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SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOL OF MINES AND TECHNOLOGY

MEM 304L – ROCK MECHANICS LABORATORY

REPORT
DEFORMATIONAL PROPERTIES OF
ROCKS – UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH WITH STRAIN GAGES

TO: Dr. Kelli McCormick
FROM: Bernardo Moreno Baqueiro Sansao
DATE: March 19, 2014

The uniaxial compressive strength test is one of the most important tests to learn more about the behavior of rocks. as Poisson’s ratio. The strain gages were attached to the specimen in two different directions. In this lab. drifts. They were attached in these directions to measure the axial and the transverse deformation. It is possible to realize that some layers are darker than others. Kelli McCormick Bernardo Moreno Baqueiro Sansao March 19. harder mineral takes part of the sample. Tunnels. Equipment In the this lab the following equipment were used: Bearing block and spherical seat Vernier Caliper Protractor Tinius-Olsen Testing Machine (Hydraulic Loader Pump) Data Acquisition System Strain Gages Procedure A specimen of a clayey sandstone rock was used to do this test. In some areas of the specimen a different.1 REPORT: SAMPLING AND SPECIMEN PREPARATION BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS TO: FROM: DATE: SUBJECT: Dr. are built over or in the rock. a specimen of rock was prepared with strain gages so it is possible to measure the axial and transverse deformation. it is also possible to see some very little holes in the surface. Lab tests are not the same as in-situ tests. bridges. The specimen was not brittle. once this different mineral has a different structure. then it is necessary to discover how much load the rock can support. it is possible to determine stressstrain relations and deformational parameters. 2014 MEM 304L Rock Mechanics Lab – Deformational Properties of Rock – Uniaxial Compressive Strength with Strain Gages Introduction In Rock Mechanics. understand the behavior of rocks and rock masses is essential to avoid accidents in civil constructions and in mines. With these values. This different mineral can change the result of the compressive test. shafts. and the specimen prepared in lab may not contain discontinuities or water content. which may change the results of uniaxial compressive strength of an in-situ rock mass. The direction of layering of the clayey sandstone is almost perfect perpendicular to the cylinder’s central axis. buildings. One in the axial direction the other in the transverse direction. several considerations must be taken into account when the test data will be applied insitu. and this is because the rock has some porosity. but some grains can be easily released. (Images of the specimen are in the Appendix). .

84 in2 The uniaxial compressive strength is given by: Co = Fc is the corrected peak load.83cm corresponds to 1. The spherical seat is to make sure that the load is going to be applied uniformly and axially to the specimen.950) + 2021. DAQ is the load reading from the digital acquisition system. The reading was done in centimeters and then converted to inches.15 lb Co = 19. Several seconds later the failure happened.07 inches The surface area (cross-sectional area) of the specimen where the load was applied is given by: A = (d2/4) A= (1. The reading was also done in centimeters and then converted to inches. in pounds.90 inches The height of the specimen was also measured using the same Vernier caliper. The formula to correct the Fc is given by: Fc = 0. and the axial and transverse deformation.35cm 10.951 (17.35cm corresponds to 4.722.15 lb / 2.951 (DAQ) + 2021. analysis and calculations The diameter of the specimen was measured using a Vernier caliper. Reading: 10.950 lb.2 The specimen was placed above a bearing block and a spherical seat which was greased.39370 inches).59 lb/in2 . Data collected. the Fc is given by: Fc = 0.7 . After the test. once the range used was the Middle Range. The computer system created an Excel file containing information about the test.092. as how long the test took.84 in2 = 6.902/4) = 2.092. (1cm = 0. In this test. The Tinius-Olsen Testing Machine was prepared to apply the load in the specimen and its hydraulic pump started to load. the loads applied in the specimen during the test.83cm 4. Then. the peak load was 17.7 = 19. the angle of failure relative to the long axis of the specimen was measured. Reading: 4.

Axial Stress versus Axial Strain . See Figure 2.3 From the data given by the Data Acquisition System a plot load versus axial and transverse strain was made. This plot is shown in the Figure 1. (Axial strain in orange and Transverse strain in blue) Next. Figure 1.59. Figure 2. Load versus axial and transverse strain. Co (psi) = 6. the plot axial stress versus axial strain was made.722.

The maximum stress is 6.59 / -893.722.59 psi.30 psi Δεaxial is aproximatelly 600 x 10-6 Et = 3.602 x 106 psi The Secant Young’s Modulus is given by: Es = σ / εaxial Es = 6. Figure 3. 50% x 6.722.59 = 3.4 The Tangent Young’s Modulus is given by: Et = Δσ / Δεaxial In this calculus is used 50% of maximum stress.52 x 106 psi The Transverse Strain versus Axial Strain is shown in the Figure 3.361.361.722.30 / 600 x 10-6 Et = 5.62 x 10-6 Es = 7. Transverse Strain versus |Axial Strain| (mstrain) .

ε transverse1 = 304.5 Secant Poisson’s Ratio νs = | ε transverse / ε axial | νs = | -893. .54 x 10-6 | νs = 0.02 νr = 0.09 Δε axial = 2.07 ε axial2 = -366.47 Δε transverse = -0. The measured angle was approximately 20o.25 A protractor was used to measure the angle of the failure. The angle was measured as shown in the figure 1.62 x 10-6 / 1940.97 ε transverse2 = 305.5 ε axial1 = -364. Figure 1.46 Tangent Poisson’s Ratio νr = | Δε transverse / Δε axial | Δε transverse and Δε axial where calculated using the data generated by the DAQ. Representation of the measured angle of the failure. The points chosen were point around 50% of ε transverse.

The rock had different minerals in its content and it probably slightly changed the values. to know how can a rock can deform and cause accidents. . The sample used in this lab. like Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. These values must be taken carefully into account to build tunnels or drifts for underground mines. The Young’s Modulus allows to understand how much load the rock supports stress and if they are stronger. Appendix Figure A. The Poisson’s ratio is very important to understand that rocks deform not only in one way but in a perpendicular direction. it must be taken into account when a cave is opened in a mine. This measurement is important to be calculated to know important values.6 Conclusions In this experiment. was possible to make a measure of axial and transverse strain using a prepared sample with strain gages. A secant and tangent were used to calculate these values and the values calculated are not the same.