The American Jewish Committee protects the rights and freedoms of Jews the world over; combats bigotry

and anti-Semitism and promotes human rights for all; works for the security of Israel and deepened understanding between Americans and Israelis; advocates public policy positions rooted in American democratic values and the perspectives of the Jewish heritage; and enhances the creative vitality of the Jewish people. Founded in 1906, it is the pioneer human-relations agency in the United States.

Cover photo: Children dressed as Hizballah mujahideen (holy warriors) trampling U.S. and Israeli flags at an Al-Quds Day demonstration in Beirut, Lebanon.

TERRORISM BRIEFING

izballah H
The “Party of God”
Yehudit Barsky

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE

Yehudit Barsky is the director of the Division on Middle East and International Terrorism of the American Jewish Committee and an associate scholar of the Foreign Policy Research Institute. She holds an M.A. in International Relations and Near Eastern Studies from New York University and is the author of a forthcoming book on Hamas, “Jihad Is the Way”—The Terror of Hamas, as well as numerous monographs. Ms. Barsky’s publications for the American Jewish Committee include The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, Hamas—the Islamic Resistance Movement of Palestine, Usama Bin Ladin and Al-Qa`ida, and The Brooklyn Bridge Shooting: An Independent Review and Analysis.

Copyright © 2003 The American Jewish Committee All rights reserved. Publication date: May 2003 ISBN 0-87495-123-2

Contents
Foreword Hizballah—the “Party of God” The Ayatollah Khomeini as the Supreme Jurisconsult Origins: “There Is Only One Party, the Party of Allah!” The Symbol of the Movement Front Organizations “A Muslim Youth in Lebanon Smiled at Death” Ideology The Obligation to War and Jihad Hizballah’s Terror Activities Hizballah’s Role in the Israel Embassy and AMIA Bombings Funding Iran, Hizballah, and International Terrorism Hizballah and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Hizballah and Hamas Hizballah, Syria, and Lebanon Hizballah and Al-Qa`ida Hizballah and the Palestinian Authority v 1 2 4 5 6 6 9 12 14 16 20 21 23 25 26 26 28

iii

iv Contents

Hizballah’s U.S. Activities “Islamic Revolution Is the Only Solution” Fund-Raising in the United States Conclusion Notes

29 31 37 39 39

Foreword
s the war on terrorism advances, it has become increasingly evident how widespread, complex, and dangerous is the network among fanatical Islamic radical groups. The present study focuses on Hizballah, the Lebanon-based, Iran-backed Shi`i radical organization, with a twenty-year history of attacks on Western and Jewish targets, which seeks to export Khomeini-style revolution throughout the world. Hizballah’s worldview sees an apocalyptic confrontation between Islam and the West, in which every earthly terror attack is a small blow in the “Divine struggle against Satan.” Its spiritual mentor, Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, has defended suicide bombings as the unconventional weapons of “oppressed Muslims.” In this struggle, Hizballah’s trail of blood is very long. In the early 1980s it was responsible for the truck bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks that killed 241 Marines, the suicide attacks on the American embassy in Beirut, and the hijacking of TWA flight 847 that resulted in the murder of a U.S. Navy diver. More recently, the roles of Iran and Hizballah have been revealed in the early 1990s attacks on the Israeli embassy and the AMIA Jewish community center building in Buenos Aires, and in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia. Hizballah’s network is truly worldwide. Its cells are reported to function in at least twenty states, including the United States, Britain, Germany, France, and Pakistan. The present report documents its ties to the Irish Sinn Fein and its involvement in violence emanating from the lawless South American Tri-Border area, shared by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. It also reveals Hizballah’s coop-

A

v

vi Hizballah: The “Party of God”

eration with Al-Qa`ida, having helped dozens of Bin Laden operatives flee from Afghanistan to Iran. On the Arab-Israeli front, by virtue of Iran’s close ties to Syria and Syria’s control of Lebanon, Hizballah has served as Syria’s proxy in destabilizing the southern Lebanese border with Israel. Since 1985, it has launched over 4,000 Katyusha attacks against the northern Israeli town of Kiryat Shemona alone. Throughout the 1990s Hizballah served as the vehicle for dispensing Iranian funds to Palestinian terrorist organizations, including Hamas, the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. More recently, Hizballah was implicated in the shipment of fifty tons of illegal Iranian-manufactured arms to the Palestinian Authority, intercepted by the Israeli Navy’s capture of the Karine A off Israeli waters. This study traces the trail of Hizballah to our own home front, where a number of Hizballah cells are said to function in the United States, raising millions of dollars through front organizations and criminal activity, including copyright violations, cigarette tax fraud, and counterfeit operations. The message of Hizballah is more openly disseminated through the Muslim Student Association-Persian Speaking Group and through the pulpits of some American mosques. Programs of Hizballah’s Al-Manar television station have aired on Detroit’s Channel 23, and Hizballah calendars have been distributed through the Islamic Center of America in Detroit. Understanding the complex relationships between Islamic radical groups and terror-sponsoring nations requires the depth of knowledge and intelligence-gathering capacity that has been the hallmark of the American Jewish Committee’s Division on Middle East and International Terrorism. Established in 1999, DMEIT focuses on interpreting and disseminating “open-source intelligence.” DMEIT’s director, Yehudit Barsky, applying her proficiency in the Arabic language and extensive knowledge of the Islamic world, evaluates, digests, and explains vast amounts of data to produce an in-depth, informative study such as this portrait of Hizballah.

Foreword vii

This report is the fourth in a series of terrorism briefings she has prepared, the previous ones having focused on Al-Qa`ida, Hamas, and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine. (The reports are all available at www.ajc.org.) Like its predecessors, it brings invaluable insights into the ideology and workings of international terrorist groups that pose an existential threat to the United States, Israel, and the West. David A. Harris Executive Director The American Jewish Committee May 2003

Hizballah–The “Party of God”
Killing is our habit. Our dignity, which is martyrdom, comes from God.1
Banner displayed outside the office of Hizballah’s representative to the Lebanese Parliament, Muhammad Ra’ad, in Nabatiyah, Lebanon, April 2002

It is our pride that the Great Satan [the United States] and the head of despotism, corruption, and arrogance in modern times considers us as an enemy that should be listed on the terrorism list. I say to every member of Hizballah: Be happy and proud that your party has been placed on the list of terrorist organizations as the U.S. views it.2
Hizballah leader Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah, November 4, 2001

We are headed for dealing with evil at the roots and the roots are America.3 Imam Khomeini, the leader, has repeatedly stressed that America is the reason for all our catastrophes and the source of all malice. By fighting it, we are only exercising our legitimate right to defend our Islam and the dignity of our nation.4 We see in Israel the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world. It is the hated enemy that must be fought until the hated ones get what they deserve.5
Hizballah’s Manifesto: “Open Letter from Hizballah to the Downtrodden in Lebanon and the World,” February 1985.

Let the entire world hear me. Our hostility to the Great Satan is absolute…. I conclude my speech with the slogan that will continue to reverberate on all occasions so that nobody will think that we have weakened. Regardless of how the world has changed after Septem1

2 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

ber 11, “Death to America” will remain our reverberating and powerful slogan: Death to America.6
Hizballah leader Hassan Nasrallah, at a Beirut rally in support of the Palestinian intifada, September 2002

Martyrdom operations—suicide bombings—should be exported outside Palestine. I encourage Palestinians to take suicide bombings worldwide. Don’t be shy about it.7
Sermon by Hizballah leader Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah broadcast on Al-Manar Television, December 2002

On Al-Quds Day, I reaffirm to you that Israel will be eliminated one day, God willing.8
Hizballah’s Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah at an Al-Quds Day rally, 1999

Hizballah, or the “Party of God,” is a Lebanon-based Shi`i Islamic radical terror organization with a twenty-year history of attacks against Westerners, Israel, and Jews. The movement’s “spiritual mentor” is Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, and its secretary general is Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah. Over the past decade, Hizballah has expanded its terror attacks against Israelis and Jews from the Middle East throughout the world. Hizballah ultimately seeks to eradicate Western influence and promotes the cause of a Khomeinistyle Islamic revolution throughout the Middle East, and, ultimately, the world. The United States has officially designated Hizballah as a foreign terrorist organization (FTO) by the State Department’s Office of Counterterrorism9 since 1997. On November 2, 2001, President Bush updated Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001,10 to include the freezing of the assets of organizations and individuals linked to Hizballah in the United States.11 The Ayatollah Khomeini as the Supreme Jurisconsult The Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic revolution of 1979 established an Islamic state based upon Shi`i traditions that he radically reinterpreted in order to legitimize a concept known in Persian as velayate-faqih and in Arabic as wali al-faqih—the rule of the supreme

The Ayatollah Khomeini as the Supreme Jurisconsult 3

jurisconsult. The concept that he delineated provided for an Islamic state to be ruled by a rahbar, a quasi-infallible leader who would rule absolutely over all Shi`is as a marja`i taqlid, supreme guide.12 Upon his accession to power in 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini claimed authority as the supreme guide of Shi`a all over the world, including the Shi`a of Lebanon. Hizballah designated Khomeini as its supreme Jurisconsult13 as a demonstration that the movement revered his ideologies as well as acknowledged his leadership as Divinely inspired. Hizballah leader Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah explained:
We must obey the wali al-faqih; disagreement with him is not permitted. The guardianship of the faqih is like the guardianship of the Prophet Muhammad and of the infallible imam. Just as the guardianship of the Prophet Muhammad and the infallible imam is obligatory, so too is the guardianship of the faqih ... his wisdom derives from God and the family of the prophet, and he approaches the Divine.... When the wali al-faqih orders someone to obey and that person disobeys, that is insubordination against the imam. When the wali al-faqih orders someone to be obeyed, such obedience is obligatory.14

Commensurate with his goal of exporting the Islamic Revolution, in a 1981 sermon Ayatollah Khomeini called upon Muslims throughout the world to take up arms and to galvanize themselves in a revolt against the United States and other “enemies of Islam.” He memorialized this demand in a political observance that he called the “Day of Al-Quds” or Jerusalem Day, which is annually observed on the third Friday of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Khomeini ordained the observance of Al-Quds Day as an event that would “behoove the world’s Muslims to rid themselves of the shackles of bondage to the Great Satan [i.e., the United States] and superpowers.”15 In his address on the first observance of Al-Quds Day, Khomeini called for a revolution of Muslims throughout the world:

4 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

O, you Muslims of the world! You oppressed masses! Rise up and take your destiny into your hands. How long do you intend to sit quietly while your fate is determined in Washington or Moscow? Until when should Quds [Jerusalem] be trampled under the boots of the residue of the United States, the usurper Israel? How long should Quds, Palestine, Lebanon and the oppressed Muslims be under the domination of criminals while you remain onlookers, while some of your treacherous rulers aid them? How long should almost one billion Muslims and 100 million Arabs, with vast lands and endless resources, continue to suffer plundering by the East and the West and oppressions and inhumane massacres by them and their residue?

