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**Characterization of dynamic gas–solid distribution in fluidized beds
**

Heping Cui, Navid Mostoufi, Jamal Chaouki∗

Department of Chemical Engineering, Biopro Research Center, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal,

CP 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., Canada H3C 3A7

Received 25 November 1999; received in revised form 23 March 2000; accepted 31 March 2000

Abstract

A probability distribution model of the local voidage was proposed to describe and simulate dynamic gas–solid distribution in the bubbling

and turbulent fluidized bed reactors. Experiments were carried out in an air-fluidized bed. The bed materials were FCC particles (Geldart A)

and irregular sand particles (Geldart B). A cross-optical fiber probe was employed to measure dynamic voidage. The minimum probability

method was introduced to identify the division between the emulsion phase and the bubble phase. The statistical analysis indicated that

the two particle types employed have extremely different dynamic behaviors corresponding to different gas–solid distributions and the

interaction between the bubble and emulsion phases. For the FCC particles, the voidage of the emulsion phase is very close to that at the

minimum fluidization with little effect from the formation and motion of bubbles in bubbling regime, and deviates a little from εmf in

turbulent regime. For the sand particles, the voidage of the emulsion phase differs far from that at the minimum fluidization, and the bubble

phase gradually becomes more dilute from bubbling to turbulent regime. However, for both particles the dynamic voidage fluctuations in

the emulsion phase and the bubble phase followed beta distribution under various operating conditions. The probability density functions

of the local voidage from ε mf to 1 showed the continuous double-peak phenomena, one peak for the emulsion phase and another for the

bubble phase, and evolved with changing operating conditions and bed position. A particular distribution, called coupled beta distribution,

was developed to describe and simulate such probability density function with double peaks and its complex evolution from bubbling to

turbulent regime. The quantification of the probability density function then statistically introduced the spatiotemporal two-phase flow

structure. © 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fluidization; Gas–solid distribution; Probability distribution model; Coupled beta distribution; Dynamic two-phase structure

1. Introduction

Gas–solid fluidized bed reactors have found a wide range

of industrial applications. However, the heat/mass transfer

and reaction within such reactors are far from being well

understood and effectively quantified due to the complexity

of the gas–solid interactions. Many models with simple

assumptions have been suggested to describe the behavior

of the two phases. These models have been widely introduced in the literature [1–4]. They have explained and

made sense of the main features of the bubble and emulsion phases in fluidized beds and have been of great help

in improving knowledge of the interaction between the two

phases.

The traditional two-phase theory assumes the existence of

only two phases in the fluidized bed, i.e., solid-free bubbles

(ε=1) and emulsion phase at minimum fluidization (ε=εmf ).

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-514-340-4711, ext: 4034;

fax: +1-514-340-4159.

E-mail address: chaouki@biopro.polymtl.ca (J. Chaouki)

**However, this assumption is an oversimplification of what
**

actually happens in the bed. In fact, the existence of solid

particles in the bubbles has been shown both experimentally

[5–7] and theoretically [8,9]. The emulsion also does not

stay at minimum fluidization state, but can contain more gas

at higher gas velocities [10,11]. This phenomena results in

a dynamic distribution of the two phases with the voidage.

The dynamic gas–solid distribution can have a considerable

effect on the apparent reaction and heat/mass transfer rate in

the fluidized beds. The traditional two-phase theory is incapable of predicting these rates properly. Another shortcoming of the simplified two-phase theory is that it is mostly

limited to explain the low-velocity bubbling fluidization and

is not able to explain the evolution of the two phases upon

increasing the gas velocity. Increasing the superficial gas velocity in a fluidized bed causes a better mixing of the two

phases which results in more solid particles entering the bubbles and more gas entering the emulsion phase. As a result,

a wider dynamic distribution can be observed by increasing

the gas velocity, while the simple two-phase model is unable

to justify it.

**1385-8947/00/$ – see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
**

PII: S 1 3 8 5 - 8 9 4 7 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 7 8 - 9

