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BAU-RCIII-Lecture 3

Beams Ledges

Dr. Zaher Abou SalehBAU-Dept. of Civil

Engineering-Debbieh Campus-RCIII-Lecture 3

Beam ledges have to be designed for overall member actions
(flexure, shear, axial forces, and torsion). This section addresses only
local failure modes and reinforcement requirements to prevent these
failure modes.
Design of beam ledges is somewhat similar to that of a bracket or
corbel with respect to loading conditions.
Additional design considerations and reinforcement details need to
be considered in beam ledges.
Some failure modes discussed in lecture 2 for brackets and corbels
are also shown for beam ledges in Fig. 3-1.
In addition to the four failure modes for brackets and corbels, two
additional failure modes need to be considered for the design of
beam ledges:

(5) separation between ledge and beam web near the top of the
ledge in the vicinity of the ledge load, and
(6) punching shear.

Reinforcement for the different failure modes is determined based on the

effective widths or critical sections discussed below. In all cases, the required
strengths (Vu, Mu, or Nu) should be less than or equal to the design strengths
Vn, Mn, or Nn).
0.2fc is the

0.2fc is the

Fig. 3-1, flexure and direct tension

Fig. 3-4




SI unit

e- Reinforcement details
Hanger reinforcements, Av

Primary reinforcements, As

Beam stirrups

Minimum reinforcements, Ah

Figure 3-7 Reinforcement Details


f-Development and Anchorage of Reinforcement

Within the bracket or corbel, the distance between load and
support face is usually too short, so that special anchorage must
be provided at the outer ends of both primary reinforcement As
and shear reinforcement Ah. Anchorage of As is normally
provided by welding an anchor bar of equal size across the ends
of As ( Fig. 3-8a) or welding to an armor angle. In the former
case, the anchor bar must be located beyond the edge of the
loaded area. Where anchorage is provided by a hook or a loop in
As, the load must not project beyond the straight portion of the
hook or loop (Fig. 3-8b)
In beam ledges, anchorage may be provided by a hook or loop,
with the same limitation on the load location (Fig. 3-9). Where a
corbel or beam ledge is designed to resist specific horizontal
forces, the bearing plate should be welded to As

Figure 3-8 Anchorage Details Using (a) Cross-Bar Weld and (b) Loop Bar Detail

Figure 3-9 Bar Details for Beam Ledge



The L-beam shown is to support a double-tee parking deck spanning 20m. Maximum service loads per
stem are: DL =50kN; LL =30kN; total load = 80kN.
The stems of the double-tees rest on 110 mm 110 mm 6 mm neoprene
bearing pads (7 Mpa maximum service load).
Concrete compressive strength: 35Mpa
Steel yielding strength: 420Mpa
Design in accordance with the code provisions for brackets and corbels may require a wider ledge than
the 150mm as shown. To maintain the 150mm width, one of the following may be necessary:
(1) Use of a higher strength bearing pad (up to 14 Mpa ); or
(2) Anchoring primary ledge reinforcement As to an armor angle.

Stems spaced at
1.2m o.c



180mm 150mm

Effective width


1-Check for bearing size (service laod is 7Mpa)

Plate size is 110 mm 110 mm
Capacity=(110)(110)(7)=84.7kN> 80kN O.K
2- Determine shear spans and effective widths for both shear and flexure
- For shear friction
av=(2/3)L+ 25=100mm
Shear effective width=bws=w+4av=110+4(100)=510mm
- For flexure, critical section is measured from the center of hanger reinf.
Assume No. 13 size for hanger reinf.
Clear cover
Flexural effective width=bwf=w+5af=110+5(138)=800mm
3. Check concrete bearing strength
Vu=1.2DL+ 1.6LL=1.2(50)+1.6(30)=108kN
Bearing strength=(0.85)
= 0.65 0.85 (35) 110 110 = 34 kN>Vu


4. Check effective ledge section for maximum nominal shear-transfer strength Vn

0.2 =7Mpa
3.3+0.08 =6.1Mpacontrols
0r 11Mpa

Vn =(0.75)(6.1)(510)(270)=630kN>Vu O.K

5. Determine shear-friction reinforcement

Avf=Vu/(fy)=245mm2, this reinforcement is distributed over bws, Avf=245/510=0.48mm2/mm
6. Determine reinforcement to resist direct tension
An=Nu/(fy)=69mm2 where Nu=0.2Vu=21.6kN
this reinforcement is distributed over bwf, An=69/800=0.086mm2/mm
7. Determine flexural reinforcement
Af=Mu/(jufyd)=229mm2 where Mu=Vuaf+Nu (h-d)=15.5kN
this reinforcement is also distributed over bwf, Af=229/800=0.286mm2/mm
8. Determine the primary tension reinforcement
As=(2/3)Avf+An=0.406mm2/mm. controls
or As =Af+An=0.372mm2/mm
Check for min. reinf.
(As )min=0.04 bd=0.04(

)(1)(270)=0.9mm2/mm..As=0.9mm2/mm and no need to check for

use No. 16 at 200mm o.c

9. Minimum horizontal reinforcement.

Ah=0.5(As-An)=0.5(0.905-.086)=0.409mm2/mm use No. 13 at 200mm o.c
For ease of constructability, provide reinforcement at same spacing as As


10. Check required area of hanger reinforcement.

Assume s=200mm

Then hanger reinforcement, Av=58mm2

Check for serviceability

Assume s=200mm

Then, Av=186mm2 controls

use No. 16 at 200mm o.c

11. Check for punching shear

Vu= (W+2L+2df)df where W=L=110mm and df=300-50=250mm


Assume cover to
reinforcement 50mm

12. Reinforcement Details

No. 16 @200mm

No. 13 @200mm

Dr. Zaher Abou SalehBAU-Dept. of Civil

Engineering-Debbieh Campus

No. 10