Khomeini concluded his remarks with a call for his followers to take up arms: “Why don’t you stand against the enemies of Islam and use firearms and military might and a God-inspired power?”16 Origins: “There Is Only One Party, the Party of Allah!” Hizballah is the Islamic radical revolutionary movement in Lebanon that was inspired and encouraged by the Ayatollah Khomeini subsequent to Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution. Its purpose is to export the Islamic Revolution throughout the world. The movement was named for the last words of the Iranian cleric Ayatollah Mahmud Ghaffari, who died under torture in Qom, Iran, in 1973. Ghaffari, who became a hero of the Islamic Revolution, was quoted as saying: “There is only one party, the Party of Allah!”17 Following the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the cleric’s son, Hadi Ghaffari, known as the “machine gun mullah,”18 served as a minister in the Khomeini government. He was charged with the responsibility of cooperating with Hizballah in Lebanon.19 Mahmud Ghaffari’s reference to the Arabic phrase Hizb (Party) Allah (of God) was taken from two verses in the Qur’an. The first verse states:
And whoever takes Allah and His Apostle and those who believe for a guardian, then surely, the Party of Allah, they are they that

The Symbol of the Movement 5

shall be triumphant.20 [Emphasis added.]

The second verse refers to the reward that is promised to those who are faithful on the Day of Judgment:
You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and the Latter Day [Day of Judgment] befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and His Apostle, even though they were their own fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed faith, and whom He has given strength and with an inspiration from Him; and He will cause them to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein; Allah is well-pleased with them, and they are wellpleased with Him; these are Allah’s Party: now surely the Party of Allah are the successful ones.21 [Emphasis added.]

The Symbol of the Movement Hizballah’s symbol consists of the name of the movement out of which emerges a globe with an upraised arm grasping an AK-47 rifle. The arm grasping the rifle signifies the martyrdom of Imam Husayn and links it to the militancy of the movement today. The globe represents Hizballah’s desire to see its brand of Islam ultimately prevail throughout the world. Below the figure of the globe is the organization’s official name in Arabic: Hizb Allah–Al-thawra AlIslamiya fi Lubnan (Hizballah, the Islamic Revolution in Lebanon). The letter “A” of “Allah” above is linked to the upraised arm grasping the AK-47, which signifies the ideological legitimization of the movement’s militancy as being Divinely sanctioned. A Qur’an rests atop the letter “b” of the word “Hizb” (party) which is fashioned in the shape of a traditional lectern for the Muslim scriptures, which also signifies that the movement’s stances are legitimized and based upon the Qur’an. Emblazoned above the symbol of the movement is the Qur’anic verse, “Fa-inna Hizb Allah hum al-ghalibun,” “Lo, the Party of God, they are the victorious ones.”

6 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

Front Organizations Since its founding, Hizballah has never directly assumed responsibility for its terrorist attacks. Through the uses of various aliases, small factions of the group have claimed responsibility for acts of violence ranging from kidnapping to suicide car bomb attacks. Included among the aliases that have been employed by the group are: Islamic Jihad, Islamic Jihad Organization; Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, the Mujahideen (Holy Warriors) for Freedom, the Cells of the Armed Struggle, and Ansar Allah, the “Partisans of God,” Revolutionary Justice Organization, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine, Organization of Right against Wrong, and the “Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.”22 “A Muslim Youth in Lebanon Smiled at Death” The Lebanese branch of Hizballah was founded in 198223 and was led by local Shi`i Islamic radical leaders including Shaykh Ragheb Harb,24 Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, Shaykh Ibrahim Amin, Shaykh Abbas Al-Musawi, and Shaykh Subhi Al- Tufayli, as well as Shaykh Husayn Al-Musawi, the leader of the Islamic Amal Movement.25 Hizballah was created under the patronage of the then Iranian ambassador to Syria, ‘Ali Akbar Mohtashemi-Pur,26

“A Muslim Youth in Lebanon Smiled at Death” 7

who is known as “Hizballah’s midwife.”27 As the result of Iran’s close ties to Syria, and Syria’s continued influence over the Lebanese government, Hizballah was, and still is, provided freedom of movement in Lebanon. Two years after Iran’s Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini established the “Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in the World,” led by Ayatollah Hussein Montazeri, who was entrusted with the role of creating a movement to establish radical Islamic states throughout the world based on the revolutionary template of Iran.28 With the cooperation of Syria, Iran established the Shaykh Abdallah Barracks of the Pasdaran, Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard, in the Baqa’a Valley to extend its influence over the Shi`i population of Lebanon. During the early 1980s, the Pasdaran committed as many as 2,000 of its Revolutionary Guards at its headquarters at Baalbek in southern Lebanon to assist in forming and training Hizballah.29 In Baalbek, Hizballah leader Shaykh Abbas Al-Musawi served as the local patron of the Pasdaran. Al-Musawi provided hospitality to the Revolutionary Guards at his Imam Al-Mahdi Seminary and, in return, the Pasdaran provided him and his followers with military training. Al-Musawi described his experience at the Islamic Revolutionary Guards’ first military training course as a personal spiritual epiphany:
When I joined the Guards and sat with the brethren in the first course they gave in the Baqa’a Valley, I felt I derived immense benefit. I felt I had truly penetrated genuine Islam.30

Al-Musawi described the impact of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard training on his disciples as being the impetus for them to carry out suicide bombings:
[The Pasdaran] made the Muslim youths love martyrdom. And so we were not surprised at all when, shortly after the arrival of the Guards, a Muslim youth in Lebanon smiled at death while carrying with him 1,200 kilograms of explosives.31

8 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

In the early 1980s, Hizballah gained worldwide notoriety for its spectacular car-bombing attacks against Western installations in Lebanon. The most notable of the attacks was the October 23, 1983, suicide truck bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Beirut, in which 241 Marines were killed and 38 wounded. At the time, Hizballah leader Shaykh Husayn Al-Musawi praised the bombing by declaring, “I salute this good act and bow to the spirits of the martyrs.”32 The movement’s spiritual mentor, Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, denied being directly involved in the Marine barracks bombing; nevertheless, he asserted that “the Muslims believe that you struggle by transforming yourself into a living bomb like you struggle with a gun in your hand. There is no difference between dying with a gun in your hand or exploding yourself.”33 Hizballah ideologues evade a confrontation with the Islamic theological prohibition against suicide by referring to suicide bombings as ‘amaliyat istishadiya—literally, “self-martyrdom operations,” thereby creating theological legitimacy for such acts and actively encouraging that they be carried out. This abuse of the concept of martyrdom to permit suicide bombings is a prominent feature of Hizballah and the ideology of other Islamic radical movements that engage in terrorism. Shaykh Fadlallah justified his movement’s suicide bombings during the early 1980s against American targets by explaining that if the actions of a “self-martyr” were intended to “have a political impact on an enemy whom it is impossible to fight by conventional means, then his sacrifice can be part of a jihad. Such an undertaking differs little from that of a soldier who fights and knows that in the end he will be killed. The two situations lead to death; except that one fits in with the conventional procedures of war and the other does not.”34 Fadlallah further legitimized such actions by asserting that suicide bombings are the “oppressed Muslims’” nonconventional weapons that are employed in answer to the highly advanced

Ideology 9

weapons used by the United States and the West:
The oppressed nations do not have the technology and destructive weapons America and Europe have. They must fight with special means of their own... [We] recognize the right of nations to use every unconventional method to fight these aggressor nations, and do not regard what oppressed Muslims of the world do with primitive and nonconventional means to confront aggressor powers as terrorism. We view this as religiously lawful warfare against the world’s imperialist and domineering powers.35

Shaykh Fadlallah is also considered to be responsible for other terrorist activities carried out by Hizballah, including the kidnappings and murders of Western hostages in Lebanon throughout the 1980s. Despite having publicly condemned Hizballah’s kidnappings of the hostages, Fadlallah is believed to have inspired the kidnappers and known precise operational details of those terror incidents.36 Ideology We face a plan by the United States and the Zionists to control the region, to redraw the political map of the region! …We should realize the extent of the dangerous and Satanic goals these people have.37
Hizballah Secretary General Hassan Nasrallah, on the occasion of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) Day, November 29, 2002

In the Qur’an’s historic vision Allah’s support and the revolutionary struggle of the people must come together, so that Satanic rulers are brought down and put to death. The people that is not prepared to kill and die in order to create a just society cannot expect any support from Allah. The Almighty has promised us that the day will come when the whole of mankind will live united under the banner of Islam, when the sign of the Crescent, the symbol of Muhammad, will be supreme everywhere… But that day must be hastened through our jihad, through our

10 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

readiness to offer our lives and to shed the unclean blood of those who do not see the light brought from the heavens by Muhammad in his mir’aj [divinely-inspired vision]. It is Allah who puts the gun in our hand. But we cannot expect him to pull the trigger as well simply because we are faint-hearted.38
Muhammad Taqi Partovi Sabzevari, “The Future of the Islamic Movement,” Qom, Iran, 1986

Hizballah’s ideology is delineated in an official forty-eight-page manifesto that was published in February 1985 entitled, “Open Letter from Hizballah to the Downtrodden in Lebanon and the World.”39 In the manifesto, Hizballah echoed the anti-U.S. ideology of the Ayatollah Khomeini by declaring, “We are headed for dealing with evil at the roots—and the roots are America.”40 Demonstrating its fealty to continuing the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Hizballah designated the Ayatollah Khomeini as the Shi`i Faqih, or Supreme Religious Guide, and described the Islamic Revolution as the “vanguard” that “laid the foundation of a pan-Islamic state under the wise guidance of the fully qualified Faqih, Ayatollah Ruhallah Khomeini.”41 In the text of its manifesto, Hizballah openly pledged its obedience to Khomeini:
We are sons of the Nation of Hizballah, whose vanguard God made victorious in Iran, and who reestablished the nucleus of a central Islamic state in the world. We abide by the orders of the sole and wise and just command represented by the Supreme Jurisconsult who meets the necessary qualifications, and who is presently incarnate in the Imam and Guide, the great Ayatollah Ruhallah Al-Musawi Al-Khomeini, may his authority be perpetuated, enabler of the revolution of the Muslims and harbinger of their glorious Renaissance.42

As a symbol of Hizballah’s continuing fealty to the Islamic revolution, followers of the movement display the Iranian flag, and photographs of the Ayatollah Khomeini and Iran’s current Supreme Guide, Ali Khamene`i.

