You are on page 1of 17

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

.2.REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The review of literature is
defined as broad. Comprehensive
in depth, systematic and critical
review of scholarly publications,
unpublished scholarly print
materials, audiovisual materials
and personnel communications. It
helps in identifying and searching
for information a topic and
developing an understanding of the
state of knowledge on that topic.
(Basavanthappa B.T. 2003].
THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE IS ORGANIZED UNDER THE
FOLLOWING HEADING--1.Literature of ECT among psychiatric patients.
2. Literature related to attitude on ECT among psychiatric
patients.

Literature related to knowledge of ECT among psychiatric patients. To this effect. Literature related to experience on ECT among psychiatric patients 1. patients as well as relatives gave correct responses such as electro convulsive therapy is life saving many times it causes temporary but not permanent memory impairment and that electro convulsive therapy is not a non-scientific treatment. Chavan et al (2006) conducted a study on electro convulsive therapy: knowledge and attitude among patients and their relatives. attitude toward. involving 96 patients and their 87 Relatives. a prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted. . (Dec 2002)28 conducted a study On patients and relatives knowledge of. Tang et al. and satisfaction with Electro convulsive therapy in Hong Kong. More than 65% of the respondents in both the groups. experience with..3.It was then administered to 89 patients and 83 relatives attending the psychiatry services in a major hospital in North India. The study showed that the majority of patients believed they had not received adequate information about Electro convulsive therapy. Method used was a 16-item questionnaire . China.The main aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude of patients and their relatives towards electro convulsive therapy.

A Questionnaire looking at knowledge and attitudes was administered to593 Medical and nursing students. Byrne. and theater and Psychiatric nurses. Nursing Students had significantly Lower knowledge and more negative attitudes than medical students. Poorer knowledge of Electro convulsive therapy was found in the nursing Group. Culas. and this included psychiatric nurses. Peter et al. psychiatrists and anesthetists. (Dec 2003)27 conducted a study on knowledge of ECT among staff of a mental health services. A semistructured Questionnaire that consisted of questions about Electro convulsive therapy including their Knowledge of the laws about informed consent. A study was carried out to Assess the knowledge of Electro convulsive therapy among health staff in generl hospital setting.9%) staff members knew of the guidance with Respect to informed consent and Electro convulsive . Only 24(36. The Way information is provided to patients and relatives when obtaining consent For Electro convulsive therapy needs improvement. (June 2006)24 Studied the Knowledge and Attitude toward Electroconvulsive Therapy among Health Care Professionals and Students.Patients and relatives had limited knowledge. Ashaye et al.

Overall knowledge of Electro convulsive therapy was not good especially in Egyptian sample. Diana et al (2005) studied about the information consent and perceived coercion: patients perspectives on electro convulsive therapy. Egypt. 134 testimonies or first hand accounts were identified. A specific lecture about Electro convulsive therapy would improve the knowledge of the samples. The finding in this study led to a Revision of local Electro convulsive therapy training program for patients. Approximately a third did not feel they had freely consented to electro convulsive therapy even when they had signed a consent form 2. United Kingdom sample showed positive attitudes. Approximately half the patients reported that they had received sufficient information about electro convulsive therapy. Literature related to attitude on ECT among psychiatric patients .(Dec 2007)22 conducted study on knowledge of and attitude toward electroconvulsive Therapy of medical students in united kingdom. and side effects. 17 reports dealts with patients views on information and consent in elation to electro convulsive therapy. The reports were subjected to a descriptive systematic view.therapy. Self administered questions were included. The testimony data were analyzed qualitatively. Abbas et al. and Iraq.

