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You are on page 1of 141

66

111

133

[This

1.

Solution:

Remark:

4 3x + 1

lim 2

x5 x 7x + 10

4 3x + 1

(4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

lim 2

= lim

x5 x 7x + 10

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

16 (3x + 1)

= lim

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

15 3x

= lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

3(5 x)

= lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

3

= lim

x5 (x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

3

=

(5 2)(4 + 3 5 + 1)

3

=

38

1

=

8

Robert Recorde to avoid the tedious repetition of the words `is equal to'. It is important to

use the equal sign correctly.

To introduce , the phantom equal sign, to avoid the tedious repetition of the symbol

= is not a good idea. The solution above should not go like:

4 3x + 1

lim 2

x5 x 7x + 10

(4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

lim

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

15 3x

lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

3(5 x)

lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

One must also not use other symbols, which have completely dierent meanings, in place

of =. The solution above should not go like:

4 3x + 1

(4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

lim 2

lim

x5 x 7x + 10

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

15 3x

lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

3(5 x)

lim

x5 (x 5)(x 2)(4 +

3x + 1)

The equal sign always stands between two things, although sometimes one of these things

are at the end of the previous line or at the beginning of the next line. The solution above

should not start like:

(4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

= lim

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

(4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

equal to lim

?

x5 (x2 7x + 10)(4 +

3x + 1)

The equal sign can be used between two functions when we deal with identities , like

x2 1

=x+1

x1

for all

x =/ 1

Find all

such that

x2 = 4.

Therefore we can not just drop some of the limit signs in the solution above to make it

look like:

4 3x + 1 (4 3x + 1)(4 + 3x + 1)

lim 2

=

x5 x 7x + 10

(x2 7x + 10)(4 + 3x + 1)

=

(x 2)(4 + 3x + 1)

3

=

(5 2)(4 + 3 5 + 1)

3

=

38

1

=

8

not equal to

1

8

3

1

1

= =/ .

8

(1 2)(4 + 3 1 + 1) 2

2

x = 1

then

is

(x 2)(4 + 3x + 1)

3

=

(x 2)(4 + 3x + 1)

2.

Let

Express

as a limit. (Do not compute

Solution:

(x0 , f (x0 ))

The slope

x2

x+2

y =

m.)

at the point

y = f (x)

(3, 9).

at the point

f (x) f (x0 )

xx0

x x0

m = lim

or equivalently by the limit

f (x0 + h) f (x0 )

.

h0

h

m = lim

Therefore two possible answers are

x2

(3 + h)2

(9)

(9)

x

+

2

3

+

h

+

2

m = lim

= lim

.

x3

h0

x (3)

h

3.

Suppose that

Solution:

lim f (x) =/ 0

and

lim g(x) = 0.

Assume that

lim

f (x)

g(x)

xc

xc

xc

Show that

f (x)

xc g(x)

lim

L = lim

xc

f (x)

.

g(x)

xc

xc

f (x)

f (x)

g(x)) = lim

lim g(x) = L 0 = 0 .

xc

g(x)

g(x) xc

true:

4.

lim

xc

f (x)

g(x)

lim f (x) =/ 0.

xc

xc

interval containing c. Show that lim (f (x)g(x)) = 0.

Suppose that

some open

Solution:

for all

x =/ c

xc

We have

around c. Therefore

Now applying the Sandwich Theorem and using the fact that

the result.

xc

in

5.

a.

x0

d.

x0

lim f (x) = A

x0+

lim f (x2 x)

b.

x0

e.

x1

and

lim f (x) = B .

x0

c.

lim f (x3 x)

x0+

lim f (x2 x)

Solution: a.

If x < 0, then x2 > 0 and x > 0. Therefore x2 x > 0 for x < 0, and

2

x x approaches 0 from the right as x approaches 0 from the left. lim f (x2 x) = A.

x0

b.

Since

x2 > 0

c.

For

as

d.

Since

left.

e.

x

6.

Let

(x 1)2

lim (f (x2 ) f (x)) = lim f (x2 ) lim f (x) = A B .

for

x0

0 < x < 1,

x0

we have

x3 < x

x0

x3 x < 0. So x3 x approaches

3

Therefore lim f (x x) = B .

+

and

x0

3

3

Hence lim (f (x ) f (x)) = lim f (x ) lim f (x) = B B = 0.

For

x0

0<x<1

x0

we have

x2 < x

Q be the point

+ y 2 = 1 and the

0 from

0 from the

x0

x2 x < 0. x2 x approaches

2

Hence lim f (x x) = B .

and

x1

circle C2 with equation x2 + y 2 = r 2 . Let R be the point where the line

as r 0+ .

P (0, r)

and

intersects the

x-axis.

Solution:

in x2 + y 2 = r 2 gives us Q(r 2 /2,

r2 r4 /4).

Subtracting

and

R(a, 0) be the coordinates of R and let S be the foot of the perpendicular from

Q to the x-axis. Since the triangles RSQ and ROP are similar we have

Let

a r2 /2

a

=

r2 r4 /4 r

and hence

a=

r3 /2

.

r r2 r4 /4

Then

lim+ a = lim+

r0

r0

r3 /2

r r2 r4 /4

r3 /2

(r

+

r2 r4 /4))

r0

r2 (r2 r4 /4)

= 2 lim+ (1 + 1 r2 /4)

r0

= 2 (1 + 1 02 /4) = 4 .

= lim+ (

Therefore

7.*

(4, 0)

as

r 0+ .

Solution:

Given

>0

we want to nd

>0

lim

x1/2

1

= 2.

x

such that

1

1

0 < x < 2 < .

2

x

()

1

2 <

x

for

x.

1

1

2 < 2 < < 2 +

x

x

The next step depends on whether

If

2 > 0,

that is if

< 2,

then

2<

1

1

1

< 2 +

>x>

.

x

2

2+

*Examples marked red are not part of the Fall 2015 syllabus.

If

2 = 0,

that is if

= 2,

then

2<

If

2 < 0,

that is if

> 2,

2<

1

1

< 2 + x >

.

x

2+

then

1

1

< 2 + x >

x

2+

or

1

>x.

2

Next we choose

1

2 < ,

x

1

0 < x <

2

in () holds. In

achieves

this.

for some

> 0.

Then

1

2x 1/2 2

2 =

<

.

x

x

x

to satisfy 1/4. (Why 1/4?) Then

0 < x 1/2 < 1/2 < x < 1/2 + 1/4 < x < 3/4 4 > 1/x > 4/3

1/x < 4 and therefore

1

2

2 <

< 8 .

x

x

1

= and () will hold. In conclusion, any choice of

x

8

satisfying 0 < min{/8, 1/4} works.

lim (x4 + 7x 17) = 43 using the formal denition of the limit.

Solution:

>0

we have to nd a

>0

*Examples marked red are not part of the Fall 2015 syllabus.

7

we have

that 0 < x (3) < and 1. Then 4 3 < x < 3 + 2. In particular,

x < 4. Therefore, using the Triangle Inequality, we obtain x3 3x2 + 9x 20

x3 + 3x2 + 9x + 20 < 43 + 3 42 + 9 4 + 20 = 168. Now if we choose to satisfy

0 < min{/168, 1}, then we have

168 =

168

whenever 0 < x (3) < . We are done.

We have

x 1 <

2

f (x) 3 <

4

x 1 <

g(x) 4 < .

35

and

>0

If we take

1

10

in

1

10

1

1

f (x) 3 <

.

400

10

() we get

in

x 1 <

Therefore if

1

.

5

() we get

x 1 <

If we take

()

such that

Solution:

()

1

,

400

x 1 <

1

1

g(x) 4 <

.

350

10

then we have

by the Triangle Inequality. Hence we can take

Remark:

10.*

Let

In fact, any

f (x) =

a.

Show that if

b.

Show that

94 2

1225

if

x=

1

n

works.

where

is a positive integer,

otherwise.

c =/ 0

then

lim f (x)

x0

1

.

400

lim f (x) = 0.

xc

*Examples marked red are not part of the Fall 2015 syllabus.

8

1

1 1

+

=

10 10 5

Solution: a.

the closest to

Assume

c > 0.

0 < x c < x =/

1

n

= c

1

> 0.

m

1/m

such that

> 0,

1/n

is

where

we have

Therefore

Assume

lim f (x) = 0.

xc

c < 0.

Take

= c.

> 0,

we have

1

for any positive integer n

n

f (x) = 0 f (x) 0 = 0 0 = 0 < .

Therefore

lim f (x) = 0.

b.

Let

xc

there exists a

>0

lim f (x) = L.

> 0,

is not

x0

x,

If

is not 0, let

= L/2 > 0.

Then there is a

>0

such that

Take

x = /2.

Then

0 < x <

is true, but

On the other hand, if

L = 0,

let

= 1/2.

Then there is a

>0

such that

If

but

Hence

11.

lim f (x)

x0

n > 1/ ,

take

x = 1/n.

Then

0 < x <

is true,

cannot exist.

x2 10 = x sin x

Solution:

f (10) =

2

10 10 10 sin(10) = 90 10 sin(10) 90 10 = 80 > 0. Note that f is

continuous on

the function

in

( 0, 10)

[ 0, 10].

f (c) = 0. This c is also a solution of the given equation.

on the interval

such that

12.

x2

= cos x .

4

a.

b.

c.

Solution:

Let

f (x) = 1

As

f (0) = 0, x = 0

x2

cos x.

4

f.

x2

= cos x

4

is one zero.

f () = 2 2 /4 < 0

and

as

4 > > 3.

As

is continuous on the entire real line, applying the Intermediate Value Theorem to

the function

[/2, ]

on the interval

f (c) = 0.

in this

is even, we have

f (c) = f (c) = 0,

and

x = c

is our third

zero.

13.

Show that at any moment there are two antipodal points on the equator of the Earth with

Solution:

We will

. We

in radians,

= 7/4, and

consider the equator as a circle, and use the longitude as our coordinate

choose the positive direction for

and let it take any real value.

= 15/4,

T ( + 2) = T ()

for all

So 45 W corresponds to = /4,

Note that

We let

T ()

T is a continuous

T (c + ) = T (c).

such that

We have

function. We

continuous. Our quest to nd a c such that T (c + ) = T (c) is equivalent to nd a

c such that f (c) = 0. If f (0) = 0, then we let c = 0 and we are done. Suppose that

f (0) =/ 0. Observe that f (0) = T () T (0) = T () T (2) = f (). In other words,

f (0) and f () have opposite signs. Now we apply the Intermediate Value Theorem

to f on the interval [0, ] for the value 0, and conclude that there is a point c in

[0, ] such that f (c) = 0. We are done.

Consider the function

Remark:

It is possible to show that at any moment there are two antipodal points on Earth

10

14.

y = x3

(2, 4).

Solution:

As dy/dx = d(x3 )/dx = 3x2 , the equation of the tangent line through

3

3

2

a point (x0 , x0 ) on the graph is y x0 = 3x0 (x x0 ). This line passes through

(2, 4) exactly when 4 x30 = 3x20 (2 x0 ), or in other words, x30 3x20 + 2 = 0. We

(x0 1)(x20 2x0 2). The roots of the quadratic factor are x0 = 1 3.

3,

10

+

6

3), and

(1 3, 10 6 3) pass through

(2,

4)

. The equations of these lines are y = 3x 2,

y = (12 + 6 3)x (20 + 12 3), and y = (12 6 3)x (20 12 3), respectively.

observe that

x30 3x20 + 2 =

15.

Solution:

lim

x0

lim

x0

1 + sin2 x2 cos3 x2

.

x3 tan x

1 + sin2 x2 1 1 cos3 x2 x

1 + sin2 x2 cos3 x2

+

= lim

x0

x3 tan x

x4

x4

tan x

sin x2 2

1

x

1 cos3 x2

= lim ((( 2 )

)

+

)

4

2

x0

x

x

tan x

1 + sin x2 + 1

sin x2

=1

x0 x2

1

1

1

lim

=

=

2 2

2 2

x0

1 + sin x + 1

1 + sin 0 + 1 2

x

lim

=1

x0 tan x

lim

11

and

1 cos3 x2

1 cos x2

=

lim

(

(1 + cos x2 + cos2 x2 ))

x0

x0

x4

x4

2 sin2 (x2 /2)

(1 + cos x2 + cos2 x2 ))

= lim (

x0

x4

lim

1

sin(x2 /2)

= (lim

) lim(1 + cos x2 + cos2 x2 )

x0

2 x0 x2 /2

1

= 12 3

2

3

= .

2

1 + sin2 x2 cos3 x2

1 3

lim

= (1 + ) 1 = 2 .

3

x0

x tan x

2 2

Therefore:

16.

x = 1.

dy

= 2 sin(x3 /6) cos(x3 /6) 3x2 /6 .

dx

3

dy

= 2 sin(/6) cos(/6) /2 =

.

dx x=1

4

Solution:

Since

yx=1 = 1/4,

line as

1

y =

4

3

(x 1)

4

y=

17.

Let

3

1 3

x+

.

4

4

2x + x2 sin( )

f (x) =

a.

Find

b.

Show that

f (x)

for all

Therefore,

x.

is not continuous at

0.

12

if

x =/ 0,

if

x = 0.

Solution: a.

For

f (x) =

for

x =/ 0.

For

x=0

d

(2x + x2 sin(1/x)) = 2 + 2x sin(1/x) + x2 cos(1/x) (1/x2 )

dx

f (0 + h) f (0)

2h + h2 sin(1/h)

= lim

h0

h0

h

h

1

= lim 2 + lim h sin( ) = 2 + 0 = 2

h0

h0

h

f (0) = lim

lim h sin(1/h) = 0

h0

Squeeze) Theorem. Here is a recap of the proof: Since sin(1/h) 1 for all h =

/0

Here we used the fact that

we have

h sin(1/h) = h sin(1/h) h

for all

1

h h sin( ) h

h

As

lim h = 0 = lim(h),

h0

lim h sin(1/h) =

h0

h0

0.

To summarize:

b.

it

follows

h =/ 0.

for all

by

the

1

1

2 + 2x sin( ) cos( )

x

x

f (x) =

lim f (x).

h =/ 0 .

Sandwich

if

x =/ 0,

if

x = 0.

Theorem

that

(a)

.

x0

x0

However lim cos(1/x) does not exist. It follows that lim f (x) does not exist and

x0

x0

hence f is not continuous at 0.

Consider

x0

We have

lim 2 = 2

Therefore

13

18.

Find

d2 y

dx2 (x,y)=(2,1)

Solution:

x3 + 2y 3 = 5xy

d/dx

3x2 + 6y 2

dy

dy

= 5y + 5x

dx

dx

()

x = 2, y = 1

12 + 6

dy

dy

= 5 + 10

dx

dx

dy

=7

dx

dy 7

=

dx 4

at

(x, y) = (2, 1)

14

()

with respect to

derivative.

3x2 + 6y 2

dy

dy

= 5y + 5x

dx

dx

d/dx

dy

d2 y

dy

dy

d2 y

6x + 12y ( ) + 6y 2 2 = 5

+5

+ 5x 2

dx

dx

dx

dx

dx

x = 2, y = 1,

dy 7

=

dx 4

d2 y

7

d2 y

7

12 + 12 ( ) + 6 2 = 10 + 10 2

4

dx

4

dx

d2 y 125

=

dx2

16

Remark:

19.

at

from

(x, y) = (2, 1)

(),

viz.

y =

y .

to nd

5y 3x2

,

6y 2 5x

and then

the axis of rotation of the crankshaft. Determine how fast the crankshaft is rotating when the

piston is 11 cm away from the axis of rotation and is moving toward it at a speed of 1200

cm/sec.

Solution:

Let

P (x, y)

and

Q(a, 0)

the picture. The axis of rotation of the crankshaft passes through the origin of the

xy -plane

The point

crankshaft moves on a circle with radius 5 cm and center at the origin. The point

Q where the rod is connected to the piston moves along the positive x-axis.

angle between the ray OP and the positive x-axis.

y

P (x, y)

14 c

m

Q(a, 0)

x

x2 + y 2 = 25

a = 11 cm

and

da

d

= 1200 cm/sec

=?

dt

dt

15

is the

We have

x2 + y 2 = 52

(I)

and

(x a)2 + y 2 = 142 .

(II)

At the moment in question a = 11 cm. Substituting this in (I) and (II) we obtain

x2 + y 2 = 52 and (x 11)2 + y 2 = 142 . Subtracting the second equation from the

rst

2

2

2

gives 22x11 = 5 14 , and solving for x we get x = 25/11 cm. Then y = 20 6/11

cm.

Dierentiating (I) and (II) with respect to time

x

and

(x a) (

At the moment in question

y = 20 6/11

a = 11

we obtain

dx

dy

+y

=0

dt

dt

(III)

dx da

dy

)+y

=0.

dt dt

dt

(IV)

cm,

da

= v = 1200

dt

cm/sec,

x = 25/11

cm and

dy

dx

+4 6

=0

dt

dt

(V )

and

dy

dx

+ 20 6

= 146v .

(VI)

dt

dt

dx

dx 146

Subtracting 5 times (V) from (VI) we nd 121

= 146 v , and hence

=

v.

dt

dt 121

dy

365

v.

Substituting this back in (V) gives

=

dt 242 6

146

d

.

dt

Since

tan = y/x,

dierentiation gives

dy

dx

x y

d

sec2

= dt 2 dt

dt

x

and using

we obtain

dy

dx

d x dt y dt

.

=

dt

x2 + y 2

25

20 6

dx 146

Plugging x =

cm, y =

cm,

=

v,

11

11

dt 121

d

73

1460 6

v=

gives

=

radian/sec.

dt

11

110 6

16

and

dy

365

v

=

dt 242 6

in this formula

Remark:

Remark:

2 5 x cos

1460 6

11

radian/sec is

1460 6 60

11

2

This problem has a shorter solution if we use the law of cosines. Start with

= 142 and dierentiate with respect to t to obtain

x2 + 52

d 5 cos 11

=

v.

dt

5 sin

Put

x = 11

cos = 5/11

and then

sin = 4 6/11.

Now

20.

Determine how fast the length of an edge of a cube is changing at the moment when the

length of the edge is 5 cm and the volume of the cube is decreasing at a rate of 100 cm3/sec.

Solution:

a denote the length of an edge of the cube, and V denote the volume

of the cube. Then we have V = a3 . Dierentiating with respect to time t gives

dV

da

dV

= 3a2

. Substituting

= 100 cm3/sec and a = 5 cm for the moment in

dt

dt

dt

da

4

question, we obtain

= cm/sec. Therefore the length of the edge is decreasing

dt

3

4

at a rate of

cm/sec at that moment.

3

21.

Let

We measure the radius and the height of a cone with 1% and 2% errors, respectively. We

use these data to compute the volume of the cone. Estimate the percentage error in volume.

Solution:

r , h,

Let

and

respectively.

V =

2

2

dV

dr dh

r h dV =

rhdr + r2 dh

=2

+

.

3

3

3

V

r

h

is 1% we have

dr

1% .

r

Similarly

dh

2% .

h

dV

dr dh

dr

dh

= 2

+ 2 + 2 1% + 2% = 4% .

V

r

h

r

h

17

22.

A cone of radius 2 cm and height 5 cm is lowered point rst into a tall cylinder of radius

7 cm that is partially lled with water. Determine how fast the depth of the water is changing

at the moment when the cone is completely submerged if the cone is moving with a speed of 3

cm/s at that moment.

Solution:

Let

and

be the radius and the height of the part of the cone that is

and let

be the vertical distance from the tip of the cone to the bottom of the

cylinder. Let

V0

Then

2

4

V0 = 7 L r2 h = 72 L ( h) h = 49L h3

3

3 5

75

2

r/h = 2/5.

