You are on page 1of 16

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound

G

ESTER

Learning outcomes:
You should be able to:
 state the general formula of esters
 identify the functional group of esters
 List the names and molecular formulae of simple esters.
 Draw structural formulae of simple esters and name them using the IUPAC nomenclature,
 Describe the preparation of ester in the laboratory,
 State the physical properties of ethyl ethanoate.
 Predict the ester produced from the esterification reaction.
 Write equations for the esterification reactions,
 state the natural sources of ester, state the uses of ester in everyday life.

1

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound 2 .

(i) methanol and propanoic acid (ii) ethanol + butanoic acid (iii) propan-1-ol + ethanoic acid 3 . Formula Example :HCOOC2H5 Name Carboxylic acid Alcohol Ethyl methanoate Methanoic acid Ethanol a) CH3 COOCH3 b) CH3 COOC3H7 c) C2H5 COOCH3 d) C3 H7COOC3H7 b) Draw the structural formula for the compound form in the reaction between alchol and carboxylic acid below.Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Activity 15 (a) Name the following esters and give the alcohols and carboxylic acids required to synthesise the esters name.

.Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Activity 16 (a) Complete the diagram below Ester is a ………… product of an ………….or ……………. a) …………………………. reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol... The first word originates from……………. group contain ………… ESTERS uses of ester.’ 4…… 5…… 4 . the second is 3…… All of them end with ‘ ………. b) …………………………. c) …………………………… d) …………………………… The ……………of flow Phys 1…… 2…… the name of an ester consists of two words. the functional group is –COO..

(ii) compound Q : …………………………………… (iii) compound R : …………………………………. (iv) compound S : …………………………………….. 5 III Compound Q Hydrogen chloride .. Write the molecular formula of (i) compound P : …………………………………. Activity 17 Butan-1-ol C4H9OH Porcelain chips Compound P II I Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution Compound R a) b) IV ethanol Compound S Name the homologous series for (i) Butan-1-ol : ………………………………….Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Order in homologous series Learning outcomes: You should be able to :  describe the systematic approach in naming members of homologous series. (iii) Compound R : ………………………………… (iv) Compound S : ……………………………….  describe the order in the physical and chemical properties in homologous series.. (ii) Compound P : …………………………………..

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound H FATS Learning outcomes: You should be able to:  State what oils are  State what fats are  State the importance of oils and fats for body processes  State the sources of oils and fats  List the uses of oils and fats  State the differences between oils and fats  Identify structural formulae for fat molecules of certain fatty acids  State what saturated fats are  State what unsaturated fats are  Compare and contrast between saturated and unsaturated fats  Describe the effects of eating food high in fats on health  Describe the industrial extraction of palm oil  Justify the use of palm oil in the food production 6 .

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound 7 .

b) They are natural …………………….. k) Unsaturated fats can be converted to saturated fats by a process called …………………. This can lead to ………………………. . l) …………………… is made by hydrogenating some of the carbon-carbon double bond in vegetable oil. i) Fats are an important source of ……………………… for our body. ester solid saturated . j) ……………… fats may cause cholesterol to deposit on the blood vessels and making them ………………. h) As a group. e) Fatty acids are long straight-chain containing between 12 to 18 ……………… atoms per molecule. 8 . two or three fatty acid to form a monoester. oil and fats tend to dissolve in organic solvents such as …………………. g) Most fats and oils are ……………………. diester or trimester. c) They are product of the reaction between …………………. oils and waxes are from a large family of organic compound called ………………...Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Activity 18 (I) Fill in the blank by choosing the correct answer from the table below. A Molecule of water is eliminated when a fatty acid joins to the glycerol molecule and the resulting bond formed is called an …………………(-COO-).. and …………………… d) Fats are usually found in animal and they are ………………….and …………………………….while oil is fat from plant and also from animal but they are ………………………… at room condition. f) A molecule of glycerol may combine with one. ………………………. ester link heart attac k lipid hydrogenatio n harden strok e carbon trigleycerides Chlorofo m liquid glycero l high blood pressure energy margerine fatty acid a) Fats ..