A 44-item survey was used to Measure the satisfaction and attitude towards Electro convulsive therapy treatment. The experiences of subjects (n = 10) who were administered electro convulsive therapy in adolescence for a severe mood disorders and their parents (n=18) were assessed using a semi-structured interview after a mean of 4. probably because electro convulsive therapy was not fully understood by the patients and their families. Taieb and co-investigators (2001) conducted a study about electroconvulsive therapy is adolescents with mood disorders: patients and parents attitudes. The study concluded that. Most complaints were of transitory memory impairment. Attitude score was higher for Electro convulsive therapy group Compared with controls. Concerns were frequently expressed.5 years (range 19m – 9yrs). patients who received Electro convulsive therapy had positive attitude about it. The aim of the study was to cases retrospectively patients and parents experiences and attitudes towards the use of electro convulsive therapy adolescence. Results showed that. Their attitudes were mostly positive and electro convulsive therapy was considered a helpful treatment. A higher level of satisfaction was associated with a higher level of education and younger age.Goodman (1999)30 studied the Patient’s satisfaction with electroconvulsive therapy. . Patients who received Electro convulsive therapy were satisfied with their treatment and had more favorable attitude about it than patients who did not receive this treatment.

5. They felt the electro convulsive therapy was beneficial. knowledge and opinions about electro convulsive therapy and then resurveyed them after the treatment.Szuba et al (1991) in correlated study conducted to assess the patient and family perspectives of electro convulsive therapy. Jesse et al (1998). Pettinati et al (1994) conducted a study on patients attitude toward electro convulsive therapy. using a semi – structured interview. Significantly 56 electro convulsive therapy – treated patients were favourable about electro convulsive therapy. Patients were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and Young Mania Rating Scale based on diagnosis before and after electroconvulsive therapy. twice during hospitalization and at 6 months after discharge. df = 1. p< 0. df=1. This study surveyed attitudes toward electro convulsive therapy in 78 depressed inpatients.4. Study surveyed 25 patients who were prescribed electro convulsive therapy and a relative of each patient for their attitudes. Patients and family members and highly positive attitudes toward electro convulsive therapy.001) and at post treatment (chi square = 12. compared to 22 depressed patients never treated with electro convulsive therapy.01). Favourable attitudes were maintained after 6 months. The main objective was to determine whether patients who had electro convulsive therapy are satisfied with their .conducted a study on patient satisfaction with electro convulsive therapy. p<0. both at pretreatment (chi square = 8.

They concluded that patients who received electro convulsive therapy were satisfied with their treatment and had more favourable attitudes about it than patients who did not receive this treatment. The survey was administered to 24 patients near the end of electro convulsive therapy treatment and 2 weeks later. They developed a 44 item survey measuring electro convulsive therapy treatment satisfaction and attitudes. This study attempted to ascertain the news of patients and their relatives on the possible benefits and adverse effects of electro convulsive therapy. Saravanan Jacob (2006).treatment and demonstrate more favourable attitudes about electro convulsive therapy compared with controls. 3. A modified survey was administered to 24 out patient controls who had never received electro convulsive therapy and who were recruited from a psychiatric clinic waiting room. Attitude score was significantly higher for the electro convulsive therapy group compared with controls. But they were not unhappy about receiving electro convulsive . Literature related to experience on ECT among psychiatric patients Raj Kumar. The result was patients who received electro convulsive therapy had positive attitudes about it. The result was more than half of the recipients were not aware of the details of electro convulsive therapy even at the end of the course. and conducted a study on the perspectives of patients and relatives about electro convulsive therapy.

Koopowitz et al (2003) studied on the subjective experience of patients who received electro convulsive therapy. Using an exploratory descriptive methodology . considered the illness serious. There were significant differences in perception between patients admitted to hospital involuntarily and of these who agreed for admission. All relatives had feared the consent for treatment and most were not unhappy with electro convulsive therapy. felt that enough information about the treatment was provided. Most relatives believed in the disease model. The vast majority considered electro convulsive therapy a legistimate treatment and if medically indicated would have electro convulsive therapy again and would recommend it to others. knowledge and attitude of recipients. Walter et al (1999) investigated on electro convulsive therapy in adolescents: experience. A slight majority had attempted to conceal the history of electro convulsive therapy treatment. approximately three quarters believed their illness was worse than the either electro convulsive therapy or pharmacotherapy. 50% stated electro convulsive therapy had been helpful. The patients were interviewed and the experiences and opinions about electro convulsive therapy were generally positive. knew about its benefits and memory problems and left that they were offered an alternative choice of treatment but also admitted to perceiving coersion.therapy.