0=

gives

d

dL 4 2 dh

V0 = 49

h

.

dt

dt 25 dt

cm and

49

h=5

dL

dh

=4

.

dt

dt

h = L y

because

dy/dt = 3

dh dL

dh dL dy

=

=

+3

dt dt dt

dt dt

dL/dt = 4/15

18

23.

A water tank has the shape of an upside-down cone with radius 2 m and height 5 m. The

water is running out of the tank through a small hole at the bottom. Assume that the speed of

the water owing through the hole is proportional to the square root of the depth of the water

in the tank.

a.

m.

moment.

b.

is full. Find the rate at which the water level is changing when the depth of the water in the

tank is

c.

5

m.

In this part, suppose that it takes 3 minutes for the depth of the water to decrease from

m to

m. Find how long it takes for the full tank to completely drain.

Solution:

Let

r

V

and

denote the radius and the height of the cone formed by the

obtain

we

V =

and hence:

In part

r/h = 2/5,

2

2

4 3

r h = ( h) h =

h

3

3 5

75

dV 4 2 dh

=

h

dt 25

dt

rate of 75/(64) m/min in part (a).

Hence the water level is falling at a

Substituting these

m/min.

Now we will use the condition that the speed of the water owing through the hole

is proportional to the square root of the depth of the water in the tank. This means

dV

= k h

dt

for some positive constant

k.

4 2 dh

k h =

h

25

dt

19

()

In part

these in

() we obtain:

that

dh/dt = 1/3

m/min when

h=5

m.

Substituting

4 2

1

k 5 =

5 ( )

25

3

() gives

4 2 dh

k 4 =

4

25

dt

h = 4 m.

5 5/24 m/min.

when

(b).

For part

dh/dt =

dh/dt

4 3/2

h dh = k dt

25

8 5/2

h = kt + C

125

for some constant C . In other words, h5/2 = at + b for some constants a and b. As

h = 5 m when t = 0 min, we have b = 55/2 . Using the condition in part (c) that h = 4

m when t = 3 min we obtain 45/2 = a 3 + 55/2 , so a = (55/2 45/2 )/3. Finally, the

tank is empty when h = 0 and this happens when t = b/a = 3 55/2 /(55/2 45/2 ) min.

Hence the tank drains in 3/(1 (4/5)5/2 ) minutes in part (c).

20

24.

Find the absolute maximum value and the absolute minimum value of

on the interval

[1, 6].

continuous function f on a closed interval [ a, b] of nite length:

i. Compute

minimum values of a

f .

iii. Add the endpoints

and

f

b

in

(a, b).

to this list.

v. The largest value is the the absolute maximum and the smallest value is the absolute

minimum of

Solution:

x=0

on

[a, b].

4

1

f (x) = x1/3 1 x2/3 .

3

3

x = 0, therefore

= 0.

4 1/3

1

x 1 x2/3 = 0 we let z = x1/3 to obtain the equation 4z 3 3z 2

3

3

1 = 0. Since z = 1 is a root, we have the factorization 4z 3 3z 2 1 = (z 1)(4z 2 +z +1).

As the quadratic factor has no real roots, z = 1 is the only solution. Therefore

x = z 3 = 13 = 1, which belongs to the interval [1, 6], is the only other critical point.

In the equation

5 61/3 6 > 3 5 61/3 > 9 53 6 > 93 725 > 721.

61/3 6.

on the interval [1, 6] are 5 61/3 6 and 1, respectively.

25.

interval

f (x) =

[ 0, ).

Remark:

Observe that

x2

x+1

+x+9

on the

When looking for the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum values of a

continuous function on an interval that is not necessarily closed or of nite length, a modied

version of the algorithm above can be used.

In Step iv , if an endpoint does not belong to the interval, then we compute the appropriate

one-sided limit of the function at that point instead of the value of the function.

In Step v , if the largest value (which can be

Solution:

and

x = 2.

f (0) =

We compute

Only

x=2

1

1

, f (2) =

,

9

5

is in the

and

x2 + 2x 8

. The roots of f (x) = 0 are x = 4

(x2 + x + 9)2

interval [ 0, ). So our list is 0, 2, and .

f (x) =

lim f (x) = 0.

x

and there is no absolute minimum.

Since

21

1 1

> > 0,

5 9

1

5

26.

f (x0 ) = 0

for some

Solution:

x0 > 0.

x0 > 0,

Since

x1 such that 0 < x1 < x0 and f (x1 ) = 0.

satises

then there is

is dierentiable,

Show that if

f

(x

)

f

(0)

1

0

is c such that 0 < c < x0 and f (c) =

= < 0. Then f (x) = f (x/2)

x0 0

x0

gives f (c/2) = f (c) < 0. We also have f (0) = 1 > 0. We apply the Intermediate

Value Theorem to f on [ 0, c/2] to conclude that there is x1 such that 0 < x1 < c/2

and f (x1 ) = 0. As 0 < x1 < c/2 < c < x0 we are done.

Remark:

f (x) > 1

27.

f (1) = 5, and f (x) 0 for all x, then f (x) 1/3 for all 0 x 1.

for all

x > 0.

= 1, f (0) = 1, f (1) = 2,

Solution:

Let x1 < x2 be in [0, 1]. The Mean Value Theorem applied to the

function f on the interval [x1 , x2 ] says that there is a point c in (x1 , x2 ) such that

f (x2 ) f (x1 )

= f (c). As f (c) 0 we have f (x1 ) f (x2 ). In particular, we

x2 x1

have 1 = f (0) f (x) f (1) = 5 for all x in (0, 1).

0 < x < 1.

Let

interval

f (c1 ) 1,

f on the

f (x) f (0)

= f (c1 ). Since

x0

in

it follows that

f (x) x + 1

( Q)

0 < x < 1. Similarly, applying the Mean Value Theorem to the function

f on the interval [x, 1], we see that there exists a point c2 in (x, 1) such that

f (1) f (x)

= f (c2 ). Now using the fact that f (c2 ) 5 we conclude that

1x

for

f (x) 5x 3

for

0 < x < 1.

5

[0, 1].

Adding

in

(QQ)

Remark:

22

for all

in

[0, 1].

x

x =

x (1 x).

3

3

3

(, 0) and (1, ).

Solution:

y

<0

on

y = 5x2/3 2x5/3 .

y =

20

10 4/3 20 1/3

x

x

= x4/3 (x + 1/2).

9

9

9

y < 0 on (1/2, 0) and (0, ).

y =

Therefore

Therefore

y > 0

y > 0

on

(0, 1),

and

(, 1/2),

and

on

x

y

y

1/2

+

"

28.

^

^

^

^

inf.pt.

We compute the

minimum,

y -coordinates

"

loc.min.

loc.max.

(0, 0)

and (1/2, 3 2) for the inection point.

3

2 > 1, we have 3 3 2 > 3. Also note that the function is continuous

at

x = 0,

but

lim y = lim+ (

x0+

x0

and

lim y = lim (

x0

Therefore

(0, 0)

or

x = 5/2.

10 1/3

x (1 x)) = .

3

is a cusp.

x0

10 1/3

x (1 x)) =

3

(The

23

Remark:

24

29.

Two corridors meet at a corner. One of the corridors is 2 m wide and the other one is 3

m wide. What is the length of the longest ladder that can be carried horizontally around this

corner?

Solution:

of

Length of the longest ladder will be equal to the absolute minimum value

in the picture.

y

2m

L

3m

x

Using the relation

3/x = y/2

we obtain

Therefore we have to minimize

2

L = (x2 + 9)1/2 (1 + )

x

for

0<x< .

dL

2

2

= (x2 + 9)1/2 x (1 + ) + (x2 + 9)1/2 ( 2 ) = 0

dx

x

x

18

x + 2 (2 + 2 ) = 0 x = 181/3 m L = (22/3 + 32/3 )3/2

x

Since

lim L = and lim L = , the value at the critical point is indeed the absolute

x0+

minimum.

Hence the length of the longest ladder that can be carried around this corner is

(22/3 + 32/3 )3/2 m.

Remark:

m is approximately

7.02

25

m.

30.

Find the maximum possible total surface area of a cylinder inscribed in a hemisphere of

radius 1.

Solution:

h=

2

1/2

(1 r ) . Hence we want to maximize

for

S = 2r2 + 2rh.

We have

0 r 1.

1 dS

= 2r + (1 r2 )1/2 r2 (1 r2 )1/2 = 0

2 dr

2r(1 r2

)1/2 = 2r2 1 4r2 (1 r2 ) = (2r2 1)2 8r4 8r2 + 1 = 0

8 32

1

r2 =

. Note that 2r(1 r 2 )1/2 = 2r 2 1 implies r 2

, and therefore

16

2

2+ 2

2+ 2

r2 =

and r =

.

4

2

2+ 2

We get S = (1 + 2) at the critical point r =

, S = 0 at the endpoint r = 0,

2

and S = 2 at the endpoint r = 1. As

First we nd the critical points:

The maximum possible surface area of the cylinder is

26

(1 +

2) .

31.

A fold is formed on a 20 cm

side to the long side by placing a corner over the long side. Find the minimum possible length

of the fold.

Solution:

ABCD be the sheet of paper and let P be the point on the edge

C is folded over. The fold runs from Q on the edge BC to R

on the edge CD . Let S be the projection of R on to the edge AB . Let L be the

length of the fold QR and let x = CQ.

AB

Let

Q

x

A

P Q/P

B = RP /RS by the similarity

of the triangles P BQ and RSP . Hence

2

2

RP = 20x/ x (20 x) = 20x/ 40x 400 and L2 = RQ2 = RP 2 + P Q2 =

400x2 /(40x 400) + x2 = x3 /(x 10). The largest possible value of x is 20

cm. The smallest possible value of x occurs when RP = 30 cm; that is when

Then

Dierentiating

where

L2 = x3 /(x 10)

x = 15 cm

L = 15 3 cm.

obtain

for

45 15 5 x 20.

dL/dx = 0 we

x = 15 cm we have

and setting

cm we have

L = 15 18 6 5 cm.

15 3

At the endpoint

Since

of the shortest possible fold is 3 3w/4. Therefore, for a A4 size paper with w = 210 mm and

= 297 mm, the shortest fold is approximately 273 mm; and for a letter size paper with w = 8.5

in and = 11 in, the shortest fold is approximately 11.04 in.

Remark:

27

32.

The Rubber Duck is a sculpture designed by Florentijn Hofman and constructed from

PVC. For the purposes of this question, we consider the Rubber Duck to consist of a spherical

head of radius

b.

a

a

b (1 b )(a + b)

K =

if

0 a < b,

if

0 < b a.

Find the dimensions of the cutest Rubber Duck with a total surface area of

Solution:

4b2 =

400 m2 , giving b2 = 100 a2 . Therefore,

a(100 2a2 )

100 a2

K =

if

4a2 + 4b2 .

400 m2 .

Hence

4a2 +

0 a 5 2,

otherwise,

K =

on the interval

0a5 2

100a 2a3

100 a2

occurs.

dK

(100 6a2 )(100 a2 ) (100a 2a3 )(2a)

,

=

da

(100 a2 )2

dK /da = 0

gives

2

a =

= 125 25 17 ,

2

28

formula we obtain

of

a = 5 5 + 17, 5 5 17, 5 5 + 17, 5 5 17 .

5

2. On the

a = 5 5 17

Only the rst two of these are positive and the rst one is greater than

other hand,

0 < 5 5 17 < 5 2

as

3<

17 < 5.

We conclude that

We have

K = 10 5

for

a = 5 5 17.

As

K =0

17 3

17

>0

17 1

at the endpoints

a=0

and

a=5 2

of the interval,

Therefore the cutest Rubber Duck has

33.

a = 5 5 17

m and

b=5

17 1

m.

coal, a carrot, a hat and a scarf. For the purposes of this question, we consider a snowman to

consist of a spherical head of radius

b,

that the snow does not melt and its density does not change while it is being sculpted.

The research shows that the cuteness

of a snowman is given by

a

a

2

2

( b ) (1 b ) (a + ab + b )

K =

if

0 a < b,

if

0 < b a.

Find the dimensions of the cutest snowman that can be built with

Solution:

29

4 3 4 3

a +

b.

3

3

4/3 m3

Hence

of snow.

4 3 4 3

a +

b =

3

3

4

3

m3 , giving

b3 = 1 a 3 .

Therefore,

a2 (1 2a3 )

3

K = 1a

1

0a

,

3

2

if

otherwise,

K =

on the interval

1

0a

3

2

a2 2a5

1 a3

occurs.

dK

(2a 10a4 )(1 a3 ) (a2 2a5 )(3a2 )

=

,

da

(1 a3 )2

dK /da = 0

3

2 and

a = 1/ 3 4. Hence the only critical point in

the critical points are a = 0, a =

3

the interval we are interested in is a = 1/ 4.

3

3

We have K = 1/(3 2) > 0 for a = 1/ 4. As K = 0 at the endpoints a = 0 and

1

a=

of the interval, this is the absolute maximum value.

3

2

3

3

Therefore the cutest snowman has a = 1/ 4 m and b =

3/4 m.

34.

gives

cake of height

h,

and topping it with a spherical cap of ice cream and surrounding it with a

hemispherical ring of chocolate mousse as shown in the gure. If the cake costs 8/ /dm3 , the

ice cream costs 9/ /dm3 and the chocolate mousse costs 12/ /dm3 , determine the value of

for

(a) the least expensive and (b) the most expensive dessert that can be made.

You may use the fact that the volume of a hemispherical ring of height

h is 2h3 /3.

Ice cream

(9/

/dm3 )

Cake

(8/

/dm3 )

Chocolate

mousse

30

(12/

/dm3 )

Solution:

We have

Cost

12

(Volume

of the ring) +

8

(Volume

of the cylinder)

9

(Volume of the cap)

9 2

2

12 2 3 8

h + (1 h2 )h + ( 13 h3 (1 h2 )h)

=

3

3

3

+

= 6 h + 3h3

and hence we want to nd the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum values

of

Cost

= 6 h + 3h3

gives

h = 1/3

dm and

h = 1/3 dm.

52/9

for

Only the rst of these are in the interval [0, 1],

.

dm gives Cost

=8

35.

h=1

h=0

dm gives Cost

=6

, and

h=1

has

0h1.

dm.

and height

mounted horizontally on top of four rectangular walls of height h as shown in the gure. We

have 200 m2 of plastic sheet to be used in the construction of this structure. Find the value

of

for the greenhouse with the largest possible volume we can build.

Solution:

We have

200 m2 = Total

Surface Area

1

1

= 2 (r + 2r)h + 2 r2 + 2r r

2

2

walls

half-disks

31

top

and hence

h=

100

(

r).

3 r

0 < r 10.

In particular,

Let

1

V = r 2r h + r2 r

2

bottom

top

and substituting

in terms of

Maximize

V =

(400r r3 )

6

for

0 < r 10.

(0, 10].

20

V = (400 3r2 ) = 0 r = m

dr

6

3

3 < 2, there are no critical points

our interval. Now we look at the endpoints. At r = 0 we have lim V = 0, and

r0+

r = 10 we have V = 500 .

Therefore the maximum possible volume is

h=0

36.

Let

500

m and

m.

be a continuous function.

x2

a.

Find

f (4)

if

b.

Find

f (4)

if

Solution:

a.

f (t) dt = x sin x

f (x)

t2 dt = x sin x

x2

x.

for all

for all

x.

FTC1

x

d

d

f (t) dt =

(x sin x)

dx 0

dx

x = 2 we get f (4) = /2.

f (t) dt = x sin x

0

f (x ) 2x = sin x + x cos x.

2

Now letting

f (x)

t3

f (x)3

b.

t dt = x sin x ] = x sin x

= x sin x.

3 0

3

0

gives f (4) = 0.

f (x)

Remark:

r = 10

in

at

(b), f (x) =

Hence

3x sin x

x = 4

is the unique

In part

(a),

anything for

sin x

f (x) =

+ cos x for x > 0,

2

2 x

x < 0 so long as it is continuous.

32

and

f (0) =

37.

Compute

d2 y

dx2 (x,y)=(0,0)

if

x+y

Solution:

we obtain:

is a dierentiable function of

et dt = xy

2

x+y

et dt = xy

2

d/dx

x+y

d

d

2

et dt =

(xy)

dx 0

dx

FTC1

e(x+y)

2

d

d

(x + y) =

(xy)

dx

dx

e(x+y) (1 +

2

dy

dy

)=y+x

dx

dx

(e)

x = 0, y = 0

dy

= 1

dx

Now dierentiating (e) with respect to

at

(x, y) = (0, 0)

again we get:

e(x+y) (1 +

2

dy

dy

)=y+x

dx

dx

d/dx

d

dy

d

dy

2

(e(x+y) (1 + )) =

(y + x )

dx

dx

dx

dx

(x+y)2

2

dy

dy dy

d2 y

2 d y

(2(x + y))(1 + ) + e(x+y)

=

+

+

x

dx

dx2 dx dx

dx2

x = 0, y = 0, dy/dx = 1

d2 y

= 2

dx2

33

at

(x, y) = (0, 0)

38.

Suppose that

f (x) = x

for all

x,

and

f (t) dt + x3

f (c) = 1.

Solution:

Express

f (c)

in terms of

only.

We have:

FTC1

x

x

x

d

d

dx

dx 0

0

0

Now substituting

c

0

f (t) dt + c3

and

f (c) = 1

we obtain:

f (c) =

Remark:

c

0

f (x) = 2x(ex

2 /2

f (c) c3

1

+ c + 3c2 = + c + 2c2

c

c

condition.

39.

Solution:

3

sin(xt ) dt

lim 0

x0

x5

1/3

0 sin(xt ) dt = x

3

x4/3

sin(u3 ) du

Now we have:

x4/3

3

x1/3 0 sin(u3 ) du

0 sin(xt ) dt

lim

= lim

x0

x0

x5

x5

x4/3

sin(u3 ) du

= lim 0

x0

x16/3

d x4/3

3

0 sin(u ) du

dx

= lim

x0

16/3 x13/3

L'H

x0

16/3 x13/3

sin(x4 ) 4/3 x1/3

= lim

x0

16/3 x13/3

1

sin(x4 )

= lim

4 x0 x4

1

1

= 1=

4

4

FTC1

= lim

34

to obtain:

40.

8, f (2) = 5, f (2) = 3, f (2) = 7 ; and also suppose that the function

g(x) =

has a critical point at

x = 2.

1 x

f (t) dt

x 0

at

x=2

is a local

Solution:

d

d 1 x

g(x) =

(

f (t) dt)

dx

dx x 0

FTC1

x

x

1

1d

f

(t)

dt

+

f (t) dt

x2 0

x dx 0

x

1

1

= 2 f (t) dt + f (x)

x 0

x

and

as

g (2) = 0

we

must

have

1/4

2

0

and

hence

Now dierentiating a second time we obtain that:

x

d

1

1

d2

g(x)

=

(

f

(t)

dt

+

f (x))

dx2

dx

x2 0

x

FTC1

x

x

1 d

1

2

1

f

(t)

dt

f

(t)

dt

f

(x)

+

f (x)

x3 0

x2 dx 0

x2

x

x

2

1

1

1

= 3 f (t) dt 2 f (x) 2 f (x) + f (x)

x 0

x

x

x

Substituting

x=2

in this we get

g (2) =

and conclude that

41.

Suppose that

1

1 2

1

3

f (t) dt f (2) + f (2) = < 0

4 0

2

2

2

x = 2.

