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‫امجلهوريّــــــةّاجلزائريّـــــــــــــةّادلميقراطيّـــــــــــةّامشعبيّـــــــة ّ‬

‫وزارةّامتعليـــمّامعايلّوّامبحثّامعلمي ّ‬
‫جامعةّامتكوينّاملتواصل ّ‬
‫مركزّسطيف ّ‬
‫*ّامتعلميّعنّبعدّ* ّ‬
‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬
‫ّ‬

‫املوض ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ــوع ‪:‬‬

‫‪Clash of Civilizations‬‬
‫مركـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـسة جخـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـسج لنيل شهادة الدزاساث الجامعي ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـت التطبيقيـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـ ـت‬
‫فــــــــــــــرعّ‪ٍ ّ:‬اجنلزييّـــــــــةّتقنيّـــــــــــــــــــة ّ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ٍاعداد الطالب (ة) ‪:‬‬
‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫جحت ٍاشساف ألاستاذ(ة) ‪:‬‬

‫العيدودي فاروق‪.‬‬
‫بن ّ‬
‫جدية يونس‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ّ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ّ‬
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‫امس نةّاجلامعيــــــةّ‪ّ 2102/2102ّ:‬‬

‫أوراب ـ ـ ـح العيد‪.‬‬

Acknowledgements

Above all, we wish to sincerely express our deepest gratitude to our supervisor, Mr
OURABAH Laîd, for his excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing us with an
excellent atmosphere for doing such work. We would also like to thank all committee
members for accepting to judge our work.
We would never have been able to finish this dissertation without the help and
support of the kind people around us. Special thanks go to Amel, for her personal support,
help and friendship during the realization of this dissertation.
Last, but by no means least, we don’t forget the generosity and encouragement of all
our classmates in the third year technical English classroom, we hope our God help them all
to finish their works.

Contents
1

Introduction
Chapter 1

History of civilizations
1.
2.

3.

4.

Chapter 2

Etymology
Early civilizations
2.1. Early Civilization in Mesopotamia
a) The Akkadian Empire
b) The Babylonian Empire
c) The Hittite Empire
2.2. Ancient Egypt
2.3. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean
a) Kush and Axum: Civilization Spreads in Africa
b) The Hebrews and Monotheism
c) The Minoans and the Phoenicians
2.4. Early Indian Civilization
a) The Harappan Civilization
b) The Vedic Aryan Civilization
2.5. Early Chinese Civilization
a) The Shang Dynasty (1766–1050 B.C.E)
b) Zhou Dynasty (1050–256 B.C.E)
The Classical civilizations (1000 B.C.E – 500 C.E)
3.1. The Persian Empire
3.2. The Greek Empire
3.3. The Roman Empire
3.4. The Rise of Civilization in the Americas
a) Teotihuacan
b) Classic Maya (300 – 900 C.E)
Early Modern Civilizations: Postclassical Period (500-1450 C.E)
4.1. The First Global Civilization: Islam
4.2. Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

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Clash of Civilizations
1.
2.
3.

New face of civilizations
The Next Pattern of Conflict
Clash of civilizations
3.1. Differences between civilizations (motivations)
3.2. Clash of religions as a part of clash of civilizations

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Chapter 3

Clash between Islam and Christianity
1.
2.

3.

Conclusion

Similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity
Islamic doctrine and the birth of Islam-West conflict
2.1. Conflicts in the Mediterranean Islands and Sicily (652–1091)
2.2. Spain and France
2.3. Ottoman attacks on Europe form the Byzantine front
2.4. Crusades: European counterattack against Jihad
Modern face of Islamic-western conflict
3.1. Colonial era
3.2. Conflict in the 21st Century

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and the interpretation of some of international politics that govern the interaction between world’s societies nowadays. 1 . location and institutions. language. the social and the cultural form. The idea of a clash between civilizations is a sort of electric spark that sets people’s imagination alight. This work is divided into three chapters. these groupings are what have been dubbed as civilizations which marked a huge appetite for conflicts since early ages. the second chapter sheds light on the reasons lead to the conflicts between civilizations. for throughout the course of the history. there emerged different civilizations which have been plagued by a series of conflicts that constantly brought to the fore the shifting balance of power among civilizations. It is rather one of the overlapping groupings of states brought together in varying degrees by history. religion. It cannot be denied that there are several obvious signs for a clash of civilizations. known as the only global civilization in the world. the first one expose the history of the major civilizations known in the past and the description of their cultures and religions in order to emerge the collapse of civilizations under the influence of their cultural. is discussed in the last chapter. Such conflicts continue taking different forms. the conflict between Islam. and Christianity. and it is under the rubric of the religious standards that the clash has reached its highest peak of struggle. At the broadest level. the religious. culture. Indeed the climax confrontation which civilizations have witnessed marked a stamp in the human history that it continues its legacies even in the present day. supported by the western societies. Finally. the political. religious or economical differences. because it finds a fertile soil to proliferate.Introduction The world is no longer characterized by the ‘solitude of states’ with no connection between them.

processing metals and other natural sources. the postclassical period. many historians have attempted to locate the evolution of world societies in order to identify the world history. historians divided the time history into periods. 1. and then was spread to start an evolution in world history. The characteristics of these early civilizations are: food production in permanent habitations. More significant than all the establishment of a complex form of organization. with the emergence of their cultures and religions in order to distinguish differences and similarities which can be used in the next chapters. .E where civilizations were born.C. In the study of the evolution of civilizations.E. some 1 to 2 million years ago.E. the first civilization supposed to exist was in the Paleolithic (bronze) age. the modern civilizations period.E and 1700 C. where new era. started and finally come the last period. The emergence of civilization in human history by the development of agriculture and sedentary way of life. that was limited by 1400 C. dated back to about 6. starting by the early era which precede 1000 B.Chapter 1 History of Civilizations Scientists estimate that the earth may be as many as 6 billion years old and that the first humanlike creatures appeared in Africa perhaps 3 to 5 million years ago. a division of labor in terms of occupational specialization and the development of writing. the state and the development of hierarchical administrative bureaucracies are the central characteristics of all civilizations. This present chapter will be sacrificed to the classification and the description of civilizations that arose in the world during the previous periods. followed by the classical period that ended by 500 C.000 years BC.Etymology Civilization as a term comes from Latin civilis (of or proper to a citizen) as a derivation of civis (townsman).

2. enshrining men’s superiority in laws and art as well as government structures.Early civilizations Early civilizations introduced many important changes in human life. - This institutionalized control of production by a “ruling” class became more complex in time and other formal social institutions such as organized religion. By time a government and its bureaucracy in charge of coordinating the tasks of production and protecting the whole community began to concentrate in the cities. Vols I-XII. The distinguishing of pre-history and history is generally based on the appearance of written documents. while the rest lived and died a long time ago. They made patriarchal systems more formal. “A Study of History”. More or less a similar organization appeared in all early civilizations which continued to exist until today: “The State”. The earliest known “civilization” Sumer. In A Study of History.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations Societies with the above distinctions appeared in several different parts of the prehistoric world more or less independent from each other and at different time periods like Mesopotamia. such as administration. education. Civilizations in history had the following common particularities: - Intensive agricultural techniques. only six of them exist in the contemporary world. 1934-1961. such as crop development and irrigation permitted a surplus of food beyond the subsistence. industry. - A significant aspect of civilization is considered to be the invention of “writing”. Egypt. permanent army and markets and money as forms of economic exchange developed. science or religion etc. is believed to have begun around 4000-3500 BC in Mesopotamia (meaning land between the rivers in Greek) where Tigris (Dicle) and Euphrates (Firat) flow in a valley and finally meet before arriving to the Persian Gulf. 3 . This allowed the sustaining of a group of population in other fields. But each early civilization also put its particular stamp on basic 1 Arnold Toynbee. The invention of the first writing systems is in late 4th millennium BC in Sumer and 1000 years later developed into cuneiform. - Those not in agriculture constituted the population of the cities. China and India. war. Oxford University Press. Arnold Toynbee identified 21 major civilizations1.

E. Sumerian culture remained intact until about 2000 B. Sargon I. The regions map (see Visualizing the Past) shows the geographic framework for this process. themselves invaders of the fertile river valleys. a non-Sumerian city in Mesopotamia. a) The Akkadian Empire Shortly after 2400 B. who claimed great authority. ultimately proved unable to withstand pressures from other intruding peoples who began to copy their key achievements. The Sumerians. including a celebration of the deeds of proud local kings. The Akkadians 4 . Professional military organization expanded because Sargon maintained a force of 5400 troops. This formalized a process in which major societies gained distinctive characteristics.C.Early Civilization in Mesopotamia Sumer. The Sumerian invention of writing was probably rather sudden. It was based on new needs for commercial property and political records. ruled the agricultural hinterland. City-state government established a tradition of regional rule. along the great Tigris and Euphrates rivers that lead to the Persian Gulf. Sumerian political and social organization set up traditions that long endured in the region. the first civilization arose in the northeastern section of what we now call the Middle East.C. Its first ruler. the most important invention between the advent of agriculture and the age of the steam engine. Its political organization was based on a series of tightly organized city-states in which an urban king. 2-1. a king from Akkad. which sometimes yielded to larger empires but often returned as the principal organizational form. He also added to Sumerian art a new style marked by the theme of royal victory.E.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations aspects of life. was introduced about 3500 B. Writing. This empire soon sent troops as far as Egypt and Ethiopia.E. Later Mesopotamian civilization was recurrently unstable as one ruling people gave way to another invading force. is the first clearly identified individual in world history.C. The king unified the empire and integrated the city-states into a whole. conquered the Sumerian city-states and inaugurated the Akkadian Empire.