pre (ε). with various irregular structures at different time and position. (10) where Pr(ε). However. and Prb (ε) are the cumulative probability distribution functions of the local voidage of the overall. this paper focuses on quantitative description of the dynamic gas–solid distribution of the two phases in the bubbling and turbulent fluidization regimes by analyzing the probability distribution function of the local voidage from εmf to 1. and Pr b 0 (ε) are the cumulative probability distribution functions of the local voidage for the overall. saturated emulsion phase. but also dynamic behavior with a series of voidages in between [18]. which is also highly valuable for improving the traditional two-phase model for industrial applications. Probability distribution model of the local voidage ε. and pure bubble phase. as illustrated by the dashed line in Fig. the distribution of the voidage in the fluidized bed is assumed to be equal to either 1 or ε mf . (2) εmf ≤ ε < 1 ε=1 (3) where Pr0 (ε). we refer to the solid-free bubbles as pure bubble phase and the emulsion at minimum fluidization as saturated emulsion. the phrase “pure bubble” in this paper refers to that portion of the bubble that “contains absolutely no solids” and should not be confused with the whole bubble as if it does not contain any particle. Some of these studies have demonstrated the complexity of the gas–solid distribution in the gas–solid fluidized beds [11. Throughout this paper. In the simplified two-phase theory. respectively. 1. more works have focused on the dynamic behavior of the two-phase flow structures in actual fluidized processes in order to improve the understanding of the interaction between the two phases [12–15]. 1. Evidence will be given later in Section 4 for the existence of such gas core.17]. 2. Therefore.134 H. the emulsion phase and the bubble phase. A better understanding of how solids disperse in the bubbles and how gas enters the emulsion has an enormous impact on the practical use of the fluidized bed reactors [4]. namely the solid-free bubble phase (ε=1) and the emulsion phase at minimum fluidization (ε=εmf ). exhibit not only extreme behavior with the voidages ε mf or 1. in the middle of the bubble there may be a gas core in which no particle enters. The actual flow structure in fluidized beds show highly complicated spatiotemporal dynamic behavior due to the nonlinearity of the gas–solid interaction. corresponding to dynamic gas–solid distribution. and prb (ε) are the corresponding probability . we introduced a probability distribution model of the local voidage varying from εmf to 1 in order to describe the cumulative probability distributions of the complex gas–solid distribution of the two-phase flow structure as the following: Z ε 1 pr(ε) dε (5) Pr(ε) 1 − εmf εmf Eq. as shown in Fig. Therefore. 1. while pr(ε). (5) can also be expressed as Pr(ε) = Pr e (ε) + Pr b (ε) where Pr e (ε) = f 1 − εmf Pr b (ε) = 1−f 1 − εmf Z ε εmf Z ε εmf (6) pr e (ε) dε (7) pr b (ε) dε (8) thus Z ε Z ε 1−f f pr (ε) dε + pr (ε) dε Pr(ε) = 1 − εmf εmf e 1 − εmf εmf b Z ε 1 (f pr e (ε) + (1 − f )pr b (ε)) dε (9) = 1 − εmf εmf pr(ε) = f pr e (ε) + (1 − f )pr b (ε) Fig. in which the particles exist.16. Probability distribution model The simple two-phase model assumes the existence of two extreme phases. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 In the recent years. and f 0 is the emulsion phase fraction: f0 = 1 − εr 1 − εmf (4) where ε r is the time-averaged voidage at an arbitrary local position. Cui et al. Pre (ε). The particles can penetrate into different bubble regions. The emulsion and bubble phases. respectively. Pr b 0 (ε) = 1 − f 0. Of course. one has to remember that a bubble consists of a core gas region surrounded by the cloud. The corresponding cumulative probability distribution function could be expressed by a simplified two-phase model as follows: Pr 0 (ε) = Pr e 0 (ε) + Pr b 0 (ε) (1) in which Pr e 0 (ε) = f 0 0. Therefore. Pr e 0 (ε).