[0, 5],

y = f (x) and the x-axis for 0 x 5 is 8. Let A(c) denote the area between the graph

y = f (x) and the x-axis for 0 x c, and let B(c) denote the area between the graph of

dR

= 7, nd

y = f (x) and the x-axis for c x 5. Let R(c) = A(c)/B(c). If R(3) = 1 and

dc c=3

f (3).

graph of

of

Solution:

We have

A(3) = B(3) = 4.

A(3) + B(3) = 8

and

35

implying

As

A(c) =

c

0

f (t) dt

Calculus Part 1 we obtain A (c) =

A (3) = f (3) and B (3) = f (3).

and

B(c) =

5

c

f (t) dt ,

f (c) and B (c) = f (c). In particular,

d

d A(c) A (c)B(c) A(c)B (c)

R(c) =

=

dc

dc B(c)

B(c)2

and letting

7=

Let

gives

d

A (3)B(3) A(3)B (3) f (3)B(3) + A(3)f (3) f (3)

R(c) =

=

=

dc

B(3)2

B(3)2

2

c=3

and hence

42.

c=3

f (3) = 14.

g(x) =

Express

g (x)

f (x)

in terms of

Solution:

For

1 < x < 1

g(x) =

x

1

= x

for

1

1

1 < x < 1.

f (t) (x t) dt +

x

f (t) x t dt .

f (t) dt

x

1

1

x

g(x)

as follows:

f (t) (t x) dt

f (t)t dt +

1

x

f (t)t dt x

1

x

f (t) dt

g (x) =

=

=

x

1

x

1

x

1

x

x

d

d

f (t) dt

f (t)t dt

dx 1

dx 1

1

1

1

d

d

+

f (t)t dt f (t) dt x

f (t) dt

dx x

dx x

x

f (t) dt + x

f (t) dt

1

x

1

x

f (t) dt + xf (x)

f (t) dt

g (x)

to nd

x

1

d

d

f (t) dt

f (t) dt

dx 1

dx x

= f (x) + f (x)

= 2f (x)

g (x) =

for

1 < x < 1.

36

43.

lim (n (

1

1

1

+

++

)) .

2

2

(2n + 1)

(2n + 3)

(4n 1)2

1

on the interval [2, 4]. If we divide this

x2

2

2k

interval into n subintervals of equal length

using the points xk = 2 +

, 0 k n,

n

n

2k 1

and choose our sample points to be the midpoints ck = 2 +

, 1 k n, of these

n

Solution:

f (x) =

k=1

k=1

f (ck ) xk = f (2 +

n

2k 1 2

2n

) =

n

n k=1 (2n + 2k 1)2

4 dx

2n

1 4

1 1 1

=

=

] = + = .

2

2

x 2

4 2 4

2 x

k=1 (2n + 2k 1)

n

lim

n

Therefore

lim (n (

44.

1

1

1

1

+

++

)) = .

2

2

2

(2n + 1)

(2n + 3)

(4n 1)

8

When pirates retire, they live on the Square Island which has the shape of a square with

10 hectometer (=hm) long sides. Having lived all their lives on it, the retired pirates want to

be as far away from the sea as possible. As a result, the pirate population density

p(x)

at a

point on the Square Island is proportional to the distance x of the point from the shore and

reaches its largest value of 15 pirate/hm2 at the center of the island. Find the total number N

of the pirates on the island.

37

Solution:

x hm lie

and 10 2x hm long.

Firstly, we have

to the sides of the island

on a square whose sides are parallel

Now consider another square which consists of points whose distances to the shore

are x+x hm for some small positive x, and choose a x which lies between x and

x + x.

Then the number of pirates living in the strip between these two squares is

4 (10 2x) p(x ) x.

approximately

Hence

i=1

for a partition 0 = x0 < x1 < < xn1 < xn = 5 of the interval

xi in [xi1 , xi ] for 1 i n, and in the limit we obtain:

N = 4(10 2x)p(x) dx

0

This gives:

N =

5

0

5 2 1 3 5

4(10 2x)(3x) dx = 24 (5x x ) dx = 24 [ x x ] = 500

2

3 0

0

5

Remark:

Imagine that the entire landscape of the Square Island consists of just a mountain

p(x)

hm. Then

the island has the shape of a square pyramid with a 10 hm by 10 hm base and 15 hm height,

and

1

N = (height)(area

3

of the base)

38

1

15 102 = 500

3

Remark:

45.

Example 30 in Part 2.

a.

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx

b.

1

0 x 1 x dx

Solution: a.

Let

u = sin(x2 ).

Then

du = 2x cos(x2 ) dx,

and

1

1 u2

1

2

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 2 u du = 2 2 + C = 4 sin (x ) + C .

b.

Let

u = 1 x.

1

Then

du = dx,

In part

x = 0 u = 1, x = 1 u = 0.

Therefore:

0

1

1

=[

Remark:

and

u3/2

3/2

1

u5/2

5/2

] =

0

2 2 4

=

3 5 15

1

2

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 4 cos (x ) + C ;

39

1

sin(2x2 ), and then let u = sin(2x2 ),

2

1

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 8 cos(2x ) + C .

obtain the answer

sin(x2 ) cos(x2 ) =

then we

1

2

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 4 sin (x ) + C1

1

2

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 4 cos (x ) + C2

1

2

2

2

x sin(x ) cos(x ) dx = 8 cos(2x ) + C3

then

46.

C2 = C1 +

1

4

Show that

C3 = C1 +

1

.

8

a

a

f (x)

0 f (x) + f (a x) dx = 2

Solution:

Let

and

Let

u = a x.

[0, a] .

a

f (x)

I =

dx .

0 f (x) + f (a x)

Then

du = dx, x = 0 u = a, x = a u = 0,

and

a

0

a

f (x)

f (a u)

f (a x)

I =

dx =

(du) =

dx .

0 f (x) + f (a x)

a f (a u) + f (u)

0 f (x) + f (a x)

Therefore

a

f (x)

f (a x)

dx +

dx

0 f (x) + f (a x)

0 f (x) + f (a x)

a f (x) + f (a x)

dx

=

0 f (x) + f (a x)

a

2I =

=

and

I=

a

0

dx = a

a

.

2

(See

40

Remark:

x- and

y = f (x)/(f (x) + f (a x)) is

rectangle with a vertex at the origin, and sides along the positive

lengths

and 1, respectively.

The graph of

(a/2, 1/2)

a

I= .

2

Let

y -axes

and

symmetric with

y = x x2 and

R about the x-axis.

the

x-axis,

and let

a.

Express

b.

Express

Solution:

x-axis at x = 0 and x = 1.

For part

(a).

d

V = 2 (radius

c

41

be the

Therefore we have

V = R(x)2 dx = (x x2 )2 dx

0

0

for part

with

47.

the

x-axis.

We have

c = 0

and

d = 1/4 ,

the

y-

coordinate of the highest point of the parabola. The radius of the shell is the vertical

distance from the red rectangle in the gure to the

x-axis,

which is

y.

The height

of the shell is the horizontal length of the rectangle; that is, the dierence between

the

x-coordinates

equation

y=

xx2 for

respectively. Hence

V = 2

1/4

0

y(

1+

1+

1 4y

2

and

1 4y 1 1 4y

) dy .

2

2

42

By solving the

x=

1 4y

,

2

48.

rotating R about the x-axis. Let W be the volume obtained by rotating R about the y -axis.

Let

a.

Express

b.

Express

c.

Compute

using both the disk method and the cylindrical shells method.

Solution:

and

W.

By symmetry,

vertical rectangles, when revolved about the x-axis, form the disks that are used in

the computation of V , and therefore the radii of the disks are given by

x2 x4 .

of

using both the disk method and the cylindrical shells method.

Hence:

V = 2 (radius

0

Again by symmetry,

of

2

of disk) dx

1

= 2 ( x2 x4 )2 dx

0

y -axis.

that are used in the computation of

y -axis,

W.

To nd the outer and the inner radii of the washers we have to solve y 2 =

x2 x4 for x.

2

2

2

2

2

Applying the quadratic formula to (x ) x +y = 0 we obtain x = (1 1 4y 2 )/2,

43

x=

(1 +

1 4y 2 )/2

and

x=

(1

1 4y 2 )/2

1/2

1 + 1 4y 2 2

1 1 4y 2 2

1/2

= 2

((

) (

) ) dy

2

2

0

W = 2

0

about the

y -axis

When revolved

the red vertical rectangles generate the cylindrical shells that are

by

x2 x4 . Hence:

W = 2 2 (radius

0

W,

of shell)(height of shell) dx

x-axis

1

= 2 2 x x2 x4 dx

0

(1 1 4y 2 )/2. Hence:

V = 2 2

0

(1 +

1 4y 2 )/2

1/2

1 + 1 4y 2 1 1 4y 2

1/2

= 2 2

y(

) dy

2

2

0

x3 x5 1 4

V = 2 (x x ) dx = 2 [ ] =

3

5 0 15

0

1

44

and to compute

W = 2

0

= 2

= 2

=

1/2

1/2

0

/2

0

/2

1+

1 4y 2 1

1 4y 2

) dy

2

1 4y 2 dy

cos

1

cos d

2

cos2 d

1 + cos 2

d

2

0

sin 2 /2

= [ +

]

2

4 0

2

=

4

=

/2

Remark:

49.

y=

1

1

sin , dy = cos d.

2

2

Example 36 in Part 2.

x = g(y)

having the shape generated by revolving the graph of a continuous nonnegative function

for

0y5

with

g(0) = a

and

g(5) = 3

about the

y -axis

that:

O1

As water runs out of a small hole at the bottom of tank, the speed of the water owing

through the hole at any moment is proportional to the square root of the depth of the water

in the tank at that moment.

O2

The function

Find the volume of the tank.

45

Solution:

Let

V (h)

V (h) =

Dierentiating this with respect to time

h.

Then:

g(y)2 dy

dV

dh

= g(h)2

dt

dt

O1

O2

k1 and the condition

which says that dh/dt = k2 for some positive constant

k2 , we conclude that g(h) = k h1/4 for some positive constant k . In particular,

a = g(0) = 0, and g(5) = 3 gives k = 3/51/4 . Therefore g(h) = 3h1/4 /51/4 .

V (5) =

5

0

3

51/4

1/4

9 y 3/2

) dy = 1/2

] = 30

3/2 0

5

46

3

m

50.

Let

be the volume of the water-dropper shown in the gure on the next page which has

x4 + y 4 = 1 about the line x = 5/2 where all units

are in centimeters.

a.

Express

b.

Express

c.

d.

Express

A=

in terms of

Solution: a.

1

0

3/4

1/4

0 u (1 u) du

u3/4 (1 u)1/4 du .

x (5/2)

and

respectively. Hence:

V = 2 (radius) (height) dx = 2

b.

converges.

5

(x + ) ((1 x4 )1/4 ((1 x4 )1/4 ) dx

2

5/2 + (1 y 4 )1/4

and

5/2 (1 y 4 )1/4 ,

respectively. Hence:

V =

=

c.

We have

u3/4

1

for all

1

1

1

((outer

2

radius)

(inner

2

radius) ) dy

5

5

(( + (1 y 4 )1/4 ) ( (1 y 4 )1/4 ) ) dy

2

2

0 < u 1.

3/4

1/4

0 u (1 u) du

d.

Since

3/4

du

0 u

is convergent (because

1

V = 10 (1 y 4 )1/4 dy

1

1

= 20 (1 y 4 )1/4 dy

0

= 20 (1 u)1/4

= 5

0

1

1 3/4

u

du

4

u3/4 (1 u)1/4 du

= 5A

as well as the change of variable

47

so is

48

51.

interval

[2, 2].

Solution:

We want to solve

on the

f (x) = 0.

(x2 + 2x 3)ex = 0 x2 + 2x 3 = 0 x = 1, 3 .

Since

points x = 1,2, 2.

at the

critical point is

f (1) = 2e, f (2) = e2 , and f (2) = e2 . Since e > 1 we have e2 > e2 > 2e.

the absolute maximum is e2 and the absolute minimum is 2e.

52.

Solution:

Let

y = x1/x .

Then

ln y =

obtain

ln x

.

x

x = 1.

Therefore

x1/x .

we

1

1 dy d

d ln x x x ln x 1 1 ln x

d 1/x

1 ln x

=

ln y =

=

=

x = x1/x

.

2

2

y dx dx

dx x

x

x

dx

x2

Since 1 ln x > 0 for 0 < x < e and 1 ln x < 0 for x > e, the absolute maximum value

of x1/x occurs at x = e and is e1/e . x1/x has no absolute minimum value.

Remark:

Although the reasoning above does not require it, let us also look at what happens

L'H

1/x

ln x

= lim

=0,

x 1

x x

lim ln y = lim

x

we have

53.

Solution:

xk =

lim (

2k/n

k=1

partition

1

n

lim x1/x = 0

x0+

as

0 = 0.

1 n k/n

2 ).

n k=1

n

is a Riemann sum

k

, 0 k n,

n

f (ck ) xk

for

f (x) = 2x

on

[0, 1]

for the

k=1

and the sample points

ck =

k

, 1 k n.

n

1

1

1 n

2x

1

lim ( 2k/n ) = 2x dx =

] =

.

n n

ln 2 0 ln 2

0

k=1

49

Therefore,

Remark:

Alternatively, we can use the formula for the sum of a nite geometric series

2k/n =

k=1

2(n+1)/n 21/n

21/n

=

,

21/n 1

21/n 1

and then

1 n k/n

21/n

t2t

2t + t ln 2 2t

1

lim

=

lim

=

lim

.

=

2 ) = n

t

t

1/n

+

+

t0

n k=1

ln 2 2

ln 2

n(2 1) t0 2 1

L'H

lim (

54.

Solution:

form

Let

1 .

y=(

form

Since

0

0

lim (

x0

sin x 1/x

) .

x

sin x

=1

x0 x

lim

1/x2

sin x

)

x

. Then

ln y =

and

ln (

1

= ,

x0 x2

lim

sin x

)

x

.

x2

As

ln(sin x) ln x

x0

x2

cos x 1

x cos x sin x

x0

x0

2x

2x2 sin x

cos x x sin x cos x

sin x

= lim

= lim

2

x0 4x sin x + 2x cos x

x0 4 sin x + 2x cos x

sin x

1

1

x

= lim

=

=

x0 sin x

4+2

6

4

+ 2 cos x

x

lim ln y = lim

x0

L'H

L'H

2

L'H

. Then

sin x 1/x

lim (

)

= lim y = lim eln y = e1/6

x0

x0

x0

x

using the continuity of the exponential function.

50

Remark:

Antoine Marquis de L'Hpital's book Analyse des Inniment Petits pour l'Intelligence des

55.

Evaluate

cos(2x) e2x

x0

sin4 x

lim

Solution:

cos(2x) e2x

cos(2x) e2x

x4

lim

=

lim

(

)

x0

x0

x4

sin4 x

sin4 x

2

cos(2x) e2x

x 4

= lim

(lim

)

x0

x0 sin x

x4

2

cos(2x) e2x

= lim

x0

x4

2

2 sin(2x) + 4xe2x

= lim

x0

4x3

2

2

4 cos(2x) + 4e2x 16x2 e2x

= lim

x0

12x2

2

2

8 sin(2x) 48xe2x + 64x3 e2x

= lim

x0

24x

sin(2x)

8

2

2

= lim (

2e2x + x2 e2x )

x0

3x

3

2

4

= 2+0=

3

3

2

L'H

L'H

L'H

Remark:

It is easier to solve this problem using the Taylor series, which will be seen in Calculus

51

II:

cos(2x) e2x

lim

x0

sin4 x

(2x2 )2 (2x2 )3

+

+ ) (1 + (2x2 ) +

+

+ )

2!

4!

6!

2!

3!

= lim

4

x0

x3

(x

+ )

3!

56

4

x4 + x6 +

45

= lim 3

2

x0

x4 x6 +

3

4 56 2

+ x +

= lim 3 45

2

x0

1 x2 +

3

4

=

3

(1

56.

Solution:

sin(x + ax3 ) x

x0

x5

a.

We have

sin(x + ax3 ) x

x0

x5

cos(x + ax3 )(1 + 3ax2 ) 1

= lim

x0

5x4

sin(x + ax3 )(1 + 3ax2 )2 + cos(x + ax3 )(6ax)

= lim

x0

20x3

cos(x + ax3 )(1 + 3ax2 )3 sin(x + ax3 ) 3(1 + 3ax2 )(6ax) + cos(x + ax3 )(6a)

= lim

.

x0

60x2

The numerator of the fraction inside this last limit goes to 1+6a as x 0. Therefore

the limit does not exist unless a = 1/6. If a = 1/6 then

lim

L'H

L'H

L'H

sin(x + x3 /6) x

x0

x5

cos(x + x3 /6)(1 + x2 /2)3 sin(x + x3 /6) 3(1 + x2 /2)x + cos(x + x3 /6)

= lim

x0

60x2

lim

is the sum of

x0

60x2

cos(x + x3 /6)(3/2 + 3x2 /4 + x4 /8)

1

= lim

=

x0

60

40

lim

and

x0

60x2

sin(x + x3 /6)

1

(1 + x2 /2)(1 + x2 /6)

= lim

lim

=

.

x0

x0

x + x3 /6

20

20

lim

52

Hence

sin(x + x3 /6) x

3

= .

5

x0

x

40

lim

Remark:

Once again there are shorter ways of doing this. If we use the Taylor series then

(x + ax3 )3 (x + ax3 )5

+

3!

5!

1

1

1

= x + (a ) x3 + (

a) x5 +

6

120 2

a = 1/6

3/40.

57.

Let b > a > 0 be constants. Find the area of the surface generated by revolving the circle

(x b)2 + y 2 = a2 about the y -axis.

Solution:

We have

Surface Area

= 2

d

c

1 + ( dx ) dy

x

dy

2

2

a y and x = b a2 y 2 for the right and left halves of the circle, respectively.

Then

dx

dx

y

a

1+( ) =

.

=

2

2

2

dy

dy

a y

a y2

Hence

a

dy

a2 y 2 )

a

a2 y 2

a

a

+ 2 (b a2 y 2 )

dy

a

a2 y 2

a

1

= 4ab

dy

a

a2 y 2

a

Surface Area

= 2 (b +

y

= 4ab arcsin ( ) ]

a a

2

2

53

Remark:

The surface generated by revolving a circle about a line (in the same plane) that

58.

if

dy

= xy 2

dx

Solution:

We have

Find

y(1)

and

y(0) = 1.

dy

dy

dy

1 1

= xy 2 2 = x dx 2 = x dx = x2 + C .

dx

y

y

y 2

Then

Remark:

59.

y(0) = 1 1 = C .

Hence

y=

2

2 x2

y(1) = 2.

y(2)?

Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas that contributes to air pollution, and also gives the

smog its color. Under sunlight it decomposes producing other pollutants, one of which is ozone.

As nitrogen dioxide decomposes, its density decreases at a rate proportional to the square of

the density. Suppose that the density of nitrogen dioxide

minutes and

6/25

t=3

Q when t = 15 minutes. (Assume

is

minutes. Find

Solution:

k dt

and

integrating we obtain 1/Q = kt + C where C

We have

constant. Then

dQ/Q2 =

is a constant.

Now letting t = 3 min gives 1/(6/25) = 1/Q(3) = k 3 2 and hence k = 13/18

liters per gram per minute. Finally we obtain Q = 18/(13t + 36).

