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Session 14

– Recap of Lecture 13

• Begin Module 1

– Summary

• Module 6

– Quality Function Deployment

• Module 5

• Implementation
• Tools

– Quality by Design

• Module 4

• Teams
• Communication

– Quality by Design

• Module 3

– Sequential vs. Concurrent Design

• Module 2

– Recap of Lecture 13

• Module 1


Rajiv Gupta
BITS Pilani
Lecture 14

MMVA ZG 522 Total Quality



• End of Module 1

Lecture 14



• Deming felt that most design of experiment texts ignored
the difference between analytical and enumerative
• Only stable processes have predictable outcomes. Any
attempt to make future predictions based on a current
sample is statistically incorrect.
• The experimental design approach we have followed
takes a PDSA perspective where at each successive
iteration our degree of belief in the effect of a change is
further increased, or not
• Lecture 13 dealt with multi-factor design of experiments

Recap of Lecture 13


• Lecture 13 was the second lecture on the design of
• In design of experiments, we proactively test the effect of
changes to the system
• The approach to the design of experiments covered in
lectures 12 and 13 did not follow the method in the text
book. However, it is based on the teachings of Deming
• It is based on a book by Ronald Moen, who was asked to
write the book by Deming.

Recap of Lecture 13

companies are expected to develop new products frequently. if discovered downstream. Traditional Product Design and Development Process – Sequential vs. Mistakes become more expensive. • Each functional department completes its task. • The majority of the life cycle cost of the product is determined at the design stage. and the cost is high. Concurrent Design • Begin Module 2 Lecture 14 Engineering 11 10 12 • In a highly competitive market. customers may shift to a competitor. almost in isolation. Why Quality By Design • Quality must be built into the product at the design stage • Using multidisciplinary teams and simultaneous engineering • Simultaneously design and develop a product to ensure producibility and customer satisfaction • Also known as simultaneous or concurrent engineering Definition of Quality by Design Classical “Over-the-Wall” Serial Design Design Over the Wall Product Development Approach . • If a problem is found at a subsequent stage.7 From: Kolarik Classic Sequential Product Development Process 9 8 • Traditionally. So we need to ensure that the design is done correctly. the design and development process in organizations has followed a sequential approach. it is “tossed” back to the earlier department to make “corrections” and the process is repeated. and “tosses” its solution to the subsequent department. • Obviously this process is not very efficient. • If the time and cost to develop a new product is too high. The lead time for the design is long. • Any mistakes at the design stage are easy to correct.

Less work in progress. Fewer engineering changes order. Increased productivity. • Would it not be better to consider the various aspects. we design the flow of material. Benefits of Quality By Design 15 14 • In traditional designs of industrial plants. • After the building is designed. civil.13 – – – – – Faster product development. HVAC. the building structure is first designed. we figure out how the utilities will be provided. Better quality. architecture. electrical. and material flow simultaneously? Example of Sequential Design Product Development Flow Diagram – Teams – Superior Communication – Implementation Plan – IT Tools and Systems Tools • Quality By Design requires the following: Quality By Design • Teams • Communication – Quality By Design • Begin Module 3 Lecture 14 • End of Module 2 Lecture 14 18 17 16 . • After all of the above are complete.

test and logistics. is to connect people by technology. etc.20 21 • The team include product developers from marketing. • The implementation of quality by design team requires top-down commitment. • Supplier and customer should also be included in the team. The people in a team are able to meet and discuss matters virtually. Teams Product Development Team From: Kolarik 19 Customer Interacts Horizontally – with All Departments/Functions 22 24 – An alternative to co-location. – Some face-to-face meetings may be required. • Team members should be committed to the projects not with their functional departments. – Overall costs may be reduced in this manner • Alternative to co-location Virtual Co-Location 23 – People accustomed to traditional organizational structure are uncomfortable – Sometimes. • There should be better communication and interaction between the team production. research and development . designers. while forming teams to work on specific projects. work better when working alongside other designers – Co-location may require duplication of some functions – Recruitment and development may become more difficult • Issues with co-location Co-Location Co-Location . – This gives us the advantages of having the traditional organization.

• There is good communication within a silo. but very poor communication exists across organizational silos. there are no ready channels for such communication Communication 27 26 25 • Whole product cycle • Internal and external customers • Commitment to quality for the entire process of making the product and not just the product itself • Co-location. dedicated (to the project) team members. the structure is one of silos.Communication Communication • In traditional organizations. face-to-face or virtual meetings & communication Implementation • Implementation • Tools – Quality By Design • Begin Module 4 Lecture 14 • End of Module 3 Lecture 14 30 29 28 . • If someone in product design needed to talk to someone in marketing to discuss the impact of a design change.

environment) • Failure mode and effects analysis • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Organizational Tools 36 35 34 .• • • • • • • • Organizational Tools Product Development Tools Production Tools Statistical Tools Tools used in Product Design Organizational Tools Product Development Tools Production Tools Statistical Tools Tools used in Product Design • Management of Quality by Design requires a basic change in thinking by management • Functional departments need to have broader thinking beyond departmental boundaries • It is important to have dedicated project teams • After a team has worked together for a project. it helps to rotate team members to get fresh perspectives • Even if you use virtual teams. assembly. it is important to have face-toface meetings to get people comfortable with each other Implementation 33 32 31 Product Development Tools TQM philosophies Computer networks ISO 9000 ISO 14000 Total productive maintenance Information technology Electronic meeting software Enterprise resource planning software • • • • • • • Robotics Computer numerical controlled tools Continuous process improvement Just-in-time production Virtual manufacturing software Agile (or lean) manufacturing Advanced measurement and verification Production Tools QFD Computer-aided drafting software Solid modeling software Finite element analysis software Parametric analysis software Rapid prototyping techniques Design for X (manufacture. service.

• It is a disciplined approach to product design. engineering. product development time.• It is a product planning tool used to fulfill customer expectations. • It can improve engineering knowledge. • It is employed to translate customer expectations (voice of the customer) requirements to specific product requirements in terms of engineering or technical characteristics. productivity and quality and reduce costs. QFD – Quality Function Deployment • Begin Module 5 Lecture 14 • End of Module 4 Lecture 14 39 38 37 QFD Cascade House of Quality QFD Approach 42 41 40 . and production. and engineering changes.

resulting in longer product development cycles and high cost • Quality by design requires simultaneous or concurrent design and development activities Summary of Lecture 14 – Summary • Begin Module 6 • End of Module 5 45 44 43 • End of Module 6 Lecture 14 47 46 • We need to form multi-disciplinary teams of people required in the design process to improve communication • Ideally the teams should be co-located.• In this lecture we discussed the process of design • Traditional approaches to design are sequential. However. • Quality Function Deployment is a way to convert the voice of the customer into detailed design and production and process plans. This causes gaps in communication. virtual teams may also be used. Summary of Lecture 14 .