In order to quantitatively characterize the gas–solid distribution and the influence of the operating conditions thereof. The optical fiber probe was calibrated according to the procedure described by Reh and Li [20]. . The transition superficial gas velocity from bubbling to turbulent fluidization. The resulting gas–solid distribution was then developed according to the probability model described above. . ε1 ). According to Eqs. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 density functions. A cross-optical fiber probe with a measurement volume defined by its two cross-fiber bundles of 0. was determined by the standard deviation analysis of absolute pressure fluctuations and found to be 0. 4. for which a distance of unit time between the two centers was assumed: Z εi+1 1 pr(ε) dε Pr(εi+1 ) − Pr(εi ) = 1 − εmf εi 1 (11) = . and the voidage changes monotonously between the two centers. which can be summarized into a two-dimensional vector Y = {(0.7 16. FCC (ρ p =1673 kg/m3 .50 m/s for the sand particles.2 4. . (1. Air was introduced into the bed through a nozzle type distributor placed above a stainless steel porous plate.84 28. covering the bubbling and turbulent fluidization regimes. were used as bed materials to understand and compare the gas–solid distribution of Geldart A and Geldart B particles. Chinese Academy of Sciences. namely. (1/n. . .H. were acquired. bed position. . was placed at an axial position of 150 mm above the distributor level and at different radial positions to measure instantaneous voidage. The measurement volume of the probe employed in this work is very small compared to the size of bubbles.8 mm in diameter. . this probe is sensitive to the local flow pattern and the interaction between bubbles and such probe does not influence the measurements of the actual flow structure. This can help to understand quantitatively the gas–solid interactions in the fluidized bed.5 m height under ambient condition and different superficial gas velocities. . For each run. Eq. Thus. with a sampling frequency of 488 Hz. ε0 (εmf )). Two types of particles. the gas–solid distribution between an emulsion phase element and its neighboring bubble phase element [17] at timescale. εi ). 1. Cui et al. . n − 1 n where ε i is the local voidage corresponding to the time coordinate i/n from the center of the emulsion phase element to the center of its neighboring bubble and Pr(εi ) is the cumulative probability of the local voidages from εmf to ε i . In order to further characterize the complex two-phase flow structure in timescale. called the spatiotemporal gas–solid distribution for convenience. Minimum and maximum voidages Experiments were carried out in an air-fluidized bed of 152 mm diameter and 1. more than 64 000 data. we assumed that the maximum and minimum voidages exist on the ideal center of the bubble phase and the ideal center of the emulsion phase. dp =385 m) with a wide size distribution. (11) gives the dependence of the local voidage (ε i ) with respect to the coordinate (i/n). (i/n.0 sand particles (ρ p =2650 kg/m3 . the voidage corresponding to <1% cumulative probability distribution of the local voidage from εmf to 1 was . . Results and discussion 3. a large number of experiments were conducted using different bed materials. i = 0. and bed materials.0 30. could then be statistically described by a series of local voidages from the ideal center of the emulsion phase element to the ideal center of its neighboring bubble phase element at timescale.77 m/s for the FCC particles and 1. In this paper. as given in Table 1.36 5. εn (1))}. The spatiotemporal gas–solid distribution shows how gas and solids interpenetrate the bubble and emulsion phases and statistically gives practical flow structure element (from the center of an emulsion phase element to the center of a bubble phase element) at timescale.1. respectively. and f is the dense phase fraction which determines the weight factors. A PV-4A Particle Velocity Analyzer. dp =70 m) and irregular The minimum voidage (εmin ) and the maximum voidage (ε max ) of the two-phase flow structure were analyzed in order to verify whether or not the emulsion phase and the bubble phase actually show the extreme behavior. The static bed height was 300 mm for all the experiments. . was employed to obtain time series of dynamic voidages. . All parameters and variables in the above model are functions of the operating conditions. Uc . εmf ≤ε≤1. (5)–(10).5 20. The method of equality of probability [19] was used to divide the probability function from εmf to 1 into n scopes of each probability equal to 1/n. 135 Table 1 Size distribution of the bed materials Size (m) Percentage FCC 20 40 80 105 149 1 7 50 22 20 Sand 90 180 250 417 595 850 1000 2. Experimental 4. made by the Institute of Chemical Metallurgy.

while for the FCC particles ε max is considerably lower than unity due to the presence of more particles in the bubbles. at r/R=0. as shown in Fig. the bed position and the particle properties. Fig. even if they both have equal time-averaged voidages. (5)–(8). 0. The evolution of the probability distribution function occurs to a greater extent on the bed core compared to that near the wall for the same gas velocity. 2. . For the sand particles. 2. while no significant change was observed for the FCC particles. 2. for different fluidized materials.. which indicates nonlinear gas–solid distribution in the fluidized beds.045. Such changes in εmin and εmax with Ug can be expressed as εmin = εmf + kmin (Ug − Umf ) (12) εmax =kmax(∞) − kmax(1) exp[ − (Ug − Umf )/kmax(2) ] (13) where (kmin . / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 Fig. 0. The emulsion phase strongly shows to be close to the saturated emulsion for the FCC particles. The voidage corresponding to >99% cumulative probability distribution of the local voidage from εmf to 1 was defined as εmax .64) for the sand particles. At r/R=0. The cumulative probability distribution curves tend to the higher local voidage with increasing Ug as more gas goes into both the emulsion and bubble phases. Therefore. while in the case of the sand particles. with Ug for FCC and sand particles (r/R=0 and r/R= 56 ). as also shown in Fig. since more gas flows through the center of the bed than close to the wall. 0. the experimental data indicate that the radial position influences the gas–solid distribution.2. 3(a) and (b). bubbles seem to be very close to the pure bubbles at higher Ug . kmax(∞) . Probability distribution function In order to study the gas–solid distribution of the bubble and emulsion phases. defined as εmin . and the emulsion phase was more diluted for the sand particles.e. 0. Most runs show the highest cumulative probability near the wall and the lowest at r/R=0.189. 2. 3 gives such evolution of the probability distribution for the two types of particles at r/R=0. It is worth mentioning that the probability distribution function changes gradually from bubbling to turbulent fluidization with no abrupt change at Uc .115) for the FCC particles. Cui et al. 0. the effect of the gas flow on the emulsion phase is different. exhibits the similar trends for the FCC and sand particles. kmax(1) .034. 3 also illustrates that the probability distribution of the local voidage for the FCC particles is different from that of the sand particles.97. their complex two-phase structure behave differently. Change in the minimum voidage of the emulsion phase. over a wide range of gas velocities. kmax(1) . The gas–solid distribution greatly depends on the gas velocity. As shown in Fig. The same phenomena has been observed for MgO particles (dp =120 m) [11]. For the sand particles. the emulsion is far from the saturated state due to the larger amount of the gas entered this phase. 4. 2. The probability distribution of the local voidage and its evolution also depends on the radial position for both particles. As shown in Fig. which indicates the increasing degree of dilution of the emulsion phase. more gas enters and dilutes the emulsion phase and the minimum voidage increases from εmf almost linearly with increasing Ug . ε min . 4. kmax(2) )=(0. the bubble phase showed the highest εmax . 1. with different dominant mechanisms for the gas–solid interaction. while the latter has very low probability in this region. however. On the other hand. as shown in Fig. and the maximum voidage of the bubble phase. Fig. and (kmin . which indicates the complexity of quantifying the dynamic behavior of the gas and solids in fluidized bed. rising exponentially with increasing gas velocity at the beginning and then remaining nearly constant at higher gas velocities. The former has high probability at and nearby the saturation value εmf .136 H. ε max . the probability distribution of the local voidage from ε mf to 1 was cumulated according to the method described by Eqs. ε max . It was found that the probability distribution of the local voidage shows nonlinearity. ε mf . i. the experimental results indicated that for the FCC particles the formation and motion of the bubbles have less effect on the voidage of the emulsion phase and the minimum voidage in the emulsion phase remains almost as that of the saturated emulsion. kmax(2) )=(0. kmax(∞) . The results also show the complex evolution of the probability density function with increasing Ug for both FCC and sand particles. the maximum voidage. as illustrated in Fig.

