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Bearings Rolling Contact Bearings Sliding CB Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 2 Rolling Bearing  1. 2. 3. 4. History As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians used rollers inserted between enormous stones and ground to reduce friction. The wheel based on sliding motion came later. Some historians mention that lubricated chariot wheels existed before 1400 BC. The bicycle introduced the need for rolling elements (1817). Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 3 Bearing Types  Rolling Element Pure radial load (Cylindrical roller bearings) Pure Thrust load (Cylindrical and Ball) Combination load (Deep groove ball, Tapered roller, Angular contact bearings) Arif_ME308-132  Sliding (Journal) Bearings Pure radial Pure Thrust Combination Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 4 Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Fluid/Air bearings Arif_ME308-132  Micro/Nano bearings Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 5 Journal Bearings (Plain Bearings, sleeves) Radial Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 6 Thrust Journal Bearing Thrust Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 7 Why Rolling-Contact Bearings? RCB are used to describe bearings in which the main load is transferred through rolling elements. RCB are used to minimize the friction resulting from relative motion performed under load. Typical applications Gear Box Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 8 Bearing Nomenclature Ball Inner and outer races are typically pressed onto shafts or hubs with slight interference fit to make them move with shafts (inner race) or remain stationary (outer race) Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 9 Ball Bearing Types Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 10 Notes on Bearings      Bearings maybe obtained with shields on one or both sides. Shields provide a degree of protection against dirt. Some bearings are manufactured with seals in one or both sides. If sealed on both sides, bearings are lubricated at the factory. Starting friction is almost twice the running friction. Bearings are manufactured to take either pure radial load, pure thrust load or a combination of both. Bearing makers usually provide manuals to describe the various types. (www.skf.com, www.fag.com, www.timken.com ) Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 11 Ball Bearings Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in one direction than Radial ball bearings Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 12 Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings • Roller bearings require prefect geometry • Straight roller bearing (radial cylindrical) cannot take thrust loads • Tapered roller bearings combine the advantage of ball and straight roller bearings, they take radial and thrust loadings. Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 13 Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space • Needle bearings can be used with and without races Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 14 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 15 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 16 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 17 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 18 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 19 Characteristics of ball Bearings Type Conrad or deep groove Maximum capacity or filling notch Self-aligning internal Self-aligning external Double row, maximum Double row, deep groove a Two directions b One direction Arif_ME308-132 Approximate range of bore sizes, mm Relative capacity Thrust a 0.7 Limiting speed factor Tolerance to misalignment 1.0 ±0°15’ 1.0 ±0°3’ Minimum 3 Maximum 1060 Radial 1.00 10 130 1.2-1.4 a 5 120 0.7 b 0.2 1.0 2°30’ - - 1.0 a 0.7 1.0 High 6 110 1.5 a 0.2 1.0 ±0.3° 6 110 1.5 a 1.4 1.0 0° Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 0.2 20 Rolling Contact Bearing Materials Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 21 Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings Type Appr oximate maximum size, mm One-directional 320 thrust Duplex, back to 320 back Duplex, face to 320 face Duplex, tandem 320 Two directional or 110 split ring Double row 140 a One direction b Depends on contact angle c Two directions d In other direction Arif_ME308-132 Relative capacity Radial 1.00-1.15 b Thr ust 1.5-2.3 a,b Limiting speed factor Toler ance to misalignment b1.1-3.0 ±0°2’ 1.85 c 1.5 3.0 0° 1.85 c 1.5 3.0 0° 1.85 1.15 a 2.4 1.5 3.0 3.0 0° ±0°2’ 1.85 0.8 0° 1.5 c c Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 22 Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Ty p e Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring, nonlocating (NU) Seperable inner ring, one direction locating (NJ) Seperable inner ring, two-direction locating (NUP) a One direction b Two directions Arif_ME308-132 Ap p ro x i m at e ran g e o f b o re s i zes , m m R el at i v e cap aci t y Minimum 10 M ax i m u m 320 R adi al 1.55 12 500 1.55 12 320 1.55 a 20 320 1.55 b Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing Li m i t i n g s p eed fact o r To l eran ce to misal i g n m en t Th ru s t 0 1.20 ±0°5’ 0 1.20 ±0°5’ Locating 1.15 ±0°5’ 1.15 ±0°5’ Locating 23 Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 24 Rolling Contact Bearings Objective: Not to design rolling bearings but to select proper bearings for the application In selecting these types of bearings, the designer should take into consideration the following: • The available space • The load and its characteristics • The desired life • The required speed • The cost Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 25 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 26 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 27 Bearing Life    1. 2. Assuming perfect mounting, adequate lubrication and protection thus failure will occur by fatigue Bearings are subjected to millions of repeated contact stress (Hertezian) cycles causing spalling (flaking or pitting) on ball or raceway. (Video 1& 3) Failure Criteria: SKF: failure happens when a pit of diameter 10-4 diameter of ball or roller is observed. Timken Co.: failure happens when 10-2 in2 of surface is spalled Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 28 Simulation of progression of fatigue failure Flake pit Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 29 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 30 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 31 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 32 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 33 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 34 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 35 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 36 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 37 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 38 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 39 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 40 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 41 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 42 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 43 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 44 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 45 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 46 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 47 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 48 Arif_ME308-132 Chapter 11-Rolling Contact Bearing 49