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Decentralized Generation - Distributed Generation and Micro Grid

When energy is generated and distributed using small scale technologies closer to
its end users, it is termed as Decentralized Generation. These generations are
based on the technologies, mainly renewable, including but not limited to, wind
turbines, photovoltaic cells, geothermal energy and micro hydro power plants. Onsite
power generation has many benefits over the centralized power generation systems,
as it eliminates the costs associated with the transmission and distribution of power
over long distances. These small scale technologies can yield power from 1KW to as
much as 100MW.

Figure 1
Centralized vs. Decentralized Generation (Source: www.jcwinnie.biz)
Decentralized generation can take place at two scales. At a local level, site specific
energy sources are used to generate electricity, constituting a Micro-Grid which is a
cluster of generations serving a limited number of consumers. It can be either
connected to the grid at a single point or can be totally independent of it. At the
second level, the same technologies are used at much smaller scale and are
installed by an individual energy consumer. Such a system is called Distributed
Generation. These sources can be individually connected to grid, so that they can
supply power to the grid when required – creating a prosumer, i.e., a producer and a
consumer of electricity.

Benefits of Decentralized Generation

For a country like India. Almost all engines used for power generation are four-stroke and operate in four cycles of intake. The decentralized generation technologies include but are not limited to the following: Reciprocating Engines: Reciprocating engines can be fueled either by diesel or natural gas. and resemble automotive engine turbochargers. and exhaustion. it offers a solution towards rural electrification.It can greatly reduce the losses during transmission and distribution of power from central location and hence improve the reliability of the grid network. The compressors and turbines have radial-flow designs. with reduced congestion.  Faster response to new power demands – The micro-grid systems are small scaled and often require lower gestation periods.  Reduced high transmission and distribution losses . In India. Few of its benefits are discussed as follows:  No high peak load shortages . Most microturbine units are designed for continuous operation with higher electric efficiencies. . as it can be based on renewable or non-renewable energy sources.Distributed generation can play a major role in providing power to remote and inaccessible areas. combustor.  Improved supply reliability and power management . the current losses amount to about 35% of the total available energy. variable frequency alternating current (AC) power. Microturbines: Microturbines are an emerging class of small-scale distributed power generation system in the size range of 30-400 kW. Reciprocating engines are manufactured in various size ranges. compression.  Linking remote and inaccessible areas . turbine.Decentralized generations are small and offer numerous benefits in comparison to the conventional centralized systems. Technologies for Decentralized Generation A decentralized generation system is very flexible. with varying emission outputs.With independence from utility grid systems. it enables faster and easy capacity additions when required. Microturbines consist of a compressor. Their typical usage is in providing continuous power supply or backup emergency power. voltage and frequency.Distributed generation systems can reduce the peak demand and offer an effective solution to the problem of high peak load shortages. Most designs are single-shaft and use a high-speed permanent magnet generator producing variable voltage. and a generator. distributed generation systems offer easy maintenance of power. combustion. It also offers the possibility of combining energy storage and management systems.

low emissions. These turbines can also be configured as combined cycle power systems to achieve upto 15MW. and direct methanol. are reliable. biomass generators. and are thus commonly employed for remote power applications. Locally based solar. also called as industrial turbines or miniturbines. The PV cells produce direct-current (DC) electricity. Photovoltaic systems produce no emissions. their low electric efficiency has limited turbines to primarily peaking unit and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. Their ability for onsite decentralized power generation helps in reducing peak loads and hence better system management of the central grid.Combustion Gas Turbines: Simple cycle combustion turbine units start at about 1MW. In future. alkaline. Wind Turbines: Wind turbines utilizes wind to produce electricity and require no additional investments in setting up large infrastructure such as new transmission lines. wind. Cogeneration DG installations are particularly advantageous when a continuous supply of steam or hot water is desired. Decentralized Generation in India . thereby cutting down on the line losses associated with long-range transmission. Fuel Cells: There are many types of fuel cells currently under development in the 51000+ kW size range. and reconnects itself to the grid. The micro-grid can automatically resynchronize itself when the utility grid returns to normal functioning. Role of Decentralized Generation in Smart Grid Decentralized Generations are natural extensions of smart grids. which must then be inverted for use in an AC system. solid oxide. in an equally seamless fashion. Fuel cells have very low levels of NOx and CO emissions because the power conversion is an electrochemical process. both smart micro grids and smart decentralized generations will be able to sell their generation back to the utilities from whom they buy the power thus providing additional revenue stream. and require minimal maintenance to operate. This will help utilities to reduce the need for massive investments in building new high-voltage transmission lines to carry renewable power from far-off plants to towns and cities. A key feature of a micro-grid is its ability to separate and isolate itself from the utility seamlessly during a utility grid disturbance with little or no disruption to the loads within the micro-grid. molten carbonate. Combustion turbines have relatively low installation costs. Photovoltaic solar panels are made up of smaller cells connected together that convert light radiation into electricity. proton exchange membrane. it reduces carbon emission and thus supports sustainable livelihood. and require infrequent maintenance. fuel cells and other decentralized generation systems are much more convenient sources of power. Additionally. However. Photovoltaics (PV): Photovoltaic systems are most commonly known as solar panels. including phosphoric acid.

The figure below illustrates the technology options for decentralized power generation. many renewable energy technologies are being employed in a number of decentralized generation projects. state and local governments. and useful life of electrical infrastructure. A Micro-Smart Grid can deliver benefit by use of renewable energy sources. The development of basic smart grid technologies can be accelerated by bring together all stakeholders namely. Some of the policies adopted by the Indian Government are as follows. affordable. while improving the reliability. and scalable electrical power. . security. For Indian economy rising fuel costs. smart micro-grids can provide clean. reliable. Government Policy The Government of India has adopted an integrated energy policy which aims to provide energy security to all its citizens through conventional as well as alternative sources of energy. Figure 2: Technology options for Decentralized Generation In typical Indian rural areas. public electricity regulators. and IT companies towards a common goal. under investment in old infrastructure and climate change are some of the biggest challenges being faced by the energy industry today.In India. utility companies.

will provide up to 90% capital subsidy for rural electrification projects using decentralized distributed generation options based on conventional and non-conventional fuels.  The National Electricity Policy notified on 12 February 2005 recommends under the Rural Electrification component. The Act specifies distributed generation and supply through stand-alone conventional and renewable energy systems. . the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna and the Remote Village Electrification Scheme. 2003 has given a thrust to distributed generation particularly in the context of rural electrification. wherever conventional grid is not feasible.  Two specific schemes. that to provide a reliable rural electrification system. The Electricity Act. decentralized distributed generation facilities (using conventional or non-conventional sources of energy) together with local distribution network be provided.