positive electro convulsive therapy experiences and patients suggestions. of which 56 were 60 years or older. Jain et al ( June 2008)21 conducted a study regarding The use of Electroconvulsive Therapy in the Elderly in a Unit of a North Indian Teaching hospital. Electro convulsive therapy seemed to be a safe and effective treatment in such situations.affective and memory loss to electro convulsive therapy.this study aim to provide an insight into what certain patients actually think of electro convulsive therapy. The method used was semi structured interviews were conducted to explore the patients opinions and experiences of electro convulsive therapy. However. The four themes are fear of electro convulsive therapy. Interviews were subjected to analyse by five step framework approach that identified prominent themes in relation to 5 broad questions and in conjunction with issues raised by subjects themselves.373 patients received Electro convulsive therapy. . particular care may be required in the sub group with co morbid physical problem that may be more vulnerable to cognitive adverse effects. They concluded that using such a qualitative approach the depth of information obtained has revealed new perspectives on how patients perceive the experience of electro convulsive therapy. attribution of cognitive .

Mangoang. who receive Transcranial . MA and Lacey. failure to attempt o rehabilitate patients may be partly responsible for the negative public image of Electro convulsive therapy. JV(2007)19 suggest that Electro convulsive therapy patients who experience cognitive problems following Electro convulsive therapy should be offered some form of cognitive rehabilitation. 2. To assess the attitude of mentally ill persons who receive electroconvulsive Transcranial experience therapy/ Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation To assess the of mentally ill persons electroconvulsive therapy/ Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To assess the knowledge of mentally ill persons who receive electro convulsive therapy/ Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

4.Electro convulsive therapy .Experience: is defined as something that happens to someone. To correlate the knowledge. To associate knowledge.Attitude The mentally ill persons likes and dislikes toward the electro convulsive therapy/ Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.e learning and understanding regarding the nature and uses about electroconvulsive therapy/ Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation after undergoing treatment course. Operational Definitions 1. attitude and experience of mentally ill persons who receive electroconvulsive therapy/ / Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with selected demographic variable. 3.Knowledge A familiarity gained by experience. 4. 2.3. attitude and experience of mentally ill persons who receive electroconvulsive therapy/ Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

Mental health hospital Centre which ensure availability and accessibility of minimum mental health care for all. 5. 6.Electro convulsive therapy is the artificial induction of a grandma seizure through a application of electrical current to the brain. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a noninvasive procedure in which cerebral electrical activities is influenced by rapidly changing magnetic field. . attitude and experience among Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electro convulsive therapy of mentally ill persons. RESEARCH DEIGNS And METHODOLOGY Study Design: The present study was hospital based study to assess the knowledge.

Both sex. Willing to participate Exclusion Criteria:  Family members are not involved  Children are not involves. Time: Study performed from 1st November 2015 to 30th November 2015.Venue: Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP) Kanke.. . Sample: The study population consists of 100 subject in which 15 subject of ECT and 5 subject of rTMS. Ranchi. Inclusion Criteria: The patient admitted in CIP: 1. In and out patients 2. Age group ranges from 15-45 years 3. 4.

Socio demographic data sheet 2. Knowledge. In this research 2 main tools applied on the population they are.it include various socio demographic variables like age in years . Patients TOols who are not willing to participate.Socio demographic data sheet:. to be used in the collection of data Research tool can be defined as the instrument in the hands of researcher to measure what they indent to in their study and making the research the easier attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner. attitude and experience among Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electro convulsive therapy. both . Tools description 1. 1. It can also be defined as tool in a handheld item that aids in accomplishing a task.

Possible responses ‘not unpleasant’.P . Experience of ECT/ rTMS among patients is assess by using 17item questionnaire . Sample criteria Ineluseoi eriteria  Bothe sex  Age group 18-75 yrs of age  Patievits thouse are getting treatment group C.Knowledge of ECT/rTMS is assess by using a 30 questionnaire rTMS Each item has ‘yes’. Its responses is ‘positive attitude’. Attitude towards ECT/ rTMS is assess by using 16 questionnaire. and ‘unpleasant’. indication etc. education.I. 2. ‘negative attitude’ and ‘ambivalent attitude’. duration of illness. ‘undecided’. occupation.sex. diagnosis. ‘no’ and ‘don’t know’ response. These has designed specifically for the present study.

 Patients who are not willing to participate.Exelusion criteria  Family members are not involved  Children are not involves. .