(b) sand. The average peak voidage of the emulsion phase is found to be equal or close to εmf for FCC particle and ε≈0. 3. The peak for the emulsion decreases gradually and the peak for the bubbles increases gradually from the wall to the core at the same gas velocity.85 for FCC particles and ε≈0. It was found that the local voidage from εmf to 1 exhibits a double-peak probability density function for both particles tested. the probability Fig. Probability density function The probability density function of the local voidage. (a2). pr(ε). as expressed in Eqs. 4. Ug . the same observation still applies with the same time-averaged voidage in different positions as shown in Fig.H.95 for the sand particles at r/R=0.3. Evolution of the probability distribution function of the local voidage with Ug at r/R=0: (a) FCC. (5)–(10). (b1). 6(b1) and (b2). This is allowed for exploring the dynamic behavior of the bubble and emulsion phases. . Cui et al. was further analyzed to quantitatively explain the gas–solid distribution and its dependence on both the operating conditions and particle properties. 6(a1) and (a2) (r/R=0 and 56 ). one peak for the emulsion phase and another peak for the bubble phase. In this case. Comparison between the probability distribution functions of the local voidage at different radial positions and different Ug : (a1). 4. Furthermore. (c1) FCC. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 137 Fig. as shown in Fig. An increase in the gas velocity results in decreasing the probability density of the emulsion phase and increasing the probability density of the bubble phase. as shown in Fig. The double-peak probability density curve changes upon increasing gas velocity. (b2). (c2) sand. 5(a) and (b). Such a probability density function and its evolution also depends on the radial position for both particles tested.55 (>εmf ) for the sand particles and the average peak voidage of the bubble phase was found to be ε≈0.

kdiv 1 )=(0. 5. Change in the probability density function of the local voidage with Ug at r/R=0: (a) FCC. 4. the wall has a strong effect on the gas–solid distribution in the emulsion and bubble phases.815. for both FCC and sand particles the probability density function of the local voidage of the emulsion phase and that of the bubble phase could be found to satisfy the beta distribution under various operating conditions. called the coupled beta distribution. (b2) sand. (b) sand.4. Comparison between the probability density functions of the local voidage at different radial positions: (a1). 6. the minimum probability method was introduced to determine the division (ε div ) between the emulsion phase and the bubble phase. i. (a2). 0. 6. kdiv 1 )=(0. (a2) for the same Ug . The division. This density function can be obtained by coupling two beta probability density Fig. which could be correlated as εdiv = kdiv 0 + kdiv 1 (Ug − Umf ) (14) where (kdiv 0 . the density function corresponding to the two phases are continuous for both the particles tested. to take the local voidage point with the minimum probability density between the two peaks as the division. (a1). εdiv . was found to change with gas velocity and the bed position in both bubbling and turbulent regimes.. (b1) FCC.138 H. By using such a division.548. Quantification of the probability density function Although the gas–solid distribution showed the doublepeak probability density function. The complex double-peak probability density of the local voidage from ε mf to 1 and its change could be quantified by the density function of a particular distribution. . / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 Fig. 0. As suggested by the data in Fig. density for the bubbles is lower near the wall than in the core. The division between two phases is different for different particles. (b1). In order to describe such a gas–solid distribution with the two-peak density function. (b2) for the same time-averaged voidage.027) for the FCC particles and (kdiv 0 .029) for the sand particles at r/R=0.e. Cui et al. εdiv .

