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" In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

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4 Lecture Of The Specialized Course in tourist guide
Prepared By/ Omar El Sanhoty
The Rosetta Stone/Game Boards " snt / mHn "
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One of the most important achievements of the French expedition was discovering The Rosetta Stone which is
considered one of the most significant masterpieces of Ancient Egypt because it was the key of understanding the
ancient Egyptian Language "r n kmt – mdw nTr "that had been dead for nearly 2,000 years .
The stele in origin didn't come the town of Rashid (Rosetta) where it was found, but maybe came from the temple of the
royal town of Sais and In 392 A.D The Roman Emperor Theodosius I ordered closing all non-Christian temples So, the
original stele was broken and its largest piece becoming what we now know as the Rosetta Stone Then after that,
Ancient Egyptian temples were used as quarries for new construction, and the Rosetta Stone was re-used in this manner
in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay to defend the Bolbitine branch of the Nile
at Rashid.
It was discovered on 19 July 1799 A.D by the French soldiers during Strengthening the defences of Fort Julien near
Rashid " Citadel of Qaitbay " under supervision of The French Lieutenant/Engineer Pierre Francois Xavier Bouchard
and d'Hautpoul who were the first to notice the historical importance of the stone because of the Greek text found at the
bottom so, It was sent to the French Institute of Egypt in Cairo and The French Painters made many replicas of it that
were taken to Paris By the General Charles Dugua and The discovery was reported in Courrier de l'Égypte, the official
newspaper of the French expedition.
Then after that, the stone was transferred to the house of the General Meinou " Last Leader of the French expedition "
who was able to hide the stone until it was seized by The British Troops in 1801 A.D. (Clause16)
And many other monuments were seized such as (sarcophagus of Nectanebo II - A Basalt Statue of the high priest of
Amun during the reign of Ramesses II "Roy" - a large granite fist )
The Original Stone is displayed now at the ground floor of British Museum since June 1802 A.D and many replicas of it
were made and one of them is displayed now at the Cairo Museum.
New inscriptions painted in white on the left and right edges of the slab stated that it was "Captured in Egypt by the
British Army in 1801" and "Presented by King George III".
It is damaged from upper and lower right corner and also upper left corner " Incomplete translation of it ".
It is made of Granodiorite which was brought from Gebel Tingar at the west of Elephantine, near Aswan.
Since the stone arrived in London, its inscriptions were Coloured in white chalk to make them more legible and its
surface was covered with a layer of carnauba wax to protect it from visitors' fingers and this gave a dark colour to the
stone that led to its mistaken identification as black basalt and These additions were removed when the stone was
cleaned in 1999.
It was a decree issued by the priests of Memphis " 27 th of March 196 B.C " honoring the king Ptolemy V Epiphanes
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who was the 5 ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty ( 305 B.C – 30 B.C ) (275 years), inherited the throne at the age of
five under a series of regents/guardians "Agathocles & Sosibius & Aristomenes", gave a gift of silver and
grain to the temples and he ruled Egypt for 23 years from (204 B.C-181 B.C).
The Ptolemaic King was keen to gain the favor/support of the priesthood "highest religious authority" to retain effective
rule over the populace.
It was written in two languages (Egyptian and Greek) and three scripts (hieroglyphic "language of the gods",demotic
"language of documents" and Greek "language of the Ptolemaic government" ).
The stone is divided into 3 registers :

(Upper register " 14 Line of Hieroglyphic Script ") & (Middle register " 32 Line of Demotic Script) & (Lower register " 54 Line of Greek").
}Important Note{ We had completed our translation of the stone by ( The Nubayrah Limestone Stele no. 5576 " 1848 "/Some Inscriptions
Of Mammisi/Decree of Canopus in 238 BC During the reign of Ptolemy III / decree of Ptolemy IV 218 BC/Philae Obelisk "Kingston Lacy").

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We can see the cartouche of the king Ptolemy V which was deciphered by comparing it with many cartouches ( One of
them found in an obelisk of Cleopatra at the temple of Philae and the cartouche of Birth name of Ramses II ).
If we Look at the reconstruction was made on the stone depending on Canopus Stele, we can see at its top a scene
depicting the king Ptolemy V presented offerings to the gods, and a winged sun disk.
There were many People worked on Deciphering the Hieroglyphic script and the Rosetta Stone Such as :
Horapollo (5th century- 1422 A.D) Hieroglyphica " 2 Books – Suda " an explanation of almost 200 glyphs.
Arab historians Dhul-Nun al-Misri 796 AH "Lord of the Nun/Fish" Abu Faid Thawban ibn Ibrahim and Ibn Wahshiyya
" An Arabic manuscript of Ibn Wahshiyya's book Kitab Shawq al-Mustaham ".