Letting

Q(15) = 6/77

grams per

60.

f (0) = 4 , f (1) = 3 , f (0) = 5 , f (1) = 7, f (0) = 8 and f (1) = 11 . Show that:

Suppose that

that satises

0 f (x)f (x) dx 1

Solution:

du =

f (x) dx, v = f (x), to obtain:

hence

0

0

The rst term on the right is equal to f (1)f (1) f (0)f (0) = 3 7

the second term is nonnegative as (f (x))2 0. The result follows.

54

4 5 = 1,

and

Remark:

61.

a.

b.

3

sin x sin 2x dx

e

ln x

1 dx

x

Solution: a.

to obtain

3

3

sin x sin 2x dx = sin x 2 sin x cos x dx

= 2 sin4 x cos x dx

= 2 u4 du

2

= u5 + C

5

2

= sin5 x + C

5

u = sin x, du = cos x dx.

b.

u=

The substitution

x, du = dx/(2 x)

e

ln x

dx = 4

1

x

gives:

ln u du

= 4 [u ln u u]

1

= 4 ( e ln e e + 1)

=42 e

Remark:

Solution: a.

substitution

3

3

sin x sin 2x dx = (

1 cos 2x

) sin 2x dx

2

1

= u3/2 du

4 2

1

= u5/2 + C

10 2

1

= (1 cos 2x)5/2 + C

10 2

55

and:

3

3/2

sin x sin 2x dx = u du

2

= u5/2 + C

5

2

= sin5 x + C

5

Or use the identity

formulas:

1

3

sin x sin 2x dx = 4 (3 sin x sin 3x) sin 2x dx

1

= (3 sin x sin 2x sin 3x sin 2x) dx

4

1

= (3(cos x cos 3x) (cos x cos 5x)) dx

8

1

= (cos 5x 3 cos 3x + 2 cos x) dx

8

1

1

1

=

sin 5x sin 3x + sin x + C

40

8

4

Or, if you are willing to go complex, use the identity

sin

x

sin

2x

dx

=

(

)

dx

2i

2i

1

=

(e5ix + e5ix 3e3ix 3e3ix + 2eix + 2eix ) dx

16

eix eix

1 e5ix e5ix e3ix e3ix

+2

)+C

= (

16

5i

i

i

1

1

1

=

sin 5x sin 3x + sin x + C

40

8

4

3

b.

Do integration by parts:

ln x

dx = ln x d(2 x)

1

x

e dx

e

= [2 x ln x]1 2 x

x

1

e dx

= 2 e 2

1

x

e

= 2 e 4 [ x]1

=2 e4 e+4

=42 e

56

e 1

ln x

dx = d(x ln x x)

1

x

x

e

1 e x ln x x

x ln x x

=[

] +

dx

2 1

x3/2

x

1

e

1 e ln x

= 1 + dx [ x]1

2 1

x

1 e ln x

= 2 e + dx

2 1

x

1 e ln x

dx = 2 e

2 1

x

solve for

ln x

1 dx = 4 2 e .

x

e

x = eu , dx = eu du,

e ln x

1 u

u

1 dx = 0 u e du

x

e

=

=

u eu/2 du

0

1

0

u d(2eu/2 )

1

= [2ueu/2 ]0 2

=

eu/2 du

0

1/2

u/2 1

2e 4[e ]0

1/2

1/2

= 2e

4e

=42 e

62.

+4

a.

dx

b.

c.

dx

(x2 + 1)2

1 x2 dx

Solution: a.

dx = 2 tet dt

57

x = t2 , dx = 2tdt,

u = t, dv = et dt du = dt, v = et :

= 2tet 2 et dt

= 2tet 2et + C

= 2 xe x 2e x + C

b.

and

. Then dx = cos d

2

2

2

2

2

1 x = 1 sin = cos = cos = cos as cos 0 for .

2

2

1 x2 dx = cos cos d

x = sin ,

= cos2 d

1

(1 + cos 2) d

2

1

1

= + sin 2 + C

2

4

1

1

= + sin cos + C

2

2

1

1

= arcsin x + x 1 x2 + C

2

2

=

1

x

1 x2

c.

and

x = tan ,

x2 + 1 = tan2 + 1 = sec2 .

<< .

2

2

Then

sec2

dx

(x2 + 1)2 = (sec2 )2 d

= cos2 d

=

=

=

=

=

1

(1 + cos 2) d

2

1

1

+ sin 2 + C

2

4

1

1

+ sin cos + C

2

2

1

1

1

x

+C

arctan x +

2

2

x2 + 1

x2 + 1

1

1

x

arctan x + 2

+C

2

2 x +1

58

dx = sec2 d

x2 + 1

Remark:

Other methods can also be used. For instance, the integral in part

63.

1/2

a.

1/2

b.

1/2

c.

1/2

1x

arcsin x dx

1+x

dx

x + 1 x2

dx

1 + ex

Solution: a.

1/2

1/2

1/2

1/2

1x

1

x

arcsin x dx =

arcsin x dx +

arcsin x dx

2

1+x

1/2

1/2

1x

1 x2

The rst integral on the right vanishes as the integrand is odd and the integration

interval is symmetric about the origin. We do integration by parts for the second

integral with

u = arcsin x

and

dv =

1 x2 :

1/2

1/2

arcsin x

x

1 x2

1 x2

dx = [arcsin x

Therefore:

1/2

1/2

dx,

and hence

1 x2 ]

1/2

1/2

1/2

1/2

1x

arcsin x dx = 1

1+x

2 3

59

du =

1

1 x2

and

dx = 1

2 3

v=

b.

1/2

1/2

c.

Let

t = sin , dt = cos d.

/6

dx

cos d

=

2

/6 sin + cos

x+ 1x

/6 cos (cos sin )

=

d

/6

cos2 sin2

1 /6 1 + cos 2 sin 2

=

d

2 /6

cos 2

1 /6

=

(sec 2 + 1 tan 2) d

2 /6

/6

1

1 1

= [ ln tan 2 + sec 2 + ln sec 2]

2 2

2

/6

1

= ln( 3 + 2) +

2

6

u = ex + 1, du = ex dx.

Then

dx

ex dx

du

x

=

1 + ex ex + 1 = u = ln u + C = ln(1 + e ) + C

and from this

c dx

dx

=

lim

= lim [ln(1 + ex )]c0 = lim (ln(1 + ec ) ln 2) = ln 2

c

c

1 + ex c 0 1 + ex

follows.

Remark:

(c).

Let

u = ex , du = ex dx.

dx

ex dx

1 + ex = ex + (ex )2

du

=

u + u2

1

1

= (

) du

u 1+u

= ln u ln 1 + u + C

= x ln(1 + ex ) + C

and from this

c dx

dx

=

lim

1 + ex c 0 1 + ex

= lim [x ln(1 + ex )]c0

c

= lim (c ln(1 + ec ) + ln 2)

c

c

= lim ( ln(ec + 1) + ln 2)

c

= ln 2

60

Then

follows.

64.

0

where

dx

(ax + 1)(x2 + 1)

is a positive constant.

Solution:

1

1

a2

ax 1

=

(

2

).

2

2

(ax + 1)(x + 1) a + 1 ax + 1 x + 1

Hence:

dx

1

a2

ax 1

=

(

(ax + 1)(x2 + 1) a2 + 1 ax + 1 dx x2 + 1 dx)

=

a2

1

a

(a ln ax + 1 ln(x2 + 1) + arctan(x)) + C .

+1

2

Therefore:

c

dx

dx

=

lim

2

(ax + 1)(x + 1) c 0 (ax + 1)(x2 + 1)

c

1

a

2

= 2

lim [a ln ax + 1 ln(x + 1) + arctan(x)]

a + 1 c

2

0

1

a

lim

(a

ln(ac

+

1)

ln(c2 + 1) + arctan c

2

c

a +1

2

a ln 1 +

=

=

as

65.

ac + 1

lim

=a

c

c2 + 1

The curve

and

a2

a

1

ac + 1

)+ 2

lim ln (

lim arctan c

c

2

+1

a + 1 c

c +1

a2

(a ln a + )

+1

2

solid

.

2

lim arctan c =

y = 1/x, x 1,

x-axis

for

x1

x-axis

to generate a surface

D.

a.

Show that

b.

Show that

Solution: a.

a

ln 1 arctan 0)

2

Volume

R(x)2 dx =

61

dx

.

x2

x-axis

and the

to generate a

Since

b.

p = 2 > 1,

Surface Area

We have

1

x

1+

= 2

1 + (y )2 dx = 2

dx

1 1

0

for x 1, and

= .

x4 x

x

1

1

x

1+

1

dx .

x4

Remark:

with volume(D ) cubic units of paint and let the excess paint run out.

Whom should we believe?

66.

Let

Solution:

We use induction on

Let

n = 0.

Let

n>0

Then

tn et dt = n! .

n.

et dt = 1 = 0! .

tn1 et dt = (n 1)! .

tn et dt = lim tn et dt

c 0

= lim ([tn et ]0 + n

= lim [tn et ]0 + n

c

= n

tn1 et dt)

tn1 et dt

n1 t

e dt

= n (n 1)!

= n!

where

Remark:

lim cn ec = 0

(x) =

62

tx1 et dt

for

x > 0.

x > 0.

It can be shown that the improper integral on the right converges if and only if

for

0 < x < 1.

This relation

(x) = (x + 1)/x

(x + 1) = x(x)

for

x > 0.

Since

(n + 1) = n! for all nonnegative integers n, we can use the Gamma function to dene the

x! = (x + 1). In particular,

1

1/2 t

u2

( )! = (1/2) = t e dt = 2 e du = 2

= .

2

2

0

0

The volume of an

n=1

(the interval

The case

67.

n=4

Show that

n-dimensional ball with radius r is n/2 rn /(n/2)! . Check this formula for

[r, r]), n = 2 (the disk with radius r), and n = 3 (the sphere with radius r).

Solution:

ln x

dx = 0 .

x2 + 1

1 ln x

ln x

ln x

dx

=

dx

+

0 x2 + 1

1 x2 + 1 dx

x2 + 1

and the improper integral on the left converges if and only if both basic improper

integrals on the right converge.

Consider

ln x

dx .

x2 + 1

1

Note that

ln x

ln x

2

2

x +1

x

for

x 1.

ln x

t

dx

=

0 te dt

x2

= lim

c

= lim

c

tet dt

0

c

0

t d(et )

c

= lim ([ tet ]0 +

c

=

=

et dt)

0

t c

lim (ce [e ]0 )

c

lim (cec ec + 1)

c

c

=1

where we used the substitution

x = et , dx = et dt,

L'H

1

c

= lim c = 0 .

c

c e

c e

converges.

63

ln x

dx

x2 + 1

1 ln x

0 x2 + 1 dx

follows as

1 ln x

1 ln(1/u)

ln u

du

0 x2 + 1 dx = (1/u)2 + 1 u2 = 1 1 + u2 du

where we used the change of variable

x = 1/u, dx = du/u2 ,

1 ln x

ln x

ln x

dx

=

dx

+

0 x2 + 1

1 x2 + 1 dx

x2 + 1

ln x

ln x

=

dx

+

1 x2 + 1 dx = 0

x2 + 1

1

Remark:

Instead of computing

comparison

ln x

1

3/2

2

x

x

for

x1

ln x

dx,

x2

dx

x3/2

is convergent as

p = 3/2 > 1.

1

ln x

x ln x on

x2

x3/2

and x = 4 is the only critical point. Since

f (x) < 0 for x < 4 and f (x) > 0 for x > 4, f (4) = 4 ln 4 = 2 2 ln 2 = 2(1 ln 2) > 0 must be

the absolute minimum value of f on [1, ), and we are done.

Here the fact that

68.*

Solution:

dx

ex ex

converges or diverges.

By denition,

dx

1

dx

=

+

x

x

x

x

x

e e

e ex

0 e e

1

and the given integral converges if and only if both of the integrals on the right

hand side converge.

Let us consider

1

dx

0 ex ex

ex ex (1 + x) (1 x) = 2x ,

centered at

x = 0,

we expect

1/(ex ex )

to behave like

1/(2x)

In fact, we have

1

1/(ex ex )

1

x

= lim+ x x = lim+ x x = .

x0 e + e

x0 e e

1/x

2

L'H

L = lim+

x0

1 dx

0 < L < and

is divergent (because p = 1 1), we conclude

x

0

1

dx

dx

diverges

by

the

Limit

Comparison

Test.

Therefore

0 ex ex

0 ex ex

Since

that

diverges too.

*Examples marked red are not part of the Fall 2015 syllabus.

64

Remark:

The other improper integral on the right hand side converges. We have

1/(ex ex )

1

=

lim

= 1.

x

x 1 e2x

ex

L = lim

Since

0<L<

1

and

we conclude that

69.*

c 1

c

c

1

ex

dx

ex

Solution:

1 e1/x

dx

x

converges or diverges.

By denition,

1 1 e1/x

1 e1/x

1 e1/x

dx =

dx +

dx

0

1

x

x

x

and the given integral converges if and only if both integrals on the right hand side

converge.

On one hand, since

1 e1/x

x

L = lim+

= lim+ (1 e1/x ) = 1

1

x0

x0

x

1

1 e1/x

dx

x

dx

0

x

converges as

p = 1/2 < 1;

we conclude that

1 e1/x

1 e1/x

1 et

et

x

= lim

L = lim

= lim+

= lim+

=1

x

x

1

t0

t0 1

1/x

t

x3/2

L'H

1 e1/x

dx

x

Hence

dx

x3/2

converges as

p = 3/2 > 1;

1 e1/x

dx

x

converges.

*Examples marked red are not part of the Fall 2015 syllabus.

65

we conclude that

1.

P (3, 5, 1)

L x = 2t 1 , y = t + 2 , z = 2t ; < t < .

a.

perpendicular to

b.

and containing

Solution: a.

L.

L.

v = 2i j 2k . Therefore we can

take the normal vector of the plane to be n = 2i j 2k . Then the equation of the

plane is 2 (x 3) + (1) (y (5)) + (2) (z 1) = 0 , or 2x y 2z = 9 .

b.

The line

#

v, and it will also be perpendicular to P Q where Q is any point

on the line. We can take Q(1, 2, 0), the point corresponding to t = 0 , and then

#

P Q = 4i + 7j k . Now we can take the normal vector v to be

A normal

perpendicular to

RR i

j kRRRR

# RRRR

R

n = v P Q = RRR 2 1 2 RRRR = 15i + 10j + 10k ,

RRR

RR

RR4 7 1 RRR

or in fact

n = 3i + 2j + 2k .

3 (x 3) + 2 (y (5)) + 2 (z 1) = 0 ,

or

2.

3x + 2y + 2z = 1 .

P 3x 4y + z = 10 ,

a.

b.

Solution: a.

Since

n = 3i 4j + k

P (2, 3, 1)

perpendicular to

and

b.

P.

P.

v = 3i 4j + k ,

x = 3t + 2, y = 4t + 3, z = t 1; < t < .

A plane perpendicular to

Q(1, 2, 2) .

perpendicular to

of the line is

and

#

n perpendicular to P Q = i j + 3k . Therefore we can take n to be

RR i

j

# RRRR

R

n = n P Q = RR 3 4

RR

RRR1 1

66

kRRRR

R

1 RRRR = 11i 10j 7k ,

R

3 RRRR

or rather

n = 11i + 10j + 7k .

11 (x 2) + 10 (y 3) + 7 (z (1)) = 0 ,

or

3.

11x + 10y + 7z = 45 .

L1 x = 2t 1,

y = t + 2,

z = 3t + 1

L2 x = s + 5,

y = 2s + 3,

z = s

and

perpendicularly.

and

L2 ,

respectively. Hence,

RRR i

j kRRRR

RR

R

v = RRRR2 1 3 RRRR = 5i + 5j + 5k

RRR

R

RR1 2 1 RRRR

L. So we may take v = i j k.

Then

RR i

j kRRRR

RR

RRR

R

n = vv1 = RR1 1 1 RRRR = 4i 5j + k

RRR

RRR

RR2 1 3 RR

is normal to the plane P containing the lines L and L1 . As P1 (1, 2, 1)

an equation of P is

is in

P,

4 (x (1)) + (5) (y 2) + 1 (z 1) = 0 ,

or

4x + 5y z = 5.

At the point

P0

of intersection of

and

L2 , s

satises:

4 (s + 5) + 5 (2s + 3) (s) = 5

Hence

s = 2.

Therefore an equation of

x = t + 3,

L2

gives

P0 (3, 1, 2).

is:

y = t 1 ,

z = t + 2 ;

67

( < t < ) .

4.

c be a constant. Show the angle between the position and the velocity vectors along the

r = ect cos t i + ect sin t j , < t < , is constant.

Let

curve

Solution:

We have

and

v=

dr

= (c ect cos t ect sin t)i + (c ect sin t + ect cos t)j .

dt

Then

v = ((c ect cos t ect sin t)2 + (c ect sin t + ect cos t)2 )1/2 = c2 + 1 ect ,

r v = ect cos t (c ect cos t ect sin t) + ect sin t (c ect sin t + ect cos t) = c e2t .

Therefore, if

cos =

and we conclude that

and

v,

we have

rv

c e2t

c

=

=

,

ct

2

ct

2

r v e c + 1 e

c +1

is constant.

68

5.

In the

xyz -space

2x + y 2z = 1 ,

the trajectory of a bee as a function of time

is given by

r = t i + t2 j + t3 k

for

< t < .

a.

b.

c.

There are holes in the screen through which the bee passes. Find the coordinates of all

of these holes.

Solution: a.

2i + j

The normal vector of the plane along which the screen lies is n =

2k, and the velocity vector of the bee is v = i + 2tj + 3t2 k. The bee is ying

parallel to the screen whenever these two vectors are perpendicular to each other;

in other words, whenever n v = 0. As n v = 2 + 2t 6t2 , we want 3t2 t 1 = 0.

Hence

b.

t = (1

13)/6

are the times when the bee is ying parallel to the screen.

The bee is ying perpendicular to the screen whenever n and v are parallel

1/2 = 2t/1 = 3t2 /(2). This implies t2 =

1/3

which is not possible. Therefore there is no moment when the bee is ying

c.

x = t, y = t2 , z = t3

of the plane we obtain 2t3 t2 2t + 1 = 0. As

2x + y 2z = 1

(2t 1)(t 1)(t + 1), the y is in the plane of the screen when

t = 1/2, t = 1, t = 1. These times correspond to the points (x, y, z) = (1/2, 1/4, 1/8),

(1, 1, 1) and (1, 1, 1).

into the equation

2t3 t2 2t + 1 =

69

6. a.

Show that

b.

Show that

xy 2

=0.

(x,y)(0,0) x6 + y 2

xy

lim

does

6

(x,y)(0,0) x + y 2

Solution: a.

lim

We have

0 y 2 x6 + y 2

0

for all

(x, y) =/ (0, 0) .

not exist.

for all

(x, y).

Hence

xy 2

y2

=

x

x 1 = x

x6 + y 2

x6 + y 2

Since

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

x = 0 ,

xy 2

=0.

(x,y)(0,0) x6 + y 2

lim

b.

x-axis

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

x-axis

along the

lim

xy

x0

= lim 6

= lim 0 = 0 ,

2

x0 x + 02

x0

+y

x6

y=x

(x,y)(0,0)

y=x

is

line is

xy

xx

1

= lim 6

= lim 4

=1.

2

2

x0 x + x

x0 x + 1

+y

x6

lim

xy

+ y2

(x,y)(0,0) x6

does not

Remark:

Let

Let

and

and

If

a b

+ >1,

c d

then

xa yb

=0.

(x,y)(0,0) xc + yd

If

a b

+ 1,

c d

then

xa yb

(x,y)(0,0) xc + yd

and

lim

lim

and

If

a b

+ >1,

c d

then

xa y b

=0.