Ideology 11

Many Hizballah fighters are deeply attached to Iran sentimentally. Some even have taken to speaking Arabic with a Persian accent. There are many intermarriages, and having an Iranian wife or husband is regarded as a status symbol. Huge portraits of the late Khomeini, and the new Iranian Supreme Guide ‘Ali Khamene`i adorn many Hizballah mosques, businesses, and homes. The thoughts of Khomeini are taught at Hizballah schools and indoctrination classes. Each year thousands of Hizballah activists [go] on a visit to the tomb of Khomeini near Tehran.43

Hizballah legitimizes its terror activities and suicide bombings by relying on a radicalized interpretation of a core episode in Shi`i Muslim history. In 680 C.E., Imam Husayn, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, contested the right of the Caliph Yazid to the leadership of the Muslim empire, which was then based in Damascus. Initially, Husayn took refuge in Mecca, but was subsequently encouraged by his supporters to go to Kufa, Iraq, where they informed him that he would find additional support. Husayn sent his cousin Muslim Ibn ‘Aqil in advance of his own journey there, but the local governor who was loyal to the caliph captured Ibn ‘Aqil and executed him. Husayn nevertheless proceeded to Kufa with eighteen members of his family and sixty other supporters. On his way into Iraq, Husayn was joined by reinforcements of 600 men. Upon his arrival in Karbala, Iraq, his forces were attacked and surrounded by troops loyal to Yazid. Deprived of water by enemy forces, Husayn’s supporters fought against Yazid’s troops for eight days, and ultimately, Husayn himself rode his horse into battle and was killed.44 In contrast to the historical account of the episode, followers of Hizballah and the ideology of Ayatollah Khomeini paint Husayn as being a willing martyr and interpret this episode of their history as being the template for the Hizballah suicide bombers of today.45 Hizballah’s worldview is fueled by the perception that the Muslim world is experiencing a period of deep crisis and, as a result, members of the organization are encouraged to strike at the forces

12 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

of evil in the world in order to accelerate a final apocalyptic confrontation between Muslims, who are characterized as the force of God in the world, and the West, which is characterized as the force of evil. From Hizballah’s perspective, each of its terror attacks against the West is counted as an earthly action that assists the Divine struggle against the Satanic forces of the world, personified by the West. As the Iranian political analyst Amir Taheri notes:
The Party of Allah’s ideology is simplicity itself, and it is therefore immediately accessible to the audience it favors above all: the illiterate poor in the towns and cities. This ideology, despite its Islamic pretensions, is in fact Manichean and is based on the division of all phenomena into good and evil. Mankind is also divided between the Partisans of Allah and those who support shaytan or Satan; the war between the two must continue until the complete victory of the Partisans of Allah. Every aspect of Satan’s presence must be removed, by violence if necessary, so that Divine society can become a reality.46

The Obligation to War and Jihad Hizballah anticipates that the final cumulative effect of its war against the West will bring about the establishment of a radical transnational Islamic state that, in time, will encompass the entire world. Ayatollah Khomeini delineated his vision of a radical Islamic state achieving such a goal in a tract that he wrote in 1942 entitled Kashf Al-Asrar (“Keys to the Secrets”). Khomeini explained:
There are two kinds of war in Islam: one is called jihad [holy war], which means the conquest of [other] countries in accordance with certain conditions. The other [type] is war to preserve the independence of the [Muslim] country and the repulsion of foreigners. Jihad, or holy war, which is for the conquest of [other] countries and kingdoms, becomes incumbent after the formation of the Islamic state in the presence of the Imam or in accordance with his command. Then Islam makes it incumbent upon all adult males, provided they are not disabled and incapacitated, to

The Obligation to War and Jihad 13

prepare themselves for the conquest of [other] countries so that the writ of Islam is obeyed in every country in the world.47

In an effort to explain the benefits of his vision of the eventual domination of radical Islam throughout the world, Khomeini asserted:
But world public opinion should know that Islamic conquest is not the same as conquests made by other rulers of the world. The latter want to conquer the world for their own personal profit, whereas Islam’s conquest is aimed at serving the interests of the inhabitants of the globe as a whole. [Non-Islamic] conquerors want to rule the world so that they can spread through it every injustice and sexual indecency, whereas Islam wants to conquer the world in order to promote spiritual values, and to prepare mankind for justice and Divine rule. [Non-Islamic] conquerors sacrifice the lives and possessions of the people to their own leisure and pleasure. But Islam does not allow its leaders and generals to enjoy themselves or to have a moment’s leisure; in this way the lives and property of people can be protected and the bases of injustice destroyed in the world.48

Khomeini further justified the conquest of the entire world through jihad, or holy war, by explaining that the countries that will be conquered and ruled by radical Islam will be “marked for everlasting salvation”:
Islam’s Holy War is a struggle against idolatry, sexual deviation, plunder, repression, and cruelty. The war waged by [non-Islamic] conquerors, however, aims at promoting lust and animal pleasures. They care not if all countries are wiped out and many families left homeless. But those who study Islamic Holy War [jihad] will understand why Islam wants to conquer the whole world. All the countries conquered by Islam or to be conquered in the future will be marked for everlasting salvation. For they shall live under Light Celestial Law.49

14 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

Hizballah’s Terror Activities Prior to the official establishment of the Hizballah movement in 1982, a considerable number of young Shi`a in Lebanon were recruited and trained, during the 1970s, by the personal security force of PLO leader Yasir Arafat known as Fatah’s Force 17. Force 17 leader Mahmud Natur, also known as Abu Tayib, initiated efforts to recruit Lebanese Shi`a operatives for Force 17. The young men were trained in operations tactics, firearms, and explosives by experts from Fatah.50 As of 2001, Faisal Abu Sharkh commanded 3,500 Force 17 operatives throughout the Palestinian Authoritycontrolled areas. Force 17 maintains its ties to Hizballah and is presently considered responsible for operating Hizballah cells in Gaza.51 With the establishment of Hizballah, many Shi`i recruits of the Fatah movement joined Hizballah. `Imad Mughniyah, Hizballah’s most prominent terror operative, was originally a Shi`i recruit to Force 17 during the 1970s who went on to join Hizballah. Upon joining Hizballah, Mughniyah created that organization’s “Special Security Apparatus,” considered responsible for a string of attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, including the suicide car bombings against American and French peacekeeping forces and the kidnappings of Western citizens in Lebanon during the 1980s. Mughniyah is currently believed to be headquartered in Tehran, Iran,52 and has been operating under the protection of the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security and the Pasdaran, Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.53 His Special Security Apparatus is now known as Hizballah’s Foreign Operations Department.54 Drawing its inspiration from the late Ayatollah Khomeini’s government policy of “exporting the Islamic revolution” around the world, Hizballah has sought to eradicate Western influence from the Middle East through acts of violence, with the ultimate goal of establishing a radical Islamist regime in Lebanon. As a complement to these local efforts, Hizballah, in concert with its patron, Iran, has also operated on a much wider scale by carrying out terrorist attacks

Hizballah’s Terror Activities 15

against those whom it views as its enemies—namely, Israel and Jews, the United States, and other Western countries. In this larger sphere, too, the ultimate goal is to create a radical international pan-Islamic movement. In the words of Sheikh Ibrahim al-Amin, one of the group’s leaders: “We want to see Islam prevail throughout the world.”55 Hizballah is considered responsible for the suicide bombings of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut in April 1983 and of the U.S. Embassy Annex in Beirut in September 1984.56 Three Hizballah terrorists are on the FBI’s list of the twenty-two “Most Wanted Terrorists”: `Imad Mughniyah, Hasan Izz al-Din, and ‘Ali ‘Atwa.57 `Imad Mughniyah, the leader of Hizballah’s Special Security Apparatus,58 together with Izz al-Din59 and ‘Atwa,60 were indicted in the United States for planning and participating in the hijacking of TWA flight 84761 that led to the murder of U.S. Navy diver Robert Dean Stethem on June 15, 1985.62 Through the FBI web site, the State Department’s “Rewards for Justice” program is offering up to $25 million for information leading to the arrest and/or conviction of each of the terrorists who carried out the hijacking.63 Mughniyah is also considered responsible for the suicide bombing in October 1983 of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Beirut that left 241 Marines dead,64 and he has been implicated in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia in which nineteen U.S. servicemen were killed.65 During the 1980s, Hizballah’s terror activities included attacks and kidnappings in Lebanon that targeted Westerners, specifically American, French, and German citizens, as well as Lebanese Jews. In January of 1992, the depth of Iran’s control over Hizballah’s activities was revealed when a U.S. government official announced that the Iranian government had paid Hizballah nearly $1 million for the release of each Western hostage. It was further revealed that during the period that the Western hostages were being held captive, Iran directly paid Hizballah for the “confinement and the upkeep” of the hostages’ prison quarters. When asked whether

16 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

Hizballah or Iran had controlled the ultimate fate of the hostages, the official responded, “Tehran called the shots.”66 Hizballah’s Role in the Israel Embassy and AMIA Bombings In the 1990s, Hizballah further expanded its terror activities on the international level. On March 17, 1992, a Hizballah terrorist operative detonated a Ford Fairlane packed with 220 pounds of plastic explosives at the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.67 The bomb caused a massive explosion that leveled half the building and left other nearby buildings severely damaged. Thirty-two civilians were killed, and 252 people were injured.68 In a statement issued from Beirut, Lebanon, the Islamic Jihad, one of the front organizations of Hizballah, took responsibility for the bombing on March 18, 1992. Islamic Jihad identified the suicide bomber as “Abu Yasir,” who was described as an Argentinean convert to Islam. Islamic Jihad vowed to continue its activities, declaring, “It is an open war until the elimination of Israel and until the death of the last Jew on earth.”69 Islamic Jihad went on to proclaim:
Our open battle with the criminal Zionist enemy requires our permanent presence in the arenas of jihad and confrontation and our readiness to sacrifice our lives and blood for God. We call on all Muslims to join the jihad, united under the slogan of liberating Jerusalem and eliminating Israel, so defeating our usurping enemy and expelling him in humiliation from beloved Palestine [sic]. We send greetings of admiration to the mujahideen of the Islamic intifada in Palestine in the month of intifada and Jerusalem Day and to the heroes of Islamic Jihad, the heroes of axes, daggers, and knives. We call on them to escalate their jihad operations against the Jews. O noble martyr, congratulations on your blessed martyrdom and on your seat with a sovereign omnipotent [sic]. We will remain loyal to your chaste blood and that of dear Islam’s martyrs. We will continue on the path of holy jihad, the difficult thorny path, that of red martyrdom. We will sacrifice our lives

Hizballah’s Role in the Israel Embassy and AMIA Bombings 17

against the usurping Jews because no one can reproach us in our work for God until the banner, there is no God but God, is hoisted worldwide. Our open battle with the criminal Zionist enemy requires our continuous presence in the battlegrounds of holy war and confrontation.70

The investigation by the Argentinean authorities and Israel into the bombing of the Israeli embassy indicated that the attack was carried out by the Iranian intelligence services together with Hizballah. Hizballah’s Foreign Operations Department headed by `Imad Mughniyah is considered responsible for having played a central role in the execution of the bombing.71 Two years later, on July 18, 1994, a second attack was carried out in Buenos Aires. A suicide bomber drove a delivery van and parked in front of the AMIA Jewish community center building. Three hundred fifty pounds of explosives detonated at the entrance of the building, causing an immense explosion that completely leveled the structure that housed the two largest Jewish communal institutions in Argentina, the AMIA (Argentine-Jewish Mutual Association) and the DAIA (Delegation of Argentine-Jewish Associations). The blast caused severe damage to buildings nearby, and cars parked on the street near the building were completely demolished. The day after the attack, an organization that identified itself as the “Islamic Command”72 telephoned a radio station in Buenos Aires and took responsibility for the bombing. Forty-eight hours later, an offshoot organization of Hizballah in Lebanon, Ansar Allah,73 claimed responsibility for the attack. Recent reports have indicated that Iranian leaders put into action their decision to implement a strike against the Jewish community center in August 1993. Those who participated in a meeting to plan the attack included Iran’s Supreme Islamic Guide, Ayatollah ‘Ali Khamene`i, who chaired the meeting; Khamene`i’s intelligence and security adviser, Muhammad Hijazi; then Iranian president ‘Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani; Iran’s intelligence minister, Ali Fallahian, and Iran’s minister of foreign affairs at the time, ‘Ali Akbar Velayati.74

