of the nominal value.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. . These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. Table 4: Pipe velocities and allowable pressure drops for various fluids (3) Type of Fluid Velocity. It must not be copied.22 Gases and vapor 50-100 0.2 - 0.9 50 9.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 27 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 C) Line Sizing Typical pipe velocities and allowable pressure drops. are given as Table 4 below.02% of line pressure High-Pressure steam >8 bar 100-200 - Table 5: Optimum velocity for various fluid densities (3) Fluid density Ib/ft3 Velocity.0 1 30. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but are very general and not for specific design cases. gravity flow 3. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.0 0. ft/sec ∆P in psi/100ft Liquid. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.5 For gases and vapors the velocity cannot exceed the critical velocity (sonic velocity) and normally will be limited to 30% of the critical velocity. which normally use to select the pipe sizes used. but the copyright remains with us. pumped (not viscous) Liquid.8 0.10 2.3 . ft/sec 100 7.001 111.01 59.8 10 16.

f ( Eq (8). transition flow or turbulent flow for the next step calculation of the friction factor.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 28 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 I) Design Procedure for In-Compressible Flow Step 1: Determine the internal diameter of pipe. equivalent hydraulic diameter has to determine with the following formula:  cross sec tional area  d e = 4   wetted perimeter  Eq (22) The de will be replaced with D for calculation of Reynolds Number. . frictional pressure drop but cannot use for velocity calculation. Step 4: Calculated the pressure drop for horizontal line with Eq (11) and non-horizontal line Eq (13) if the system involves the velocity ch These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. and enlargement or contraction find the all the K values of them and use the Eq (18a /18b/19a/19b). but the copyright remains with us. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. Step 2: Calculate the Reynolds number with Eq (5a) to determine the flow characteristic either is laminar flow. It must not be copied. Sum all the K in the system. Step 3: For the fitting and valve use the Table 2a & 2b to find the K values. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. Eq (9a) or Eq (9b) depend on type of flow and Re number). As well for the pipe line use formula K=fL/D. For the non-circular cross sections. but are very general and not for specific design cases.

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but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. process piping. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. etc. It must not be copied.525Yd 2 ∆P K V1 Eq (28) which. Reasonable velocity V. Y V1 = expansion factor (dimensionless) = inlet specific volume. ft/sec 67 to 100 100 to 167 117 to 3333 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. etc. but the copyright remains with us.Page 32 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 The Darcy formula for mass flow rate calculation with Y expansion factor for the compressible fluid is expressed as w = 0. . The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. Boiler and turbine leads. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. ft3/Ib Table 7: Reasonable Velocities for flow of steam through pipe (1) Condition of Steam Pressure (P) psig 0 to 25 Saturated 25 and up Superheated 200 and up Service Heating (short lines) Power house equipment.

19) at flow rate of 100 gallons per minute in the system as per below.55 ft/s These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. It must not be copied.85 cp is flowing through 2” carbon steel Schedule 40 pipe with internal diameter 2. . Part 1: Velocity can be determined with Eq (2) V= = 0. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.408Q1 Q = A d2 0.22 Ib/ft3 . but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.Page 33 of 64 KLM Technology Group Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 APPLICATION Example Case 1: In-Compressible flow with Water Water at 80F with weight density 62.067 in (data from ASME B36. but are very general and not for specific design cases. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.408x100 2. Solution: Water flows in circular pipe then the d in the all formulas take it as internal diameter. viscosity 0. outlet 90o Elbow 2” Steel check valve swing type inlet 150’ 2” Steel gate valve full area seat and wide open 50’ 20’ Find the velocity in ft/s and the pressure drop from the inlet through outlet in Ib/in2 and pressure drop in psig/100ft. but the copyright remains with us. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.067 2 V = 9. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.10 and B36.

