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BASIC CHEMISTRY NOTES

MATTER & ENERGY
Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass.
Physical changes do not alter the basic nature of a substance. Ex. Changes in matter, cutting something into smaller pieces.
Chemical changes do alter the composition of a substance. Often completely changing the substance.
Energy is massless, takes up no space, and can only be measured by its effects on matter. Energy is the ability to do work or to
put matter into motion.
Kinetic energy is displayed by actually doing work.
Potential energy is the stored energy that objects possess.
**All living things are built of matter, and to grow and function they require a supply of continuous energy.
Forms of energy
Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances.
Electrical energy is the result of the movement of charged particles.
Mechanical energy is directly involved in moving matter.
Radiant energy travels in waves (in the electromagnetic spectrum) ex. X ray, infrared, light, radio, UV.
Conversion of energy
With few exceptions, energy is easily converted from one form to another.
**In the body, chemical energy of food is trapped in the bonds of a high-energy molecule called ATP, & ATP’s energy may ultimately
be transformed into the electrical energy of a nerve impulse or the mechanical energy of shortening muscles.
Energy conversions are quite inefficient, some energy is always lost as heat.
**It is heat that makes us warm-blooded animals and contributes to our relatively high body temperature, which is an important
influence on body functioning.
COMPOSITION OF MATTER
So far, 114 elements have been discovered. About 90 of these occur naturally. Only four elements make up about 96% of the
body-carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, & nitrogen. The building blocks of an element are atoms, and are represented by their atomic
symbols. Atoms where Greek for “not being able to be divided”, but that is not exactly true, they are composed of subatomic
particles. Each subatomic particle differs in mass and electrical charge, they are protons (p+), neutrons (n0), and electrons (e-).
The electrical charge of a particle is a measure of its ability to attract or repel other charged particles. (opposites attract, likes
repel) Because all atoms are electrically neutral, the protons must balance the electrons.
Planetary & Orbital models of an atom
The Planetary model of an atom portrays the atom as a mini solar system.
The modern model called the Orbital model, portrays the electron location as an electron cloud, the region outside the nucleus
where you would most likely find an electron. Most of the volume of an atom is empty space, and nearly all of the mass is
concentrated in the central nucleus.
Identifying Elements
Elements are identified based upon the number of their subatomic particles. The number of protons must always equal the number
of electrons for a balanced atom, however, the number of neutrons may vary within an element. The smaller (lighter) elements tend
to balance, the larger (heavier) elements may have extra neutrons.
An atomic number is given to each element for identification purposes, it is equal to the number of protons it contains. The
atomic mass number is the sum of all of the protons and neutrons, electrons do not enter the equation. The atomic weight of an
element is not always the same, due to the variability of the neutrons. An atom with too many neutrons is referred to as an Isotope.
Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, it’s the mass that differs. Remember electrons determine bonding properties
so the chemical properties are exactly the same. The heavier isotopes of certain atoms are unstable and tend to decompose to
become more stable, these isotopes are called radioisotopes. The decomposition is referred to as radioactivity.
**Radioisotopes are used in tiny amounts mark biological molecules so that they can be traced. PET scans can detect the
radioisotopes. Iodine can be used to check blood circulation through lungs or to scan the thyroid for tumors. Radium, cobalt, and
other radioisotopes are used to destroy localized cancer. ??What is this called??
CHEMICAL BONDS & REACTIONS
When two or more atoms of the same or different elements combine a molecule is formed. When two or more different atoms bind
together a compound is made. Compounds always have properties quite different from the atoms that made them.
Chemical reactions occur whenever atoms combine with, or dissociate from, other atoms. When atoms unite chemically, chemical
bonds are formed.