18 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

Iran’s Supreme Guide, Ayatollah Khamene`i, legitimized the attack by issuing a fatwa directing that it be carried out via the Iranian intelligence ministry headed by `Ali Fallahian. In turn, Fallahian gave instructions that `Imad Mughniyah, the head of Hizballah’s Foreign Operations Department, was to be tasked with executing the attack, with the full cooperation of the Iranian intelligence services. Hizballah recruited the suicide bomber, Ibrahim Hussein Baro, who arrived in Argentina several days before the bombing. Shortly before carrying out the attack, Baro contacted his family in Lebanon and informed them that he was going to be reunited with his brother, who had been killed while carrying out a car bombing attack on Israeli soldiers in Lebanon in 1989.75 Over the past several years, a clearer picture of Iran’s and Hizballah’s involvement in both bombings has emerged as the result of the defection to Germany of Abdolghassem Mesbahi, a former official of Iran’s intelligence agency. In his testimony to the Argentinean court, Mesbahi stated: “The decision for the 1994 attack was taken in [Ayatollah `Ali] Khamene`i’s office in1992, at a meeting presided over by [then Iranian president Ali Akbar Hashemi] Rafsanjani,” which was attended by other senior officials. Mesbahi continued, “The committee that took the decision for the bombing in 1992 was composed of the [Supreme] Guide or Leader, the president of the republic,” and also included a former minister of foreign affairs, the intelligence chief, and leaders of Islamic religious groups and militias.76 In another part of his testimony, Mesbahi also informed the Argentinean investigators that the 1994 attack was financed via a $200 million bank account in Switzerland controlled by `Ali Khamene`i and a son of the Ayatollah Khomeini.77 The Iranian foreign ministry is believed to have provided diplomatic cover for the attack. Prior to being appointed cultural attaché of Iran to Argentina in 1994, Muhsin Rabbani, an Iranian native, served as the imam, or spiritual leader, of the Shi`i community of the Southern Cone countries of South America and had lived in

Hizballah’s Role in the Israel Embassy and AMIA Bombings 19

Buenos Aires since 1982. Following the bombing of the Israeli embassy in 1992, Rabbani left for Iran and returned to Argentina six months later as the cultural affairs officer of the Iranian embassy in Buenos Aires, using a brand new diplomatic passport.78 Among other activities, Rabbani is believed to have been directly involved in making the preparations to procure the van that was used in the 1994 AMIA bombing. In 1993, Rabbani allegedly made inquiries in Buenos Aires into renting a commercial van. He specifically requested a Renault Traffic, the same type of van that was used in the attack.79 Rabbani is presently viewed by the Argentineans as having acted as the head of “Iranian intelligence in Buenos Aires.”80 Most recently, Judge Juan José Galeano, the Argentinean magistrate who has been investigating the bombing of both the Israeli embassy and the AMIA Jewish community center, announced that an alleged Hizballah terrorist operative from Colombia, Samuel Salman El-Reda, is under investigation for acting as the leader of the local South American Hizballah terror cells responsible for the two bombings. According to recent testimony provided to the Argentinean court, El-Reda was married to an Argentinean woman and had close ties to Muhsin Rabbani.81 El-Reda, suspected of responsibility for both the 1992 Israeli embassy bombing as well as the 1994 AMIA bombing, is also believed to be the link between the Iranians and the local South American cells of Hizballah. He is thought to have played the role of coordinating the activities of the local Hizballah “sleeper” cells in Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, where he had allegedly made contact with members of Hizballah. Foz do Iguacu is located on the Brazilian side of the Tri-Border area shared by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, which has become known for its concentration of Hizballah and other terrorist operatives.82 According to testimony presented during the investigation, from Brazil El-Reda “would have coordinated the so-called ‘sleeper cells’ that took part in the operation.” El-Reda would also have “given the order for the attack on the AMIA building, which was

20 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

carried out by a suicide bomber.” As further evidence demonstrating the link between the bombing and the local cells of Hizballah, Argentinean investigators presented telephone records that they had seized that showed conversations between the accused men and suspected Hizballah members who live in the Tri-Border area.83 Following an eight-year investigation into the AMIA bombing, Judge Galeano reportedly concluded: “The evidence obtained confirms the role Iran and the Lebanese Hizballah played in the bombing.” The judge further specified that the former Iranian cultural attaché to Argentina, Muhsin Rabbani, was charged with providing “logistic assistance to Hizballah elements that entered Argentina illegally by way of the border area Argentina shares with Brazil and Paraguay to carry out the bombing using local manpower.”84 In a largely symbolic move, the Argentinean Ministry of Justice issued indictments against five of the suspected perpetrators of the attack. The Argentinean government also requested Interpol’s assistance in seeking their arrests. The five included: Hizballah’s Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah, who was indicted in October 2002;85 Iranian intelligence minister `Ali Fallahian; `Ali Akbar Parvaresh, a former education minister and former speaker of the Iranian parliament; the former spokesman of the Iranian embassy in Buenos Aires, `Ali Balesh `Abadi; and Iran’s former cultural attaché to Argentina, Muhsin Rabbani. The latter four were indicted in March of 2003.86 Funding Commensurate with the late Ayatollah Khomeini’s philosophy, Hizballah has declared the United States to be the “Great Satan” and regards Israel as an agent of the United States in the region. As a reflection of Iran’s policy of exporting the “Islamic Revolution,” Iran finances Hizballah with an annual budget that is disbursed by the office of Iran’s Supreme Islamic Guide, Ayatollah ‘Ali Khamene`i.87 According to its own official budget, during the mid-1990s Iran was reported to have devoted $500 million to supporting radi-

Iran, Hizballah, and International Terrorism 21

cal Islamic organizations that were sympathetic to its cause throughout the world. It was also reported to have established a network of terrorist cells that are “located in at least twenty states, including the U.S., Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Pakistan.”88 In 1994, Hizballah was reported to receive at least $250 million of that amount.89 More recently, Iran is reported to have organized Hizballah cells in Azerbaijani territory bordering on Iran. A council of fifteen influential Azerbaijani religious figures is said to organize the activities of the cells, whose responsibilities include forming “an army of God” to operate in Azerbaijan. One of the council members has also arranged for young Azerbaijanis to study at Iranian theological seminaries. In 2001, the Azerbaijani National Security Ministry arrested a group of individuals suspected of having contact with Hizballah in Calilabad.90 Hizballah also receives funds from Iranian religious, economic, and government institutions. Charitable organizations that provide funds to Hizballah include Al-Shaheed, the Martyrs Foundation; Imdad Al-Imam, the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee; and AlMostaza’fin, the Foundation for the Oppressed. Each of these organizations provides “vast amounts of financial aid” to the families of Hizballah operatives, as well as to members of the movement who are injured or handicapped.91 Iran, Hizballah, and International Terrorism In an effort to gain allies in its war against the West, during the early 1980s the Iranian government and Hizballah made an effort to provide financial assistance to Sinn Fein, the political section of the Irish Republican Army. At the time, Hadi Ghaffari, the president of Hizballah 92 and the Iranian minister tasked with cooperating with the Hizballah movement in Lebanon,93 began to travel to Belfast, Ireland, in order to initiate contacts between his government and the Irish Republican Army. On one occasion, Ghaffari hosted members of Sinn Fein at a luncheon but, adhering to his

22 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

movement’s ideology, refused to pay for their drinks.94 To demonstrate his support for the IRA, Ghaffari told a 1980 rally in Tehran, “We are ready to blow up British factories and ships. Now is the time for the death of [British Prime Minister Margaret] Thatcher.”95 In 1981, on a subsequent trip to Ireland, Ghaffari attended the funeral of the IRA operative Kieran Doherty, who had died after participating in a hunger strike in prison. As a further expression of its support for the IRA, the Iranian government officially renamed the street outside of the former British embassy in Tehran Bobby Sands Avenue after another member of the IRA who died in prison after participating in hunger strike.96 In June 1982, IRA leaders secretly flew to Tehran to attend the Conference of World Movements, an international conference of leading figures of international terrorist organizations, including Hizballah, the Abu Nidal organization, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command, the Japanese Red Army, and ETA, the Basque separatist organization. At Fayruzi Palace in Tehran, the commander of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard, Muhsin Reza’i, met the leaders of the organizations. The agenda of the conference was a plan by Iran to fund and arm a new “terrorist international” in exchange for the organizations’ making a commitment to launch attacks against Western targets in Europe to make them pay a price for supporting U.S. policies in the Middle East. In return, the Iranians sent an official delegation to Sinn Fein’s annual conference in Dublin.97 Hizballah has also maintained relationships with Palestinian radical left-wing organizations with which it has found common cause. In the early 1990s, Iran used Hizballah as a conduit to transfer funds estimated to total $10 million per year to Ahmad Jibril’s Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine–General Command.98 Since the signing of the Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles in 1993, Hizballah forged agreements with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine99 and the Democratic Front for Palestine, led by Naif Hawatmah, to actively oppose any peace agreements

Hizballah and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine 23

between Israel and the Palestinians.100 Hizballah has also benefited from its relationship with other Palestinian radical terrorist organizations. The Abu Nidal organization, led by the late Sabri Al-Banna, reportedly trained Hizballah operatives during the mid-1990s. In 1994, the Abu Nidal organization operated a school for terrorists in Lebanon known as the “Academy of Terrorist Sciences.” The school was located in the Hizballah-dominated Burj Al-Barajneh neighborhood of Beirut. The courses were given by Ghaleb Hussein Jamal, an Abu Nidal operative who offered prospective students the opportunity to attend regular classes as well as private tutoring sessions on the execution of terrorist attacks and “applied explosive sciences” for a fee of $50 per hour of instruction.101 Hizballah and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Throughout the 1990s, Hizballah extended Iran’s largesse to assist dissident Palestinian factions. As a mainstay of its foreign policy, Iran assists other Palestinian Islamist terror organizations, including Hamas (the Islamic Resistance Movement in Palestine) and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (IJMP), a Palestinian terrorist organization which shares Hizballah’s pro-Khomeini views. Hizballah’s contacts with Islamist terrorist organizations are facilitated by Iran, which uses Hizballah as an instrument to coordinate activities and provide support for such organizations. In 1988, Hizballah, in cooperation with the Iranian embassy in Syria, helped IJMP leaders Ahmad Fat’hi Al-Shiqaqi and Shaykh `Abd Al-`Aziz Al-`Awda to establish the headquarters of the IJMP in Beirut, Lebanon.102 The headquarters of the IJMP is presently located in Damascus, Syria,103 and since its inception in 1980,104 the movement has received training and funding from Iran via Hizballah.105 Iran has continued to fund Islamic Jihad and encourage its suicide attacks. In 1997, the IJMP was reported to have arrived at an agreement with Iran under which it began to receive “bonus” payments for each successful suicide bombing attack against Israel.106