Artistic monuments celebrated rulers’ power in a tradition that has continued ever since (even for rulers not seen as divine). and new invading groups added to the region’s confusion. and a series of smaller kingdoms disputed the region for several centuries between about 1200 and 900 B.E. producing a number of literary works. although their rule lasted only about 200 years. b) The Babylonian Empire Around 1800 B. The Babylonians expanded commerce and a common cultural zone. set up an empire of their own. the capital of modern 5 . around 2000 B. Babylonian scientists extended the Sumerian work in astronomy and mathematics. of all the successors of the Sumerians. the Babylonian Empire arose and again unified much of Mesopotamia.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations were the first people to use writing for more than commercial and temple records. and few geographic barriers impeded the incursions. The Babylonian empire fell by about 1600 B.C. The invading Hittite (HIT eyet) people. in the second millennium B.C. Known as the Hittite civilization. they established a strong. rose and fell the shortest-lived of all civilizations. kingdoms were springing up in various parts of the Middle East. often associating themselves with the gods. one of the first of the Indo-European groups to enter from central Asia. c) The Hittite Empire In Anatolia.C. Indeed. Middle Eastern society had become so prosperous that it was beginning to attract recurrent waves of attack from nomadic peoples pressing in from central Asia. Large cities testified to the wealth and power of this new empire. By this time. The Hittites soon yielded. speaking a language related to Greek and Sanskrit. The modern 60-minute hour and 360-degree circle arose from the Babylonian system of measurement applied to earlier Sumerian numbering systems. centralized government with a capital at Hattusas (near Ankara. Rulers such as Hammurabi claimed great power.C. The Akkadian Empire lasted only 200 years and then was overthrown by another invading force.C.E. the Hittites were an Indo-European people. the Babylonians constructed the most elaborate culture.E.C. both based on growing use of cuneiform writing and a shared language. This Babylonian empire was headed by Hammurabi. By about 1500 B. one of the great rulers of early civilized history.E.E.

in part because of the unifying influence of the course of the Nile River.) and ended as a stand-off.E. 1 P.E. which brought a period of division. “World Civilizations: The Global Experience”. USA. Egypt moved fairly directly from precivilization to large government units without passing through a city-state phase.C.Ancient Egypt Civilization emerged early in northeastern Africa. new waves of invasion. The invasions of Egypt from Palestine near the end of the Old Kingdom period (about 2200 B. leading pharaohs conquered new territories.C. Archaeologists refer to the period after 1100 B. An important technological change took place in northern Anatolia. they emerged as a leading mil-itary power in the Middle East and contested Egypt’s ambitions to control Palestine and Syria. internal conspiracies. Early in each dynastic period. brought fairly steady decline. N. 6 . chaos.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations Turkey).E. where a new family line took power. 6th Edition. The vast surrounding deserts acted to limit the kind of attacks that troubled Sumerian civilization. Strearns et al.C. During this period Egyptian settlements spread southward into what is now the Sudan. After about 1150 B. They were followed by attacks from the Middle East by tribes of Asian origin. it is not surprising that each of the main periods of Egyptian history was marked by some striking kings. 2-2. although the first pharaoh (king). There were also fewer invasions1. and rival royal dynasties. Narmer had to conquer a number of petty local kings around 3100 B.) were distinct exceptions to Egypt’s usual self-containment. and disorganization. along with the decision to use it rather than copper or bronze to manufacture weapons and tools.E.E.E. Pearson Education. toward what later became the African kingdom of Kush. Between 1400 and 1200 B. including strikes and social protest.C.C. 2011. But the unified monarchy was reestablished during the Middle Kingdom period. as the Iron Age. This struggle culminated in a great battle between the Egyptian and Hittite armies at Kadesh in northern Syria (1285 B. Egypt always had fewer problems with political unity than Mesopotamia did. Given the importance of royal rule and the belief that pharaohs were gods.C. This was the discovery of how to smelt iron.

Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean a) Kush and Axum: Civilization Spreads in Africa The kingdom of Kush (kuhsh) is the first known African state other than Egypt. As Egypt declined. who gave the world one of its most influential religions. The Hebrews were a Semitic people (a population group that also includes the Arabs). 7 .E. Kush was strong enough to conquer its northern neighbor and rule it for several centuries. Meroë began to decline from about 100 C. Centered in the kingdom of Mycenae (mySEE-nee).E. about 300 C. At most points. c) The Minoans and the Phoenicians About 1600 B. the greatest period of the kingdom at its capital Meroë lasted from about 250 B . By 1100 B.E. however.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations 2-3. the Jews began to emerge as a people with a self-conscious culture and some political identity. It sprang up around 2000 B. these conquests eventually led to the establishment of the first civilization there.C. the Jews distinctive achievement was the development of a strong monotheistic religion.C.E. to 50 C. this early Greek civilization developed a considerable capacity for monumental building and conducted important wars with city-states in the Middle East. Minoan navies conquered parts of the Greek mainland.C. along the upper (southern) reaches of the Nile. a civilization developed on the island of Crete. Prosperity and extensive political and economic activity did not end in this region but extended into the formation of a kingdom in present day Ethiopia b) The Hebrews and Monotheism The most important of the smaller Middle Eastern groups were the Hebrews. retaining independence only when other parts of the Middle East were disorganized.E.C. the Jewish state was small and weak. they may have settled in the southeast corner of the Mediterranean about 1600 B.E.E.E. including the famous conflict with Troy. Axum.C. This Minoan (mihNO-un) society traded widely with both Mesopotamia and Egypt and probably acquired many of its civilized characteristics from this exchange. onward and was defeated by a kingdom to the south.

By the 6th century B. they benefited from the weakening of Egypt and the earlier col-lapse of Minoan society and its Greek successor because there were few competitors for influence in the Mediterranean by 1000 B. 8 .C. and turquoise. 2-4.E. as is generally known. Another distinct society grew up in the Middle East in what is now the nation of Lebanon.C.. Indo-European (or Aryan) invaders established the “Vedic” culture. and was disrupted by intruders from Western civilization in the first half of the present century. In its place. Around 2000 B. which seems to be culminating in the Soviet empire.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations It reached its greatest peak in the century divided at 400 B. setting up a major trading city on the coast of north Africa at Carthage and lesser centers in Italy. had developed a sophisticated urban culture. and Persia for gold. In turn. (b) Orthodox civilization. and southern France. as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa. which may culminate in an American empire. Spain. copper. and (c) Islamic civilization.E.E. a people called the Phoenicians (fih-NISH-unz) settled on the Mediterranean coast.Early Indian Civilization By 2300 B. Phoenicia collapsed in the wake of the Assyrian invasions of the Middle East.C. named after the ritual writings known as the Vedas. the largest being Harappa and MohenjoDaro.E. at least seventy Indus cities.C. Afghanistan. which did culminate in the Ottoman Empire. such as Carthage. although several of the colonial cities. From its wreckage emerged three civilizations: (a) Western civilization. long survived. it was mainly urban and mercantile.E. Between 1800 and 1700 B. Phoenician sailors moved steadily westward.C. southern India. silver. Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with Mesopotamia. Vedic culture evolved into a “new” Indian civilization that spread over the whole subcontinent and laid the foundations for the subsequent development of Hindu traditions. It was destroyed.C. a) The Harappan Civilization The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization. by the Germanic "barbarian invaders" in the fifth century of our era. and finally culminated in the Roman Empire. Indus civilization disappeared for unknown reasons.

The traditional history of China tells of three ancient dynasties: Xia (2205–1766 B.C. killing its inhabitants and burning the cities1. Perhaps the Xia was a late Neolithic black-pottery 1 G.E). “Columbia History of the World”. and Zhou (1050–256 B.Early Chinese Civilization Agriculture began in China about 4000 B. Peter et al. 1972. Shang (1766–1050 B.E). The inhabitants of the Indus valley dispersed before the Aryans slowly entered the area as a nomadic people. and the Red River in what is today northern Vietnam. One theory suggests that the Aryan people migrated into this area. New York. Hinduism and Buddhism. 9 . Aryan religious texts and human remains in Mohenjo-Daro suggest that the Aryans may have violently entered the area. By the last centuries B. However.E).C.C. The Aryans were then able to take over this area since most of the inhabitants had previously left.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations Harappa declined gradually in the mid-2nd millennium B. b) The Vedic Aryan Civilization The Aryans were originally herders who spoke one variant of a group of related IndoEuropean languages and lived in the area between the Caspian and Black Seas.C. The names of kings on the bones fit almost perfectly those of the traditional historical record.E. But the precise causes of that decline remain highly contested among both historians and archeologists. This is the northernmost of East Asia’s four great river systems.E. the Aryan pastoralists may have consciously destroyed or neglected the dikes and canals on which the agrarian life of the Harappan peoples had once depended.E. which provided the basis for the rise of a splendid new civilization in south Asia and the emergence of two of the great world religions. Harper and Row. in the basin of the southern bend of the Yellow River. The others are the Yangtze in central China. 2-5. the Aryans had settled down in agrarian societies and kingdoms.C. the West River in southern China. The Aryans mobility and military prowess made it possible for them to prevail over peoples who occupied the lands into which they moved. another theory supported by more recent evidence suggests that this civilization may have begun to decline before the Aryans arrived. This evidence that the Shang actually existed has led historians to suggest that the Xia may also have been an actual dynasty.C.