(x,y)(0,0) xc + y d

If

a b

+ 1,

c d

then

xa y b

(x,y)(0,0) xc + y d

lim

lim

70

http://www.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/otekman/calc2

/sertoztheorem.pdf. A proof of the n-variable case of the second version can be found in

http://sertoz.bilkent.edu.tr/depo/limit.pdf.

A proof of the rst version can be found in

7.

>0

x2 y 3

(x,y)(0,0) x3 + y

lim

exists.

Solution:

We observe that

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

x = y3

1

y0 1 + y9

lim

is

if

1

(y 3 )2 y 3

y

x2 y 3

=

lim

= lim lim

.

3

3

3

y0 y + y

y0 y y0 1 + y9

x + y

>9

and

1/2

= 9.

if

x2 y 3

x3 + y

x2 y 3

(x,y)(0,0) x3 + y

lim

< 9.

x = y3

y

y0 y

lim

does not

9.

We have

x2 y 3

(x/y/3 )2

y3/3 y3/3

=

x3 + y

(x/y/3 )3 + 1

t2

1

, and if 0 < t < 1, then t2 < 1 gives

1. Since

lim y3/3 = 0 for

(x,y)(0,0)

t3 + 1

t3 + 1

x2 y 3

< 9,

lim

= 0 follows by the Sandwich Theorem.

(x,y)(0,0) x3 + y

for all

t2

8.

lim

(x,y)(0,0) (x2

x

+ y 2 )k

exists.

Solution:

Suppose

k<

1

2

. We have

k<

1

2

0 x2 x2 + y 2

for all

(x, y),

k

and hence

x2

x

12k

x

(

) x12k

0 2

(x + y 2 )k

x2 + y 2

71

1

2

for all

(x, y) =/ (0, 0) .

1 2k > 0,

Since

Therefore

lim

(x,y)(0,0) (x2

we have

x12k 0

as

x

=0

+ y 2 )k

k=

Suppose

1

2

. Then

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

x-axis

along the

(x2

x

x

= lim 2

= lim 1 = 1 ,

2

1/2

x0 (x + 02 )1/2

x0

+y )

(x2

0

x

= lim 2

= lim 0 = 0 .

2

1/2

y0 (0 + y 2 )1/2

x0

+y )

and

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y -axis

along the

lim

(x,y)(0,0) (x2

x

+ y 2 )1/2

does not

k > 1/2 .

Suppose

Then

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

x-axis

along the

(x2

x

x

= lim 2

= lim x12k =

2

k

x0 (x + 02 )k

x0

+y )

x

(x,y)(0,0) (x2 + y 2 )k

lim

either.

9.

Let

where

of

xa y b

x4 + y 6

f (x, y) =

0

a

and

a.

and

(x, y) =/ (0, 0)

if

(x, y) = (0, 0)

for which

f (x, y)

if

is continuous at

(0, 0).

b.

as

(x, y) approaches (0, 0) along the line y = x.

c.

limit

lim f (x, y) does not exist.

y = x,

and

goes to

(x,y)(0,0)

d.

y -axis, and f (x, y) goes to 1 as (x, y) approaches (0, 0) along the y -axis.

e.

f (x, y)

fx (0, 0)

and

fy (0, 0)

exist, and

f (x, y)

is not dierentiable at

72

(0, 0).

Solution: a.

a=4

If

and

b = 1,

then

is continuous at

(0, 0).

0 f (x, y) =

for

(x, y) =/ 0

b.

Let

a=3

x4 y

x4

y 1 y y

x4 + y 6

x4 + y 6

b = 1.

and

f (x, y)

at

(0, 0)

0 = f (0, 0).

is

Then

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y=x

x4

1

= lim

=1

4

6

x0 x + x

x0 1 + x2

x0

and

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y=x

x4

1

=

lim

= 1 .

x0 x4 + x6

x0 1 + x2

x0

c.

Let

a=2

and

b = 3.

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y=mx

Then we have

m3 x5

m3 x

=

lim

=0

x0 x4 + m6 x6

x0 1 + m6 x2

x0

as well as

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

along the y -axis

y0

y0

However,

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y=x2/3

x4

1 1

= lim = =/ 0

x0 x4 + x4

x0 2

2

x0

d.

Let

a=0

and

f (x, y)

b = 6.

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y=mx

at

(0, 0)

Then we have

m6 x6

m6 x2

=

lim

=0

x0 x4 + m6 x6

x0 1 + m6 x2

x0

and

lim

(x,y)(0,0)

y -axis

y6

= lim 1 = 1 .

y0

y0 y 6

y0

along the

e.

If

a=1

and

b = 1,

continuous there.

then

f (x, y)

is not dierentiable at

(0, 0)

as it is not even

fx (0, 0)

and

fy (0, 0)

y =x

f is

are both 0 as

Remark:

(a, b)

73

a.

all

b.

c.

d.

(0, 6)

e.

(0, 7), (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2), (4, 1)

10.

(a, b)

with

3a + 2b > 12

p

2p

= p (1 p) + 2

t

x

describes the spread of an advantageous allele in a population with uniform density along a

1-dimensional habitat, like a shoreline, as a result of both reproduction and dispersion of the

ospring. Here

p(x, t) is the frequency of the allele as a function of the position x and the time

t.

Find all possible values of the pair of constants

p(x, t) =

(a, b)

1

(1 + eax+bt )2

Solution:

We have

px = 2(1 + eax+bt )3 eax+bt a

pxx = 6(1 + eax+bt )4 (eax+bt a)2 2(1 + eax+bt )3 eax+bt a2

p(1 p) = (1 + eax+bt )4 (2eax+bt + (eax+bt )2 )

and substitution these in the Fisher's Equation gives

or:

As the left hand side if this equality is constant, so must be the right hand side. This

is possible only if eax+bt is constant or 4a2 + 2b + 1 = 0. eax+bt is constant only if a = 0

and

b = 0,

and for these values the equation becomes 2 = 1 which is not possible.

In the second case, the equation becomes 2a2 2b 2 = 0. Adding 4a2 + 2b + 1 = 0 and

2a2 2b 2 = 0 we nd 6a2 = 1 and hence b = 5/6. Therefore (a, b) = (1/ 6, 5/6)

and

(1/ 6, 5/6)

are the only values for which the given function satises the

Fisher's Equation.

74

11.

Assume that

yz 2 + z 3 = 1

and

Solution:

z

and

and

zw3 xz 3 + y 2 w = 1 .

Find

z

x

at

x and y

x,

but

xw3 +

(x, y, z, w) = (1, 1, 1, 1) .

depend on

w3 + x 3w2 wx + y 2zzx + 3z 2 zx = 0 ,

and

zx w3 + z 3w2 wx z 3 x 3z 2 zx + y 2 wx = 0 .

Substituting

Solving for

x = 1, y = 1, z = 1, w = 1,

zx

5zx + 3wx = 1

and

2zx + 2wx = 1 .

we nd

z

5

=

x

4

12.

we get

at

(x, y, z, w) = (1, 1, 1, 1) .

xy -plane. Each bug had a device that measured the

temperature in real time, and showed the rate of change of temperature with respect to time

on its screen.

One day four of these bugs met at a point

P0 .

v1 = 2i + j

C/s.

The third bug was moving with velocity

v2 = i 5j

v3 = i + j

75

1 C/s.

2 C/s.

Solution:

13.

Let

Suppose

z = f (x, y)

f (3, 3) = 1,

fx (3, 3) = 2,

fy (3, 3) = 11,

f (2, 5) = 1,

fx (2, 5) = 7,

fy (2, 5) = 3.

is a dierentiable function of

and

f (w, w) = f (uv, u2 + v 2 )

for all

(u, v).

Find

Solution:

w

u

at

f (w, w) = f (uv, u2 + v 2 )

with respect to

fx (w, w)

gives

w

w

(uv)

(u2 + v 2 )

+ fy (w, w)

= fx (uv, u2 + v 2 )

+ fy (uv, u2 + v 2 )

u

u

u

u

76

w

= fx (uv, u2 + v 2 ) v + fy (uv, u2 + v 2 ) 2u

u

which leads to

w

= 2fx (2, 5) + 2fy (2, 5)

u

after substituting (u, v, w) = (1, 2, 3).

Now using fx (3, 3) = 2, fy (3, 3) = 11,

fx (2, 5) = 7, and fy (2, 5) = 3, we conclude that

(fx (3, 3) + fy (3, 3))

w 8

=

u 9

14.

Let

at

(u, v, w) = (1, 2, 3) .

f (u, v, w) = x4 + y 4 + z 4 for all (x, y, z). Find fu (2, 1, 2).

a dierentiable

function satisfying

Solution:

We can take

Dierentiating

(x, y, z) = (1, 1, 2)

as this gives

fu ux + fv vx + fw wx = 4x3

fu uy + fv vy + fw wy = 4y 3

fu uz + fv vz + fw wz = 4z 3

Now using

u = x + y + z , v = xy + yz + zx, w = xyz ,

these give:

fu 1 + fv (y + z) + fw yz = 4x3

fu 1 + fv (x + z) + fw xz = 4y 3

fu 1 + fv (x + y) + fw xy = 4z 3

Substituting

(x, y, z) = (1, 1, 2)

we get:

fu + fv 2fw = 4

fu + 3fv + 2fw = 4

fu fw = 32

Subtracting 3 times the rst equation from the second gives

adding 8 times the third equation to this gives

Remark:

for a given

the

So

fu (2, 1, 2) = 40.

corresponding (x, y, z) must be the roots of T 3 uT 2 + vT w = 0 and

(u, v, w),

6fu = 240.

f.

In fact,

hence is determined up to a permutation of its entries, making the answer independent of the

choice.

15.

Let

z = f (x, y)

x = r cos , y = r sin .

2f 2f 2z 1 z 1 2z

+

=

+

.

+

x2 y 2 r2 r r r2 2

77

Show that

Solution:

If

z = F (x, y)

y,

z F x F y

=

= Fx cos + Fy sin ,

r x r y r

(i )

z F x F y

=

= Fx (r sin ) + Fy (r cos ) .

x y

(ii )

rule we have

is a dierentiable function of

and

and similarly,

We use

(i ) with F

=f

to obtain

z

= fx cos + fy sin .

r

Then

To compute

2z

2

r

r

r

(fx ) and

(fy ) we use (i ) with F = fx and F = fy ,

r

r

respectively:

2z

= (fxx cos + fxy sin ) cos + (fyx cos + fyy sin ) sin

r2

= fxx cos2 + 2fxy cos sin + fyy sin2

Similarly, using

(ii ) with F

=f

A)

B)

gives

z

= fx (r sin ) + fy (r cos ) ,

again gives

2z

2

+ (fyx (r sin ) + fyy r cos )(r cos ) + fy (r sin )

2

2

= fxx r sin 2fxy r2 cos sin + fyy r2 cos2

r(fx cos + fy sin )

16.

where we used

(ii ) with F

Now if we add

(B), 1/r times (A), and 1/r2 times (C), we obtain fxx + fyy .

Suppose that

= fx

C)

F = fy .

f(

5, fyy (3, 1) = 4.

for all

and

Find

x2

y

x

, 2

) = f (x, y)

2

+ y x + y2

if

78

Solution:

We have:

fx (x, y) =

x

y

f( 2

,

)

x x + y 2 x2 + y 2

= fx (

x2

x

x

, 2

)

( 2

)

2

2

+y x +y

x x + y 2

+ fy (

= fx (

x2

x

y

y

( 2

, 2

)

)

2

2

+y x +y

x x + y 2

x

y

1 (x2 + y 2 ) x 2x

,

)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )2

+ fy (

x2

x

y

2xy

, 2

) 2

2

2

+y x +y

(x + y 2 )2

fxx (x, y) =

x

y

y 2 x2

(fx ( 2

,

)

x

x + y 2 x2 + y 2 (x2 + y 2 )2

+ fy (

x2

x

y

2xy

, 2

) 2

)

2

2

+y x +y

(x + y 2 )2

x

y

y 2 x2

= fxx ( 2

,

)

(

)

x + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )2

+ fxy (

x

y

2xy

y 2 x2

,

)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2

+ fx (

x

y

y 2 x2

,

)

(

)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 x (x2 + y 2 )2

+ fyx (

x

y

y 2 x2

2xy

,

)

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

x +y x +y

(x + y ) (x + y 2 )2

x

y

2xy

+ fyy ( 2

,

)

(

)

x + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )2

+ fy (

x2

x

y

2xy

, 2

)

( 2

)

2

2

+y x +y

x (x + y 2 )2

x

y

y 2 x2

= fxx ( 2

,

)

(

)

x + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )2

+ 2fxy (

y

y 2 x2

2xy

x

,

)

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

x +y x +y

(x + y ) (x + y 2 )2

2

x

y

2xy

+ fyy ( 2

, 2

)( 2

)

2

2

x +y x +y

(x + y 2 )2

+ fx (

x

y

2x(x2 3y 2 )

,

)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )3

+ fy (

79

x

y

2y(3x2 y 2 )

,

)

x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

(x2 + y 2 )3

Now letting

gives:

fxx (3/10, 1/10) = fxx (3, 10) (8)2 + 2fxy (3, 10) (8) (6) + fyy (3, 10) (6)2

+ fx (3, 10) 36 + fy (3, 10) 52

= 2 64 + 2 5 48 + (4) 36 + (8) 36 + 7 52

= 540

17.

f (x, y) :

f (2, 1) = 8

Let

(2, 1)

is

3x 5y = 1

in

z = f (x, y)

P,

P.

(2, 1, 8) .

Determine whether

- ,

- ,

or

tangent plane

at the point

tangent plane

too.)

a.

f (3, 2) = 11

b.

fx (2, 1) = 1

c.

d

f (t2 + 1, t3 ) = 6

dt

t=1

d.

x = 4t + 2 , y = 2t + 1 , z = t + 8 , ( < t < ) ,

e.

x = t + 2 , y = 2t + 1 , z = t + 8 , ( < t < ) ,

perpendicular to

Solution:

is no

b.

The condition

c. c is uniquely

such c in part (e):

constant

fx (2, 1) = 3c

and

fy (2, 1) = 5c

in parts

for some

satisfying the conditions - have the same tangent plane P . An equation

for this common tangent plane P is 3x 5y + 3z = 25, and an example of a

function satisfying the given conditions is f (x, y) = x + 5/3 y + 25/3.

If

fx (2, 1) = 1

implies that

gives

80

lies

is

c.

As we have

d

f (t2 + 1, t3 ) = fx (t2 + 1, t3 ) 2t + fy (t2 + 1, t3 ) 3t2

dt

t = 1 we obtain 3c2+(5c)3 = 6 and c = 2/3.

Hence fx (2, 1) = 2 and fy (2, 1) = 10/3. Therefore all functions satisfying the

conditions - have the same tangent plane P . An equation for this common

tangent plane P is 6x 10y + 3z = 26, and an example of a function satisfying

the given conditions is f (x, y) = 2x + 10/3 y + 26/3.

by the Chain Rule, substituting

d.

e.

(y 1) + 8, for the line with parametric equations x = 4t + 2 , y = 2t + 1 , z =

t + 8 , ( < t < ) , to lie in P we must have 1 = (3c) 4 + (5c) 2 and c = 1/2.

Hence fx (2, 1) = 3/2 and fy (2, 1) = 5/2. Therefore all functions satisfying

the conditions - have the same tangent plane P . An equation for this

common tangent plane P is 3x 5y 2z = 15, and an example of a function

satisfying the given conditions is f (x, y) = 3/2 x 5/2 y + 15/2.

3c (x 2) + (5c)

(y 1) (z 8) = 0, for the line with parametric equations x = t + 2 , y =

2t + 1 , z = t + 8 , ( < t < ) , to be perpendicular to P we must have the the

normal vector n = 3ci 5cj k of the plane and the velocity vector v = i +2j + k

of the line to be parallel. This requires 3c/(1) = (5c)/2 = 1/1, which is not

possible. Therefore there is no function f satisfying the conditions - .

Finally, in part

equations of their graphs' tangent planes P at (2, 1, 8) are z = 3x 5y + 7 and

z = 3x + 5y + 9, respectively. Therefore, in this case there are functions satisfying

the conditions - , but they do not all have the same tangent plane P .

and

18.

Let

P0 (3, 2)

f (x, y) = x3 y xy 2 + cx2

c is a constant.

A = 2i + 5j.

where

Find

c if f

Solution:

increases the fastest at P0 in the direction of (f )P0 , A = 2i + 5j must be a positive

multiple of (f )P0 . Hence (50 + 6c)/2 = 15/5 c = 22/3 . Finally we check that

c = 22/3 gives (f )P0 = 6i + 15j = 3A which is indeed a positive multiple of A.

19.

z = xy

at the point

Solution:

are level

P0 (1, 2, 2).

f (x, y, z) = x2 +y 2 +z 2

surfaces of f and g .

Let

and

g(x, y, z) = xy z .

= 2i + j k . (f )P0 is normal to the surface dened by x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 and

We have

(g)P0

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9

81

and

(g)P0

z = xy . Therefore,

j k RRRR

R

4 4 RRRR = 8i + 10j 6k ,

R

1 1 RRRR

(f )P0 (g)P0

RR i

RRR

= RRRR 2

RR

RR 2

R

or any multiple of it, is tangent to both of these surfaces, and hence, to their curve

of intersection at

20.

P0 .

In the gure below some of the level curves and the corresponding values of a nice function

f (x, y)

are shown.

a.

Draw

b.

Remark:

f (0, 0)

at the origin.

that we are dealing with a function for which good approximations can be made using only the

given data.

82

Solution: a.

passing through

We know that

(0, 0)

f (0, 0)

f (0, 0)

with respect to

distance in this direction. On the gure using the teal circle we measure that the

pink vector crosses the level curve

f =1

0.44 units

1/0.44 2.27

at a distance of approximately

increases at an rate of

in this direction. So now we draw a vector of this length in this direction as shown

in the next gure and this is our approximate

(The

f (0, 0).

83

b.

0 and fy (0, 0) < 0. This can also be done in the following way: As we move along the

x-axis (the lime line in the gure on the next page) to the right, we meet level curves

belonging to higher values of f; hence fx (0, 0) > 0. Similarly, as we move along the

y -axis (the orange line) upwards, we meet level curves belonging to smaller values

of f values; hence fy (0, 0) < 0.

Moreover, note that as we move in the positive direction along both axes, the points

where we meet the level curves of

f

fyy (0, 0) > 0

become farther apart. This means that the absolute value of the rate of change of

is getting smaller. This in turn means

as

fy (0, 0) < 0.

(Part

(b)

as

fx (0, 0) > 0,

84

and

Finally, we compare the rate of changes along the lime and turquoise lines.

The

level curves intersect the turquoise line at points farther apart than the points they

intersect the lime line. Hence

upwards along

Remark:

y -axis.

fx ,

In other words,

It is also possible to nd approximate values of these derivatives using the gure. In

fact, those of

fx (0, 0)

and

fy (0, 0)

85

f (0, 0).

21.

Let

Solution:

f (x, y) = x3 3axy + y 3 .

then 3x2 = 0 x = 0 and 3y 2 = 0 y = 0, and (0, 0) is the only critical point.

If a =

/ 0, then the rst equation gives y = x2 /a, and substituting this in the second

equation we get x4 a3 x = 0 whose solutions are x = 0 and x = a. Now using y = x2 /a,

we get (0, 0) and (a, a) as the critical points.