t >0 (gamma function) (19) 0 εb − εr (emulsion phase fraction) εb − εe εe (1 − εe ) − 1 αe = εe σe 2 εe (1 − εe ) −1 βe = (1 − εe ) σe 2 εb (1 − εb ) − 1 αb = εb σb 2 f = εb (1 − εb ) −1 σb 2 (20) (21) (22) (24) where ε e and σ e are the mean and variance of the beta distribution for the voidage fluctuations in the emulsion phase and ε b and σ b are the mean and variance of the beta distribution of the voidage fluctuations in the bubble phase. the time-averaged voidage ε r .. It can be seen from Figs. εmf ≤ ε ≤ 1 × B(αb . Change in the emulsion phase fraction. in Eq. m1 − 1 i=1 m 2 1 X (εb(j ) − εb )2 m2 − 1 (26) j =1 Figs. By increasing Ug in a moderate range. taking pr b (ε) = pr e (ε) = εαb −1 (1 − ε)βb −1 B(αb . βe ) × (beta probability density function) (15) m (16) ε αe −1 (1 − ε)βe −1 + (1 − f ) B(αe . and the variance for bubble phase σ b . The voidage fluctuations. βb ) × (coupled beta probability density function) (17) where B(αk . 7 and 8 show part of the experimental results achieved with two different particles. due to the stronger action of the gas. 7 and 8 that the two types of the particles provide different voidage fluctuations in the two phases. the mean variance σ . / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 functions. (10). both in the emulsion phase and in the bubble phase. βk ) = 0(αk )0(βk ) . m1 i=1 v u u σe = t v u u σb = t m εˆ b = 2 1 X εb(j ) m2 (25) j =1 m 1 1 X (εe(i) − εe )2 . βb ) × (beta probability density function) εαe −1 (1 − ε)βe −1 B(αe . the mean voidage of each phase (ε e . estimates of which may be given as εe = Thus pr(ε) = f βb = (1 − εb ) 139 1 1 X εe(i) . gradual increase is observed in the bubble phase fraction (1−f). 7. 0(αk + βk ) (k = e. though. the variance for emulsion phase σ e . Cui et al. as shown in Fig. . βe ) ε αb −1 (1 − ε)βb −1 . b) (beta function) (18) Z ∞ 0(t)= x t−1 e−x dx. change with operating conditions. one for the emulsion phase and another for the bubble phase.H. At higher gas velocities. and the mean voidages of the bubble phase and the emulsion phase with Ug at r/R=0: (a) FCC. 7. these variables remain constant in the bed core.e. i. εb ). the time-averaged voidage. (b) sand. All these phenomena can be correlated with the operating conditions as follows: f = Af (1) + Af (2) exp[ − (Ug − Umf )/Af (3) ] (27) εb =Avoid-b(1) +Avoid-b(2) exp[−(Ug −Umf )/Avoid-b(3) ] (28) (23) εe =Avoid-e(1) +Avoid-e(2) exp[−(Ug −Umf )/Avoid-e(3) ] (29) Fig.