Oil palm fruit bunches The fresh fruit bunches are sterilized ia large pressure vessels at 140o C for The heat from the steam kills fungus and bacteria Stripping Breaking down the oil-bearing cells. lard (III) Write the Similarities of fats and oils In terms of Molecular formula Similarities Type of compound Type of bond Activity 19 a) Complete the flow chart below to show the Extraction Process of Palm Oil.Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Compare fats and oils Comparison Source Melting point o C Physical state at room temperature Cholesterol content Examples Molecular structure Oils Fats < 20 / lower > 20 / higher Peanut oil. The oi b) State 5 benefits of palm oil compared to other vegetable oils 9 . soybean oil Butter . Crush the palm oil fruits Pressing The mixture is filtered to remove solid or coarse fibre and allow to settle in an a large clarification tank.

. I NATURAL RUBBER 10 . ii) …………………………………………………………………… iii) …………………………………………………………………. v) ………………………………………………………………….Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound i) …………………………………………………………………. iv) ………………………………………………………………….

 Draw the structural formula of natural rubber.  Compare and contrast the properties of vulcanised and unvulcanised natural rubber.  Describe how the presence of sulphur atoms changes the properties of vulcanised rubber.  State the properties of natural rubber. 11 .Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Learning outcomes: You should be able to :  List examples of natural polymers and their monomers.  Describe the vulcanization of rubber.  State the uses of natural rubber  Describe the coagulation process of latex  Describe the method used to prevent latex from coagulating.

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound 12 .

Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound 13 .

ii) When 20 cm3 latex is added with 5cm3 methanoic acid. latex coagulate rapidly. (a) Name the product formed in step I. iii) When 5 cm3 ammonia solution is added to latex.Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound Activity 20 a) Give explanation for every situation below: i) Latex coagulate slowly when it is exposed to the air. b) Compare the unvulcanized and vulcanised rubber in the table below. Aspect Structure Unvulcanised rubber Oxidation Resistance of heat Strength Elasticity ACTIVITY 21 1 Base on the diagram above. latex does not coagulate. 14 Vulcanised rubber .

…………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………. Name the catalyst. …………………………………………………………………………. (ii) What do you expect to observe when the reaction in step IV is carried out? …………………………………………………………………………………… (e) Draw the possible structural formulae of C3H7OH formed in step V. ………………………………………………………………………… (d) (i) Describe briefly how to carry out the reaction in step IV.Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) (i) State the reagents needed for step II. (ii) A catalyst is needed for the reaction in step III. ………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in step II. …………………………………………………………. [Relative atomic mass: H = 1. C = 12) [4] 2 Diagram below shows the molecular formulae of 4 carbon compounds. C4H10 A B C D 15 C4H9O . (ii) Give one use for ( C3H6)n formed in step VI. ………………………………………………………………………… (c) (i) Name the type of reaction occurring in step III. (f) (i) Name the type of reaction occurring in step VI. (g) Compare and explain the sootiness of C3H6 and C3H8 when each of these hydrocarbons is burnt in excess air.

.…………………………… State one special characteristic of the product formed........ (ii) 11.. (b) ……........ ........ calculate number of carbon dioxide molecules formed.02 x 1023] 16 .Chapter 2 : Carbon Compound (a) Write the general formula of the homologous series of compound B..... Draw the structural formula of all isomers of compound B...... (ii) ………………………………………………………...…………………………… (e) Compound A burns in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water...... Compound D : …………………………………………………………………………....................... [Relative atomic mass C = 12...... ………………………………………………………..... (i) Name the product formed from the reaction........... (c) Compound B shows isomerism... O = 16 and Avogadro number = 6......……………………………………………………………………………………… State the functional group of compound A and compound D Compound A : …………………………………………………………………………..............2 g of compound A burns in excess oxygen.. (d) Compound D and compound C react in the presence of the concentrated sulphuric acid............... (i) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.