At a critical point

=

As

(a, a) = 27a2

fxx fxy

6x 3a

=

fyz fyy

3a 6y

a < 0. On the other hand, (0, 0) = 9a2 implies that (0, 0) is

a =/ 0.

and

saddle point for

a

a

the second derivative test fails in this case. If we restrict f (x, y) = x3 + y 3 to the

x-axis we get f (x, 0) = x3 . Since this single variable function does not have a local

Now we look at the sole critical point

maximum or minimum at

at

(0, 0)

(0, 0) is a saddle point when a = 0.

or minimum

22.

on the unit disk D = {(x, y) x2 + y 2 1}.

Solution:

critical point we have fx = 6x2 + 2y 2 1 = 0 and fy = 4xy 2y = 0. The second

equation implies that

obtain

y = 1/ 6

y=0

or

x = 1/2.

(x, y) = (1/ 6, 0)

interior of D .

points lie in the

and

(1/ 6, 0).

1. These solutions correspond to the upper

and lower semicircles.

Then f (x, 1 x2 ) = x2 + x 1 for 1 x 1, and

d

1

f (x, 1 x2 ) = 2x + 1 = 0 x = . This gives the critical points (x, y) =

dx

2

must also include the endpoints x = 1 and x = 1, in other words, the points

(x, y) = (1, 0) and (1, 0) in our list.

Now we look at the boundary of

solve y as y = 1 x2 , 1 x

of the points

on

occur at some

(1/ 6, 0), (1/ 6, 0), (1/2, 3/2), (1/2, 3/2), (1, 0), (1, 0) .

The values of

2 1

,

3 3

2

5

5

, , , 1 , 1 ,

3

4

4

86

respectively. Therefore the absolute maximum value is 1 and the absolute minimum

value is

Remark:

5/4.

Here are two more ways of dealing with the critical points of the restriction of

the boundary of

to

D.

In the rst one we parametrize the boundary, which is the unit circle, by

< t < .

x = cos t, y = sin t,

Then

d

d

1

f (cos t, sin t) = (cos2 t + cos t 1) = 2 cos t sin t sin t = 0 cos t =

dt

dt

2

3/2), (1/2, 3/2), (1, 0), (1, 0).

or

sin t = 0 ,

g(x,y)

In the second we use the Lagrange Multipliers Method for the boundary

O2

x2 + y 2 = 1.

f = gx

6x2 + 2y 2 1 = 2x

f = g

4xy 2y = 2y

} fy = gy

g = 1

g

=

1

x2 + y 2 = 1

O1

O2

O3

x = (1 + )/2, then from 1 and 3 , 4x

3/2), (1/2, 3/2), (1, 0), (1, 0) are added to the list.

the points (x, y) = (1/2,

if

87

23.

on the unit disk

Solution:

D = {(x, y) x2 + y 2 1} .

We rst nd the critical points of

fx = 4(x2 + y 2 1) 2x + 2x = 0

and

in the interior of

D.

We want:

fy = 4(x2 + y 2 1) 2y 2y = 0 .

or 4x2 + 4y 2 5 = 0. Therefore x

= 0 and y = 0, or 4x2 + 4y 2 3 = 0 and y = 0, or

x = 0 and 4x2 + 4y 2 5 = 0, or 4x2 + 4y 2 3 = 0 and 4x2 + 4y 2 5 = 0. In the last

case

there is no solution, and the rst three cases leads to the points (0, 0), ( 3/2, 0)

and (0, 5/2). Only the rst three of these critical points lie in the interior of D

as for the last two x2 + y 2 = 5/4 > 1.

Next we consider the restriction of f to the boundary of D which is the unit circle.

both of these restrictions occur when

(0, 1).

x = 0.

the interval

1 x 1

functions the endpoints x = 1 and x = 1 of

(x, y) = (1, 0) and (1, 0).

This leads the points

f (0, 0) = 2

f (0, 1) = f (0, 1) = 1

f (1, 0) = f (1, 0) = 1

Therefore the absolute maximum and minimum values of

respectively.

88

on

are

and

1,

Remark:

The boundary can also be dealt with using the parametrization x = cos t, y = sin t,

< t < ), of the unit circle. Then the restriction of f to the unit circle gives the function

f (cos t, sin t) = cos 2t on the interval < t < . (d/dt)f (cos t, sin t) = 2 sin 2t = 0 means that

t is an integer multiple of /2 and this gives the critical points (x, y) = (1, 0) and (0, 1) for

the restriction of f to the boundary.

(

Remark:

Consider the function g(x, y) = 2(x2 + y 2 1)2 + 2xy on the unit disk D . This is the

same function as f rotated 45 counterclockwise. Hence the absolute maximum value of g on

(x, y) = (0, 0)

the absolute minimum value 1 at the

, and

(x, y) = (1/ 2, 1/ 2). It is a good exercise to solve this

points

(x, y) = (1/ 2, 1/ 2)

and

problem directly.

24.

h.

other as shown in the gure. Find the largest possible value of the total height

89

Solution:

We want to maximize

h(x, y) =

1 x2 +

x2 y 2 + y

D = {(x, y) 0 y x 1}.

hx =

x

1 x2

x

x2 y 2

used the fact that x > 0 and

12y 2 = 2y 2 y 2 3y 2 = 1

critical point of

is

in the interior of

=0

and

D.

hy =

We want

y

x2 y 2

+ 1 = 0.

y 2 = x2 y 2 x2 = 2y 2 x =

2y where we

equation gives

. So the only

y = 1/ 3 as y > 0 and hence x = 2/3

to the boundary of

D.

y =0

1 x2 + x

have

h(x, 0) =

0 x 1,

0 x 1.

and

for

and

d

x

1

h(x, 0) =

+ 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x2 2x2 = 1 x =

dx

2

1 x2

x > 0. Taking

the endpoints x = 0

points (x, y) = (1/ 2, 0), (0, 0), (1, 0).

as

and

x=1

we have x = 1 and

h(1, y) = 1 y 2 + y for 0

0 y 1, and therefore

y

1. As in the case of

have y = x and 0 x 1, and therefore

we are considering the function h(x, x) =

1 x2 + x for 0 x 1. Once again as in

the case of Side 1 we obtain the points

90

h( 2/3, 1/ 3) = 3

Therefore the maximum possible total height of the three hemispheres is

Remark:

3.

Here is a single variable argument which solves the problem for any number

hemispheres is

for some

k+1

k 1.

hemispheres, where the second one from the bottom has radius r , the maximum

kr + 1 r2 for 0 r 1. The value of H(r) is 1 and k at

Then for

r = k/(k + 1). Therefore we conclude inductively that the

hemispheres is

n for n 1.

the

endpoints

25.

sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.

Solution:

z 2 1.

and

z = 0,

O3

we obtain

then

the points

O3

gives

(1, 0, 0).

fx

fy

fz

g

=

=

=

=

z = 42 z ,

y = 0,

gx

gy

gz

0

3x2

z

y

2 + y2 + z2

and hence

and then

O4

z=0

gives

or

= 1/2

x = 1.

O O

O

O

O1 O3 3x = x y= z

O1

O2

O3

O4

=

=

=

=

2x

2y

2z

1

or

= 1/2.

have x = 0 in which case y = z = 1/ 2 by 4 , or we have x = 1/3 and then

and (1/3, 2/3, 2/3).

If

If

= 1/2,

then from

and

and

. A reasoning similar to

Hence the critical points are (1, 0, 0), (0, 1/ 2, 1/ 2), (1/3, 2/3, 2/3),

(0, 1/ 2, 1/ 2), (1/3, 2/3, 2/3) , and the values of f at these points are

1, 1/2, 1/2, 13/27, 13/27 , respectively. Therefore the absolute maximum is 1 and

the absolute minimum is 1.

the previous case gives the points

91

on the unit

g(x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 +

Then

O2

If

f (x, y, z) = x3 + yz

f = g

}

g = 0

From

k+1

26.

a.

3

0 y sin(x ) dx dy

b.

2 x

R y e dA

2

2yy 2

c.

0 0

d.

where

R = {(x, y) 0 y x}

xy

dx dy

+ y2

x2

(x2

dy dx

+ y 2 )2 + 1

Solution: a.

gure in the xy -plane. Then the y -integral

shown by the red line segments in the

goes from

y=0

to

y = 1.

Therefore the intervals of the x-integral trace out the region R bounded by the

parabola y = x2 , the line x = 1, and the x-axis. Note that the x-integrals are always

from left to right in the interval

0 y 1.

Hence we have

3

3

0 y sin(x ) dx dy = R sin(x ) dA .

y -integral rst.

integration for the y -

The green line segment in the gure shows the interval of

integral which goes from y = 0 to y = x2 . Then:

92

3

3

0 y sin(x ) dx dy = R sin(x ) dA

=

=

=

x2

0

1

0

1

0

sin(x3 ) dy dx

y=x2

sin(x3 ) y]y=0 dx

sin(x3 )x2 dx

1

1

cos(x3 )]0

3

2

=

3

b.

rst to obtain

2 x

2 x

R y e dA = 0 0 y e dy dx

1

2

= x3 ex dx

3 0

1

= tet dt

6 0

1

=

6

2

tet dt =

t d(et )

c

et dt)

c

= lim c lim [et ]c0

c e

c

1

c e

c

=1

L'H

c.

This time we will use the polar coordinates. To do so we rst determine the

region of integration

R.

x= 0 to x = 2y y 2 as shown

2y y 2 x2 = 2y y 2

by the red line segment in the gure. Since x =

On the other hand, the y -integral goes from y = 0 to y = 2. Therefore R is right half

of the disk x2 +(y 1)2 1. Note that the polar equation of the circle x2 +(y 1)2 = 1

is r = 2 sin , and to obtain the right semicircle we vary from = 0 to = /2.

In the iterated integral the

x-integral

goes from

93

Hence:

2yy 2

0 0

xy

xy

dx dy = 2

dA

2

+y

R x + y2

/2

2 sin r cos r sin

=

r dr d

r2

0

0

x2

=

=

=

/2

2 sin

0

/2

0

/2

sin cos r dr d

sin cos [

r2 r=2 sin

]

dr d

2 r=0

2 sin3 cos d

0

/2

sin4

=

]

2 0

1

=

2

d.

Again we use the polar coordinates. This time the integration region is

0

dy dx

1

=

dA

(x2 + y 2 )2 + 1

R (x2 + y 2 )2 + 1

/2

r dr d

=

r4 + 1

0

0

94

R=

/2

1

r=c

lim [arctan(r2 )]r=0 d

c

2

0

/2

=

d

4

0

2

=

8

=

27.

Solution:

the line

Let

y=x

1

R (x2 + y 2 )2 dA

where

and the

x-axis.

By symmetry we have:

1

1

R (x2 + y 2 )2 dA = 8 R (x2 + y 2 )2 dA

/4

2 sec

1

= 8

r dr d

(r2 )2

0

sec

/4

1 r=2 sec

= 8

[ 2 ]

d

2r r=sec

0

= 3

/4

cos2 d

1 + cos 2

d

2

0

3

sin 2 /4

= [ +

]

2

2 0

3 3

=

+

8 4

= 3

/4

95

28.

a.

2

5

R x y cos(y /2) dA

where

R1

2

5

R x y cos(y /2) dA

where

R2

b.

y=x

y

y=1

R1

R2

x

y=x

x=1

y = x

y = x

Solution: a.

respect to the

the function

f (x, y) = x2 y cos(y 5 /2) changes sign under

the

Therefore

x-axis,

but

2

5

R x y cos(y /2) dA = 0.

1

b.

x,

then

y:

x=y

1 3

5

[

x

y

cos(y

/2)]

dy

y

3

0

0

x=y

1

2 1

2 2

4

= y 4 cos(y 5 /2) dy = [ sin(y 5 /2)] =

3 0

3 5

15

0

x2 y cos(y 5 /2) dA =

x2 y cos(y 5 /2) dx dy =

96

29.

x 1 and 0 y 1}.

Solution:

R (1 + x y) dA

where

R (1 + x y) dA = R dA + R (x y) dA

R is

y = x whereas the function f (x, y) = xy changes

respect to this line: f (y, x) = f (x, y).

and then note that the second integral on the right is zero because the region

symmetric with respect to the line

sign under the reection with

On the other hand the rst on the right is just the area of

Hence:

8

8

R (1 + x y) dA = R dA + R (x y) dA = 9 + 0 = 9

97

30.

S = {(x, y) x 5

in the Sea of

and

y 5}

their lives on it, the retired pirates want to be as far away from the sea as possible. As a result,

the pirate population density

p(x, y)

at a point

(x, y)

the distance of the point from the shore and reaches its largest value of 15 pirate/hm2 at the

center of the island. Find the total number

Solution:

Remark:

Example 44 in Part 1.

98

31.

r2 = 2 cos(2)

in the plane is the base of a solid right

sphere z =

Solution:

Let

2 r2 dA

= 4

2 cos 2

/4

0

2 r2 r dr d

r= 2 cos 2

1

4 /4 3/2

[ (2 r2 )3/2 ]

(2 (2 2 cos 2)3/2 ) d

= 4

d =

3

3 0

0

r=0

/4

8 2

2 2 32 /4 3

(1 (2 sin2 )3/2 ) d =

=

sin d

3

3 3 0

0

2 2 32 /4

2 2 32 1

2

=

(1 cos2 ) sin d =

(1 u ) du

3

3 0

3

3 1/ 2

1

3

2 2 32

u

2 2 32 2

5

=

[u ] =

( )

3

3

3 1/ 2

3

3 3 6 2

2 2 64 40 2

=

+

.

3

9

9

/4

99

32.

Let

y = x2 on the sides, and the xy -plane

the plane

y+z = 1

V of the

region D in terms of iterated integrals with orders of integration (a) dz dy dx and (b) dx dy dz .

cylinder

Solution:

100

1

D (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dV where D is the region bounded by the

4 x2 y 2 at the bottom. Express

33.

a.

Cartesian coordinates,

b.

cylindrical coordinates,

c.

d.

Solution:

x2 + y 2

1.

to the

xy -plane

A vertical line passing through a point of the unit disk enters the region

and remains in the region from there on. The equations

of the hemisphere z =

4 x2 y 2 and the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 1 are z = 4 r2 and

r = 1,

(a),

1x2

1

1

1

dV

=

D (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2

1 1x2 4x2 y2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dz dy dx ,

and

(b),

2

1

1

1

D (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dV = 0 0 4r2 (r2 + z 2 )2 r dz dr d ,

To do part

=2

and

sin = 1 ,

respectively,

a ray starting at the origin enters the region at a point on the hemisphere and

leaves the region at a point on the cylinder, and

such a ray intersects the region exactly when

through a point on the intersection circle when

0 /6.

= /6.)

Therefore,

2

/6

csc 1

1

2 sin d d d .

D (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dV = 0 0 2

4

101

(d):

2

/6

csc 1

1

sin d d d

D (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 dV = 0 0 2

2

2

/6

1 =csc

=

[

]

sin d d

0

=2

0

2

/6

1

=

( sin + ) sin d d

2

0

0

2

/6

1 cos 2 sin

=

+

) d d

0 (

2

2

0

2

sin 2 cos =/6

=

[ +

]

d

2

4

2 =0

0

2

3

3 1

+ ) d

=

( +

12

8

4

2

0

3

= (1

)

6

4

102

34.

be the region in space bounded on the top by the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2 and on the

bottom by the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 . Express the volume V of D in terms of iterated integrals

Let

in the

Solution:

Note that the projection of the curve of intersection of the sphere and

x2 + y 2 = 1 in the xy -plane. This curve also bounds

the projection of the solid

V =

to the

Hence we have

2x2 y 2

1x2

1

1

xy -plane.

1x2 x2 +y2

and

V =

0

dz dy dx

2r2

0 r 2

r dz dr d .

angle it makes with the positive z -axis is less than /4, whereas it does so through

the paraboloid if this angle is between /4 and /2. Hence:

V =

0

/4

2 sin d d d

2

0

/2

/4 0

103

cos / sin2

2 sin d d d

35.

/2

2r2

0 r

dz dr d

in cylindrical coordinates.

a.

b.

Solution: a.

z = 2

x2

y2.

z = r

is the cone

z 2 = x2 + y 2 ,

and

z = 2 r2

d d d .

is the paraboloid

0 /2,

dr dz d.

r=1

z = 1.

Since

0r1

and

104

which

and

perpendicular to the z -axis like the blue ones in the gure. Such a ray starts on the

z -axis in D, and leaves D through the cone if 0 z 1, and through the paraboloid

if 1 z 2. Therefore,

plane containing the

/2

2r2

0 r

dz dr d =

/2

0 0 dr dz d

+

where we used the fact that

b.

We have

/2

0

as

z = 2 r2

dV = r dz dr d

(a).

and

2r2

0 r

and

r 0 r =

2z

1 0

dz dr d =

on which

/2

dr dz d

2z.

1

dV

r

-integration takes place along a vertical semicircle subtended by a diameter along

the z -axis and with center at the origin like the green ones in the gure. Such a

semicircle starts on the positive z -axis in D , and leave the region of integration

2 and the paraboloid for 2 2. The upper

half of the cone z = r has the equation = /4 in spherical coordinates. On the

2

2

other hand, z = 2 r cos = 2 ( sin ) cos = (1 +

42 7)/(2) for

a point on the paraboloid as /4 . Therefore,

1

1

D r dV = D sin dV

=

/2

0

/4

0

+

where we substituted

d d d

/2

2 0

dV = 2 sin d d d

coordinates.

105

arccos((1+ 42 7)/(2))

d d d

for the volume element in spherical

36.

The region

about the

z -axis

to obtain a solid

iterated integrals in

Solution:

the xyz -space. Express the volume V of D in terms of

in

(a) the Cartesian, (b) the cylindrical and (c) the spherical coordinates.

is obtained by revolving a

on . Since r = y in the yz -plane and the curve has the equation z 2 = y 2 y 4 , we

conclude that z 2 = r 2 r 4 is the equation of the surface in the cylindrical coordinates.

curve about the

From this

V =

0

follows as the projection of

r2 r4

0 r2 r4 r dz dr d

to the

xy -plane

y 2 ) (x2 + y 2 )2 in the Cartesian coordinates, and once again using the fact that the

projection of

to the

xy -plane

1x2

(x2 +y 2 )(x2 +y 2 )2

V =

(x2 +y2 )(x2 +y2 )2 dz dy dx

1 1x2

The spherical coordinates require a little bit more work. First note that the equation

z 2 = r2

r4 in the cylindrical coordinates now gives ( cos )2 = ( sin )2 ( sin )4 ,

or =

sin2 cos2 / sin2 , in the spherical coordinates. Next note that for

2

sin cos2 = cos 2 to be nonnegative, must be between /4 and 3/4 in the

interval

[0, ].

Therefore:

V =

0

Remark:

3/4

/4

2 sin d d d

Example 48 in Part 1.

106

37.

0

Evaluate the iterated integral

2y+3

1 y

x+y

ex2y dx dy .

2

(x 2y)

Solution:

38.

Let

(u, v)

and

Solution:

(x, y)

By denition,

(x, y) xu xv

= xu yv xv yu

=

(u, v) yu yv

and

(u, v) ux uy

= ux vy uy vx .

=

(x, y) vx vy

107

(x, y) (u, v)

= 1.

(u, v) (x, y)

Therefore,

(x, y) (u, v)

= (xu yv xv yu )(ux vy uy vx )

(u, v) (x, y)

= xu ux yv vy + xv vx yu uy xu uy yv vx xv ux yu vy

= xu ux yv vy + xv vx yu uy xu uy yv vx xv ux yu vy

+ xv vx yv vy + xu ux yu uy xv vx yv vy xu ux yu uy

= (xu ux + xv vx ) (yu uy + yv vy )

(xu uy + xv vy ) (yu ux + yv vx )

= xx yy xy yx

=1100

=1

39.