24 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

In May 2002, IJMP leader Ramadan ‘Abdallah Shallah met with Ayatollah ‘Ali Khamene`i and requested that the IJMP’s budget be separated from the funds provided to Hizballah by Iran. Khamene`i reportedly promised that the IJMP’s budget of over $200 million would be separated from that of Hizballah and increased by 70 percent for the purpose of “continuing its martyrdom operations.”107 Via Hizballah, Iran continues to support and coordinate the activities of Islamist terror organizations. As a show of support for Palestinian Islamist terror movements, Iran hosted the International Conference on Imam Khomeini and Support for Palestine on June 2, 2002.108 Representatives of the Iranian government were prominent participants in the conference, including the speaker of the Iranian Majlis, or parliament, Mehdi Karrubi,109 and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah `Ali Khamene`i, who called upon Muslims throughout the world to “mobilize all material and spiritual resources to boost the morale of the Palestinian people in their holy jihad against the occupiers.”110 The participants also called for a boycott of American goods.111 During the conference, Ramadan `Abdallah Shallah, the secretary-general of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, was reported by official Iranian television to have stated “that America had declared war on Islam and the freedom-loving people of the world.” Shallah continued, “Contrary to popular perceptions, America is trying to annihilate the ideal, as well as the land, of Palestine.” He stressed that “martyrdom operations would continue in Palestine,” adding, “We have the right to sacrifice our own lives and America does not have the right [to] oppose this.”112 Referring to President Bush’s January 2002 State of the Union address that singled out Iran as a member of an “axis of evil” for its support for terrorism, Shallah declared, “If America is the one to divide the world into the ‘camp of the good’ and the ‘camp of the evil,’ and if it puts the Palestinian people and all of its jihad fighters on the evil side, claiming that the martyrs are evil, then we say:

Hizballah and Hamas 25

‘Allah make us all evil, [make us all] anger America and blow up in the heart of this cursed Zionist entity.’”113 Other attendees at the conference were Na’im Qasim, the deputy secretary-general of Hizballah; the secretary-general of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, General Command, Ahmad Jibril; and Hilarion Capucci, who was described as the “Archbishop of Quds–Jerusalem-in exile.”114 The delegates called for the continuation of the “armed struggle” against Israel and the rejection of peace talks. The Iranian organizer of the conference, `Ali Akbar Mohtashemi-Pur, declared, “Israel is a cancerous tumor in the heart of the Muslim world which should be removed,”115 and lauded the attacks carried out by Palestinian suicide bombers. The speaker of the Iranian Majlis, Mehdi Karrubi, called upon Muslim nations throughout the world to engage in an oil embargo against allies of Israel.116 Hizballah and Hamas Through Iran’s patronage, Hizballah coordinates its activities with Hamas, which maintains its own “embassy” in Tehran. As evidence of the increasing ties between the three parties, in December 1992 Iran and Hizballah signed an official agreement of cooperation with Hamas. The most recent indicator of this cooperation was a Jordanian government report that was presented to U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell in February 2002 that provided evidence of an Iranian effort to open a new front to carry out terror attacks against Israel from Jordanian territory. According to the report, Iran was directly involved in seventeen attempts to launch rocket and artillery attacks against Israeli territory. The attacks were to be carried out by terrorists from Hamas and the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine who had received training in Iran at camps run by Hizballah.117 Hizballah, Syria, and Lebanon By virtue of Iran’s close ties to Syria and Syria’s continuing control over Lebanon, Hizballah is the only armed militia that has contin-

26 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

ued to operate in Lebanon since the end of that country’s civil war in 1991.118 Having been given free rein to carry out attacks against Israel, Hizballah serves Syria’s interests by acting as its proxy and destabilizing the Lebanese border with Israel. Hizballah has been waging its war of attrition in southern Lebanon since Israel’s earlier withdrawal from Lebanon in 1985. Indicative of the level of threat that Hizballah continues to pose to the civilian population of Israel, from 1985 to 2000, the organization carried out 4,000 Katyusha rocket attacks against the Israeli town of Kiryat Shemona.119 Despite Israel’s complete withdrawal from Lebanon carried out under UN auspices in May 2000, Hizballah has vowed to continue its war against Israel. Iran has continued to arm Hizballah by sending deliveries of weapons via Syria. In 2002, Hizballah was reported to have received 10,000 Katyusha rockets from Iran that are capable of hitting targets within Israel.120 A recent cause for concern has been the increase in Iranian arms shipments that Hizballah received in early 2003.121 In 2002, an Islamic Revolutionary Guards source explained that Iran’s “Quds Forces will continue to train Islamic Jihad’s fighters in Iran while Brigadier-General Ali Reza Tamyaz, one of the Quds Forces commanders, and his technical team will remain responsible for preparing and training Hizballah’s fighters on the use of sophisticated weapons, including Ra’d missiles, Shaheen launchers, and the surface-to-surface missiles that Hizballah received recently.”122 Hizballah and Al-Qa`ida The relationship between Hizballah and Al-Qa`ida parallels that of Iran and Egyptian Islamic Jihad, one of the umbrella organizations that is presently part of Al-Qa`ida. According to Hamid Reza Zakeri, an Iranian defector who describes himself as a former official in the Pasdaran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, and the Supreme Guide’s office, the

Hizballah and Al-Qa`ida 27

Guards had a relationship with Egyptian Islamic Jihad going back to the 1980s. Zakeri also asserted that Hizballah’s `Imad Mughniyah has maintained contacts with Ayman Al-Zawahiri, a leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad who is now the second in command of AlQa`ida. 123 In the early 1990s, `Imad Mughniyah, the chief of Hizballah’s Foreign Operations Department, was reported to have been in contact and cooperated with `Usama bin Ladin’s Al-Qa`ida organization. ‘Ali Muhammad, one of the members of Al-Qa`ida who was captured and convicted of bombing the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, admitted his membership in the Al-Qa`ida organization and described its activities and contacts in testimony presented in New York in October of 2000. Muhammad testified:
I was aware of certain contacts between Al-Qa`ida and Al-Jihad organization, on one side, and Iran and Hizballah on the other side. I arranged security for meeting in the Sudan between Mughniyah, Hizballah’s chief, and bin Ladin. Hizballah provided explosives training for Al-Qa`ida and Al-Jihad.124

Prior to September 11, 2001, Mughniyah was reported to have received a request for assistance from Al-Zawahiri, which he relayed to the Guard Corps. However, the Guards Corps declined the request. Nevertheless, Mughniyah was instrumental in having “organized the escape of dozens of Al-Qa`ida elements to Iran”125 who had left Afghanistan.126 More recently, the leaders of Hizballah, Al-Qa`ida, Hamas, and other terrorist organizations convened for the first time in Lebanon in March 2002. The organizations reportedly discussed future plans for joint operations against American, British, and other targets.127 Hizballah and the Palestinian Authority Over the past two years, Iran and Hizballah have again demonstrated their intent and capability to assist Yasir Arafat’s Fatah organization, which presently comprises the ruling infrastructure of the Palestinian Authority (PA). In January of 2001, Israeli security

28 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

forces captured two sealed barrels filled with arms on a beach near Ashqelon. An inspection of the barrels revealed that they had been transported from Hizballah in Lebanon and were en route to Gaza. Palestinian Islamic Jihad terror operatives were supposed to retrieve them for use within Palestinian Authority-controlled territory.128 The most significant interception and seizure of Iranian arms purchased by the Palestinian Authority with the assistance of Hizballah occurred on January 3, 2002, when the Israeli Navy intercepted and seized the 4000-ton Karine A,129 a Palestinian freighter that was traveling 300 miles off Israeli coastal waters. The ship was transporting fifty tons of Iranian manufactured weapons, including modern missiles equipped with Tandem-Charge warheads capable of piercing heavy armor, and 122 mm Katyusha rockets with a range of twelve miles.130 Other weapons in the shipment included Strela anti-aircraft missiles, mortar tubes and bombs, land mines, Russian-manufactured wire-guided Sagger missiles,131 ammunition, anti-tank missiles, rocket-propelled grenade launchers, and explosives132 en route to the Palestinian Authority. The Palestinian Authority effort to procure the weapons from the Iranians was initiated in Russia in September 2000. At that time, the PA’s Major General Fu’ad Shubaki, known as Yasir Arafat’s “finance minister,” led a high-ranking Palestinian delegation to Moscow to make contact with the Iranians. The Palestinians were introduced to Iranian officials via contacts from Hizballah. Shortly after the September 11, 2001, terror attacks, Shubaki traveled to Lebanon to finalize the Palestinian Authority’s $15 million arms deal with the Iranians. To facilitate the transport of the weapons, the Karine A was purchased from an agent in Bulgaria and departed from Yemen in early December 2001. On December 11, the ship arrived at the Iranian island of Qeys, where it was met by a Hizballah representative and Iranian intelligence officers. Eighty-three waterproof containers were loaded onto the ship. The containers were designed to remain submerged just below the surface of the water with a buoy that would designate each container’s location.

Hizballah’s U.S. Activities 29

The containers were to have been transported to the Sinai coast of Egypt and then transferred to small fishing boats that would unload them into the sea just off the coast of Gaza, where Palestinian Authority vessels would retrieve them at night.133 Hizballah’s U.S. Activities The formation of Hizballah is not only linked to Iran, but is also linked to the phenomenon of Islamic radicals who, throughout the past four decades, have found refuge and ample opportunities in Western countries to spread their extremist ideology to local Muslim populations. Islamic radicals have learned that they can take advantage of the freedoms that are afforded to them in Western countries to indoctrinate, organize, and recruit members. In the case of the 1979 Islamic Revolution, a number of activist followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini in Europe and United States went on to become prominent figures in Iran’s Islamic revolutionary government after the fall of the shah. Prior to Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the United States and Iran were engaged in a political and cultural relationship that included a student exchange program. This provided an opportunity for a large number of Iranian students to study in the United States. Among them were followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini, who later went on to become militant members of the Iranian student organization in Tehran that seized the U.S. embassy in 1978 and held the American diplomats hostage. Other followers of the movement became the leaders of the Shi`i Amal movement in Lebanon.134 One Iranian student who was attracted to Khomeini’s Islamic radicalism as well as to Marxism was Mustafa Chamran Savehi, who studied at the University of California at Berkeley and San Jose. Chamran also became a member of Khomeini’s inner circle during the years that Khomeini was exiled in France.135 In 1964, Chamran left his family in California and went to Egypt, where he studied guerrilla warfare. Upon his return to California in 1965, Chamran created an organization with the Persian name Tashayu Sorkh (“Red

30 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

Shi`ism”) for the purpose of training “soldiers for our future struggle.”136 The initial core group of five included Chamran, his brother Mahdi, and an Afghan student named Hussein Forqani. The focus of their activities consisted of organizing target practice sessions at a parking lot in San Jose.137 In 1968, Chamran established the Muslim Students’ Association of America (MSA), which recruited a number of militant students to the cause of radical Islam. Five years after its founding, the Muslim Students’ Association had 700 members in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom and France as well. The leader of the U.S. branch was Ibrahim Yazdi, who, eleven years later, would become Iran’s foreign minister under the Ayatollah Khomeini.138 Members of the organization were encouraged to abandon their studies in order to travel to Lebanon to learn terrorism tactics. In 1975 the MSA was described as “dispatching scores of volunteers to Lebanon.”139 Chamran left the United States for Lebanon in 1971, where he headed a technical school for Shi`i recruits who were also trained by him in terrorism tactics. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a Marxist faction of Yasir Arafat’s Palestine Liberation Organization led by Na’if Hawatimah, provided “technical support” for his terrorism training course.140 During his time in Lebanon, Chamran also trained with members of the Lebanon’s Shi`i Amal militia, then led by Imam Musa Sadr.141 In 1979, Chamran went on to become the commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards and its minister of defense.142 Chamran’s initial task was to establish SAVAMA,143 a new secret police to replace that of the shah, for which he relied principally on his contacts with the Palestine Liberation Organization. The PLO sent a special unit trained in intelligence methods by the Soviet Union to Iran to assist the Khomeini regime in weeding out “counterrevolutionaries.”144 Under Chamran’s leadership, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards established a terrorist training camp in Manzariyah Park, Tehran, in 1981 named “Volunteers for Martyrdom.” Recruits for the camp