ε as 0. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. K = 100 ft 2X 90o Elbow the Leq/D = 30 .Page 34 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Part 2: Determine the Reynolds number with Eq (5b) Re = = 50.24ε 2 ) +( )]) Re d take . It must not be copied.8x105 > 2100. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.00018 in f = 0.6 x100 x 62. K = 30 ft These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.22 2. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.85 = 1. .067 x 0. K = 8ft Check valve the Leq/D = 100. but the copyright remains with us. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. turbulence flow Because of the turbulence flow and the imperial friction factor Eq (9b) is used for calculation 1 f= ( 2Log [( 7 0.021 Valve and fitting resistance coefficient K determination with Eq (17) K = ft L eq D By referring to the Table 2a for the Gate valve the Leq/D = 8.6 Q1 ρ dµ 50.9 3. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.

but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.01 Pressure of the system = Pressure drop in horizontal line + Pressure drop in elevation = 30. K = 0.82 = 30.021)(100)(9.01(9. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.570 ……… 90o elbow And for the pipe K = f L/D = (0.64)Ib/in2 = 27.019 K = 8(0.152+1. It must not be copied.55) 2 x 62.019) = 0. .36 + 8. but are very general and not for specific design cases.900 ………check valve K = 30 (0.46 psi/100ft These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.067) = 7.9+ (2x0.067 = 26.021)(150 + 50 + 20) (12) 2.570) +26. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.55) 2 (12)(62.82 Total of the resistance coefficient of the system.22) 2(144)(32.019) = 0.2 + 20 x 62. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.22 144 = (18. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.22 2 x144 x 32.00 Ib/in2 Pressure drop in psi/100ft = (0. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.019) = 1.152 ………gate valve K = 100(0.2)(2.Page 35 of 64 KLM Technology Group Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 ft for the 2” pipe from Table 2b is ft = 0. but the copyright remains with us.

It must not be copied. flows in circular pipe then the d in the all formulas takes it as internal diameter.) with flow rate 500 gal/min. but are very general and not for specific design cases.25 Ib/ft3. 200’ 5” Steel gate valve full area seat and wide open inlet 10’ outlet 90o Elbow 5” Steel gate valve full area seat and wide open 100’ Find velocity in ft/s of the flow and the pressure drop in system from inlet to outlet and in format psi/100ft. Solution: Fuel 5 Min.00 ft/s These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us. . The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. The temperature of the fuel oil is 100 F which weight density 59. flowing through 5” Schedule 40 pipe with internal diameter 5.408Q1 Q = V= A d2 = 0. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.047 for the system as below.Page 36 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 2: In-Compressible flow with HC Fuel 5 (Min. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. viscosity 7cp.408x 500 5. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.047 2 V = 8. Part 1: Velocity can be determined with Eq (2) 0.

6 Q1 ρ dµ 50. K = 8ft K = 30 ft ft for the 5” pipe from Table 2b is ft = 0. ε as 0. turbulence flow Because of the turbulence flow and the imperial friction factor Eq (9b) is used for calculation 1 f = (2Log[( 7 0. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.00018 in f = 0. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.24ε 2 ) +( )]) Re d take .047 x 7. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.00 = 4. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.25 5. Leq/D = 30. but the copyright remains with us. but are very general and not for specific design cases.Page 37 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Part 2: Determine the Reynolds number with Eq (5b) Re = = 50.128 ………gate valve These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.016 K = 8(0.6 x 500 x 59.2x104 > 2100. It must not be copied.023 Valve and fitting resistance coefficient K determination with Eq (17) K = ft Leq D By referring to the Table 2a for the 2XGate valve the 2X 90o Elbow the Leq/D = 8. .016) = 0.9 3.

They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.32 Ib/in2 Pressure drop in psi/100ft = (0. K = (2x0.128)+ (2x0.Pressure gain in elevation = 18.00) 2 (12)(59.2 144 = (7.023)(200 + 10 + 100) (12) 5.016) = 0. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.25) 2(144)(32.047 = 16. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.96 =18.43 – 4.480 ……… 90o elbow And for the pipe K = f L/D = (0. . The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.25 2 x144 x 32.2)(5.047) = 2.480) +16.18 Pressure drop of the system = Pressure drop in horizontal line .00) 2 10x 59.023)(100)(8. but the copyright remains with us.25 x 59.Page 38 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 K = 30 (0. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.11)Ib/in2 = 3.18(8. but are very general and not for specific design cases.23 psi/100ft These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.96 Total of the resistance coefficient of the system. It must not be copied.