Solution:

R e

x2 /y

dA

where

R = {(x, y) x2 y

x }.

G = {(u, v) 0 u 1 and 0 v 1} .

We have

1

(u, v) ux uy

(x, y)

1

y 2 /x2 2y/x

=

= ,

=

= 3

=

2

2

2x/y x /y

(x, y) vx vy

(u, v) (u, v)

3

(x, y)

and the change of variables formula gives

x2 /y

R e

dx dy = ev

G

1

1

1

e1

(x, y)

du dv = ev dv du =

.

(u, v)

3

3

0

0

108

Remark:

any

uv -coordinate

du du = 0 = dv dv

and

dv du = du dv

in

we have

= (cos dr r sin d)(sin dr + r cos d)

= r sin2 d dr + r cos2 dr d

= r(sin2 + cos2 ) dr d

= r dr d

and in

Example 39 we have

du dv = d(y 2 /x) d(x2 /y)

= (2y/x dy y 2 /x2 dx)(2x/y dx x2 /y 2 dy)

= 4 dy dx + dx dy

= 4 dx dy + dx dy

= 3 dx dy ,

hence

1

dx dy = du dv .

3

This can be used to keep track of how the area element changes under

a coordinate change, but note that the sign of the factor in front must be corrected by hand so

that it is positive on the region of integration.

40.

C

T x=

u

v

,y=

u+v+1

u+v+1

(x, y)

G (u, v) du dv C

holds for all regions

uv -plane.

u

v

u+v

0, y =

0 and x + y =

1

u+v+1

u+v+1

u+v+1

x

y

for u 0 and v 0. We also have u =

and v =

. Therefore T maps

1xy

1xy

the rst quadrant of the uv -plane into the triangle R = {(x, y) x+y 1, x 0, y 0}

Solution:

Observe that

x=

in a one-to-one manner.

109

Hence:

(x, y)

G (u, v) du dv = T (G) dx dy = (Area

Remark:

of

T (G)) (Area

of

R) =

1

2

1

(x, y) xu xv

(v + 1)/(u + v + 1)2

u/(u + v + 1)2

=

=

=

2

2

v/(u + v + 1)

(u + 1)/(u + v + 1)

(u, v) yu yv

(u + v + 1)3

and hence

du dv

(x, y)

1 dv

1

du

dv

=

G (u, v)

0 0 (u + v + 1)3 2 0 (v + 1)2 = 2 .

41.

(x, y, z)

(, , )

where

Solution:

We have

Therefore

RRx x x RR

(x, y, z) RRRR RRRR

= RR y y y RRR

RR

(, , ) RRRR

RR z z z RRR

RRRsin cos cos cos sin sin RRR

RR

RR

= RRRR sin sin cos sin sin cos RRRR

RRR

RRR

sin

0

RR cos

RR

sin sin cos sin

= ( sin sin )

cos

sin

( sin cos )

cos

sin

+0

( sin cos )( cos )(sin2 + cos2 )

+0

2

2

2

= sin (sin + cos )

= 2 sin

where we used the cofactor expansion with respect to the third column.

110

1. Let a1 = 1, a2 = a3 = 2, a4 = a5 = a6 = 3, a7 = a8 = a9 = a10 = 4,

an 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, . . . . What is a2015 ?

and so on.

That is,

Solution:

k(k 1)/2 < n k(k + 1)/2. Since for k = 63, k(k 1)/2 = 1953 and k(k + 1)/2 = 2016,

we have a2015 = 63.

Remark:

2.

8n + 1 1

an =

can be obtained.

by replacing the middle third of every edge with the other two sides of the outward pointing

Ln be the

Ln , An , lim Ln

and

Solution:

Let

en

and

dn

An

lim An .

and d1 = 1, we nd that en = 3 4n1 and dn = 1/3n1 for n 1. It follows that

Ln = en dn = 3 (4/3)n1 for n 1, and lim Ln = lim 3 (4/3)n1 = .

of Curve n , respectively.

Since

en1

equilateral triangles

(n 1) region. Therefore,

3 (dn1 /3)2

3 1 2

An = An1 + en1

= An1 + 3 4n2

(

)

4

4 3n1

of side length

dn1 /3

nth

and then

to the

st

1

4 n2

4 n3

An = (( ) + ( ) + + 1) + A1

9

4 3 9

3

A1 =

, this gives

4

3 3

4 n1

3

An =

(1 ( ) ) +

20

9

4

for

n 2.

Since

for

n 1.

We obtain

3 3

3 2 3

lim An =

+

=

.

n

20

4

5

111

Remark:

Curve 1 :

Curve 2 :

Curve 3 :

Curve 4 :

takes out 1 ball at t = 7/8 sec, puts 3 balls at t = 15/16 sec, takes out

t = 3/4 sec,

t = 31/32 sec, and

box at t = 1 sec.

puts 2 balls at

1 ball at

in the

so on. Then she challenges you to guess how many balls there are

2k + 1st

and

2k + 2nd

steps for

k1

is to put at

least one more ball into the box. There are innitely many balls in the box at

t=1

sec.

ball1 at t = 0

sec, takes out ball1 at t = 1/2 sec, puts ball2 and ball3 at t = 3/4 sec, takes out

ball2 at t = 7/8 sec, puts ball4, ball5, and ball6 at t = 15/16 sec, takes out ball3

at t = 31/32 sec, and so on. For any given k , ballk is not in the box at time t = 1

Friend2 says: Imagine that the balls are labeled as

with invisible ink which only the magician can see. Then she puts

box at time

t=1

t = 1 1/22k1

sec.

112

3.

{an }

be dened by

a1 = 1

and

an =

Solution:

for

n 1.

1/(1 + an ) > 1/(1 + an+1 ) = an+2 . Similarly, if an > an+1 > 0, then 1 + an > 1 + an+1 > 0

and an+1 = 1/(1 + an ) < 1/(1 + an+1 ) = an+2 . Since a1 = 1 > 1/2 = a2 , it follows that

Observe that if

1

1 + an1

then

1

.

2

Therefore, the sequence {a2n }n=1 is increasing and bounded from above by 1, and

the sequence {a2n1 }n=1 is decreasing and bounded from below by 1/2. By the

Monotonic Sequence Theorem, then both of these sequences are convergent.

lim a2n1 = L and lim a2n = M . Taking the limit of a2n+1 = 1/(1 + a2n ) as n

n

n

we obtain L = 1/(1 + M ), and taking the limit of a2n = 1/(1 + a2n1 ) as n we

Let

From M + M L = 1 and LM +

obtain

M = 1/(1 + L).

L=1

it follows that

M = L.

L2 + L 1 = 0 gives L = ( 5 1)/2

or L = ( 5 + 1)/2. Since 0 < an

n 1, we must have 0 L . Hence L = ( 5 1)/2 is the limit and

51

lim an =

.

n

2

Finally,

Remark:

51

=

2

1

1

1+

1+

1+

1+

1+

Remark:

1

1+

showed that lim Fn /Fn+1 = ( 5 1)/2 .

Note that

sequence. So we

Remark:

for all

is the Fibonacci

It can be showed with a little bit more work that any sequence satisfying the given

5)/2 , then the sequence is constant; and if a1 = Fn+1 /Fn for

On the other hand, if a1 = (1 +

some n 1, then an = 1 and an+1 is undened.

recursion relation converges to

113

4.

{xn }

be dened by

x0 = 2

and

xn =

xn1

1

+

2

xn1

a.

b.

Solution: a.

xn =

xn1

1

+

2

xn1

L = lim xn

n 1 xn xn1 =

for

for

n 1.

exists. Then

x2n1

+1

2

for

n1

x2n1

L2

+ 1 L2 =

+ 1 L2 = 2

2

2

L = 2 or L = 2.

as

Therefore

xn > 0

for all n 0. It follows that L = lim xn 0. We conclude that the limit is

2.

b.

In part

Therefore

below.

Now we will show by induction on

Let

n = 0.

Let

n>0

that

assume that

2 < xn+1 < xn . Then

Since

and

xn+1 xn+2 =

and hence

and since

xn+2 > 0,

we have

n 0.

2 < x1 < x0 .

x2 2

xn+1

1

= n+1

>0

2

xn+1

2xn+1

x2n+2

for all

x2 2

xn+1

1

2=(

+

) 2 = ( n+1

) >0

2

xn+1

2xn+1

we have

xn+2 >

2.

Since the sequence is bounded from below and decreasing, we conclude that it

converges by the Monotonic Sequence Theorem.

114

5.

We have a

1/n1/n

xy -plane in such a way that they completely

cover the given set.

1

1/2

1/3

1/2

1/4

a.

The entire

b.

y=x

c.

y = ex

xy -plane

Solution: a.

as it is the

...

1/4

1/3

and the

x-axis

for

x0

1

. This series is convergent

2

n=1 n

sum is 2 /6.) On the other hand,

p-series

with

p = 2 > 1.

the entire plane has innite area. Hence it is not possible to cover the entire plane

using these squares.

b.

We place the odd-numbered squares along the half of the line lying in the rst

quadrant and the even-numbered ones along the half lying in the third quadrant

2

1

1

= =

2k

2 k=1 k

and

k=1

entire line is covered by the squares.

c.

the

x-axis

115

2

2

>

= ,

k=1 2k 1

k=1 2k

1

= .

n=1 n

1+

for all

n 1.

n+1 dx

1 1

1

+ ++ >

= ln(n + 1)

2 3

n

x

1

corners on the graph of

y = 1/x

Hence

ex e(1+1/2+1/3++1/n)

n

for

n+1

1

1

x

k=1 k

k=1 k

for all

n 0.

[1, n + 1]

1

n+1

nth

rectangle

never lies lower than the graph of y = ex . Therefore we can cover the region between

the graph of y = ex and the positive x-axis with the squares.

6.

the

nth

partial sum

a.

sn

1

n

n=1 2

Solution:

b.

c.

n=1

2014 sn 2015.

n

2999

)

(

n=1 3000

d.

1

n=1 n

Note that all terms of these series are positive, and therefore, their partial

sums form increasing sequences. This will be used repeatedly in the following.

a.

We have

1/2

1

1

<

=

= 1 < 2014

k

n

1 1/2

n=1 2

k=1 2

n

sn =

for all

n 1,

where we used the geometric series sum formula, and hence there are

b.

k=1

k=1

116

n 4,

for

and

k=1

k=1

for

n 5.

c.

Every term of this series is between 0 and 1, hence its partial sums increase in

Therefore no

sn

Moreover,

2999/3000

2999

) =

= 2999 > 2015

(

1 2999/3000

n=1 3000

by the geometric series sum formula.

satisfying the condition

d.

2014 sn 2015.

sn

1

= > 2015 ,

n=1 n

sn 2015.

7.

sn

2014

a.

d.

g.

n=1

nn

n=1 n!

e.

1

n=3 n ln n ln(ln n)

h.

Solution: a.

Hence

b.

b.

(21/n 21/(n+1) )

We have

lim sn = 1 .

We have

n ln n

n

n=2 3

c.

n sin n

n=1 n +

sin n

2

n=1 n

f.

k=1

k=1

(1)n+1 cos ( )

n

n=1

n

n

5 2

n

n

n=1 7 6

k=1

(21/n 21/(n+1) ) = 1 .

n=1

an = n ln n/3n

and

an+1

(n + 1) ln(n + 1)/3n+1 1

n+1

ln(n + 1)

= lim

= lim

lim

n

n an

n

n

n

n ln n/3

3

n

ln n

= lim

ln(x + 1) 1

1/(x + 1) 1

1

1

1 lim

= lim

= 1= .

x

3

ln x

3 x 1/x

3

3

L'H

=

Since

= 1/3 < 1 ,

the series

n ln n

n

n=2 3

117

c.

an = (1)n+1 cos(/n),

lim an = lim cos(/n) = cos 0 = 1 .

n

n

by the nth Term Test.

d.

Since

We have

an = nn /n!

we

have

Therefore

an = cos(/n)

lim an =/ 0 , and

n 2,

for

and

and

an+1

(n + 1)n+1 /(n + 1)!

1

= lim

= lim

= lim (1 + ) = e .

n

n an

n

n

n /n!

n

e.

= e > 1,

Since

nn

n=1 n!

the series

We observe that

1/(n + n sin n)

L = lim

= lim

n

n

1/n

0<L<

Since

n sin n

n=1 n +

f.

L = lim

series

(5/7)n

n=1

(5n 2n )/(7n 6n )

n

n

5 2n

n=1

on

1

n=1 n

have

g.

1

1

=

=1.

sin n 1 + 0

1+

n

Since

7n 6n

ln x

(1, ).

5n /7n

converges as

1 (2/5)n 1 0

=

= 1.

n 1 (6/7)n

10

= lim

Since

We also

0 < L < ,

the

positive on [3, ) . Therefore x ln x ln(ln x) is

is an increasing function on

Both

ln x

ln(ln x) are

[3, ) as it is the product of three positive and increasing

implies that 1/(x ln x ln(ln x)) is a positive and decreasing

and

functions. This in turn

function on

[3, ) .

improper integral

dx

du

=

x ln x ln(ln x)

ln(ln 3) u

the series

h.

0

n=3 n ln n ln(ln n)

1 + sin n

2

2

2

n

n

for

Hence

diverges.

u = ln(lnx), du = dx/(x ln x) .

1 + sin n

.

n2

n=1

n 1.

The

Since

0 1 + sin n 2

1

2

n=1 n

p-series

118

converges as

for

n 1,

p = 2 > 1.

we have

Therefore

the series

2

1

=

2

2

2

n=1 n

n=1 n

sin n

,

2

n=1 n

Remark:

1 + sin n

converges by the

n2

n=1

1 + sin n

1

and

converge, the series

2

2

n

n=1

n=1 n

Since both

1

2

n=1 n

In part

In part

In part

(d), the Root Test also works where we use the fact that n

lim

119

also works.

1

n

n=1 2

also works.

1/n

(n!)

n

1

e

Remark:

The following was a bonus problem on Moodle in Spring 2010 Math 102 course.

= 12/99 as an application

therefore x = 12/99 . Of course

12.121212 . . . ;

99x = 12

and

That is what we are going to do in this problem. We will forget about convergence

as we know it, and take a trip to Tersonia.

In Tersonia after they teach the students about integers and rational numbers,

they come to the decimal representations of numbers. As you know our decimal

expansions have the form

dn dn1 . . . d2 d1 d0 .d1 d2 . . .

where each

di

is in

{0, 1, . . . , 9}.

the decimal point, but we must have only nitely many nonzero digits before the

decimal point. In Tersonia they do just the opposite. Their decimal expansions

have the form

. . . t3 t2 t1 t0 .t1 t2 . . . tn

where each

ti

is in

{0, 1, . . . , 9}.

innitely many nonzero digits before the decimal point, but they can only have

nitely many digits after the decimal point.

Take a few minutes to convince yourself that Tersonians can add and multiply

their decimal expansions just like we do.

Why no minus sign? Well, because Tersonians don't need it. Negative numbers

are already there.

Then

y = 12.0 = . . . 121212.0 .

y = 12/99 . So in fact 12.0

100y = . . . 121200.0

and

99y = 12 .

Therefore

is a negative number.

Here are some problems from Tersonian Elementary School Mathematics Book :

Part

(e)

a.

1

=?

2

e.

b.

1

=?

3

A

and

c.

1

=?

7

such that

d.

A B = 0.

http://www.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/otekman/calc2/ters.html .

the

120

1 = ?

given

can

be

found

at

8.

Consider

xn

n

2

n=0 5 (n + 1)

f (x) =

a.

Show that

b.

Show that

4

3

< f (3) < .

3

2

3

4

< f (3) < .

4

5

Solution: a.

We have:

3n

3

32

343 4

>

1

+

+

=

>

n

2

2

5 2 5 5 250 3

n=0 5 (n + 1)

f (3) =

and:

3n

3

3n

=

1

+

+

n

2

5 2 n=2 5n (n2 + 1)

n=0 5 (n + 1)

13 1 3n 13 1 (3/5)2 37 3

<

+

=

+

=

<

10 5 n=2 5n 10 5 1 3/5 25 2

f (3) =

b.

We have

f (3) = (1)n

n=0

and

f (3) = (1)n

n=0

3

32

193 4

3n

<

1

+

=

<

n

2

2

5 (n + 1)

5 2 5 5 250 5

3n

3

32

33

469 3

>

1

=

>

n

2

2

3

5 (n + 1)

5 2 5 5 5 10 625 4

n

1

3

}

by the Alternate Series Estimate as {( )

2

5

n + 1 n=0

n

3

1

lim ( ) 2

= 0.

n 5

n +1

121

9.

Solution:

Let

bn =

4n

n!(n + 1)!

for

(4)n

n=0 n!(n + 1)!

n 0.

is positive or negative.

Then:

b >0 n0

lim b = lim n!(n4+ 1)! = lim 4n! lim (n +1 1)! = 0

for all

n bn+1

4n

4n+1

(n + 2)(n + 1) 4 n 1.

n!(n + 1)! (n + 1)!(n + 2)!

Therefore the series satises the conditions of the Alternating Series Test.

In

(4)n

4

42

43

44

4 4 4

=1

+

+

=12+ +

3 9 45

n=0 n!(n + 1)!

S=

s3 =1/9

1/45,

Remark:

and

In other words,

S (1/9) <

is negative.

(4)n

n=0 n!(n + 1)!

S s3 < b4 .

b4

is

1

J1 (4),

2

(1)n (x/2)2n+1

is the

n!(n + 1)!

n=0

approximately 0.03302166401.

where

J1 (x) =

122

Bessel function of

10.

(1)n

n=0

Solution:

xn

.

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

We have

an = (1)n

xn

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

= lim

and

an+1

an

(1)n+1

= lim

xn+1

(1)n

xn

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

xn+1

(2n+1 + 1)((n + 1)2 + 1)

= lim

n

xn

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

1 + 2n

n2 + 1

= lim (

)x

n 2 + 2n (n + 1)2 + 1

x

=

.

2

If

x < 2 ,

then

= x/2 < 1

x > 2 ,

then

= x/2 > 1

It follows by the denition of the radius of convergence that

R = 2.

We have

cn =

(1)n

,

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

cn+1

1/((2n+1 + 1)((n + 1)2 + 1))

1

= lim

= lim

n

R n cn

1/((2n + 1)(n2 + 1))

n2 + 1

1 + 2n

1

= lim (

)

=

.

n 2 + 2n (n + 1)2 + 1

2

Therefore

R = 2.

123

11.

(1)n

n=0

a.

x2n+1

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

b.

Determine whether the power series converges or diverges at the right endpoint of its

interval of convergence.

c.

Determine whether the power series converges or diverges at the left endpoint of its

interval of convergence.

Solution: a.

We have

an = (1)n

x2n+1

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

and

= lim an 1/n

n

1/n

x2n+1

= lim ( n

)

n (2 + 1)(n2 + 1)

x2 x1/n

= lim

n 2 (1 + 2n )1/n n1/n (1 + n2 )1/n

2

=

If

x <

2,

Root Test;

Root Test.

b.

At

x=

x

.

2

2

= x

/2 < 1 and the power series

and if x >

2

, then = x2 /2 > 1 and the

Therefore R =

2.

then

power series diverges by the

we have

2n+1

x

(

2)2n+1

n

=

(1)

(1)n n

(2 + 1)(n2 + 1) n=0

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1)

n=0

2n

= 2 (1)n n

.