“Islamic Revolution Is the Only Solution” 31

were sought among Muslim students throughout the world.145 Following the 1979-80 American hostage crisis in Iran, a lull in recruitment activity for Hizballah occurred. However, the revivification of indoctrination activities among Hizballah supporters in the United States was initiated on American college campuses in the mid-1980s. The recruitment of American students for the movement focused on Muslim students and African American Muslim students. From 1984 to 1987, followers of Hizballah reinitiated their activities in the United States. The Iranian representative for Hizballah in the United States was Ayatollah Muhammad Nasiri, who was instructed in terrorism tactics by the Palestine Liberation Organization in a training camp in the southern Lebanese city of Tyre. Nasiri visited the United States and Canada five times between 1984 and 1986 for periods varying between six and nine weeks. The declared purpose of his visits was to address religious gatherings organized by African American Muslims and Muslim students at various campuses and at Muslim Students’ Associations. His message, however, focused on promoting the political cause of the Islamic Revolution as being the solution to poverty and racial discrimination.146 “Islamic Revolution Is the Only Solution” The Muslim Students’ Association that espouses a pro-Khomeini position is currently known as the Muslim Students’ AssociationPersian Speaking Group (MSA-PSG). Throughout the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the group coordinated demonstrations across the United States to commemorate the Ayatollah Khomeini’s “Worldwide Day of Al-Quds.” As was done in the Middle East, the demonstrations would take place on the last Friday of the Muslim month of Ramadan each year. The Worldwide Day of Al-Quds became the largest public manifestation of pro-Khomeini activity in the United States. A leaflet from the 1992 Day of Al-Quds demonstrations in the United States contained a statement that overtly expressed support

32 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

for the “global Islamic revolution” and included slogans such as: “Long Live Palestine. Down with Zionism. Long Live Islamic Revolution.”147 Al-Quds Day demonstrations took place in Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, and Detroit. In Canada, the demonstrations were held in Montreal and Toronto. The sponsor of the event, the MSA-PSG, located in Albany, California, declared in a leaflet that the observance was instituted by the Ayatollah Khomeini for the purpose of supporting the Palestinians and opposing Zionism:
In order to establish a unified front against Zionism, Imam Khomeini has declared the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan the day of Quds, a day in which everyone is invited to proclaim international support for the Palestinian people. Join us in demonstrations held throughout the world.148

Additional organizations that cosponsored the demonstrations in 1992 included the Jafaria Islamic Society, the Islamic Institute of Southern California, and “the Lebanese Muslim community.”149 The 1993 demonstration cosponsors included the Council for Muslim Unity, the Islamic Student Association-Persian Speaking Group, United Muslim Women Association [sic] Muslim Group, Detroit branch, Tawheed Association, Islamic International Development Association, United Michigan Muslim Association, Azari Students Association, and the Islamic Cultural Society (ISFS) [sic]. The 1993 resolutions of the Demonstrations of the Worldwide Day of Al-Quds declared their support for the Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution:
Brothers and sisters of Islam, We are gathering here to be involved in the Palestinian struggle. 1. We consider the Zionist regime an illegitimate entity and its establishment in the heart of the Islamic lands a premeditated conspiracy by a global Zionism and the arrogant powers and enemies of Islam against [the] Muslim nation. 2. We call on the decent Jews to come out of their fatal embrace of anti-Semitic Zionism [sic]…

“Islamic Revolution Is the Only Solution” 33

10. We reiterate that Zionism is racism.150

The resolutions of the 1993 Demonstrations of the Worldwide Day of Quds concluded with a statement that supported acts of violence that were legitimized as “military initiatives” against “Zionist usurpers,” i.e., Israel: “We endorse and support the Islamic military and political initiatives against the Zionist usurpers.”151 In an extremely graphic depiction of the group’s endorsement of “Islamic military initiatives,” the flyer was illustrated with a picture of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem superimposed over a map of “Palestine” covered with barbed wire and prison bars in the shape of a six-pointed Star of David, symbolic of Israel. The corners of the star were depicted as having been broken and dripping with blood.152 Like many other Islamic radical organizations, the Muslim Students’ Association-Persian Speaking Group began to use the Internet to organize its followers in the 1990s. Flyers for the demonstrations that were held throughout North America were posted on the organization’s web site.153 The 1998 Worldwide Day of Quds was observed in Washington, D.C.; Dearborn, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; and Toronto and Montreal, Canada. The national flyer for the day quoted the Ayatollah Khomeini: “To liberate Quds (Jerusalem) Muslims must depend on the power of Islam. The day of Quds is a day when all Muslims must concentrate on Islam. The Muslims must keep the day of Quds alive.”154 Slogans that were chanted during the demonstration included: “Islamic Revolution—Is the Only Solution,” “Neither East nor West—Islam Is the Best,” “Quds Is a Muslim Land–Its Return We Demand,” “Zionism Is Racism,” and an expression of loyalty to Iran’s Supreme Islamic Guide, `Ali Khamene`i: “Our Leader Khamene`i–Long Live Khamene`i.”155 The first three resolutions of the 1998 Worldwide Day of Quds declared:
Because of this Israeli-American translocation and its military affront to the Muslims and Christians of the world regarding the

34 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

status of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) and the physical, political, and legal bulldozing attitude coming from all Zionist administrations, we the Muslims on the International Day of Al-Quds declare the following: 1. The Israeli-American official affront has become too transparent to be ignored any longer by the Muslims of the world. 2. If and when the U.S. moves its embassy to Al-Quds (Jerusalem), it shall be considered an act of way [sic] [i.e., war] by the Muslims the world over. 3. All Arab and nominal Muslim governments that reach a working relationship with the Israeli-Zionist occupiers of the Holy Land shall be de facto accomplices of the bloody Israeli interest.156

Organizations that cosponsored the local events included the “Washington, D.C. Quds Committee,” which provided as contact information telephone numbers for Bahram Nahidian, a longtime pro-Khomeini activist, and the Manassas Mosque in Virginia.157 In Michigan, the organizers were listed as the “Michigan Quds Committee,” and in Seattle two mosques, the Islamic Center of Portland and the Islamic Center of Seattle, were the sponsors of the event.158 Recruitment and fund-raising activities on behalf of Hizballah in the United States became more apparent during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Support has been centered among the Lebanese Shi`i community in Dearborn, Michigan. Sympathy for Hizballah and Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution has also been manifest among a minority of the Muslim American population in the area. During the mid-1990s, unsigned leaflets in English were distributed along Warren Avenue in Dearborn reflecting the Hizballah line by praising the late Ayatollah Khomeini and condemning U.S. support for the “racist Zionists.”159 Additionally, a local organization named the “Cultural Development Society” was reported by local Arab American residents to be operating on behalf of Hizballah.160 Support for Hizballah’s cause has also been manifest from the pulpit of some mosques in the United States. In Dearborn, the late Imam Muhammad Jawad Chirri of the Islamic Center of America,

“Islamic Revolution Is the Only Solution” 35

known as a supporter of the Ayatollah Khomeini,161 authored a book entitled The Shi`ites under Attack. The book describes the twentieth century as “a time distinguished from previous centuries by its Zionist character.” Chirri elaborated on this statement by painting a broad picture of a worldwide conspiracy against the Muslim world:
During this century, the Zionist dream was realized through the creation of Israel.... Israel was planted in the heart of the Islamic world. The East and West gave their support for this location. This unanimous support was not due to their love of the Jews, but rather it was motivated by their prejudice against Islam and Muslims. East and West were determined to destroy the future of Islam.162

Chirri praised what he termed “the Lebanese Shi`ites” of Hizballah as Israel’s “[n]ew enemy that was small in number but big in courage, having no arms except love of martyrdom in the way of God,” and credits them with having achieved “the first true victory against Israel… [and] proving that it is possible for any Arab people to defeat the Zionists if they believe in God.”163 The present imam of the Islamic Center of America is Imam Hassan Al-Qazwini, who has defended fund-raising efforts on behalf of Hizballah’s social welfare institutions by asserting, “Our community feels obligated to help these orphans. They belong to the same land and soil.”164 Additionally, programs from Hizballah’s Al-Manar television produced in Beirut, Lebanon, have been rebroadcast for American audiences on a local Detroit station, Channel 23. A 1993 program praised Hizballah’s terrorist activities in Lebanon. Hizballah gunmen were shown firing automatic rifles and shelling what was then the Israeli security zone between Israel and Lebanon. The Hizballah announcer’s voice-over declared of the gunmen, “They are Allah’s sword and the nation’s hope.”165 Calendars from Hizballah’s Islamic Resistance have been distributed at the Islamic Center of America in Detroit. The calendars were bound with a cover done in classical Arabic calligraphy which

36 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

reads Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya (“The Islamic Resistance”). The calendar explains that the donations raised in support of the Islamic Resistance will be used to “aid the Islamic Resistance to confront and prevail over the oppressors, to liberate the land, and to secure precious freedom for the future, and for the Society of Resistance to overcome the challenges that it faces.”166 Donors to the Islamic Resistance calendar are assured that their support for the movement shows a “strike of confidence for the struggling [Islamic] clergy and the marching of the movement in the Lebanese sphere and throughout the world as well. Peace and Allah’s mercy and blessings be upon you.”167 CIA Director George Tenet recently testified that Hizballah has been carrying out surveillance activities on targets in the United States.168 He also testified: “They have a worldwide presence. And we see them actively casing and surveilling American facilities.”169 Hizballah cells reportedly operating in the United States are said to number twelve. The cells are made up of a hard core of militants who have received “military training” in Hizballah terrorist camps, as well as supporters who number in the hundreds. They are considered to be responsible for raising millions of dollars for the organization derived from criminal acts, including copyright violations, cigarette tax violations, and counterfeit violations.170 According to a senior FBI official, several Hizballah cells have been under surveillance due to concerns that they will “shift from their traditional crimes to conducting terrorist operations” as the result of the U.S.–led war in Iraq. The official indicated that some Hizballah operatives had left the States for Lebanon to receive terrorist training: “We know that some have gone to Lebanon and come back. A person that would attend a camp that we’d know about, we’re investigating them pretty heavily.”171 Fund-Raising in the United States In January 2003, as part of a two-year investigation called Operation Mountain Express, the Drug Enforcement Administration