Transition from bubbling to turbulent regime Fig. and β b obtained from Eqs.95. Comparison between experimental and simulated probability density functions of the local voidage (r/R=0). 9 gives the comparison between the simulated results with the corresponding experimental data.00 0.62 0. the probability density of the local voidage was simulated with the density function described by Eq.02 0.047 ε mf 0. Table 2 The values of parameters in Eqs. and for the sand particles (Af 0(1) .065 −0. (b) sand. The relation between the dense phase fraction and the saturated emulsion phase fraction from simple two-phase model.272 0. 1.086 −0. Change in the mean variance of voidage fluctuations. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 Fig. 10 shows the simulated evolution of the probability density function of the local voidage at r/R=0. the probability density of the local voidage from ε mf to 1 for both the FCC and sand particles and its changes with operating conditions can be described and simulated effectively by the density function of the so-called coupled beta distribution.262 0.784 −0.025 −0. Af 0(2) )= (0. 8. 10 that the probability density of the bubble phase becomes higher and that of the Fig. 9.57 ε mf +0.017 1. and the variances of voidage fluctuations in the emulsion phase and the bubble phase with Ug at r/R=0: (a) FCC. α b . It can be seen from Fig. Therefore.17). was found as (32) where at r/R=0. (27)–(31) (r/R=0) Af (1) Af (2) Af (3) Avoid-b(1) Avoid-b(2) Avoid-b(3) Avar-b(1) Avar-b(2) Avar-b(3) Avoid-e(1) Avoid-e(2) Avoid-e(3) Avar-e(1) Avar-e(2) Avar-e(3) f = (Af 0(1) + Af 0(2) (Ug − Umf ))f 0 FCC Sand 0 1. (17).5. Cui et al. (17).29.466 0. By using estimated values of f. 0).139 0. described by Eq.534 0. The chi-square (χ 2 ) statistical test [21] shows a good agreement between the simulated and the experimental data.112 −0.00061 −0.140 H.116 0.429 0. 4. Af 0(2) )= (1. . for the FCC particles (Af 0(1) . Fig.152 0.059 0. Since Af 0(2) =0 for sand. (20)–(24) and the corresponding correlations of the mean voidage and the variance in the two phases.0408 0. α e .20 −0. as described by Eq. the dense phase fraction is proportional to the assumed saturated emulsion fraction.439 0.413 1.074 σb =Avar-b(1) +Avar-b(2) exp[−(Ug −Umf )/Avar-b(3) ] (30) σe =Avar-e(1) +Avar-e(2) exp[−(Ug −Umf )/Avar-e(3) ] (31) Table 2 gives the values of the parameters in the above correlation at r/R=0.146 4. (4). β e .0 −0.

With increasing the gas velocity beyond Uc .H. Cui et al. which indicates that the saturation emulsion almost diminishes at the transition from bubbling to turbulent. However. In the case of sand particles (Fig. respectively. Simulated probability density function of the local voidage and its change with gas velocity (r/R=0. Fig. of course. the probability density of the emulsion phase does not show significant difference in the turbulent regime. At superficial gas velocities near Uc . 10(a)). this probability is very close to zero. . 11(b) shows the change in the probability of the local voidage ε=1 for sand particles and indicates that pure bubble (ε=1) does not exist at low gas velocities. 11(a) and (b) for FCC and sand particles. Furthermore.6. the excess gas enters the bubble phase and increases the bubble phase fraction rather than entering and diluting the emulsion. at superficial gas velocity near Uc . 4. 11. the bubble phase displays noticeable change in its probability density. 10(b)). which suggests that at superficial gas velocities higher than Uc . dash line: bubbling regime. 10. 11(a) demonstrates the change in the probability of the local voidage ε=εmf for FCC particles and shows that the probability of the emulsion being at its saturation state (ε=ε mf ) is very high at low gas velocities and constantly decreases upon increasing the gas velocity. solid line: turbulent regime). the spatiotemporal gas– solid distribution between the two phases was statistically described and simulated by the dependence of the local voidage on the coordinate from the ideal center of the emulsion phase element to the ideal center of its Fig. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 141 Fig. the pure bubble begins to occur and its probability increases upon increasing the gas velocity. This. It can also be concluded from this figure that the gas-solid distribution evolves gradually from bubbling to turbulent regime. Nevertheless. in the bubbling regime the maximum density appears at ε mf . Fig. Changes in the probability of the local voidage ε=ε mf for the FCC particles and of the local voidage ε=1 for the sand particles. increasing the superficial gas velocity results in decreasing the solid content of the bubbles and the bubble phase becomes more dilute. the probability density of the pure bubble (ε=1) gradually rises and the voidage of the maximum probability density of the bubble phase approaches unity. means larger gas core in bubbles of a bed of sand particles. The change in the state of the emulsion and bubble phases is more explicitly shown in Fig. Upon approaching Uc . two different states of gas-solid distribution can be observed in these regimes and this difference is distinct for each particle type. Moreover. Spatiotemporal gas–solid distribution According to Eqs. while in the turbulent regime an apparent change in the shape of the probability density function can be observed and the maximum density gradually departs from ε mf and the saturated emulsion tends to disappear due to more intensive action of gas. the fraction of the emulsion phase reduces upon increasing the gas velocity. dense phase becomes lower with increasing Ug . However. (11) and (17). the probability density of the bubble phase in fluidized FCC particles does not exhibit considerable difference in the turbulent regime which suggests that beyond Uc the excess gas enters and dilutes the emulsion rather than forming more bubbles and increasing the bubble phase fraction. In the case of FCC particles (Fig.

