algebra foote

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algebra foote

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1. Section 11.5

1. Prove that if M is a cyclic R-module then T (M ) = S(M ), i.e., the tensor algebra

T (M ) is commutative.

Let m be a generator for M , and let m1 , . . . , mk , m01 , . . . , m0l M . It follows that

m1 mk = a1 m ak m = a1 a2 ak (m m) for some a1 , . . . , ak R,

so

(m1 mk ) (m01 m0l ) = (a1 . . . ak )(m m)(a01 . . . a0l )(m m)

= (a1 . . . ak )(a01 . . . a0l )(m m)

= (a01 . . . a0l )(m m)(a1 . . . ak )(m m)

= (m01 m0l ) (m1 mk ).

Therefore, single tensors commute, and thus all elements of T (M ) commute and

T (M ) = S(M ).

6. If A is any R-algebra in which a2 = 0 for all a A and : M A is

an V

R-module homomorphism, prove there is a unique R-algebra homomorphism

: (M ) A such that |M = .

k : M M A such that

k (m1 , . . . , mk ) = (m1 ) (mk ). This

Define

is clearly bilinear, and it is alternating since if mi = mi+1 , then (mi ) = (mi+1 )

and (mi )2 = 0, so (m1 ) (mk ) = 0. By the universal property, it extends to

Vk

a map k :

(M ) A which is unique

V with the property that k |M = . It

follows that an R-module morphism : (M ) A exists as the direct sum of k s

with the property that |M = . Furthermore is easily seen to be an R-algebra

Vk

homomorphism. Note that restricted to

M is determined by |M = . Since

is an R-algebra homomorphism is unique.

8. Let R be an integral domain and let F be its field of fractions.

V2

(a) Considering F as an R-module, prove that

F = 0.

a1 a2

Let b1 , b2 F . It follows that

a1 a2

1 b2

1 b1

1

1

= a1 a2 (

) = a1 a2 b1 b2 (

) = 0.

b1

b2

b1 b2 b2 b1

b1 b2 b1 b2

V2

So,

(F ) = 0.

(b) Let I be an R-submodule of F (for example, any ideal in R). Prove that

Vi

Vi

I is a torsion R-module for i 2 (i.e., for every x

I there is some

nonzero r R such that rx = 0).

Vk

It suffices to prove the result for simple tensors in

I since these genVk

erate the R-module

I and the set of torsion elements is an R-module

1

Vk

k-tensor in

I and let r = a1 a2 b1 b2 . However,

a1 a2

ak

a1 a2

ak

r(

) = a1 a2 b1 b2 (

)

b1

b2

bk

b1

b2

bk

ak

= a1 a2 a1 a2

= 0,

bk

Vk

so every element of

I is torsion.

(c) Give an example of an integral domain R and an R-module I in F with

Vi

I 6= 0 for every i 0.

Consider C[x1 , x2 , . . .], the polynomial ring over C in a countably infinite number of variables. The ideal (x1 , x2 , . . .) of rank 1 has the desired

Vk

property that

I 6= 0 for any k N.

12.

(a) Prove that if f (x, y) is an alternating bilinear map on V (i.e., f (x, x) = 0

for all x V ) then f (x, y) = f (y, x) for all x, y V .

Let x, y V . f (x + y, x + y) = f (x, x) + f (x, y) + f (y, x) + f (y, y) = 0

since f is alternating, but f (x, x) = f (y, y) = 0, so f (x, y) = f (y, x).

(b) Suppose that 1 6= 1 in F . Prove that f (x, y) is an alternating bilinear

map on V (i.e., f (x, x) = 0 for all x V ) if and only if f (x, y) = f (y, x)

for all x, y V .

The forward direction is done by part (a). To see the reverse direction,

assume f (x, y) = f (y, x), then f (x, x) = f (x, x) and 2f (x, x) = 0.

Because F has characteristic not equal to 2, and F is a field, f (x, x) = 0

and f is therefore alternating.

(c) Suppose that 1 = 1 in F . Prove that every alternating bilinear map on V

is symmetric (i.e., f (x, y) = f (y, x) for all x, y V ). Prove that there is a

symmetric bilinear map on V that is not alternating.

By part (a), f (x, y) = f (y, x) = f (y, x), so every alternating form is

symmetric. To find a symmetric form that is not alternating, let (x1 , . . . , xn )

and (y1 , . . . , yn ) be elements of V after choosing a basis, and define f :

V V F such that f ((x1 , . . . , xn ), (y1 , . . . , yn )) = x1 y1 + + xn yn . It is

easy to verify that this is a symmetric bilinear form that is not alternating.

14. Prove that if M is an

V R-module direct factor of the R-module N then T (M )

(respectively,

S(M

)

and

(M )) is an R-subalgebra of T (N ) (respectively, S(M )

V

and (M )).

Let N = M P . Tensor products distribute across direct sums so we have

N N = (M P ) (M P ) = (M M ) (M P ) (P M ) (P P ). It is then

clear that M M N N . This generalizes easily for any k, i.e., k M k N , and

it is straightforward to show

V that T (M ) T (N ) as a subalgebra. The argument

is similar for S(M ) and (M ).