Fund-Raising in the United States 37

confirmed the existence of groups of Middle Eastern men in Chicago and Detroit who had organized a methamphetamine drug operation that was sending money back to Hizballah. Arrests were made in Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, Phoenix, and several California cities. The men, who had ties to Jordan, Lebanon, Yemen, and other Middle Eastern countries, were indicted on drug charges for smuggling large quantities of the drug pseudoephedrine from Canada into the Midwest.172 The ring was purchasing the pseudoephedrine, a legal drug used in cold and allergy medications, and reselling it to Mexicanbased drug operations in the Western United States which used the pseudoephedrine to produce methamphetamine, a drug known on the streets as “crystal meth,” “ice,” or “poor man’s cocaine.” Part of the proceeds of the sales of pseudoephedrine was diverted to Hizballah, while other profits were sent to bank accounts in Lebanon and Yemen. As a result of the investigation, criminal charges were filed against 136 people. DEA officials seized nearly thirty-six tons of pseudoephedrine, 179 pounds of methamphetamine, $4.5 million in cash, eight real estate properties, and 160 cars used by the drug gangs.173 Over the past eight years, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms has investigated a Hizballah cell led by Mohamed Hammoud operating as a multimillion-dollar tobacco smuggling ring in Charlotte, North Carolina. The cell bought truckloads of cigarettes in North Carolina, where each carton was taxed at $.50, and resold them in Michigan, where each was taxed at $7.50 per carton, and kept the difference. During the time that they operated their ring, they purchased $8 million worth of cigarettes and made a profit of between $1.5 and $2 million.174 The cell used the profits of its cigarette smuggling operation to procure the following equipment for Hizballah: night-vision devices, surveying equipment, global positioning systems, mine and metal detection devices, video equipment, advanced aircraft analysis and design software, computer equipment, stun guns, hand-held radios and receivers, cellular

38 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

phones, nitrogen cutters (used for cutting metal under water), mining, drilling and blasting equipment, military-style compasses, binoculars, naval equipment radar, dog repellers, laser-range finders, and camera equipment.175 Evidence seized at the Charlotte, North Carolina, residence of Hammoud by law enforcement officials that linked the ring to Hizballah included a videotape depicting a Hizballah “martyr squad” taking an oath to attack the United States and Israel: “We will answer the call, and we will take an oath to detonate ourselves, to shake the grounds under our enemies, America and Israel.” Then a group responds, “We will answer to your call, Hizballah. We will answer to your call, Hizballah.”176 Other evidence seized from Hammoud’s residence was a series of receipts from Hizballah in Lebanon for money sent by members of the cell in North Carolina.177 In March 2003, Hammoud and five other members of the cell were convicted and sentenced for their involvement in the ring. Hammoud received a 155-year sentence for racketeering and providing “material support” for Hizballah. In December 2002, a similar case was opened for investigation when a Middle Eastern man from Los Angeles carrying $279,000 in cash was arrested in Asheville, North Carolina. He was driving a tractor-trailer and was apparently on his way to purchase cigarettes at a tobacco wholesaler. Similar cases are reportedly being investigated in Louisville, Kentucky, and potential leads point to New York, Chicago, and Boston.178 Two additional cells are being investigated in Detroit and Los Angeles. In February 2003, eleven other suspects reportedly connected to the North Carolina ring were indicted in Detroit. Two of them allegedly sent money to Hizballah.179 Conclusion Under Iranian direction, assistance, and guidance, over the past decade Hizballah has increasingly shifted toward attacking Jewish

Conclusion 39

and Israeli targets in parts of the world seemingly far removed from the Middle East. The 1992 Israeli embassy bombing and the 1994 car bombing of the Argentinean Jewish community center carried out in Buenos Aires demonstrate Hizballah’s enhanced capabilities to carry out terror attacks as an instrument of the Iranian government. Hizballah’s cooperation with and assistance to Al-Qa`ida is an indication of the future challenges that will be faced by Western countries targeted by both organizations. Hizballah’s attacks of the 1990s and Al-Qa`ida’s attacks against the United States in 2001 indicate that the threat of terror assaults of such magnitude is no longer confined to the Middle East. As the result of Hizballah’s international expansion, its fund-raising activities, and recruitment of operatives throughout the United States, Europe, South America, and West Africa, Hizballah has demonstrated long-term capabilities to carry out attacks worldwide, and the only deterrent will be increased international cooperation to counter Iran’s offensive in the name of Hizballah. Notes
1. “Hizballah Acknowledges Teaching Guerrilla Warfare to Palestinians,” Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, April 21, 2002. 2. “Hizballah Proud to Be on Terror List,” NewsMax.com, November 4, 2001. 3. “Out of Captivity; The Party of God: A Powerful and Growing Pro-Iranian Force in Lebanon,” New York Times, July 1, 1985. 4. Fouad Ajami, “Inside the Mind of a Movement,” Newsweek, August 14, 1989. 5. “An Open Letter: The Hizballah Program,” translation of “Nass Alrisala Al-maftuha allati Wajahaha Hizballah ila Mustadh’afin fi Lubnan wa Al-‘alam,” Al-Safir (Lebanese daily), February 16, 1985; International Institute for the Study of Counterterrorism, http://www.ict.org.il/Articles/Hiz_letter.htm. 6. “Hizballah Leader Nasrallah Supports Intifadha, Vows ‘Death to America,’” Al-Manar Television, (Hizballah), Beirut, in Arabic 1450 GMT, September 27, 2002; in BBC Monitoring Middle East–Political,

40 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

September 27, 2002. 7. “Hizballah Calls for Global Attacks,” Washington Times, December 4, 2002. 8. “Millions of Muslims Demonstrate against Israel, U.S.,” Associated Press, January 15, 1999. 9. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations,” U.S. Department of State Office of Counterterrorism, October 23, 2002. 10. “What You Need to Know About U.S. Sanctions,” U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control, http://www.ustreas.gov/ offices/enforcement/ofac/sanctions/terrorism.html, September 23, 2001. 11. “Comprehensive List of Terrorists and Groups Identified under Executive Order 13224,” U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, October 23, 2002. 12. Daniel Brumberg, “Khomeini’s Legacy: Islamic Rule and Islamic Social Justice,” in Spokesman for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle East, R. Scott Appleby, ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), p. 17. 13. Martin Kramer, Hizballah’s Vision of the West, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Paper No. 16, 1989, p. 10. 14. Ibid., p. 11. 15. “Imam Khomeini’s Message on the Occasion of the Day of Quds, 1981,” Extreme Islam: Anti-American Propaganda of Muslim Fundamentalism, Adam Parfrey, ed. (Los Angeles: Feral House, 2001), p.198. 16. Ibid, pp.198-9. 17. Amir Taheri, Holy Terror: Inside the World of Islamic Terrorism (Bethesda, Maryland: Adler& Adler, 1987), pp. 86-7. 18. “Iranians Have Nurtured Sinn Fein Links since 1980s,” Times (UK), April 29, 1994. 19. “Pragmatists and Radicals Start Post-Khomeini Power Struggle,” Financial Post (Canada), July 25, 1988. 20. The Qur’an, Surah 5; Al-Ma’ida; verse 56 (Elmhurst, New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Inc., Publishers and Distributors of the Holy Qur’an, sixth edition, 1990), p. 104. 21. The Qur’an, Surah 58; Al-Majadala; verse 22, p. 550. 22. “What You Need to Know about U.S. Sanctions.” 23. Martin Kramer, “The Oracle of Hizballah,” in Spokesmen for the Despised, R. Scott Appleby, ed., p. 83.

Notes 41

24. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 131. 25. “Hostages Linked to Lebanese Clan,” New York Times, January 31, 1985. 26. Amir Taheri, “Signs of Schism in Lebanese Hizballah,” Arab News, December 19, 1994. 27. “Iran Reportedly Agrees to Increase Islamic Jihad’s Budget,” AlSharq Al-Awsat, June 8, 2002, in Global News Wire—Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, BBC Monitoring /BBC Monitoring International Reports, June 14, 2002. 28. “In the Name of God: Iran’s ‘Shi`ite International,’” Defense and Foreign Affairs, August 1985. 29. Kenneth Katzman, The Warriors of Islam: Iran’s Revolutionary Guard (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993), p. 71. 30. Martin Kramer, “Musawi’s Game,” New Republic, March 23, 1992. 31. Ibid. 32. “Aftermath in Bloody Beirut: Vows to Stay, as the Search for the Missing Goes On,” Time, November 7, 1983. 33. Interview with Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, Middle East Insight, June-July 1985. 34. Kramer, “The Oracle of Hizballah,” p. 111. 35. Ibid., p. 111. 36. “Israel’s 10 Most Wanted Terrorists,” Jerusalem Report, October 20, 1994. 37. “Hizballah Becomes Potent Anti-U.S. Force,” New York Times, December 24, 2002. 38. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 255. 39. Kramer, Hizballah’s Vision of the West, p. 11. 40. “Out of Captivity,” July 1, 1985. 41. “Shadowy Terror Group Has Strong Ties to Iran,” New York Times, August 2, 1989. 42. Kramer, Hizballah’s Vision of the West, p. 11. 43. Taheri, “Signs of Schism in Lebanese Hizballah.” 44. Cyril Glasse, “Husayn,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Islam (San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishers Inc., 1989), pp. 162-3. 45. Ajami, “Inside the Mind of a Movement.” 46. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 87.

42 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

47. Ibid., p. 241. 48. Ibid., p. 242. 49. Ibid., p. 242. 50. Wall Street Journal, August 16, 1989. 51. “Arafat’s Elite Force 17, Accused by Israel of Instigating ‘Terror,’” Agence France Presse, March 29, 2001. 52. “Former Intelligence Officer Alleges Iranian and Hizballah Links with Al-Qa’ida,” News Wire-Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, March 2, 2003. 53. “U.S. Traces Iran’s Ties to Terror through a Lebanese,” New York Times, January 17, 2002. 54. “Israel’s 10 Most Wanted Terrorists.” 55. “Shi`ite Radicals: Rising Wrath Jars the Mideast,” New York Times, March 22, 1987. 56. “Hizballah (Party of God),” Patterns of Global Terrorism, U.S. Department of State, May 2002, http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/ hizbalah.htm. 57. “Most Wanted Terrorists,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, http://www.fbi.gov/mostwant/terrorists/fugitives.htm. 58. Ibid. 59. “Most Wanted Terrorists: Hasan Iz Al-Din,” http://www.fbi.gov/ mostwant/terrorists/terizzaldin.htm. 60. “Most Wanted Terrorists: ‘Ali ‘Atwa,” http://www.fbi.gov/mostwant/ terrorists/teratwa.htm. 61. “Most Wanted Terrorists: `Imad Fayez Mughniyah,” http://www. fbi.gov/mostwant/terrorists/termugniyah.htm. The charges against Mughniyah include: “conspiracy to commit aircraft piracy, to commit hostage taking, to commit air piracy resulting in murder, to interfere with a flight crew, to place a destructive device aboard an aircraft, to have explosive devices about the person on an aircraft, and to assault passengers and crew; air piracy resulting in murder; air piracy; hostage taking; interference with flight crew; and placing explosives aboard aircraft; placing destructive device aboard aircraft; assault aboard aircraft with intent to hijack with a dangerous weapon and resulting in serious bodily injury; aiding and abetting.” 62. “Robert Dean Stethem,” Arlington National Cemetery, http://www.arlingtoncemetery.com/rdstethe.htm. 63. “Most Wanted Terrorists,” http://www.fbi.gov/mostwant/ terrorists/ fugitives.htm.