(2 + 1)(n2 + 1)

n=0

Consider

the

corresponding

absolute

value

series

2n

.

Since

n

2

n=0 (2 + 1)(n + 1)

1

p-series 2 with p = 2 > 1

n=1 n

2n

1

for all n 1 and the

<

(2n + 1)(n2 + 1) n2

2n

converges,

converges by the Direct Comparison Test; and then

n

2

n=0 (2 + 1)(n

+ 1)

the power series at x =

2 converges absolutely by the Absolute Convergence Test.

0<

c.

At

x= 2

we have

x2n+1

( 2)2n+1

n

= (1) n

(1) n

(2 + 1)(n2 + 1) n=0

(2 + 1)(n2 + 1)

n=0

2n

= 2 (1)n+1 n

.

(2 + 1)(n2 + 1)

n=0

124

This is just

absolutely.

12.

Determine the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the power series

xn

.

n+1

n=0 3n + (1)

Also determine the type of convergence at each point of the interval of convergence.

Solution:

As

cn =

1

3n + (1)n+1

cn+1

1/(3(n + 1) + (1)n+2 )

3 + (1)n+1 /n

1

= lim

= lim

=

lim

= 1.

R

cn

1/(3n + (1)n+1 )

3 + 3/n + (1)n+2 /n

Therefore

x > 1.

At

x=1

R = 1.

we have

x < 1

xn

1

=

.

n+1

n+1

n=0 3n + (1)

n=0 3n + (1)

Since

1/(3n + (1)n+1 )

1

1

= lim

=

n

n 3 + (1)n+1 /n

1/n

3

L = lim

diverges by the Limit Comparison Test at

At

x = 1

we have

x = 1.

1

n=1 n

xn

(1)n

=

.

n+1

n+1

n=0 3n + (1)

n=0 3n + (1)

Let

i.

ii.

iii.

un =

1

3n + (1)n+1

1

> 0 for all n 1 .

3n + (1)n+1

0 < 3n + (1)n+1 3n + 1 < 3n + 2 3(n + 1) + (1)n+2

un > un+1 for n 1 .

1

= 0.

lim un = lim

n

n 3n + (1)n+1

un =

for all

n 1.

Hence

(1)n

n+1

n=0 3n + (1)

1

n+1

n=1 3n + (1)

1+

and we showed

that this series diverges. Hence the power series converges conditionally at

125

x = 1 .

R = 1,

is

[1, 1),

converges conditionally at

13.

x = 1 .

(1, 1),

and it

a.

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

x .

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

f (x) = 1 +

b.

R = 1.

Determine the behavior of this power series at the endpoints of its interval of

convergence.

c.

Show that

d.

e.

Show that

for

x < 1.

f (x) =

1

1x

for

x < 1.

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n+1

2n + 1

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

arcsin x = x +

for

x < 1.

Solution: a.

We have

cn =

1 3 5 (2n 1)

2 4 6 (2n)

for

n 1.

convergence formula

1 3 5 (2n 1)(2n + 1)

1

cn+1

2n + 1

2 4 6 (2n)(2n + 2)

= lim

= lim

= lim

=1

n

n 2n + 2

1 3 5 (2n 1)

R n cn

2 4 6 (2n)

to obtain

b.

At

R = 1.

x=1

1 3 5 (2n 1)

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

1+

. Since

1 3 5 (2n 1) 3 5

2n 1 1

1

=

>

2 4 6 (2n)

2 4

2n 2 2n 2n

for

1

n=1 n

x=1

At

x = 1

un =

1 3 5 (2n 1)

.

2 4 6 (2n)

1 + (1)n

n=1

We have

(i ) un > 0

126

for all

1 3 5 (2n 1)

2 4 6 (2n)

n 0,

with

(ii )

un > un+1

for all

n0

as

for

n 0.

On the other

hand,

12 32 52 (2n 1)2 1 3 3 5

(2n 3)(2n 1) 2n 1 1

1

= 2 2

<

2

2

2

2

2

2 4 6 (2n)

2

4

(2n 2)

2n

2n 2n

for n > 1. Therefore 0 < un < 1/ 2n for n > 1, and the Sandwich Theorem gives

(iii ) lim un = 0 . We conclude that the series at x = 1 converges by the Alternating

u2n =

n

Series Test. The convergence is conditional as we have already seen that the absolute

value series diverges.

c.

For

x < 1

we have

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

x .

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

f (x) = 1 +

Dierentiating this we get

f (x) =

for

x < 1 .

1 1 3 5 (2n 1) n1

+

x

2 n=2 2 4 6 (2n 2) 2

Therefore

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

x

n=2 2 4 6 (2n 2)

2xf (x) = x +

and

2f (x) = 1 +

for

x < 1 .

3

1 3 5 (2n + 1) n

x+

x

2

n=2 2 4 6 (2n)

1

1 3 5 (2n 1) 2n + 1

x+

(

1) xn

2

2n

n=2 2 4 6 (2n 2)

1 3 5 (2n 1) 1 n

1

=1+ x+

x

2

n=2 2 4 6 (2n 2) 2n

1

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

x

=1+ x+

2

n=2 2 4 6 (2n)

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

=1+

x

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

= f (x)

for

x < 1.

127

d.

For

x < 1,

f (x)

1

=

f (x) 2(1 x)

1

ln f (x) = ln 1 x + C for some constant C

2

A

f (x) =

for some constant A .

1x

Now substituting

e.

x=0

gives

We have

for

x < 1 .

Substituting

for

x2 < 1 .

1 = f (0) = A.

Therefore,

f (x) =

1

1x

for

x < 1.

1

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

=1+

x

1x

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

x2

for

1

1 x2

gives

1 3 5 (2n 1) 2n

x

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

=1+

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n+1

+C

2n + 1

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

arcsin x = x +

for

x < 1 .

Substituting

x=0

gives

0 = arcsin 0 = C ,

and hence

C = 0.

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n+1

2n + 1

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

arcsin x = x +

for

x < 1 .

Remark:

for

1 x < 1 ,

and

1 3 5 (2n 1) n

1

=1+

x

1x

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n+1

2n + 1

n=1 2 4 6 (2n)

arcsin x = x +

for

x 1 .

128

Thus

14.

n(2x 1)3n+1

5n

n=1

a.

b.

Solution: a.

n(2x 1)3n+1

5n

an =

gives

an+1

an

(n + 1)(2x 1)3(n+1)+1 /5n+1

= lim

n

n(2x 1)3n+1 /5n

n + 1 2x 13

= lim

n n

5

2x 13

=

.

5

= lim

> 1 and the series diverges by the Ratio Test. Since

3

1

5

2x 13 /5 < 1 x <

, it follows that the radius of convergence of the

2

2

3

5/2 .

power series is R =

If

if

2x 13 /5 < 1 ,

2x 13 /5 > 1 ,

b.

then

then

We know that

xn =

n=0

for

x < 1 .

nxn1 =

n=1

for

x < 1 .

1

1x

Now we replace

with

1

(1 x)2

(2x 1)3 /5

to get

n(2x 1)3(n1)

=

5n1

n=1

for

for

x 1/2 <

(2x 1)3

(1

)

5

Finally we multiply by

n(2x 1)3n+1

=

5n

n=1

(2x 1)4 /5

(2x 1)4 /5

2

(1

(2x 1)3

)

5

5/2 .

129

to obtain

(2x 1)4

5

15.

xn

n=0

n! 2n(n1)/2

f (x) =

a.

b.

c.

Show that

d.

Show that

f.

f (x) ex

x0 1 cos x

3

f (2) < e + .

2

lim

f (2) < 0 .

Solution: a.

Since

cn =

1

n! 2n(n1)/2

1

cn+1

1/((n + 1)! 2(n+1)n/2 )

1

= lim

= lim

= lim

=0.

n(n1)/2

n

n (n + 1)2n

R n cn

1/(n! 2

)

Therefore

b.

R = .

Using

xn

n=0

n! 2n(n1)/2

f (x) =

=1+x+

is

(, ) .

x2

x3

+ 3

+

2 2! 2 3!

we obtain

f (x) ex

= lim

x0 1 cos x

x0

lim

c.

(1 + x +

x2

x3

x2 x3

+ 3

+ ) (1 + x +

+

+ )

2 2! 2 3!

2! 3!

x2 x4

+

)

2! 4!

1

1 7

7 3

x2

x

x

4

48

4

48

= lim

= lim

1 4

1 2

x0 1

x0 1

x2

x +

x +

2

24

2 24

1

1

= 4 = .

1

2

2

1 (1

We have

2n

n=0

n! 2n(n1)/2

f (2) =

n=0

n! 2n(n3)/2

=1+2+

2 1

1

.

+ +

n(n3)/2

2! 3! n=4 n! 2

1 1 1

1

=1+1+ + +

.

2! 3! n=4 n!

n=0 n!

e=

130

Since

n(n 3) > 0

n=4

n! 2n(n3)/2

d.

for

n 4,

1

n=4 n!

<

. Therefore,

we have

n! 2n(n3)/2

3

f (2) e < .

2

<

1

n!

for

n 4.

Hence

(2)n

n(n1)/2

n=0 n! 2

(1)n

=

n(n3)/2

n=0 n! 2

2

(1)n

=12+ +

2! n=3 n! 2n(n3)/2

(1)n

=

n(n3)/2

n=3 n! 2

1

1

1

1

= + 2

5

+ 9

.

3! 2 4! 2 5! 2 6!

f (2) =

As

too. Therefore,

16.

Estimate

f (2) <

x

0 e dx

Solution:

1

n! 2n(n3)/2

1

1

5

+ 2

= < 0.

3! 2 4!

32

We have

ex = 1 + x +

for all

x.

x,

i.

ii.

iii.

un =

< 0 for n 3

0.01.

x2

xn

++

+

2!

n!

x4

x2n

+ + (1)n

+

2!

n!

Let

1

(n + 1)! 2(n+1)(n2)/2

Therefore,

ex = 1 x2 +

for all

ex dx = 2

22n+1

.

n! (2n + 1)

23 25

22n+1

+

+ + (1)n

+.

3 2! 5

n! (2n + 1)

Then:

22n+1

> 0 for all n 0 .

n! (2n + 1)

2n2 3n 1 > 0 for n 2 (n + 1)(2n + 1) > 22 (2n + 1)

un > un+1 for n 2 .

4n

2

lim un = lim (

) = 0.

n

n n! 2n + 1

un =

131

for

n 2.

Hence

n 2.

Since

ex dx 2

2

approximates

17.

219

221

12223758182

23 25

+

+

+

=

0.89

3 2! 5

9! 19 10! 21 13749310575

x

0 e dx

2

0.01.

Solution:

1

n

n=0 4 (2n + 1)

1

(1/4)n (1/2)2n

(1/2)2n+1

=

=

=

2

n

n=0 2n + 1

n=0 2n + 1

n=0 2n + 1

n=0 4 (2n + 1)

3

5

(1/2)

(1/2)

= 2 (1/2 +

+

+ ) .

3

5

ln(1 + x) = (1)n+1

n=1

for

1 < x 1 .

In particular,

x = 1/2

xn

x2 x3 x4 x5

=x

+

n

2

3

4

5

gives

3

1

(1/2)2 (1/2)3 (1/2)4 (1/2)5

ln ( ) = ln (1 + ) = 1/2

+

+

,

2

2

2

3

4

5

and

x = 1/2

gives

1

1

(1/2)2 (1/2)3 (1/2)4 (1/2)5

ln ( ) = ln (1 ) = 1/2

.

2

2

2

3

4

5

Therefore

n=0

4n (2n + 1)

223 /(23

3

1

= ln ( ) ln ( ) = ln 3 .

2

2

132

1.

(3x2 y 2 + y) dx + 2x3 y dy

C

where

is the cardioid

Solution:

r = 1 + cos

where

parameterized counterclockwise.

M dx + N dy = (

R

N M

) dA

x

y

C.

Therefore

M

M

N

N

y

R x

C

R

= dA

=

=

R

2

1+cos

0

2

0

r dr d

r2 r=1+cos

]

d

2 r=0

1 2

= (1 + 2 cos + cos2 ) d

2 0

1 2

1 + cos 2

=

(1 + 2 cos +

) d

2 0

2

1 3

= 2

2 2

3

= .

2

M dy N dx = (

R

133

M N

+

) dA

x

y

In fact, when expressed in terms of components and coordinates, both forms of the Green's

Theorem can be summarized and most easily remembered as

C

where

= A dx + B dy

Indeed, if

M

M

N

N

dx +

dy) dx + (

dx +

dy) dy

x

y

x

y

= M dy N dx,

then

d = dM dy dN dx = (

=

M

M

N

N

dx +

dy) dy (

dx +

dy) dx

x

y

x

y

N

M

N

M N

M

dx dy

dy dx =

dx dy +

dx dy = (

+

) dx dy

x

y

x

y

x

y

dx dx = 0 = dy dy

dx dy

2.

The multiplication of

M

N

M

N

N M

dy dx +

dx dy =

dx dy +

dx dy = (

) dx dy ,

y

x

y

x

x

y

where we used

d = dA dx + dB dy .

then

d = dM dx + dN dy = (

and if

= M dx + N dy ,

= d

and

dy dx = dx dy .

under the double integral and we must not get rid of the sign.

F dr

Evaluate

where

F=

and

y

x

i+ 2

j

2

+ 9y

4x + 9y 2

4x2

Solution:

Observe that

curl

at all points

Consider

y

( 2

)

( 2

)

2

x 4x + 9y

y 4x + 9y 2

1

8x2

1

18y 2

= 2

=0

4x + 9y 2 (4x2 + 9y 2 )2 4x2 + 9y 2 4x2 + 9y 2

F=

4x2 + 9y 2 = 1. Let R be the region lying inside the

Since curl

F=0

at all points of

Green's Theorem,

C0

y dx + x dy

2

2

C0 4x + 9y

t=2 (sin t)/3 d((cos t)/2) + (cos t)/2 d((sin t)/3)

=

t=0

cos2 t + sin2 t

1 2

1

=

dt = 2 = .

6 0

6

3

F dr =

F dr =

C

R, curl F dA = 0 .

R

134

3.

0 u 2 , 0 v 2 ,

Solution:

where

0<b<a

are constants.

We have:

rv = (a + b cos u) sin v i + (a + b cos u) cos v j

ru rv = b(a + b cos u) cos v cos u i b(a + b cos u) sin v cos u j b(a + b cos u) sin u k

ru rv = b(a + b cos u)(cos2 v cos2 u + sin2 v cos2 u + sin2 u)1/2 = b(a + b cos u)

Therefore

Surface Area

= ru rv dA = b(a + b cos u) dA

=

where

R

2

R = {(u, v) 0 u 2

0

and

b(a + b cos u) du dv = ab 2 2 = 4 2 ab

0 v 2}.

135

4.

x2

+ y 2 + z 2 = 4.

Solution:

of the cylinder

x2 + y 2 = 2y

We will use the projection to the yz -plane. This projection is 2-1 from the portion of

the cylinder inside the sphere to the region R given by the inequalities 0 2y 4z 2

in the yz -plane, and by symmetry

Let

Surface Area of

where

p = i.

F

S = 2

dA

R F p

We have

F = (4x2 + (2y 2)2 )1/2 = (4x2 + 4y 2 8y + 4)1/2 = 2

F p = F i = 2x

on

and therefore

Surface Area

F

2

1

dA = 2

dA = 2

dA

R F p

R 2x

R x

1

2y y 2 on S

= 2

dA

as x =

R

2y y 2

2

42y

2

1

4 2y

= 2

dz dy = 2 2

dy

2

0

42y

0

2y y

2y y 2

2 1

= 4 2 dy = 4 2 2 2 = 16 .

y

0

= 2

136

5.

S that lies inside the unit ball x2 + y 2 + z 2 1.

Find

x = u2 ,

y = 2uv and z = v 2 on the surface. Therefore,

x2 + y 2 + z 2 1 means (u2 )2 + ( 2uv)2 + (v 2 )2 1. In other words, (u2 + v 2 )2 1, or

u2 + v 2 1. Hence the part of the surface lying inside the sphere is the image of the

region R, the upper half of the unit disk, in the uv -plane.

Solution:

We have

ru = 2ui + 2vj

rv = 2uj + 2vk

ru ru = 2 2v 2 i 4uvj + 2 2u2 k

Therefore,

Surface Area

= ru ru du dv

R

= 2 2 (u2 + v 2 ) du dv

= 2 2

2

0 r r dr d

1

= d

2 0

=

2

where we used the polar coordinates in the

Remark:

uv -plane.

There is a shorter way of solving this problem which does not use Calculus. The

given parametrization maps the upper half-uv -plane onto the half-cone given by the equation

y 2 = 2xz ,

x0

and

z0

u-axis).

positive x- and

This half-cone has its vertex at the origin, its axis lies along the bisector of the

z -axes, and it has an opening angle of 45 . The portion of this half-cone cut o by the unit

sphere is the lateral surface of a right cone with slant height

with area

r = / 2.

137

=1

and radius

r = 1/ 2,

hence

6.

Verify Stokes's Theorem for the vector eld F = y i + z k and the surface S , where S is the

z = x2 +y 2 satisfying z 3, with the unit normal vector eld n pointing

away from the

z -axis.

Solution:

=

=

t=2

t=0

2

0

Cr=

3 cos t i

3 sin t j + 3 k, 0 t 2 .

Note that this parametrization is consistent with the direction of n. The circulation

of F around C is

F dr = (y i + z k) (dx i + dy j + dz k)

S

2

0

sin2 t dt = 3

f (x, y, z) = z x2 y 2 , and

f = 2x i 2y j + k points in the opposite direction to n, so we will choose the

minus sign from in the ux integral. The projection of S into the xy -plane is the

disk R = {(x, y) x2 + y 2 3}. Finally,

RRR i

j

k RRRR

RR

RR

RR

RRR

RRR

RR

RR

RRR = k .

F = RRR

RR x y z RRR

RRR

RRR

RR

RR

RRR

R

0

z RRRR

RR y

The ux of F across S is

f

S ( F) n d = R F k f dA

On the other hand, the paraboloid is a level surface of

= (k) (2x i + 2y j k) dA

R

= dA = Area of R = ( 3)2 = 3 .

R

Hence

S ( F) n d =

F dr.

C

7.

{(x, y, z) x2 + y 2 + z 2 4} .

Solution:

F = xz i + yz j + z 3 k

2

D F dV = D (2z + 3z ) dV

2

0

2

2

2

0 0 (2 cos + 3 cos ) sin d d d

96

cos2 ) sin d d

(8 cos +

5

0

0

64 2

128

=

d =

.

5 0

5

138

and

D =

S = {(x, y, z) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4}, we

divide it as the upper hemisphere S1 = {(x, y, z) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 and x 0} and the

lower hemisphere S2 = {(x, y, z) x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 and x 0}, and project both onto

the disk R = {(x, y) x2 + y 2 4} in the xy -plane.

in the same direction as

n,

f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . f = 2x i + 2y j + 2z k

f

S F n d = R F k f dA

1

= (xz i + yz j + z 3 k)

R

2x i + 2y j + 2z k

dA

2z

= (x2 + y 2 + z 3 ) dA

R

= (x2 + y 2 + (4 x2 y 2 )3/2 ) dA

=

=

R

2

2

2 3/2

0 (r + (4 r ) ) r dr d

0

2

0

(4 +

32

64

) d = 8 +

.

5

5

64

S F n d = 8 + 5 .

2

Therefore

S F n d = S F n d + S F n d

2

64

64

128

= (8 +

) + (8 +

)=

,

5

5

5

and

points

S F n d = D F dV

139

S,

so

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