2. Written Problems

1. Show that if R is an integral domain and M is an R-module, then my definition

of rankR (M ) and the books definition agree, i.e., show that dimF (F M ) is equal

to the maximum number of R-linearly independent elements of M .

such elements be m1 , m2 , . . . , mn . Accordingly, if r1 m1 + r2 m2 + + rn mn = 0,

then ri = 0 for all i. Now consider the collection 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn , and

assume

0 = r1 (1 m1 ) + r2 (1 m2 ) + + rn (1 mn )

= 1 r1 m1 + 1 r2 m2 + + 1 rn mn

= 1 (r1 m1 + r2 m2 + rn mn ).

By a previous exercise, this occurs only when r(r1 + +rn mn ) = 0 for some nonzero

r R. However the mi are linearly independent over R and R is an integral domain,

so this implies that ri = 0 for all i. Ergo, 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn are linearly

independent, and dimF (F M ) n.

Let dimF (F M ) = l and assume b11 m1 , b12 m2 , . . . , b1l ml is a basis for

F M as an F -vector space. Since F is a field, we can scale each element of the

basis by any nonzero element of F and still have a basis. Scale the element b1i mi

by bi for 1 i l. The new basis is then 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn . Since this is a

basis, it is linearly independent. Assume that m1 , . . . , ml are R-linearly dependent

in M . Then r1 m1 + + rl ml = 0 for some r1 , . . . , rl R not all zero, and

0=10

= 1 (r1 m1 + + rl ml )

= (1 r1 m1 ) + + (1 rl ml )

= r1 (1 m1 ) + + rl (1 ml )

which is a contradiction, as 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn is a basis for F M .

Therefore, m1 , . . . , ml are linearly independent, and n l = dimF (F M ) n.

So n = l which proves the definitions are equivalent.

3. Section 12.1

1. Let M be a module over the integral domain R.

(a) Suppose x is a nonzero torsion element in M . Show that x and 0 are linearly dependent. Conclude that the rank of Mtor is 0, so that in particular

any torsion R-module has rank 0.

Since x is torsion, there exists some nonzero r R such that rx = 0.

Let r0 R be nonzero. rx + r0 0 = 0, so x and 0 are linearly dependent.

(b) Show that the rank of M is the same as the rank of the (torsion free)

quotient M/Mtor .

Let F be the field of fractions for R. We show that F M and F M/Mtor

are isomorphic as F -vector spaces, and conclude that the rank of M is

equal to that of M/Mtor . Define f : F R M F R M/Mtor such that

for ab F and m M . It is easy to verify that

f ( ab m) = f ( ab (m)

f is linear and surjective. To check injectivity, recall that every element

of F R M can be written as 1r m for some nonzero r R. Then

f ( 1r m) = 1r m.

Recall that from a previous homework problem that

this is zero only if m

is torsion in M/Mtor . If there exists a nonzero s R

such that sm

= 0 in M/Mtor , then sm Mtor which means s0 (sm) = 0 for

some nonzero s0 R. This implies that m Mtor since R is an integral

an isomorphism of vector spaces. As such, the dimensions are equal, and

so are the ranks.

3. Let R be an integral domain and A and B be R-modules of ranks m and n

respectively. Prove that the rank of A B is m + n.

Let F be the field of fractions of R, and consider F (A B) as an F -vector

space. By vector space theory,

F (A B) = (F A) (F B),

from which it follows that

dimF (F (A B)) = dimF (F A) + dimF (F B).

The rank of A B is therefore m + n.

4. Let R be an integral domain, let M be an R-module, and let N be a submodule

of M . Suppose M has a rank of n, N has a rank r, and the quotient M/N has

rank s. Prove that n = r + s.

It is simple to verify that the following is a short exact sequence of R-modules

with the canonical injection and projection mappings:

0 N M M/N 0.

Let F be the field of fractions of R. Since F is a flat R-module,

0 F N F M F M/N 0

is short exact, and since it is a short exact sequence of F -vector spaces, it splits.

Therefore, F M = (F N ) (F M/N ). It follows that n = r + s after taking

the dimension of both sides, and distributing across the direct sum.

13. If M is a finitely generated module over the P.I.D. R, describe the structure of

M/Mtor .

By problem 1, part (b), M/Mtor is a module of the same rank as M , but with no

torsion elements. By the fundamental theorem, M/Mtor is a free module of rank n

where n is the rank of M , i.e. M/Mtor

= Rn .

15. Prove that if R is a Noetherian ring then Rn is a Noetherian R-module.

This proof proceeds by induction on n.

The case where n = 1 is trivial, as the definitions of a Noetherian ring and a

Noetherian R-module coincide when viewing R as an R-module.

For n > 1, assume that e1 , e2 , . . . , en is a basis for Rn and let N Rn be a

submodule. Let L = Re1 , the cyclic R-submodule generated by e1 , and consider

of N in Rn /L is finitely generated.

Rn /L

= Rn1 . By induction, the image N

. Also

Let n1 , . . . , nm N be elements such that their image in Rn /L generates N

by induction, N L L is finitely generated as a submodule, so let l1 , . . . , lp be

generators for N L. If n N , then n

= r1 n

1 + + rm n

m for ri R. Subtracting

r1 n1 + + rm nm from n yields an element of N L which can be written as a

linear combination of l1 , . . . , lp . Therefore, every element of N can be written as a

linear combination of n1 , . . . , nm , l1 , . . . , lp , and N is finitely generated. It follows

that Rn is Noetherian as an R-module.

Dept. of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064

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