In the early centuries of their reign. an allied group of northern nobles attacked Xian. and the appearance of social classes.000 years later than in Mesopotamia and 500 years later than in India. by the fourth century B. By the 8th century B. Zhou power was in decline. The result was the consolidation of many petty states into a few large territorial units. a tributary of the Yellow River lived the Zhou people. Retainers loyal to the Zhou managed to rescue a young 10 . Ruled as warrior aristocrats from city-states that fought outsiders and each other. Its control over its vassals had diminished dramatically. especially to the east and south. a) The Shang Dynasty (1766–1050 B. bronze appeared in China about 2000 B. still missing stage of Chinese writing.C.E. The largest city-state was the Shang capital. since it frequently moved. as population and commerce expanded. The Zhou ruler was killed in battle. the Zhou rulers exercised more power than their Shang predecessors. they were less civilized and more war like than the Shang.E) The characteristic political institution of Bronze Age China was the city-state. and his brother. rulers needed bigger armies to defend their states and trained bureaucrats to administer them. the military commander who had defeated the Shang. b) Zhou Dynasty (1050–256 B. In 771 B. and several of the vassals’ domains had grown powerful enough to openly challenge the overlordship of the dynasty. lacked the monumental architecture of Egypt or Mesopotamia.C.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations kingdom.C. which. the empire was greatly expanded. Under Wu. bronzes. armor. the duke of Zhou.C.E. and in the months that followed.C. in the valley of the Wei River.E.E) To the west of the area of Shang rule. perhaps it already had bronze and was responsible for the earliest. most of the western portions of the kingdom were lost to leaders of the vassal alliance or to nomadic invaders eager to take advantage of internal divisions among the Chinese. The three most notable features of Shang China were writing.. and chariot fittings. The metal was used for weapons.C. 1. as well as for a variety of ceremonial vessels of amazing fineness and beauty.E.

630550 B. He banned animal sacrifice and the use of intoxicants. 6th Edition. N. providing an extensive period of peace and prosperity. 2011. A great conqueror. The shift to the eastern capital marks the end of the early or western Zhou era. Conquests also extended into North Africa and the Indian River valley. 1 P. A Zoroastrianian religious leader. a Greek-educated conqueror. 3-1. a series of Persian empires arose in the northeastern part of the Middle East.E – 500 C.C. 3. Cyrus the Great. The Persian Empire embraced a host of languages and cultures. Strearns et al. Persia was also the center of a major new religion. “World Civilizations: The Global Experience”. They were unable to conquer Greece. emerged by 550 B.C. USA.). and the early Persian rulers were careful to grant considerable latitude for this diversity. which ran across the northern Middle East and into northwestern India. and established the massive Persian Empire. new religion.C. Persia embraced at least fourteen million people.The Persian Empire After the fall of the great Egyptian and Hittite empires in the Middle East by 1200 B. competing with Roman holdings and later states1. collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. Ultimately. revised the polytheistic religious tradition of the Sumerians through the introduction of monotheism.E) Classical period or classical age is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea. after the Hellenistic period. 11 . Christianity. Later kings expanded Persian holdings. but they long dominated much of the Middle East. the Persian Empire was toppled by Alexander the Great. At its height.C.E. Pearson Education. He introduced the idea of individual salvation through the free choice of God over the spirit of evil.E.The Classical civilizations (1000 B. much smaller states predominated. comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Zoroaster (c.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations prince and escort him safely to Luoyang. was born in that era that finished by the decline of the Roman Empire.

C.000 troops moved down the Greek peninsula and captured Athens. a new religion.C.C. then Xerxes) moved against Greece in punishment. destroying much of the city.E. Soon after Cyrus the Great created the Persian Empire.C. It was during the 5th century B.E. several Greek centers had trading connections around the Black Sea and in Egypt and southern Italy. he turned against wealthy Greek colonies along the Asian side of the Mediterranean and conquered them by about 540 B. a Persian army of 100. In the initial decades of the Roman Empire. Whether or not Christianity was created by God. emerged. Athenian and Spartan cooperation led to Persian defeats on both land and sea. as Christians believe.C. Christianity. and the Persian kings (Darius I.E. 3-3. In 499 B. at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. By 700 B. In 480 B. Trade allowed many Greek city-states to increase their wealth and their range of contacts. the conquered Greek cities rebelled against the Persians and were aided by the Athenian navy. the Roman Empire served as a seedbed for one of the great religious changes in world history: the advent of Christianity.Roman Empire The earliest phases of Roman history occurred while Greece and then Alexander and his successors held center stage to the east.E. including the perfection of Athenian political institutions and the Age of Pericles. The greatest age of Greek politics and culture followed.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations 3-2.E. small Greek political units gradually emerged. where a new city-state near the middle of the Italian peninsula began to define a separate existence. Much of the impetus for this new religion rested in issues in the Jewish religion. complete with its own language and an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet. the early stages of the religion focused on cleansing the Jewish religion of stiff ritualism and rigid leadership. A key spur to Greek civilization was a general revival of trade in the eastern Mediterranean. including a long-standing belief in the coming of a Messiah and rigidities that had developed in the Jewish priesthood.Greek Empire Slightly before the Persian Empire took shape. It had little to 12 . which resulted from the orthodox community’s efforts to preserve Judaism in the face of Roman oppression. Soon Rome took on the trappings of a regional civilization. The rebellion failed. While Persia continued to dominate the Middle East. Greek independence was preserved.

–150 C. The Romans massive empire flourished for four centuries and then limped through another 250 years in decline. that of the Olmecs. and Post-Classic (900–1521).C. In the 3rd century B. Christianity arose in a remote province and appealed particularly to poor people. 13 .E.C.E. Rome ruled Greece and the eastern Mediterranean directly.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations do with Roman culture at first.The Rise of Civilization in the Americas Mesoamerica.E. and Guatemala. which seems to be culminating in the Soviet empire.). and other monumental structures along a central axis and possibly courts for the ritual ball game played throughout Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish conquest.) and La Venta (900 B. From its wreckage emerged three civilizations: (a) Western civilization.E.C. plazas. (b) Orthodox civilization. The two main centers of civilization. that Archeologists refer to classic period. Classic (150–900 C. and was disrupted by intruders from Western civilization in the first half of the present century. as is generally known.).E. including the symmetrical arrangement of large platforms. by the Germanic "barbarian invaders" in the fifth century of our era. is a region of great geographical diversity. The earliest Mesoamerican civilization. Archaeologists traditionally divide its pre-conquest history into three broad periods: Pre-Classic or Formative (2000 B.C. which may culminate in an American empire.E.E–900 B. In its spread and in its church structure. Roman Empire was destroyed. which extends from the central part of modern Mexico into Central America. were the high central valley of Mexico and the more humid tropical lands of southern Mexico.E) exhibit many of the characteristics of later Mesoamerican cities. Christianity did not spring directly from the mainstream principles of Greco-Roman civilization. The Olmec centers at San Lorenzo (1200 B.C.. but it did use many of these principles selectively. Yucatan. 3-4. which did culminate in the Ottoman Empire.C. it depended directly on what Rome had achieved.C. Rome twice defeated the North African city-state of Carthage.E .C. although it never penetrated fully into the Middle East’s heartland.E–400 B. and (c) Islamic civilization. ranging from tropical rain forest to semiarid mountains. By the mid-2nd century B . arose during the Pre-Classic on the Gulf Coast beginning approximately 1500 B.

Honduras. Teotihuacan’s enormous temple pyramids rival those of ancient Egypt and suggest a large state apparatus with the power to mobilize many workers. a calendar and mathematical system. it was flourishing. the memory of Teotihuacan lived on among the peoples of Mesoamerica as a golden age of cultural achievements. The Maya culture extended over a broad region that now includes parts of five different countries: Mexico. 14 . It represented a political empire or a dominant cultural and ideological style that spread over much of central Mexico and beyond. a written language. The whole region shared a common culture that included monumental architecture. are as high as 200.000. near modern Mexico City. and concepts of statecraft and social organization. which covered 9 square miles. at roughly the same time that Teotihuacan dominated the central plateau. as can be seen in its art styles. the city was in decline. this great civilization flourished in the American tropics.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations a) Teotihuacan The city of Teotihuacan (tay-oh-tee-wah-KAHN).E.E. While the Tang dynasty ruled China and Islam spread its influence from Spain to India after the classical period had ended in the Old World.E. a highly developed religion. Population estimates for this city.. emerged as an enormous urban center with important religious functions.E) Between about 300 and 900 C . Guatemala. and it was finally abandoned after attacks probably from nomadic raiders from the north. By the 8th century C. This would make it greater than the cities of ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia and probably second only to ancient Rome of the cities of classical antiquity. and it had considerable regional variation. But for centuries thereafter. the Maya peoples were developing Mesoamerican civilization to its highest point in southern Mexico and Central America. The city developed slowly but by the first centuries C. b) Classic Maya (300 – 900 C. Belize. and El Salvador. It included several related languages.

