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SHRI ATMANAND JAIN INSTT. OF MGT. & TECH.

AMBALA CITY
A
Seminar Report
On
OLED
(Organic Light Emiting Doides)

Submitted To :

Submitted By:

Computer Department

Shubham Kanojia
MCA(III-sem)

Contents :           Introduction History Components of OLED How Do OLEDs emit light Types Of OLEDs OLED Advantages OLED Disadvantages Applications of OLED Conclusion References .

.they can also be made flexible (even rollable) and transparent.Introduction : OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) is a flat light emitting technology. made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors. OLEDs are organic because they are made from carbon and hydrogen. When electrical current is applied. Because OLEDs emit light they do not require a backlight and so are thinner and more efficient than LCD displays(which do require a white backlight). OLEDs are not just thin and efficient .although OLEDs are very efficient and do not contain any bad metals so it's a real green technology. a bright light is emitted. There's no connection to organic food or farming . OLEDs can be used to make displays and lighting.

Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high-voltage (500–1500 V) ACdriven (100–3000 Hz) electrically insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak reported the first OLED device in 1987. the forerunner of modern double-injection devices. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence. Helfrich and W. Also in 1965.History : André Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université in France made the first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s. They applied high alternating voltages in air to materials such as acridine orange . G. tetracene. Pope's group reported in 1965 that in the absence of an external electric field. The results of the project were patented in 1975 and published in 1983. Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules. The device consisted of a film of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) up to 2. Ching W.2 micrometres thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. this resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency that led to the current era of OLED research and device production. the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole. and graphite powder. Pope's group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a single pure crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped withtetracene in 1963 using a small area silver electrode at 400 volts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. In the same year. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons. Roger Partridge made the first observation of electroluminescence from polymer films at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom. They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes. In 1960 Martin Pope and some of his co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals. W. .

at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100 nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene). Universal Display Corporation holds the majority of patents concerning the commercialization of OLEDs. H. .Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. Burroughes et al.

foil) .Components of OLED :  Substrate (clear plastic.The substrate supports the OLED.The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device. The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate.  Emissive layer . One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline.These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.  Organic layers .  Conducting layer .This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode.  Anode (transparent) . This can be done in three ways: .  Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) .This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode. this is where light is made.The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. glass. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene.

This process is expensive and inefficient. where they condense into thin films. Inkjet printing .With inkjet technology.In a vacuum  chamber. . OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs. a carrier gas transports evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates. Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) . Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) . Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards. hot-walled reactor  chamber.In a low-pressure. the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates.

. When this happens.How do OLEDs Emit Light :  The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED.  The OLED emits light. (This is the equivalent to giving electron holes to the conductive layer. When an electron finds an electron hole. the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light .  An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons). electrons find electron holes. the electron fills the hole (it falls into an energy level of the atom that's missing an electron). The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules. The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules.)  At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers.

 The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. the brighter the light. . Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays.  The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current.

to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones. PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are easy to make.Types of OLEDs :  Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) : PMOLEDs have strips of cathode. . determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. but they consume more power than other types of OLED. the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current. organic layers and strips of anode. mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode. Again. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices.

Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets. they can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting. more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights. large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards. Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) : AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode.  White OLED White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter. AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. . but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors. organic molecules and anode. so they are efficient for large displays.

cell phone. When a transparent OLED display is turned on. cathode and anode) and. such as outdoor survival clothing with an integrated computer chip. Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage. Potentially.  Foldable OLED : Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics. when turned off. . are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate. foldable OLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create "smart" clothing. it allows light to pass in both directions. This technology can be used for heads-up displays.or passive-matrix. a major cause for return or repair. A transparent OLED display can be either active. Transparent OLED Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate. GPS receiver and OLED display sewn into it.

 Top-emitting OLED : Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards. . They are best suited to active-matrix design.

This is especially important for battery-operated devices such as cell phones. they consume much less power than LCDs (most of the LCD power goes to the backlighting). while OLEDs generate light themselves. organic layers of an OLED are thinner. Regular LEDs often form the digits on digital clocks and other electronic devices. the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid. lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD. Also. It is much more difficult to grow and lay down so many liquid crystals.  OLEDs have large fields of view.OLED Advantages : The LCD is currently the display of choice in small devices and is also popular in large-screen TVs. OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs. Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED.  OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.  OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because OLEDs do not require backlighting.  OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs . so they have a much wider viewing range. and glass absorbs some light. OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:  The plastic.  Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter. LCDs work by selectively blocking areas of the backlight to make the images that you see. they can be made into large. they have an inherent viewing obstacle from certain angles. about 170 degrees. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics. OLEDs do not require glass. thin sheets. LEDs and LCDs require glass for support. Because LCDs work by blocking light. OLEDs produce their own light. the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be multi-layered. .

Water can easily damage OLEDs.Manufacturing processes are expensive right now. .000 hours). blue organics currently have much shorter lifetimes (up to around 14. Water .   Manufacturing .000 to 230.000 hours).While red and green OLED films have longer lifetimes (46. but it also has some problems:  Lifetime .OLED Disadvantages : OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays.

Applications of OLED :  Televisions   SONY LG transparent TV  Cell Phone screens  Wrist Watch  Computer Screens  Laptops  Desktops  Bendable Devices  Portable Device displays  Philips Go Gear MP3 Player .

there is a lot of research and development going on in the field of OLEDs and experts feel that these might lead to novel applications such as automotive dashboards.Conclusion :  Easily Portable because it can be folded and keep it at anywhere. heads-up displays.  Currently. home and office lighting and billboard-type displays in the future. So we can also fancy thin and foldable OLED newspapers in the future.  OLED devices can keep refreshing information at real time and videos can look more realistic in them. which keep refreshing news even as you read them! .

References :  www.howstuffworks.com  https://en.com/oled  www.org/wiki/OLED .com/introduction  www.oled-info.wikipedia.oled-info.