Solution: The pressure drop in system can be determine with Eq (12) ∆P = 0.1584 ft3/Ib (density = 0. 1.44 ……………. The system consists of a wide open 5” steel glove valve. . K = 340ft (ft = 0. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. pressure drop psi/100ft and the velocity in ft/s. 5” wide open glove valve inlet steel 300’ Find the pressure drop through system in Ib/in2.00000336 fLW 2 ρd 5 K = fL/D (which D is diameter in ft. Glove valve These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 39 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam Steam at 500 psia .000 Ib/hr with viscosity 0.00000336 = KW 2 12ρd 4 28x10 −8 KW 2 ρd 4 Resistance coefficient for the wide open glove valve from the Table 2(a) is Leq/D =340 . This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.016 for 5” valve) = 340(0.021 and the specific volume. It must not be copied. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but the copyright remains with us. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. 600 F flows through a 300 ft horizontal pipe with a 5” Schedule 40 pipe at a rate of 90.016) = 5. d is diameter in inches) So the formula can be expressed as ∆P = 0.82 Ib/ft3)..

6 W 6.02dµ dµ 6.047 x 0. 4W V 90000(1.6 Q1 ρ Q1 is in 1.021 Re = = 5.0157)(300) (12) 5. .142D 3.0157)(100)(90000) 2 (1. but the copyright remains with us. P = 28x10 −8 ( 16.20 = Total of resistance coefficient in the system K = 5. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.047 )4 = 67.20 = 16.4 Ib/in2 Pressure drop in psi/100ft = 33.1584) (5.44+11. It must not be copied.047 = 11.6 x10 −7 (0.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 40 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Reynolds number can be determine with Eq (5b) 50. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but are very general and not for specific design cases.1584)(144) x 4 = 2 3.64 )( 90000 ) 2 ( 1.1584 ) ( 5.0157 for the pipe K = f L/D (0.02 ft3/hr dµ 50.12 psi/100ft Velocity of the flow.047) 2 (3600) = 208 ft/s V= These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.142(5.64 Pressure drop in the system. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.35x106 Because of the turbulence flow and the imperial friction factor calculated with Eq (9b) is f =0.31x 90000 = 5.047) 5 = 15.31 W Re = or Re = 8.0 gal/min = 8.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. and 5% propane (C3H8) Find the volumetric flow of in million of standard cubic feet per hr. f is assumed for turbulent flow with 0.25x30) + (0. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. Solution: The flow rate of the nature gas in the system above can be determined with the simplifier Eq (25)  ( P1 ) 2 − ( P2 )2  5 q = 114. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. in a isothermal system with temperature 60 F (viscosity =0.9 From Eq (1c) Sg = M (gas ) 20. but the copyright remains with us.25 in) Schedule 20 pipe with 120 miles long. At first. The gas consist of 70% methane (CH4). The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.25 in Because the in the formulation there have two unknown (q and f).2  d  fL m TS g  d= 10. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 41 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas A natural gas flowing in a horizontal pipe line made of 10-in (internal diameter =10. It must not be copied. 25% ethane (C2H6). The inlet pressure is 1200 psia and the outlet pressure is 250 psia.70x16) + (0. but are very general and not for specific design cases.05x44) = 20. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.9 = M (air ) 29 = 0.013 T in the Rankin = 460 + F = 460 + 60 = 520 R Molecular weights for  Methane = 16  Ethane = 30  Propane = 44 Natural gas molecular weight = (0. . trial and error method is use to get the correct number of the flow rate.011cp).720 These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.

2 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007  (1200) 2 − (250) 2  5  0.013x120x520x 0.79 x 106 Re 5. . and the result as per table below.482 (1.720  (10. Re = = 0. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.79x106 ft3/hr.25)   = 1.482qS g dµ 0.76 x 106 5. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. It must not be copied.014 0. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. f 0. but are very general and not for specific design cases. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.014 q ft3/hr 1.87x10 6 )(0.9 3.6 Q1 ρ dµ Can be expressed in q and Sg.25x 0.87 x 106 ft3/hr Reynolds number with Eq (5b) Re = 50.24ε 2 ) +( )]) Re d take.720) 10.011 = 5. q = 114.013 0.79 x 106 1. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.014 Trial and error continue.76 x 106 f calculated with Eq (9b) 1 f= (2Log[( 7 0.53 x 106 Than mean the natural gas flow rate is 1. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but the copyright remains with us.Page 42 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions so.87 x 106 1. ε as 0.00018 in f = 0.