By the 6th century C.The First Global Civilization: Islam Before the rise of Islam.E) The big changes in the period 5001450 did not involve political boundaries.Early Modern Civilizations: Postclassical Period (500-1450 C. Both the Byzantine and Sasanian empires struggled to assert greater control over the nomadic tribes of the peninsula. 4-1. Islam was soon to become one of the great world religions. especially Judaism and Christianity. more regular systems of trade that connected much of Asia. 4. and trading centers such as Mecca and Medina depended on alliances with neighboring Bedouin tribes to keep the caravan routes open.E. but pressures for change were mounting. The civilized centers to the south were in ruins. entered Arabia. where they came increasingly under foreign influence. Africa. Maya rulers stopped erecting commemorative stelae and large buildings. The prophet Muhammad and the new religion that his revelations inspired in the early decades of the 7th century responded both to these influences flowing into Arabia and to related social dislocations that were disrupting Arab life. most of the major Maya centers had been deserted. Arabia was a peripheral desert wasteland whose once great trading cities had fallen on hard times. Arab peoples migrated into Mesopotamia and other areas to the north.E. The courage. and population sizes dwindled. and religious zeal of the warriors of Islam. resulted in stunning conquests in 15 . camel nomads were dominant throughout much of Arabia. From these regions. the influence of established monotheistic religions. military prowess. The sparse population of the Arabian peninsula was divided into rival tribes and clans that worshiped local gods. In addition. the beliefs and practices of the prophet Muhammad were initially adopted only by the Arab town dwellers and bedouins among whom he had grown up.E. and the weaknesses of the empires that bordered on Arabia. They involved the spread of the major world religions Buddhism. By 900 C. and Islam across political and cultural borders and the development of new. and Europe.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations During the 8th century C. Christianity.

we didn’t enumerate all civilizations even those of the late period (modern civilizations) because most of them are an extend of previous civilizations which had undergone changes or development. The empire lasted for almost a thousand years. we focused here on civilizations where religions were born especially Islam and Christianity that are the aim of the present work. classical and postclassical periods). 16 . the northern Middle East. The Byzantine Empire maintained high levels of political. From Constantinople radiated one of the two major branches of Christianity: the Orthodox Christian churches that became dominant throughout most of eastern Europe. centered on the papacy in Rome. The real significance of the Byzantine Empire goes well beyond its ability to keep Rome’s memory alive. In the postclassical period. Constantinople. Both developed close relations with the Islamic world and both played major roles in world trade. It controlled an important but fluctuating swath of territory in the Balkans.Byzantium and Orthodox Europe During the postclassical period two major Christian civilizations took shape in Europe. certainly the most opulent and important city in Europe in this period. In this chapter we discussed a number of civilizations that appeared in the world over the time (early. but the other radiated out from Constantinople. The empires capital.Chapter 1________________________________________________________________History of Civilizations Mesopotamia. was one of the truly great cities of the world.E. and Persia. and cultural activity during much of the period from 500 to 1450 C. One. and the eastern Mediterranean. north Africa. economic. encompassed Western Europe. 4-2. between Rome’s collapse in the West and the final overthrow of the regime by Turkish invaders. which dominated the next two decades of Islamic history. and due to the limitation of our work.

Chapter 2 Clash of Civilizations In the summer of 1993 United States Foreign Affairs published an article entitled “The Clash of Civilizations” by Samuel Huntington. Those divisions are no longer relevant. In the article. Second and Third Worlds. the critical distinctions between people are not primarily ideological or economic. all have distinct cultures at different levels of cultural heterogeneity or it can be defined as the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity . regions. The hot spots in world politics are on the “fault lines” between civilizations. religious groups. villages. ethnic groups. then we’ll try to emerge an important reason for the conflict between international powers. which is the religion. He develops many new penetrating and controversial analyses. In the book. nationalities. with new patterns of conflict and cooperation replacing those of the Cold War.New face of civilizations During the Cold War the world was divided into the First. It is far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their political or economic systems or in terms of their level of economic development but rather in terms of their culture and civilization. showing not only how clashes between civilizations are the greatest threat to world peace but also how an international order based on civilizations is the best safeguard against war. A civilization is a cultural entity. he gives his answer. In this chapter we will discuss those fault lines and the motivations that lead civilizations to clash. 1. they are cultural. he posed the question whether conflicts between civilizations would dominate the future of world politics. Today. World politics is being reconfigured along cultural lines.

The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. they are real. an Italian. Huntington.72. Each of these visions catches aspects of the emerging reality. and a Westerner. and by the subjective self-identification of people. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs. The clash of civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. Turkic and Malay subdivisions. they divide and merge. People can and do redefine their identities and. 1993. and Islam has its Arab. N° 3. among others. and intellectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visions of what it will be the end of history. the return of traditional rivalries between nation states. The civilization to which he belongs is the broadest level of identification with which he intensely identifies. Civilizations obviously blend and overlap. their armies. 18 . Western civilization has two major variants. such as language. Civilizations are nonetheless meaningful entities. for a century and a half after the emergence of the modern international system of Peace. 2. aspect of what global politics is likely to be in the coming years. but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. and may include sub-civilizations. the conflicts of the Western world were largely among princes and emperors. customs. they rise and fall. their 1 S. as a result. It is defined both by common objective elements. and while the lines between them are seldom sharp. absolute monarchs and constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies. the composition and boundaries of civilizations change. Yet they all miss a crucial. European and North American. They can also disappear and be buried in the sands of time. a European. a Catholic. Foreign Affairs vol. “The Clash of Civilizations”. religion. a Christian. Civilizations are dynamic. indeed a central. P. and the decline of the nation state from the conflicting pulls of tribalism and globalism. USA. history. institutions.The Next Pattern of Conflict World politics is entering a new phase.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species.1 This clash will be the latest phase of the evolution of conflict in the modern world. The fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. People have levels of identity: a resident of Rome may define himself with varying degrees of intensity as a Roman.

language. the territory they ruled. Princeton UP. as R. P. Hindu. international politics moves out of its Western phase. Japanese. differences among civilizations are not only real. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. tradition and. fascism-Nazism and liberal democracy. and then between communism and liberal democracy. “The wars of kings were over. religion. “The age of the democratic revolution: a political history of Europe and America”. first among communism. These conflicts between princes.1 This eighteenth-century pattern lasted until the end of World War I. and its center-piece becomes the interaction between the West and non-Western civilizations and among non-Western civilizations. 1993. “The Clash of Civilizations”.72. “Western civil wars” as William Lind has labeled them. R. Then. In the politics of civilizations. Slavic-Orthodox. and the world will be shaped in large measure by the interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. 2 S. Confucian. In 1793. vol. the people and governments of non-Western civilizations no longer remain the objects of history as targets of Western colonialism but join the West as author of history. Palmer put it. Huntington. 3. they are basic. the conflict of nations yielded to the conflict of ideologies. The people of different civilizations have different views on the relations between 1 R. Palmer. 2 (1964). R. During the Cold War. most important. N° 3.Differences between civilizations (motivations) Civilization Identity will be increasingly important in the future. this latter conflict became embodied in the struggle between the two superpowers. The most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating these civilizations from one another. USA. Latin American and possibly African civilization. Civilizations are differentiated from each other by history. most important. culture. and beginning with the French Revolution the principal lines of conflict were between nations rather than princes.Clash of civilizations 3-1.2 First. as a result of the Russian Revolution and the reaction against it. neither of which was a nation state. This was as true of the Cold War as it was of the world wars and the earlier wars of the seventeenth. With the end of the Cold War.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations mercantilist economic strength and. 19 . Islamic. nation states and ideologies were primarily conflicts within Western civilization. the ward of peoples had begun”. In the process they created nation states. These include Western. and each of which defined its identity in terms of ideology. Foreign Affairs vol.

The interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing. These differences are the product of centuries. the world is becoming a smaller place. They are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes. and conflict does not necessarily mean violence. invigorates differences and animosities stretching or thought to stretch back deep into history. Americans react far more negatively to Japanese investment than to larger investments from Canada and European countries. in turn. 1 G. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The revival of religion. Differences do not necessarily mean conflict. as well as in Islam. differences among civilizations have generated the most prolonged and the most violent conflicts. Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World ”. the citizen and the state.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations God and man. Third. is one of the dominant social factors of life in the late twentieth century. college-educated. 1994. provides a basis for identity and commitment that transcends national boundaries and unites civilizations. equality and hierarchy. They also weaken the nation state as a source of identity. middle-class technicians. 20 . In most countries and most religions the people active in fundamentalist movements are young. Judaism. Buddhism and Hinduism. liberty and authority. “The Revenge of God: The Resurgence of Islam. They will not soon disappear. the individual and the group. often in the form of movements that are labeled “fundamentalist. husband and wife. as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities.1 as Gilles Kepel labeled it. parents and children. Kepel. however. professionals and business persons. Over the centuries. Second. these increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness and awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations. the processes of economic modernization and social change throughout the world are separating people from longstanding local identities.” Such movements are found in Western Christianity. North African immigration to France generates hostility among Frenchmen and at the same time increased receptivity to immigration by “good” European Catholic Poles. In much of the world religion has moved in to fill this gap. The “unsecularization of the world”. The interactions among peoples of different civilizations enhance the civilizationconsciousness of people that.

it may succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization. the question is “Who are you?” That is a given that cannot be changed. the wrong answer to that question can mean a bullet in the head. Mr. human rights. Increasingly one hears references to trends toward a turning inward and “Asianization” in Japan. faces difficulties in creating a comparable economic entity in East Asia because Japan is a society and civilization unique to itself. from Bosnia to the Caucasus to the Sudan. Huntington sets forth a strategy for the West to preserve its unique culture and emphasizes the need for people everywhere to learn to coexist in a complex. the rich can become poor and the poor rich. Finally. 21 . In the former Soviet Union. And as we know. Huntington explains how the population explosion in Muslim countries and the economic rise of East Asia are changing global politics. the will and the resources to shape the world in non-Western ways. but Russians cannot become Estonians and Azeris cannot become Armenians. communists can become democrats. the end of the Nehru legacy and the “Hinduization” of India. and intensify inter-civilization conflict over such issues as nuclear proliferation. and democracy. Japan. cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. A person can be half-French and half-Arab and simultaneously even a citizen of two countries. The success of the North American Free Trade Area depends on the convergence now underway of Mexican. religion discriminates sharply and exclusively among people. A West at the peak of its power confronts non-Wests that increasingly have the desire. Even more than ethnicity. promote opposition to Western ideals. multipolar. the failure of Western ideas of socialism and nationalism and hence “re-Islamization” of the Middle East. multi-civilizational world. The Muslim population surge has led to many small wars throughout Eurasia. immigration. and the rise of China could lead to a global war of civilizations. Mr. These developments challenge Western dominance. a return to the roots phenomenon is occurring among non-Western civilizations. and perhaps as a result.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations Fourth. Fifth. however. The European Community rests on the shared foundation of European culture and Western Christianity. It is at a peak of power. in contrast. It is more difficult to be half-Catholic and half-Muslim. successful economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-consciousness. In conflicts between civilizations. the growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the dual role of the West. At the same time. Canadian and American cultures.

3-2. Violence also occurs between Muslims. The interactions between civilizations vary greatly in the extent to which they are likely to be characterized by violence. pp. but at least on the American side the antipathies are not racial but cultural. and Orthodox Serbs in the Balkans. the proliferation of ethnic conflict. In Eurasia the great historic fault lines between civilizations are once more aflame. Here cultural difference exacerbates economic conflict.” has not been totally random. on the one hand. and mainland China and Taiwan move closer together. Hindus in India. they like to see an “us” versus “them” relation existing between themselves and people of different ethnicity or religion. 22 . behavioral patterns of the two societies could hardly be more different. Economic competition clearly predominates between the American and European sub-civilizations of the West and between both of them and Japan. Taiwan. With the Cold War over. epitomized at the extreme in “ethnic cleansing. This is particularly true along the boundaries of the crescent-shaped Islamic bloc of nations from the bulge of Africa to central Asia. “Greater China: The Next Economic Superpower”. Singapore and the overseas Chinese communities in other Asian countries. It has been most frequent and most violent between groups belonging to different civilizations. Series 57. The basic values. Buddhists in Burma and Catholics in the Philippines. cultural commonalities increasingly overcome ideological differences. Washington University Center for the Study of American Business. Weidenbaum. Jews in Israel. The economic issues between the United States and Europe are no less serious than those between the United States and Japan.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations Common culture is clearly facilitating the rapid expansion of the economic relations between the People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong. ranging from 1 M. differences in culture and religion create differences over policy issues. Islam has bloody borders. 2-3.Clash of religions as a part of clash of civilizations As people define their identity in ethnic and religious terms. Contemporary Issues. On the Eurasian continent. attitudes. People on each side allege racism on the other. but they do not have the same political salience and emotional intensity because the differences between American culture and European culture are so much less than those between American civilization and Japanese civilization. however. February 1993.1 The same phrase has been applied to the increasingly difficult relations between Japan and the United States.

In the Balkans this line..Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations human rights to immigration to trade and commerce to the environment. adjacent groups along the fault lines between civilizations struggle. swings westward separating Transylvania from the rest of Romania. of course. the Reformation. p 12 23 . Geographical propinquity gives rise to conflicting territorial claims from Bosnia to Mindanao. and then goes through Yugoslavia almost exactly along the line now separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia.feudalism. 1994. The most significant dividing line in Europe. The Cold War began when the Iron Curtain divided Europe politically and ideologically. As the ideological division of Europe has disappeared. Clesse et al. they are generally economically better off than the peoples to the east. on the one hand. and competitively promote their particular political and religious values. At the micro-level.1 1 A. The fault lines between civilizations are replacing the political and ideological boundaries of the Cold War as the flash points for crisis and bloodshed. may well be the eastern boundary of Western Christianity in the year 1500. “The International Systems After the Collapse of the East-West Order”. The end of ideologically defined states in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union permits traditional ethnic identities and animosities to come to the fore. and they may now look forward to increasing involvement in a common European economy and to the consolidation of democratic political systems. over the control of territory and each other. the Renaissance. The peoples to the north and west of this line are Protestant or Catholic. the clash of civilizations occurs at two levels. struggle over the control of international institutions and third parties. the cultural division of Europe between Western Christianity. the French Revolution. At the macro-level. has reemerged. they shared the common experiences of European history -. However. coincides with the historic boundary between the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires. the Enlightenment. Luxembourg. The Cold War ended with the end of the Iron Curtain. This line runs along what are now the boundaries between Finland and Russia and between the Baltic states and Russia. on the other. as William Wallace has suggested. often violently. and Orthodox Christianity and Islam. the Industrial Revolution. cuts through Belarus and Ukraine separating the more Catholic western Ukraine from Orthodox eastern Ukraine. states from different civilizations compete for relative military and economic power.

After World War II. British and French forces invaded Egypt in 1956. it is not only a line of difference. in turn. the colonial empires disappeared. France fought a bloody and ruthless war in Algeria for most of the 1950s. From the fourteenth to the seventeenth century. Arab and Islamic terrorists. As the events in Yugoslavia show. American forces returned to Lebanon. the Gulf War left some Arabs feeling proud that Saddam 24 .Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations The peoples to the east and south of this line are Orthodox or Muslim. The Velvet Curtain of culture has replaced the Iron Curtain of ideology as the most significant dividing line in Europe. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries at Ottoman power declined Britain. It could become more virulent. captured Constantinople. After the founding of Islam. This warfare between Arabs and the West culminated in 1990. In its aftermath NATO planning is increasingly directed to potential threats and instability along its “southern tier. they are generally less advanced economically. Several wars occurred between Arabs and Israel (created by the West). France.300 years. and Italy established Western control over most of North Africa and the Middle East. From the eleventh to the thirteenth century the Crusaders attempted with temporary success to bring Christianity and Christian rule to the Holy Land. when the United States sent a massive army to the Persian Gulf to defend some Arab countries against aggression by another.” The centuries of military interaction between the West and Islam is unlikely to decline. employed the weapon of the weak and bombed Western planes and installations and seized Western hostages. the Arab and Moorish surge west and north only ended at Tours in 732. when they wished to. began to retreat. they seem much less likely to develop stable democratic political systems. first Arab nationalism and then Islamic fundamentalism manifested themselves. the West. weapons-rich. and engaged in various military encounters with Iran. it is also at times a line of bloody conflict. and twice laid siege to Vienna. the West became heavily dependent on the Persian Gulf countries for its energy. supported by at least three Middle Eastern governments. they historically belonged to the Ottoman or Tsarist empires and were only lightly touched by the shaping events in the rest of Europe. attacked Libya. the Ottoman Turks reversed the balance. the oil-rich Muslim countries became money-rich and. extended their sway over the Middle East and the Balkans. Conflict along the fault line between Western and Islamic civilizations has been going on for 1.