12 shows the dependence of the local voidage εi on the time coordinates i/n and the influence of the gas velocity at r/R=0 for the FCC and sand particles. i. i=1. i=1. εmin ). 2. Nomenclature Af (i) Af 0(i) Avar-b(i) Avar-e(i) Avoid-b(i) Avoid-e(i) dp f f0 kdiv 0 kdiv 1 kmax(1) kmax(2) kmax(∞) parameter of Eq. . . / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 Fig. . 3 parameter of Eq.e. (14) parameter of Eq. Different particles result in different bubble structures. However.142 H. 2 parameter of Eq. i=1. (i/n. the gas enters the bubble at a rate higher than the particles. (1. It also indicates a considerable difference in the gas–solid distribution and two-phase flow structures (the bubble structure and the emulsion structure). (1/n. implying different dominant mechanisms ruling their gas–solid interactions. (28). neighboring bubble. (30). i. 1) should be replaced with (ε min . 3 parameter of Eq. The probability distribution function also showed a strong dependency on the radial position and particle type. suggesting that there is no abrupt change in the two-phase flow structure in transition from bubbling to turbulent fluidization. . the voidage of the emulsion phase with the highest probability is close to εmf in bubbling regime. Such quantification further introduced statistically the spatiotemporal gas–solid distribution of the two-phase flow structure at timescale. i=1. and the probability of the pure bubble increase gradually in turbulent regime. However. in the case of FCC particles. the voidage fluctuations of the two phases were found to follow beta distribution. the gas mostly enters and dilutes the emulsion phase constantly at velocities higher than Uc . (29). εmax )}.. in the vector Y = {(0. (εmf . i=1. εi ). 2. Cui et al. 6. The probability distribution function showed gradual evolution with superficial gas velocity.e. For FCC particles. (32). In this case. The bubble phase becomes more dilute at higher Ug . . (14) parameter of Eq. and the probability density function of the local voidage from εmf to 1 and its complex evolution from bubbling to turbulent fluidization regime could be effectively described and simulated by the coupled beta distribution. (13) parameter of Eq. (13) parameter of Eq. Such analysis also gives an experimental support to the model proposed by Gilbertson and Yates [9]. mass transfer and reaction rates in fluidized beds. (13) . 2. resulting in an overall more dilute bubble phase at higher gas velocities. 2. 3 parameter of Eq. The two different particles tested (FCC and sand) exhibited considerably different dynamic gas–solid distributions and two-phase flow structures. i=1. Conclusion A probability distribution model of the local voidage was developed to describe and simulate the gas–solid distribution in the fluidized bed reactors. increasing gradually in the turbulent regime due to more intensive action of gas. εmax ). inertia allows some particles to penetrate into bubbles and the extent of the penetration is influenced by the particle properties. 3 parameter of Eq. . increasing the gas velocity beyond Uc results in forming more pure bubbles. The above description of the probability distribution of the local voidage and the spatiotemporal gas–solid distribution can contribute to further quantitative characterization of the gas–solid interaction. 3 average particle diameter (m) dense phase (emulsion phase) fraction emulsion phase fraction in simple two-phase model parameter of Eq. (27). For the sand particles. . suggesting different dominant mechanisms influencing the gas–solid interactions for different particles.. 12. (31). 2. It is worth mentioning that this conclusion does not mean that less solid particles enter the bubbles at higher superficial gas velocities. but indicates that the pure gas region in the center of the bubble grows larger with increasing gas velocity. for the sand particles this voidage of the emulsion phase differs greatly from εmf . . Fig. By using the minimum probability method to identify the division between the emulsion and bubble phases. 5. Spatiotemporal voidage distribution between two centers of an emulsion phase element and its neighboring bubble phase at timescale (r/R=0). ε1 ).

