You are on page 1of 6

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, short TRB or TBK from (German) Trichter(rand-)becherkultur (ca 4300 BC–ca 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central
Europe. It developed as a technological merger of local neolithic and mesolithic technocomplexes between the lower Elbe and middle Vistula rivers, introducing farming and
husbandry as a major source of food to the pottery-using hunter-gatherers north of this line.
Preceded by Lengyel-influenced Stroke-ornamented ware culture (STK) groups/Late Lengyel
and Baden-Boleráz in the southeast, Rössen groups in the southwest and the ErtebølleEllerbek groups in the north, the TRB techno-complex is divided into a northern group
including modern northern eastalbingian Germany and southern Scandinavia (TRB-N,
roughly the area that previously belonged to the Ertebølle-Ellerbek complex), a western group
between Zuiderzee and lower Elbe, an eastern group centered on the Vistula catchment,
roughly ranging from Oder to Bug, and south-central groups (TRB-MES, Altmark) around the
middle and upper Elbe and Saale. Especially in the southern and eastern groups, local
sequences of variants emerged. In the late 4th millennium BC, the Globular Amphora culture
(KAK) replaced most of the eastern and subsequently also the southern TRB groups, reducing
the TRB area to modern northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. The younger TRB in
these areas was superseded by the Single Grave culture (EGK) at about 2800 BC. The northcentral European megaliths were built primarily during the TRB era.

Contents

1 Range

2 Settlements

3 Religion and graves

4 Objects

5 Ethnicity and language

It was dominated by animal husbandry of sheep. pigs and goats. The culture imported copper from Central Europe. the Salzmünde and Walternienburg and Bernburg (all TRB-MES IV) whose centres were in Saxony-Anhalt. such as the Scandinavian hinterland. Settlements With the exception of some inland settlements such as Alvastra pile-dwelling. the settlements are located near those of the previous Ertebølle culture on the coast. Variants of the Funnelbeaker culture in or near the Elbe catchment area include the Tiefstich pottery group in northern Germany as well as the cultures of the Baalberge group (TRB-MES II and III. cattle. MES = Mittelelbe-Saale). to southern Scandinavia (Denmark up to Uppland in Sweden and the Oslofjord in Norway) in the north and to the Vistula catchment in Poland in the east. It was characterised by single-family daubed houses ca 12 m x 6 m. in the Malmö region) and collection of flintstone. especially daggers and axes. Primitive wheat and barley was grown on small patches that were fast depleted. due to which the population frequently moved small distances. but there was also hunting and fishing. 6 Genetics  7 Footnotes  8 Sources Range The TRB ranges from the Elbe catchment in Germany and Bohemia with a western extension into the Netherlands. which was traded into regions lacking the stone.g. Religion and graves . There was also mining (e.

The megalithic structures of Ireland. Objects . It comprises 85. a symbol of social cohesion. an example of which are the Sieben Steinhäuser in northern Germany. Burial practices were varied. the people sacrificed ceramic vessels that probably contained food. Inhumation seems to have been the rule. depending on region and changed over time. one of about 1.000 flint axes that have been found from this culture were probably sacrificed in water. At graves.Dolmen in Lancken-Granitz. Another cult centre at Stävie near Lund comprises 30.000 m2. France and Portugal are somewhat older and have been connected to earlier archeological cultures of those areas. The graves were probably not intended for every member of the settlement but for only an elite. They also constructed large cult centres surrounded by pales. earthworks and moats. and axes and other flint objects. The Funnelbeaker culture marks the appearance of megalithic tombs at the coasts of the Baltic and of the North sea. Originally.000 preserved TRB burial sites in MecklenburgVorpommern The houses were centered on a monumental grave. Axes and vessels were also deposed in streams and lakes near the farmlands. the structures were probably covered with a heap of dirt and the entrance was blocked by a stone. but were later made in the form of passage graves and dolmens. The largest one is found at Sarup on Fyn. and virtually all Sweden's 10.000 m2 and is estimated to have taken 8000 workdays. The oldest graves consisted of wooden chambered cairns inside long barrows.

It was found in 1891 on the Oudrup moor near Skarpsalling in Himmerland. Denmark. Skarpsallingkarret. from Dalarna  tjocknackig yxa (thick-neck axe). a flintstone axe characteristic of both the Funnelbeaker and the Pitted Ware cultures . is from around 3200 BC. from Närke.[1]  Pottery from a dolmen in Västergötland. the clay pot from Skarpsalling. Sweden  Polygonal battle axe.

of which the deposits found in Belgium and on the island of Rügen as well as deposits in the Kraków area were important. which shows the oldest known depiction of a wheeled vehicle (here. which were probably used for drinking. and the later are called double-edged. The pot dates to approximately 3500 BC. The early versions were multi-angled. beakers and amphorae with funnel-shaped tops. representing the culture of what Marija Gimbutas termed Old Europe. The technology was flint-based. the culture is seen as non-Indo-European. Ethnicity and language In the context of the Kurgan hypothesis. although one of the edges is more rounded. a 2axled. the peoples of which were later to be governed by the Indo-European-language-speaking peoples (see Yamna culture) intruding from the east. from Skåne  Double-edged battle axe from Skåne The culture is named for its characteristic ceramics. tunnackig yxa (thin-neck axe). The culture used battle axes which were stone versions of Central Europe's copper axes. The political relation between the aboriginal and intrusive cultures resulted in quick and smooth cultural morphosis into Corded Ware culture. One find assigned to the Funnelbeaker culture is the Bronocice pot. . 4-wheeled wagon).

cultural and religious changes in East Germany. J.500 years. Ancient DNA extracted from three individuals ascribed to a TRB horizon in Gökhem. one Dutch publication mentions mixed burials and propose a quick and smooth internal change to Corded Ware within two generations occurring about 2900 BC in Dutch and Danish TRB territory. A study published in 2009. It was claimed that in the area formerly inhabited by this culture. and T. Genetics It has been suggested that the Funnelbeaker culture was the origin of the gene allowing adults of Northern European descent to digest lactose. [3] A paper published in 2007 by Burger et al. which preceded the TRB culture by some 1..[7] . Sweden. was the culture in which this trait started to co-evolve with the culture of dairying.910*T) was rare or absent in early farmers from central Europe. probably precluded by economic.[6] suggests that the Linear Pottery culture (also known as Linearbandkeramik or LBK).Heterodoxically. prevalence of the gene is virtually universal. A study published by Yuval Itan and colleagues in 2010 [5] clearly shows this. also by Itan et al.[4] indicated that the genetic variant that causes lactose persistence in most Europeans (-13. thus opposing the migrationist view of steppe intrusions introducing Indo-European languages[2] (at least in this part of the world). were found to possess mtDNA haplogroups H.