Western democracy strengthens anti-Western political forces. vol. pp. animist. are reaching levels of economic and social development where autocratic forms of government become inappropriate and efforts to introduce democracy become stronger. It is in the sweep of the Islamic nations from the Meghreb to Pakistan that the struggle for a new world order will begin. in addition to the oil exporters. In Italy. The spectacular population growth in Arab countries. the West’s overwhelming military dominance. This is no less than a clash of civilizations. Those relations are also complicated by demography. The principal beneficiaries of these openings have been Islamist movements. On both sides the interaction between Islam and the West is seen as a clash of civilizations.” The Atlantic Monthly. and their apparent inability to shape their own destiny. September 1990. this antagonism was epitomized in the image of Arab slave dealers and black slaves. racism is increasingly open. It also left many feeling humiliated and resentful of the West’s military presence in the Persian Gulf.1 Historically. 266. the tensions 1 Bernard Lewis. the perhaps irrational but surely historic reaction of an ancient rival against our Judeo-Christian heritage.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations Hussein had attacked Israel and stood up to the West. In the Arab world. Time. has led to increased migration to Western Europe. p. Bernard Lewis comes to a regular conclusion: “We are facing a need and a movement far transcending the level of issues and policies and the governments that pursue them. June 15k 1992. “The Roots of Muslim Rage. particularly in North Africa. in short. 24-28. 25 . and now increasingly Christian black peoples to the south. France and Germany. The movement within Western Europe toward minimizing internal boundaries has sharpened political sensitivities with respect to this development. Some openings in Arab political systems have already occurred. In the past. 60. Many Arab countries. and political reactions and violence against Arab and Turkish migrants have become more intense and more widespread since 1990. the other great antagonistic interaction of Arab Islamic civilization has been with the pagan. but it surely complicates relations between Islamic countries and the West. the fighting in Chad between Libyan-supported insurgents and the government. This may be a passing phenomenon. and the worldwide expansion of both. It has been reflected in the on-going civil war in the Sudan between Arabs and blacks. our secular present.

and the political conflicts. For Lust of Knowing. Brown. but Russian character. including the carnage of Bosnia and Sarajevo. The destruction of the Ayodhya mosque in December 1992 brought to the fore the issue of whether India will remain a secular democratic state or become a Hindu one. the tenuous relation between Bulgarians and their Turkish minority. On the northern border of Islam. The historic clash between Muslim and Hindu in the subcontinent manifests itself now not only is the rivalry between Pakistan and India but also in intensifying religious strife within India between increasingly militant Hindu groups and India’s substantial Muslim minority. 332-333. 26 . This concern is well captured by Archie Roosevelt: “Much of Russian history concerns the struggle between Slavs and the Turkish peoples on their borders. which dates back to the foundation of the Russian state more than a thousand years ago. Religion reinforces the revival of ethnic identities and re-stimulates Russian fears about the security of their southern borders. the simmering violence between Serb and Albanian. and the deployment of Russian troops to protect Russian interests in the Caucasus and Central Asia. and communal violence between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria. Boston: Little.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations between Orthodox Christians and Muslims in the Horn of Africa. 1 Archie Roosevelt. In the Slavs’ millennium-long confrontation with their eastern neighbors lies the key to an understanding not only of Russian history. 1 The conflict of civilizations is deeply rooted elsewhere in Asia. To under Russian realities today one has to have a concept of the great Turkic ethnic group that has preoccupied Russians through the centuries. the tense relations between Russians and Muslims in Central Asia. conflict has increasingly erupted between Orthodox and Muslim peoples. 1988. The modernization of Africa and the spread of Christianity are likely to enhance the probability of violence along this fault line. pp. Symptomatic of the intensification of this conflict was the Pope John Paul II’s speech in Khartoum in February 1993 attacking the actions of the Sudan’s Islamist government against the Christian minority there.

and it is pursuing an increasingly ruthless policy toward its Turkic-Muslim minority.Chapter 2_________________________________________________________________Clash of Civilizations In East Asia. the underlying differences between China and the United States have reasserted themselves in areas such as human rights. China has an outstanding territorial dispute with most of its neighbors. trade and weapons proliferation. These differences are unlikely to moderate. a context in which we will discuss the clash between Islam and Christianity as a part from the clash of civilizations in the next chapter 27 . We discussed in this chapter a new theory that affected the international foreign affairs and supposed to be the interpretation for the conflicts existing in the world actually.” Deng Xaioping reportedly asserted in 1991. After the presentation of this theory. is under way between China and America. It has pursued a ruthless policy toward the Buddhist people of Tibet. we emerged the fault lines that govern those conflicts with the role of religion in the international relationships. With the Cold War over. A “new cold war.

and efforts have been made by both Christians and Muslims to find common ground and engage in respectful dialogue. Constantinople. not in a linear fashion. On the other hand. Christianity and Islam are the two largest religions in the world and they have many points of contact. and relative peace. the "New Rome" and the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.300 years of history since the life of the Prophet. mutual distrust between Christians and Muslims has continued to grow. . waged in large part against Muslims. the Muslim conquest of Spain. In recent centuries. the Christian Crusades. the Prophet and his successors extended conquered Christians (and Jews) more freedoms than conquered pagans. The Christian Crusades of the 11th through 13th centuries. These encounters. the Muslim Empire quickly conquered much of the Judeo-Christian Holy Land and the Christian Byzantine Empire. Such relations progressed. As it spread. In the approximately 1." Because of their monotheism and roots in the revealed Jewish Bible. the relationship between Christianity and Islam has rarely been harmonious. Both inherited from Judaism a belief in one God who created the world and cares about the behavior and beliefs of human beings. have extended and modified the parameters of interaction and have been influential in the formation and alteration of mutual perceptions. but rather in surges as a result of critical encounters over time and space. served only to widen the divide between the two faiths. The Prophet Muhammad knew Christians in his lifetime and respected them along with Jews as "People of the Book. indifference. and the European colonization of Muslim lands.Chapter 3 Clash between Islam and Christianity Over the course of history. the independence and creation of modern Muslim states. relations between the Islamic world and the West have been characterized by a mixture of hostility. some have pointed out that the conflict has more to do with political tensions and divergent cultural worldviews than with religion. fell to the Turks in 1453 and has lived under Islamic rule ever since.

Believers who die will go to heaven and live forever. theft. Islam and Christianity hold closely to their own religious practices. and sometimes those variations come into conflict with each other.  Prohibited from inhumane acts like murder. lying. Both religions accept that Jesus preformed miracles and was crucified and raised up to God.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity 1. many smaller sub-groups that worship with variation from the others exist. Both believe that existence of this World is finite. but man does not know when the World will come to an end.  Punishment for those who disrespect God and worship any other deity. Underneath the wide umbrella of the words "Islam" and "Christianity". Each religion adheres to its own written form of scripture. The difference is only in the belief where Muslims see Jesus as a highly regarded prophet.  Adultery. but the similarities are also significant. while Christians take Him as God Himself. Both religions have a strong central figure in Jesus Christ and Muhammad.  Parents and spouses are to be respected. Islam and Christianity are united on the concept of the doomsday. In both the Bible and The Quran. Both religions facilitate the communication of man with God through prayer.Similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity The differences between the religions of Islam and Christianity are profound. Both believe that Jesus was sinless and born of the Virgin Mary. 29 . some light would be thrown on these similarities: Both Muslims and Christians recognize the Jesus. and each is unique in its own way. while Disbelievers will go to hell to be punished. fornication. gambling and violence. Prayer can be conducted at any time and special times also exist to make sure man develops the habit to pray. but their lives held many differences. It‘s surprising to know how much similarity and connection both these monotheistic religions carry. Homosexuality and vulgarism are forbidden. creation of the world and the man has been described alike. and each practice is outwardly and inwardly different in expression and form. Prayer is an integral part of both the religions. Both religions enforce their followers to abide by the following moral codes:  Simple faith without its practical implementation is of no use.

While founding Islam. Community is extremely important to both Islam and Christianity. whilst the Prophet Muhammad‘s actions and deeds constitute ideal templates for them to do likewise. Having captured the Arabian Peninsula. the world‘s most powerful empire. These wars were inspired.  Both religions oppose same sex marriage. including those known as Unitarians believe that God is One and cannot be God and human at the same time.Islamic doctrine and the birth of Islam-West conflict Islam was founded by the Prophet Muhammad in the Arabian Peninsula during the last 23 years of his life (610–632 CE). Allah commands. Allah outlines in the Quran a blueprint for establishing a religio-political imperial state over the entire globe through Jihad. the Islamic holy book. contains God‘s words in immutable forms for guiding humankind. until they feel subdued and subjugated to Muslim rule and pay special taxes. thus. Muslims must kill the Polytheists wherever they are found. and holy spirit) contradicts the concept of Monotheism inherent in Islam. he had directed 70–100 raids and wars. The commands of Islamic God (Allah) contained in Quranic verses are binding on Muslims for all time. son. Muhammad organized two campaigns against the Christians of Muta and Tabuk in Syria. that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah. To inherit the earth. Allah commands. even directed.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity  Respect and observing society laws is important. and enslave their women and children for converting to Islam. The concept of a trinity inherent in most Christian denominations ostensibly includes aspects of plurality. thereby capturing their lands for establishing Islamic rule. But when someone leaves the Islamic community by converting to another religion the Quran requires that they be physically punished 2. For acquiring the lands controlled by monotheistic Jews and Christians. The belief that one God is somehow three divinities (father. where the Oneness of God is unquestionable. The religion of Islam is based on one core belief. a part of Byzantium. Some Christian groups. be completed.  Intoxication and suicide are forbidden. by verses of the Quran. which Muslims believe. 30 . Allah‘s desired global triumph of Islam will. Muslims must fight them. But when someone chooses to leave the Christian community they are free to leave and free to return.