1991. Measurement of voidage in fluidized beds by optical probes. Gonzalez. Wiley. Fluidized-bed reactor model verification on a reactor of industrial scale.R. Academic Press. Wu. [14] A.). D. i=e. [4] D. Guy. . [2] J. J. 0. G. Commun. 82 (1995) 255–268. References [1] J.E.H. Ma. Pell. 163–170.A. Sci. A. Generalized models for isothermal fluidized bed reactors. and also wish to thank Mr. Vaccaro. Dissipative structure in concurrent-up gas–solid flow. Probability and Statistical Inference. Chem.A.J. 54 (1999) 2039–2045. Kapbasov. Powder Technol. 1990. / Chemical Engineering Journal 79 (2000) 133–143 kmin m1 m2 n Pr0 (ε) Pr b 0 (ε) Pr e 0 (ε) Pr(ε) Prb (ε) Pre (ε) pr(ε) prb (ε) pre (ε) r/R Uc Ug Umf Y parameter of Eq. J. J. New York. Zijerveld. 1977. [19] Z. J. Sci. Boston. Pergamon.S. J. Drinkenburg (Ed. AIChE J. R. S.V.45 for FCC. D. Levenspiel.C. Ren. G.F. Schouten. The motion of particles near a bubble in a gas-fluidized bed. Abrahamson. Two-phase model for a catalytic turbulent fluidized-bed reactor: application to ethylene synthesis. Sci.Q.H. Chaouki. Expulsion of particles from a buoyant blob in a fluidized bed. Recent Advances in Engineering Analysis of Chemically Reacting System. Musmarra. Zh.Zh. 0. pp.H. Chem. Nitsche. Dynamic behaviors of heterogeneous flow structure in gas–solid fluidization (special issue). [15] D. Buyevich. Fluidization Engineering. C. Li.24 m/s for sand) vector of voidages and positions Greek symbols parameter in beta distribution. Eng. Fluidization. Poletto. Amsterdam. D. Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology III. Chem. Grace. MA. (12) number of samples for emulsion phase number of samples for bubble phase number of scopes of equality probability in total probability distribution function of local voidages for the two extreme phases probability distribution function of local voidages for pure bubble phase probability distribution function of local voidages for saturated emulsion phase probability distribution function of local voidages for the two phases probability distribution function of local voidages for dynamic bubble phase probability distribution function of local voidages for dynamic emulsion phase probability density function of local voidages for the two phases probability density function of local voidages for dynamic bubble phase probability density function of local voidages for dynamic emulsion phase dimensionless radius of bed transition superficial gas velocity from bubbling to turbulent fluidization (m/s) superficial gas velocity (m/s) minimum fluidization gas velocity (m/s. 1985. in: A. Matsuno. J. New York. Part II. et al.P.R. Graham. [11] J. M.F. 1984. 278 (1994) 63–81. Yates. [21] R. in: P. 49 (1994) 1229–1243. R. Gilbertson. Davidson. 323 (1996) 377–385. Reh. Klvana. Cui. Chem. 43 (1997) 1458–1468.K. Voidage of the dense phase in bubbling beds. [5] R. Testing Statistical Hypothesis. Cui et al. Powder Technol. regime multiplicity and nonlinear behavior in particle–fluid systems. Sci. 237–255. Wen. New York. Eng. Marzocchella. Eng. [18] J. Structure heterogeneity. i=e.C. Chen. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fluidization.P. Eng. 51 (1996) 2693–2698.A. J. 2nd Edition. 1967.G. Butterworth-Heinemann. Issangya. L. Kwauk. L.H. Bai.). van den Bleek.X. W.P. Kwauk. Schouten. J. 2nd Edition. Eng. C. Amsterdam. Res. Oxford. [10] A.). 0.R. [13] J. Chaotic behavior of gas–solids flow in the riser of a laboratory-scale circulating fluidized bed. [9] M. H. (Eds. Cui. Ind. Geldart. Clift. 1991. Elsevier.M. M. Hasatani (Eds. Random fluctuations in fluidized beds. J. 26 (1980) 47–55.003 m/s for FCC. 33 (1986) 619–627. H. J.A. Li. AIChE J. Chem. van den Bleek. Wen. Kunii. Horio. Importance of dispersed solids in bubbles for exothermic reactions in fluidized beds. b αi parameter in beta distribution. Powder Technol. Eng. Gas Fluidization. Toei. Aoyagi. 53 (1998) 3367– 3379. Behaviour of gas-fluidized beds of fine powders. 112 (2000). R. O. 38 (1999) 803–811.R. 3rd Edition. Ge. The coalescence of bubbles in the gas–solid fluidized bed. Wiley. b βi ε local voidage from εmf to 1 mean voidage of bubble phase εb ε div division of local voidage between bubble phase and emulsion phase mean voidage of emulsion phase εe local voidage corresponding to time coordinate εi i/n between two centers maximum local voidage ε max ε mf minimum fluidization voidage (0. M. [16] D. J. Basu. [20] L. Sh.42 for sand) minimum local voidage ε min time-averaged voidage at an arbitrary εr radial position particle density (kg/m3 ) ρp variance of voidage fluctuations in σb bubble phase variance of voidage fluctuations in σe emulsion phase Subscripts b bubble phase e emulsion phase 143 Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). [12] Yu. H. Fluid Mech. Kunii. Johnson. Cui. A. 1986. Lehmann. Grace. [7] J. Li.H. Fluid Mech. Qian. J. 2nd Edition. [6] M. Pierre Sauriol for his effort in improving the manuscript. [8] G. Macmillan. 1 (1974) 191–197. [3] M.M. Netherlands University Press. E.M. Li.M. in press. Dynamic waves in fluidized beds.X. pp. Characteristics of gas-fluidized beds in different flow regimes. M. M. An.L. London. C. Grace.C. [17] H. M. Batchelor.K. Chem.H. Hogg. Tanis.

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