McGraw-Hill. 7th Ed. “Fluid Mechanics”. “Fluid and Particle Mechanics”. 410. Ed.. Noel de Nevers. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. Ed. 2. 1997. 7. by R. Richard C. Inc.. “Engineering and Design: Liquid Process Piping”. 1999. Chicago. but are very general and not for specific design cases. Geo-Heat Center Klamath Falls. “Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Volume 6”. Rafferty. 1999. These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. 4. . 5. Mechanical Engineering Handbook. Frank Kreith Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.” by the Crane Co.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 43 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 REFERENCES 1. by U. Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but the copyright remains with us. “Flow of Fluids through Valves. Sinnott. It must not be copied. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. 2000. Section 3. Fittings and Pipe. Third Edition 1999. 3. Oregon 97601.K. 6. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. 1988. “The Rheology of Non-Newtonian Fluids” The Engineering Handbook. Technical Paper No. Army Corps of Engineers. 1991. Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC. “Chapter 5 Piping”. Section 6. 8. “Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers”. Section VI. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. by Kevin D.S.

The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 44 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 SPECIFICATION DATA SHEET These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. It must not be copied.

. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 45 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 CALCULATION SPREADSHEET- Liquid Line Sizing – Water (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but the copyright remains with us. but are very general and not for specific design cases.

KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 46 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Liquid Line Sizing – Hydrocarbon (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but are very general and not for specific design cases. . The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but the copyright remains with us. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. It must not be copied. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 47 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Steam (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. . but are very general and not for specific design cases. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.

The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but the copyright remains with us. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. . but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 48 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Hydrocarbon (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but are very general and not for specific design cases.

. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but are very general and not for specific design cases.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 49 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Steam (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.

KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 50 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Hydrocarbon (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but the copyright remains with us. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but are very general and not for specific design cases. It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.

The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but are very general and not for specific design cases. . but the copyright remains with us. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 51 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 1: Incompressible flow with Water (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. . but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but the copyright remains with us.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 52 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 2: Incompressible flow with Hydrocarbon (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but are very general and not for specific design cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.

The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but are very general and not for specific design cases. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. .KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 53 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. It must not be copied. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but the copyright remains with us.

The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. . but the copyright remains with us.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 54 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas (English Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but the copyright remains with us.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 55 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Liquid Line Sizing – Water (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. It must not be copied. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. . The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.

They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but the copyright remains with us.Page 56 of 64 KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Liquid Line Sizing – Hydrocarbon (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. It must not be copied. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.

but the copyright remains with us. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 57 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Steam (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. .

The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but are very general and not for specific design cases. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. It must not be copied.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 58 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop < 40%)-Hydrocarbon (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.

but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 59 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Steam (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. It must not be copied. but are very general and not for specific design cases. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. but the copyright remains with us. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. . The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.

They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. It must not be copied. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 60 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Gas Line Sizing (Pressure drop > 40%)-Hydrocarbon (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but the copyright remains with us.

but are very general and not for specific design cases. but the copyright remains with us. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. . The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 61 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 1: Incompressible flow with Water (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets.

This document is entrusted to the recipient personally.KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 62 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 2: Incompressible flow with Hydrocarbon (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. but the copyright remains with us. It must not be copied. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but are very general and not for specific design cases. . reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience.

It must not be copied. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. .KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 63 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 3: Compressible flow with Steam (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but the copyright remains with us.

KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions Page 64 of 64 Piping Fluid Flow Material Selection and Line Sizing Rev: 05 (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINES) Jan 2007 Example Case 4: Compressible flow with Natural Gas (Metric Unit) These design guideline are believed to be as accurate as possible. They were designed for engineers to do preliminary designs and process specification sheets. The guidelines are a training tool for young engineers or a resource for engineers with experience. It must not be copied. reproduced or in any way communicated or made accessible to third parties without our written consent. but are very general and not for specific design cases. but these guidelines will greatly reduce the amount of up front engineering hours that are required to develop the final design. . but the copyright remains with us. This document is entrusted to the recipient personally. The final design must always be guaranteed for the service selected by the manufacturing vendor.