734. Bostom.1 1 A. 2-1. G. started in 1061. This started a long series of battles: Palermo fell in 831. A Norman conquest of Muslim Sicily. attacked Sardinia and Corsica in the same year and Crete in 824. 740 and 752. Ischia. Persia. Therefore. or face consequences. exactly two decades after Muhammad‘s death when Muslims occupied Spain in 711 C. dared sending emissaries to the world‘s most powerful rulers.Conflicts in the Mediterranean Islands and Sicily (652–1091) The Mediterranean island of Sicily suffered the first Jihad raid involving pillage and plunder in 652. and accept Muhammad as their master. and Arabic replaced Greek as the national language. ―The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims‖.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity In 628. Corsica and Lampedusa.E. his successors continued the tempo of his conquests. Islamic campaigns against Western Europe and the ensuing conflicts are discussed in following sections. establishing Islamic rule lasting some 780 years. respectively. led to eventual expulsion of Muslims in 1091. The early Muslim incursions (652–752) on Sicily failed to gain a foothold for Islam. still quite weak militarily. Islamic depredations of Western Europe began in 652. then under the Byzantine control. Within two decades. The Islamic conquest of Sicily started in real earnest when an Aghlabid Muslim army from Tunis landed in Mazara del Vallo in 827. 421-22. They devastated Ischia and Lampedusa in 813. Palermo. Muslims overran the world‘s second-mightiest empire. 730. 703. and razed to the ground in 858 and 859. Pantelleria in 835. after Muhammad‘s death. and captured the prized territory from Byzantium. 731. which was repeated in 669. Muhammad. became the new Islamic capital of the Emirate of Sicily. p. 2005. Prometheus Book. renamed al-Madinah. Muslims also attacked other Mediterranean islands — Sardinia. 728. Sicily came under Muslim control completely in about 915. Cefalù and Enna resisted Muslim assaults for many years before being overrun. and Messina in 843. the King of Persia and Emperor Heraclius of Byzantium. 31 . New York. Catania fell in 900 and Taormina in 902. demanding that they submit to Islam. Europe sustained numerous Muslim attacks until the last decade of the seventeenth century. 733. 729. Syracuse succumbed to Muslim assaults in 878.

suffering severe reverses in each case. In the 1360‘s. Hitti. The reigning Visigoth King Rodrigo was defeated followed by mass slaughter and enslavement. Walker & Company. albeit unsuccessfully.2 An indigenous Spanish revolt against Muslim occupiers. plunder and pillage. 1 S. 66-69. crossed the Mediterranean Sea to attack Spain. called Reconquista.1 In 725. Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire) had bridged tracts of Europe with West Asia and North Africa. Tariq. 308. 2-3. They defeated Duke Eudo again near Agen with Eudo fleeing northward. They made naval attacks on Constantinople. Adrianople became a royal residence in 1366 to facilitate the Ottoman conquest of Europe. Cana. except a few northern tracts. and often replaced by mosques. the Muslim governor of North Africa and his General. 32 . From Spain. p. The Muslim army reached Autun in the Frankish territory. p. Tyre. Muslim invaders captured Jerusalem. Caesarea and Egypt from Byzantium quite early in bloody battles. and defeated Duke Eudo at Aquitaine. By 716. and burned down Bordeaux. first in 674. the Byzantine capital. and the Muslim colonists were completely dislodged from power in 1492. the churches and synagogues were destroyed. 2 P. their incursions on the French borders for another two centuries. Bethlehem. then in 677–78 and 717–18.Ottoman attacks on Europe form the Byzantine front At the time of Islam‘s birth. 2006. New York.Spain and France In 711. Nazareth.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity 2-2. A 60. O‘Shea. began in 718 lasting nearly eight centuries. Muslims continued. D. and Girona were easily captured. Musa ibn Nusair. The biggest Muslim blow to Byzantium came in 1071 when Sultan Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert (Armenia) bringing the Muslim army ominously close for a land-attack on Constantinople.000 strong Muslim army marched on penetrating deep into France. Damascus. Barcelona. The whirlwind march of Muslim conquest moved northward: Toledo. Sidon. was under the Muslim control. Van Nostrand Company. ―The Near East in History: A 5000 Year Story‖. New York. Muslims sacked Aquitaine. 1961. Tiberias. ―Sea of Faith: Islam and Christianity in the Medieval Mediterranean World‖. K. Islamic invaders seized Adrianople (now Edirne) and Philippopolis (Plovdiv). most of Iberia.

while they captured the last Byzantine state of Trebizond (Trabzon) in 1461. Miloš Obilic. Britain. of little economic or strategic importance. the Holy Roman Empire. the Ottomans attacked Belgrade. Starting in mid-18th century. Having lost the capital Kosovo. India) often through democratic processes. countries dominated by Muslims came under Muslim control. They attacked Serbia in 1454. but the Sultan was killed by valiant Serb warrior. When European powers eventually withdrew from their formerly Muslimruled colonies. and defeated the Hungarians in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448. 1451–81) — known as Fatih. conquered Herzegovina in 1465 while the Crimean Khanates were reduced to Ottoman suzerainty in 1475. In 1450.e. they captured the Duchy of Athens and much of the Morea. The Ottomans soon recovered. they annexed Bosnia. Murad quickly advanced into Bulgaria. while China. remained outside the European control. and defeated Serbia in 1459. In 1463. Novi Brod and Krusevac [Alacahisar] in 1455. 1453. With Constantinople fallen. and inflicted a number of humiliating defeats on the Ottomans in 1443–44. the Balkan was lost to the Muslim invaders. Burma and Thailand also captured lands. Poland and Albania made an alliance. Holland. Mehmed II (r. the Jerusalem of the Serbian Empire. and conquered the Genoese holdings in the Aegean Sea. Ottoman troops under the commands of sultan Murad defeated a SerbianBulgarian coalition army at the battlefield of Kosovo Polje. and captured the cities of Dráma. France and Italy (Portugal and Spain to lesser extents) eventually captured most of the Islamic lands by the early 20th century. the Conqueror — the Ottomans inflicted the final blow on Constantinople. Under the next Sultan. previously conquered by Muslims.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity In 1389. and attack Central Albania. while Moldavia agreed to pay tributes. Kavála and Seres (Serrái). In 1460. only Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia. 33 . In 1441. plus Iran and the Ottoman Turkey. Russia took large parts of Central Asian regions. In 1456. it was overrun on May 29. they attacked Albania again. they went on to invade Serbia. Ottoman assaults on Europe gained a new momentum. After a three-month siege. Elsewhere they lost political powers to non-Muslim indigenous majorities (i.

1 In 1095. had just evicted Muslims from Sicily (1191). marching separately from France. 1961. the Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem from the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. 243. Pope Urban urged the bickering Christian rulers of Europe to unite on a ‗Truce of God‘. launched by Christian Europe to take control of Jerusalem. Antioch. In 1076. ―The Near East in History: A 5000 Year Story‖. Hitti. p.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity 2-4. three great Crusader contingents. the Christian Holy War. he delivered an unprecedented. were in reality a counterattack against Islamic Holy War (Jihad). 308. 1998. while he himself led another holy war expedition against the Byzantine border in Syria.2 There began the infamous Crusades. They went on to restore some territories to Byzantine suzerainty. blessed by the Pope. D. 34 . the persecuted Christians of Jerusalem could now appeal only to Europe for their protection. the cradle of the first organized church 1 2 B. Walker. he had instructed his followers to expel the Jews and Christians from Arabia. the birth place of Jesus Christ and the Christian Holy Land. Two years after his death. New Delhi.Crusades: European counterattack against Jihad The Crusades (1096–1291). The Crusades. waged aggressively some 470 years earlier. In the first campaign. Muslims captured Palestine in 634. a clash between two inimical civilizations. Pope Urban II took up the cause of freeing the Holy Land from Muslims. These factors were converging together when the Normans. between the Christian West and the Islamic East. Van Nostrand Company. also desirous of uniting the Eastern and Western Churches. Rupa & Co. Prophet Muhammad had himself sent an expedition against the Christians of Muta in Syria. K. which was completed by 644. reciting ‗tales of Moslem atrocity‘ and ‗distributed crosses‘. ―Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith‖. and Jerusalem in 638 from Byzantine control. is the most condemned chapter in the collective European history. bringing a number of small Christian principalities under the Muslim control. emotive and high-pitched. converged on a Constantinople rendezvous before marching forward. p. and also established four Latin kingdoms in West Asia: Edessa in Armenia (1098) then. the harrowing battles between Cross and the Crescent. New York. P. On his deathbed (632). speech in Southern France for freeing Jerusalem.