The Austrian orientalist Joseph Hammer translated Ibn Wahshiyya's work in his book in 1806 A.D and after
that Athanasius Kircher used this translation along with other Arabic works in his 17th century attempts at
decipherment.

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Tomb of Hemaka ( we can see a bull and a baboon reflects the highly-developed skill of the Ancient Egyptian Artist. Jean-François Champollion made the complete decipherment (14 September 1822A.D / 19 Dialect.D) Because he know Arabic. dates back to the 1 st dynasty ( Den ) from Saqqara. He put his beds.T U317/507b. and Thomas Young studied the inscriptions on the stone. Rock Crystal and faience . The game is played in a rectangular Clay/Limestone shape consisting of 3 rows of 10 squares called "houses" and Ivory Sticks which were thrown to determine the number of squares each player would move ( More At "goo. Then we will talk about the cult of resurrection of the ancient Egyptian who desired to make his tomb as a copy of his house so. To the right we can see an Ivory Clappers dates back the the early dynastic period and its top is carved with the heads of Asiatic Prisoners as a sort of controlling enemies' Evils and they were used as rhythm instruments. We can see another game is presented by a siltstone ladder board. Johan David Åkerblad. The frog goddess (H qt ) Goddess of childbirth. vengeance. made of Limestone. Hieroglyphic S cript ( m dw nTr / tà hieroglyphikà grámmata / S acred Writing / Tombs and Temples ). Jewellery and games in his tomb to reuse them in the after life. It isn't known how the game was played but its idea may be to move your six counters around the snake towards its head and get them back safely to the tail before your opponent's lion eats them and the winner is the player whose lion has eaten the largest number of counters. Demotic and Coptic ). with the help of Dom Raphaël and also Yuhanna Chiftichi the Egyptian Coptic priest of the church of Saint-Roch in the rue Saint-Honoré and finally He succeeded to gain the title ( The Father Of Egyptology ) . There were various games in Ancient Egypt : (Mental "mH n /snt" )(Physical" Wrestling/Boxing/running/Horse riding). decorated with human and animal figures. war and Hunting ). brought from The temple of ( x n ty imntyw )and Abu-sir El-Meleq ( Tomb C ). Female hippopotamus Goddess ( t A w rt ) Goddess of childbirth and a protector of women and children (Like Bes). Finally. we were able to reconstruct its rules as much as possible. These Objects were classified as votive objects represents some deities such as : Limestone Monkey ( ky / gAf /gif /gwf) represents the god ( D H wty ) god of moon.- -     - - - -       In the 19th century. and were able to make some headway. The crocodile god (sb k) (P. Aramaic. We can also see a cylinder seal which made locally of limestone.gl/1iRMCZ "). Hebrew. We can see also an Ostracon which is made of Limestone. conquest and war. Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής Κλεοπάτρα I hope I have succeeded in explaining Level I of the course  " Unique insights in Egyptology " 2 . Boxes.) God of Fertility and rebirth. Lepsius led an expedition to Egypt and Nubia (Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien ) Ancient Egyptian Language was written in 4 Scripts ( Hieroglyphic. it consists of a circular limestone snake board with playing pieces for 1 game "6 lions and lioness + 6 ivory dogs" with 6 game balls and a single pawn. Hieratic S cript ( grammata hieratika / Religious Texts By Priests ) dēmotikós Daily Language By people / Easier and faster in writing Coptic S cript ( last stage of the Egyptian language ) 1st Century A. We knew them through the tomb's walls paints and they were played by 1 player or a team and it had a religious concept since the New Kingdom as it describes the battle between the deceased and his invisible enemy even if the deceased overcome his enemy that means he passes one of the obstacles in the afterlife. Falcon god Horus ( God of Sky. Another Example ( The sn t game " Crossing " that resembles the chess and its rules are unknown but through imagery found on the walls of ancient tombs and senet artifacts found in the Excavations . Lioness Goddess ( sx mt ) Goddess of divine retribution. creation and grain germination. dates back to the early dynastic period " Naqada/Abydos" and it is a clear evidence that the Ancient Egyptian was the first to invent the printing not the Dutch as they pretend. chairs.gl/cF7i2h" ). After the Death of Champollion. The cylinder seal idea was brought to Egypt from Mesopotamia and it was used by high officials as a signet. and Persian. For Example ( the mH n Snake game was played in the pre-dynastic period. (To know more about the game Visit this Link " goo. and he become fluent in Coptic. scholars such as Silvestre de Sacy. S ince Predynastic Period. Then we can see some of Animal's figures which date back to the early dynastic period . wisdom and learning. Hieratic.