Level one holds 2 electrons. Ionic bonds form when a complete transfer of electrons occurs. Chemical bonding occurs in the outer electron shells of an atom. The valence electrons determine chemical reactivity. Ex. All organic molecules are large covalently bonded molecules. or share electrons with other atoms to obtain a balance. (helping it to “fold” neatly) ??What important molecule is dependent on this type of bonding?? Types of reactions Synthesis reactions. Bonds are always broken. and break down glycogen into glucose when blood sugar level drop. AB= A + B This is a synthesis reaction in reverse. **They are important intramolecular bonds. & nucleic acids. These reactions break down food. If an energy level is not full or balanced it will try to give.so bonding occurs more readily in the outer energy levels. H2O Hydrogen bonds are weak and sometimes referred to as sticky bonds. Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Many atoms share the electron equally and are referred to as nonpolar covalently bonded molecules. But some atoms tend to “hog” the electron from the other atom(s) in the molecule which gives different atoms on the same molecule slight charges. They are important for growth. are simpler. or share electrons they BOND. The magic number in all levels other than one is the number 8. water. **Synthesis reactions underlie all anabolic (constructive) activities that occur in body cells. They form when a hydrogen bound to an electron hungry atom (N. . repair of tissue. **Decomposition reactions underlie all catabolic (destructive) processes that occur in the cells. with a few exceptions such as carbon dioxide. Products are always smaller & simpler than the original molecule. This is called a cation (CAT-ion). AB + C = AC + B or AB + CD = AD + CB **An exchange reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose and transfers its end phosphate group to glucose forming glucosephosphate. take. take. these charged particles are called ions. Inorganic compounds lack carbon. When the outer shell/level has 8 electrons it is inactive and therefore inert. NaCl Covalent bonds form when two atoms share electrons to fill their valence shell at least part of the time. The outer shell is known as the valence shell and the electrons it holds are known as valence electrons. a switch is made between molecule parts (change partners). Bonds are made and broken. The atom that gave an electron now has too few electrons compared to its protons so it has a (+) charge.Chemical bonds are not physical structures. Waters properties make it so important to us. Energy is released.two or more molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule. level two holds 8 electrons. and smaller.the most abundant inorganic compound in the body (2/3). The closer the electrons are to the nucleus the stronger the attraction between the + & . level three holds up to 18 electrons and so on. The atom that took an electron now has too many electrons compared to is protons so it has a (-) charge. or ions. Decomposition reactions occur when a molecule is broken into smaller molecules. Exchange reactions involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions. A + B = AB This always involves bond formation. WATER. When polar molecules such as water stick to each other they are forming hydrogen bonds. but a energy relationship that involves the electrons of the reacting atoms. Salt. Ex. & many acids & bases. proteins. Ex. Ex. The maximum number of energy levels (electron shells) known so far is 7. These are called polar molecules. When an ionic bond is created both a cation and an anion are formed. ** At the same time the ATP becomes ADP. O) is attracted to another electron hungry atom. Organic compounds are carbon containing molecules. one atom gives the other takes. this traps the glucose (fuel) molecule inside the cell. and the formation of protein molecules by joining amino acids into long chains. lipids. These levels are number starting at the nucleus outward. Energy must be absorbed to make bonds so synthesis reactions are energy-absorbing reactions. atoms. Carbohydrates. BIOCHEMISTRY All chemicals fall are either organic or inorganic compounds. The “hogging” of the electron may be due to the three dimensional shape. This reaction occurs whenever glucose enters a body cell. they help bind different parts of the same molecule together into a three dimensional shape. It is called an anion (AN-ion). Since opposite charges stick together these two stay very close. This gives each atom a charge. When atoms give.

 Polarity. but the most plentiful salts are those containing calcium and phosphorus. Dissolved salts are ionic compounds which easily separate into their ions—called dissociation.  Messenger RNA carries the info for building proteins from the genes to the ribosomes. 2. Glucose is the most important “fuel” for the body cells.excellent solvent  Molecules cannot react chemically unless they are in solution.  It also provides the instructions for building every protein that your body needs. . all salts are electrolytesNucleic Acids Nucleic acids are fundamental:  they make up genes. it is called a double helix.  Single stranded nucleotide chains  The bases it uses are A & U. This transforms the ATP to ADP (di-phosphate).  The bases it uses are A & T which always bond together. the others are smaller single ringed structures. and transfer RNA. H. and C & G.  Ribosomal RNA forms part of the ribosomes. cytosine (C). Ribonucleic acid (RNA)-  located outside the nucleus and it is the molecular slave of the DNA. & P atoms  Their building blocks are Nucleotides  Nucleotides are made out of three basic parts 1.  It carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA. ATP ATP—adenosine triphosphate is a form of chemical energy that is usable by all body cells. where it oversees the (translation) of the message and the binding together of amino acids to form the proteins.  There are three varieties of RNA messenger. N. ensuring that every cell has the exact same genetic material inside.  They are the largest biological molecule in the body  Made of C. ribose sugar. by the oxidation of food supplies.  It replicates it’s self before the cell divides. When they are ruptured by hydrolysis energy is immediately available. most chemical reactions are dependent in the presence of water.  DNA is a double chain of nucleotides which looks like a twisted ladder.hydrolysis reactions add water and break bonds. direct growth and development.  Base for all body lubricants. energy released as glucose is captured and stored in the bonds of ATP molecules as small packets of energy. The phosphate groups are attached by unique chemical bonds called high-energy phosphate bonds. ribosomal. found chiefly in bones and teeth. thymine (T). high heat capacity-prevents sudden changes in body temperature. a pentose sugar (5 carbons) 3. Water can act as a transport and exchange medium in the body. Because ions are charged particles. & three phosphate groups.  THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 1. the U replaces the T and the sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose. provide the blueprints for life. a phosphate group  Nucleotides come in 5 varieties: adenine (A).  Transfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes. SALTS The salts of many metal elements are commonly found in the body. guanine(G). a nitrogen containing base 2.  Reactant. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genetic material found within the nucleus of the cell. Structurally ATP is a modified nucleotide it consists of an adenine base.  Protective function-cerebrospinal fluid-amniotic fluid. and C & G which always bond together— they are known as complementary base pairs. the protein-synthesis. and dictate the structure of the proteins. ADP builds up and is replenished back into ATP. and uracil (U)  A & G are large two ringed bases.