The subsequent industrial revolution in Europe. which had come to India as merchants in 1600.Colonial era The Crusades.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity (1098) and Jerusalem. while Russia rolled them back from Central Asia. and finally Tripoli (1109). 3. incorporating territories from Beirut to the Red Sea (1099). They killed nearly 10. 1212 and 1217–21. It eventually took political 1 P. ―The Near East in History: A 5000 Year Story‖. Muslim power improved. brought European merchants to the Muslim world. rousing a renewed Crusading zeal. and obtained the tax-collecting authority in 1765. Having destroyed the main Crusader army in the battle of Hattin. ousted the Muslim governor of Bengal in 1757. The Crusaders. but all failed.Modern face of Islamic-western conflict 3-1. while disunity amongst the Crusader Kingdoms weakened their position. D. New York. Saladin marched on and captured Jerusalem.1 Thereafter. When the Ottomans were repulsed from Vienna in 1683. especially in their first campaign. and a few more thereafter. p. beginning in early sixteenth century. and they were poised to overrun Western Europe in the sixteenth century. two days‘ journey from Jerusalem. The British East India Company. Meanwhile. 1202–04. 35 .000 Jews during the first six months alone. where all Crusaders were put to death. These were the first and the last acquisitions by the Crusaders. held back Muslim incursions into Europe for more than two centuries. and the discovery and mastery of searoutes. This commercial interest later turned into imperial ambition. K. Having driven out the Crusaders. the Ottoman Turks renewed their religioimperial expansion into Europe. and sold into slavery. In 1187. Muslims were gradually driven out of Western Europe. 1961. A series of new Crusades were undertaken in 1189–92. Renaissance had begun in Europe bringing new vitality and excellence in science and technology. although failed. Hitti. This loss of the Holy Land shocked Europe. The first Muslim counterattack against the Crusaders fell upon Edessa in 1144. the famed Sultan Saladin inflicted the decisive blow upon the Crusaders. 310-312. Europe‘s military supremacy over her age-old dreaded eastern enemy had been decidedly established. and the Christian population was captives. Van Nostrand Company. also committed unspeakable cruelties against Jewish communities that they came across along their journey.

New York. imprisonment without trial. Those colonists tried to secularize the Islamic polity in occupied Muslim lands. Jihad. while the Balkan territories gained independence in 1910‘s1. 3-2. p. the nineteenth-century Urabi resistance against the British in Egypt. Oxford University Press. 1885) in the Sudan. The Hague. the Muslim resistance to British colonialism in Palestine2. Holland and Italy — extended their colonial rule. 39. ―Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History‖. 39104. Britain and Italy captured Muslim-ruled lands in Africa. Britain and France occupied the Turkish lands.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity control of most of India by 1850. There was an Armed Muslim resistance against colonial Western powers. replacing theocracy in political systems. the Ottoman Jihad declarations against the Western powers (1914). the Algerian resistance against the French. Muslims waged the dreaded Jihad against colonial rulers causing serious problems for them. R. surveillance of mosques. there was much change in Europe: following the Enlightenment. In the course of the First World War. Lewis. the nineteenth-century Islamic resistance against the British in India (including the Sepoy Mutiny. Peters. p. France. France. which had inspired Muslims to undertake conquests to most parts of the known world. namely Syria and Palestine. The Portuguese had similarly ousted Muslim rulers from the Malay Peninsula in 1511. As a result. the Mahdist movement against the British and Italians in Somalia (1899–1920). under the pretext of the war on terror. 1979. secularism had taken hold. later replaced by the Dutch and British. physical torture. 1857). again became handy for them to inspire the Muslim masses to drive out the European colonists. 2 36 . The Spaniards stopped the advancing Muslims in Southern Philippines in 1565.Conflict in 21st Century Since September 11. 1993. the Mahdist resistance led by Muhammad Ahmad (d. the West has undertaken a host of measures specifically aimed at Muslims living in the West. When Western imperialists — namely Britain. the Sanusi resistance in Libya against the Italians. which often had large non-Muslim populations groaning under the yoke of cruel Islamic laws. namely the revolts of Dipa Negara (1825–30) and Atjeh-war (1873–1904) in Indonesia. While European powers found it relatively easy to deal with their nonMuslim subjects. These measures include arbitrary arrests. Mouton Publishers. ―Islam and the West‖. 1 B.

the Vatican is somehow divided on how to tackle Islam. In the case of Karimov‘s massacre of Muslims in Andijoni1. and ‗freedom of religion‘ . 18 May 2005. imprison and kill Muslims for expressing their Islamic beliefs became the vanguard for the West‘s crusade against Islam. The Guardian. which is significantly higher than any other continent. The threat does not have to be real. 1 Slaughter signals end of Karimov regime. 37 . On the international scene the West was quick to sacrifice freedom of religion in preference for forging alliances with despotic regimes across the Muslim world. conducted in 1999 and 2000 and published in 2008. according to the European Values Study. Catholicism as well as other Christian faiths has suffered immensely under the patronage of secular western states. Such hypocrisy only serves to underscore the perception amongst Muslims that America and Europe are solely interested in the utter destruction of Islamic values and practices. A far greater threat is the secularization of Catholics in Europe. Western governments use religious freedom or freedom of expression to pry open societies closed to western values or totally ignore freedom when it does not concur with their interests. particularly European states. other cardinals prefer a much tougher stance towards Islam. the West has chosen to dilute its response. This will preserve the West‘s domination over Muslims lands within the ambit of international law. and deaths in police custody. only perceived. Recently. The real challenges posed by Islam are miniscule in comparison to the influence of secularism on the world‘s billion or so Catholics. as the protesters were avid practitioners of Islam and no democracy. Wednesday. Muslims have also witnessed the endless vilification of Islam by the western media. Only 21 percent of Europeans say that religion is "very important" to them. secularists have relentlessly abused Catholicism and forced the Roman Church to adapt its views and practices. the regimes that habitually torture. Retreating behind the veil of ‗freedom of speech‘ . Some cardinals are in the favor of reaching out to moderate Muslims and tapering the Vatican‘s attitudes towards Islam. Some have even been forced to become spies.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity muzzling of Imams. The inclusion of pre-emptive strikes and a loose definition on terrorism will enable western powers to legally justify punitive actions against Muslim countries that pose a threat to their interests.

Jews. a longer statement of Muslim leaders was addressed to Christian leaders East and West. Old European fables of Muslims spreading Islam by the sword are reinvented to convey the impression that Muslims are extremely dangerous. In fall 2007. Orthodox. Islam is able to achieve this. entitled ―A Common Word between Us and You. Hence the mantra of disarming Muslim countries of weapons of mass destruction has become the rallying cry of the West directed against the Muslim world.‖ In the long history of Muslim-Christian relations. 38 . as in Islamic Spain. enjoyed unrivalled tolerance and prosperity. God and the world. In some cases the arguments are extended to justify the West‘s ongoing policy of regime change in Syria. Protestant. in the past. Islam is the sole ideology in the world that is able to counter secularism and offer genuine protection to people belonging to different faiths. and Evangelical. is grounded in the revelation of a transcendent God. that Christian thinkers would also take up. Christians and Muslims living in the Spanish cities of Toledo. like Christianity. Catholic teachings and truths are scarcely recognizable and face imminent extinction. the freedom of God. However. unless the Vatican takes a firm stand against the secular powers. a close study of Islamic rule in the past contradicts the popular western myth that Muslims are blood thirsty people anxious to wipe out the rest of mankind in the name of Islam. faith and reason. Indeed. the Islam. creation out of nothing. highly irresponsible and pay scant regard to human life. To mention only one example: the collaboration of Christians and Muslims in the ninth and tenth centuries in the translation and interpretation of philosophical works from Greek antiquity into Arabic and their transmission to the West in translations from Arabic into Latin in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Cordoba and Granada. Muslim thinkers addressed a series of philosophical and theological topics. Iran and perhaps Pakistan. The kinship between Christianity and Islam is deeper than the centuries of conflict would lead one to think. Roman Catholic. it is unprecedented that a group of Muslim thinkers from different parts of the world and differing views should collaborate on a positive overture to Christians.Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity Today. when Islam was implemented practically. a free creator.

Chapter 3____________________________________________________Clash between Islam and Christianity Today the world has more to fear from the destructive nature of western values than Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Presently. 39 . In the past these values were enforced upon nations either through direct colonial rule or through tyrannical regimes loyal to the West. the greatest danger facing mankind is the constant threat of the West imposing its values on the rest of the world through WMD.

The disturbing events of September 2001 have intensified the western confrontation with Islam. Perhaps the Muslim world today. rather it is a war of religions and the Muslim world is the foremost of battlegrounds. Western powers are waging this brutal war with all of their might and wealth to ensure the survival of their political. It can be argued that the relationship between the west and Islam has been marked by a constant turbulence and euphoria since early time which has been culminated in the 9/11 events. economic. cultural and military domination of the Muslim world.Conclusion Throughout the history’s entirety. This often takes the form of the war against the supposed Terrorism that is thought to be embraced by the Muslim world in favor for the adaption of the ‘democratic and the liberal ideals’. This struggle is not a clash of civilizations as misunderstood by some. in an attempt to execute Islam totally from their ‘democratic world’. The crisis within the Muslim world today might be said to mirror the situation of the West during the middle Ages. The Western world has perpetuated an artificial lie against their Muslim counterpart. will embark on a contemporary Islamic renaissance and new phase of the history of the Islamic-Western encounter. it has been much clear that the clash has taken another form which is the religious one. what is thought to be a clash of civilizations is a deceptive western play game to hide their real motives in order to exert their power over the Muslim world. by examining its situation through the lens of modernity. 40 . Hence. when the Muslim empire was the center of knowledge and civilization. there was a constant disagreement between the west and the Muslim world and in recent years. Finally. it should be kept in mind that the relationship between Islam and the West has a long and perhaps cyclical history.