Notes 43

64. “U.S. Renews Bid to Catch Beirut Bombing Suspect,” CNN.com, October 10, 2001. 65. “Terror Alliance Has U.S. Worried; Hizballah, Al Qa’ida Seen Joining Forces,” Washington Post, June 30, 2002. 66. “U.S. Says Iran Paid Captors $1 Million for Each Release,” New York Times, January 20, 1992. 67. “14 to 20 Are Dead in Embassy Blast,” New York Times, March 19, 1992. 68. “Death Toll in Israeli Embassy Bombing Rises to 32,” New York Times, March 21, 1992. 69. “Statement Claims Argentina Bombing by Islamic Jihad,“ United Press International, March 24, 1992. 70. “Pro-Hizballah Radio Reports Islamic Jihad Statement on Israeli Embassy Bombing,” Voice of the Oppressed (Hizballah radio), 1630 GMT; March 19, 1992; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, March 19, 1992. 71. “How Iran Planned the Buenos Aires Blast,” Ha’aretz (Israeli daily), March 18, 2003. 72. “26 Die and 127 Hurt in Blast at Argentine Jewish Center,” New York Times, July 21, 1994. 73. “Multicontinental Investigators Target Global Bombers of Jews,” Washington Post, July 31, 1994. 74. “How Iran Planned the Buenos Aires Blast.” 75. Ibid. 76. “Argentine Judge Indicts Four Iranian Officials in 1994 Bombing of Jewish Center, “New York Times, March 10, 2003. 77. Ibid. 78. “Iranian Charge D’affaires Questioned on Links with Hizballah,” Noticias Argentinas news agency, Buenos Aires, in Spanish 19:48 GMT; July 24, 1994; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 27, 1994. 79. “How Iran Planned the Buenos Aires Blast.” 80. “Argentina–Terrorism: Colombian Under Investigation for Argentine Terrorist Bombings,” Global News Wire, March 24, 2003. 81. “Argentina – Terrorism.” 82. Ibid. 83. “Iran, Argentina Trade Charges on ’94 Attack,” Washington Post, March 11, 2003.

44 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

84. “Argentina Asks Interpol to Arrest Hizballah Leader,” Telam News Agency, Buenos Aires, in Spanish 13:07 GMT; October 1, 2002; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, October 2, 2002. 85. Ibid. 86. “Iran, Argentina Trade Charges on ‘94 Attack.” 87. “Iran Reportedly Agrees to Increase Islamic Jihad’s Budget.” 88. Amir Taheri, “The Aid Iran Gives Islamic Organizations and Various Groups in Other Countries Is No Secret,” Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), Arabic-language daily, July 30, 1994; translated in “Arab News Digest,” Jerusalem Post, August 10, 1994. 89. Ibid. 90. Farhad Mammadov, “Hizballah Has Cells in Azerbaijan,” Azadliq (Azerbaijan), March 14, 2002; http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/azerbaijan/ hypermail/20203/0046.shtml. 91. “Iran Reportedly Agrees to Increase Islamic Jihad’s Budget.” 92. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 116. 93. “Pragmatists and Radicals Start Post-Khomeini Power Struggle.” 94. “Revealed,” Sunday Times (UK), May 1, 1994. 95. Ibid. 96. “Iranians Have Nurtured Sinn Fein Links since 1980s.” 97. “Revealed.” 98. “Tehran Stepping Up Funding of Terrorists,” Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1993. 99. “UPI Spotlight: Hizballah, PFLP Join to Foil PLO-Israeli Peace Accord,” United Press International, November 1, 1993. 100. “DFLP and Hizballah Agree to Work Together against GazaJericho Deal,” Radio Monte Carlo - Middle East, Paris, in Arabic 1200 GMT; October 31, 1993; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, November 2, 1993. 101. Foreign Report, March 17, 1994. 102. Ehud Ya’ari, “A Holy War of Words,” Jerusalem Report, January 10, 1991. 103. Roni Shaked, “The Orders to Murder Arrive by Fax from Damascus,” Yediot Aharonot, November 18, 1994. 104. Anat Kurz, Maskit Burgin, and David Tal, eds., Terror Islami v’Yisrael: Hizballah, Jihad Islami Palistini, Hamas (Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, and Papyrus Publishing, 1993), p. 130.

Notes 45

105. “Palestinian Group Small but Deadly,” Associated Press, June 5, 2002. 106. Ze’ev Schiff, “The Islamic Jihad Receives Additional Payment from Iran for Each Attack,” Ha’aretz, July 31, 1997. 107. “Iran Reportedly Agrees to Increase Islamic Jihad’s Budget.” 108. “IRNA Reports Khamene`i’s Message to Conference on Support for Palestine,” Iranian Republic News Agency (IRNA), Tehran, in English, 9:15 GMT, June 2, 2002, in BBC Worldwide Monitoring, June 2, 2002. 109. “Iran: Majlis Speaker, Palestinian Leaders Address Conference on Palestine,” Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Network 1, Tehran, in Persian, 14:30 GMT, June 2, 2002; in BBC Worldwide Monitoring, June 2, 2002. 110. “IRNA Reports Khamene`i’s Message.” 111. “Iran: Pro-Palestinian Conference Ends, Calls for Embargo on U.S. Goods,” Iranian Republic News Agency (IRNA), in English, 1833 GMT, June 3, 2002, in FBIS-NES, June 3, 2002. 112. “Iran: Majlis Speaker, Palestinian Leaders.” 113. “Iran Increases Funding and Training for Suicide Bombings,” Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, Saudi-owned Arabic newspaper based in London, June 8, 2002; translated in Middle East Media and Research Institute (MEMRI) Special Dispatch—Iran/Jihad and Terrorism, June 11, 2002, No. 387. 114. “Iran: Majlis Speaker, Palestinian Leaders.” 115. “Iran: Pro-Palestinian Conference Ends.” 116. “Iran Meeting Offers Support to Palestinians,” Financial Times, June 3, 2002. 117. “Jordan Told USA about Iranian Plan to Stage Attacks on Israel—Paper,” Al-Sharq al-Awsat, February 5, 2002, in BBC Monitoring, Middle East–Political, February 5, 2002. 118. “Lebanese Army Arrests Hizballah Members,” Associated Press, April 1, 1994. 119. Gal Luft, “The Karine-A Affair: A Strategic Watershed in the Middle East?, Peacewatch #361, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, January 30, 2002. 120. “Iran-Palestinian Weapons Link Likely,” BBC News, February 5, 2002; http://www.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1803148.stm.

46 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

121. “U.S. Warns Terrorist Groups against Retaliatory Attacks,” Chicago Tribune, March 20, 2003. 122. “Iran Reportedly Agrees to Increase Islamic Jihad’s Budget.” 123. “Iran: Former Intelligence Officer Alleges Iranian and Hizballah Links with Al-Qa`ida,” Global News Wire-Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, March 2, 2003. 124. United States of America v. Ali Muhammad, United States District Court Southern District of New York, S (7) about 98 Cr. 1023 (LBS), New York, N.Y, October 20, 2000, p. 28. 125. “Iran: Former Intelligence Officer Alleges Links with AlQa`ida.” 126. “Terror Alliance Has U.S. Worried.” 127. “Suicide Bombers Will Strike in America: FBI,” Sydney Morning Herald, May 22, 2002; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/05/21/ 1021882056818.html. 128. Gal Luft, “The Seizure of Gaza-Bound Arms: Military Implications,” Peacewatch #359, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, January 8, 2002. 129. “Israeli Commandos Capture Arms Ship Bound for Palestinians,” Telegraph (UK), January 5, 2002; http://www.telegraph.co.uk. 130. Luft, “The Seizure of Gaza-Bound Arms.” 131. “Israeli Commandos Capture Arms Ship.” 132. “Israelis Present ‘Proof ’ of Arafat’s Role in Arms Plot,” Telegraph (UK), January 13, 2002; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?x ml=news/ 20002/01/13/wisr13.xml 133. Ibid. 134. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 118. 135. “After the Crisis, How Will Carter Deal with Iran?” Associated Press, November 19, 1979. 136. Taheri, Holy Terror, p. 78. 137. Ibid., p. 78. Taheri quotes from Yadnameh Shahid Chamran, “In Memoriam–Chamran the Martyr” (Persian) (Tehran: third edition, 1984), p. 89. 138. Ibid., p. 78. 139. Ibid., p. 78-9. 140. Ibid., p. 78. 141. “Amal’s Relationship with Iran,” Info-Prod Research (Middle

Notes 47

East) Ltd., November 16, 1999. 142. “Iranian Ambassador on Western ‘Conspiracy’ to Disrupt ArabIranian Relations,” Kuwait News Agency, 07:30 GMT, October 3, 1979, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, October 4, 1979. 143. “Khomeini Reported to Have Own SAVAK-Style Agency,” Washington Post, June 7, 1980. 144. “Terror: A Soviet Export,” New York Times, November 2, 1980. 145. Taheri, Holy Terror, pp. 100-101. 146. Ibid. 147. “Resolutions of the Worldwide Day of Quds Demonstration,” March 27, 1992. 148. Ibid. 149. Ibid. 150. “Worldwide Day of Al-Quds” flyer, May 5, 1989. 151. Ibid. 152. Ibid. 153. “Worldwide Day of Quds” flyers, January 23, 1998; at MSAPSG Quds Day Website, http://www.msapsg.org/quds. 154. “Download Quds flyers,” MSA-PSG website; http://www.msa psg.org/ flyers.html , PDF document “qudsall-1.pdf.” 155. Ibid., PDF document, “slogan98.pdf.” 156. Ibid., PDF document, “qudsres.pdf.” 157. Ibid., PDF document “qudsdc-1.pdf.” 158. Ibid., PDF document “qudswa-2.pdf.” 159. “Islamic Radicals,” Associated Press, May 5, 1993. 160. Ibid. 161. “Cleric Was the Catalyst in Islamic Community,” Detroit Free Press, November 11, 1994. 162. Boston Jewish Times, March 22, 1990. 163. Ibid. 164. “Local Arabs Fear Fed Scrutiny,” Detroit News, July 25, 2000. 165. “Islamic Radicals.” 166. Taqweem Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya, 1413/14, 1993. 167. Ibid. 168. “Progress Since 9 /11: the Effectiveness of U.S. Anti-Terrorist Financing Efforts,” Hearing of the Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee of the House Financial Services Committee, chaired by Represen-

48 Hizballah: The “Party of God”

tative Sue W. Kelly (R-NY); Federal News Service, March 11, 2003. 169. “Chairman Holds Hearing on Worldwide Threats to the Intelligence Community,” Senate Select Intelligence Committee, FDCH Political Transcripts, February 11, 2003. 170. “How a Hizballah Cell Made Millions in Sleepy Charlotte, NC,” U.S. News and World Report, March 10, 2003. 171. “U.S. Warns Terrorist Groups against Retaliatory Attacks” Chicago Tribune, March 20, 2003. 172. “Drug Money for Hizballah,” CBSNews.com, September 2, 2002. 173. Ibid. 174. “Terrorism Financing,” Panel One of a Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Federal News Service, November 20, 2002. 175. Ibid. 176. Ibid. 177. Ibid. 178. “How a Hizballah Cell Made Millions.” 179. Ibid.

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