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# Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL : 1
Aim: - To study about open loop control system.
Apparatus : - Open loop trainer kit, connecting wires, DMM and connecting wires
Theory:Definition: A system in which control action is totally independent on output of system is
called open loop control system.
Feature:
1. Output is not compared with reference input so their correspond of fixed operating
condition.
2. Used in practice only if relation between input and output is known and there is no
disturbance.
3. Any system which operates on time is open.
Merits
1. Simple in construction and design.
2. They are economic.
3. Easy for maintenances.
4. Convenient to use.
Demerits
1. Inaccurate and reliable.
2. Inaccurate result with parameters variables.
3. Recalibration of controller is necessary to maintain quality and accuracy.
Figure:-

Control Element

Plant Process

Figure:-1

1

Process Unit

Controller
Process

Figure:-2

## Procedure: Connect the digital micro ammeter as shown in fig.

Adjust the potentiometer at 0 point.
Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. You can see that indicator glows.
We can observe that constant source is charging the capacitor.
Note charging current in the observation table.
Also note that error voltage at output of the feedback controller.
Observe that the output voltage approaches the input command voltage.

2

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Observation table:-

INPUT
A

ERROR
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+

Charging Current I
(uA)

Vo/p(V)

Conclusion: -

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 2
Aim: - To study about close loop control system.
Apparatus: - Closed loop trainer kit, connecting wires, DMM and connecting wires
Theory:Definition: A system in which control action is totally dependent on output of system is
called closed loop control system. In this type of system output is feedback to the input of
system.
Feature: Output is compared with reference input and according to that control action is
done.
Merits :
1 Accurate in action.
2 Recalibration is not required.
3 Less accurate components may serve the purpose.
4 Distortions are taken care by feedback present.
Demerits :
1 Complex in construction.
2 Difficult to maintain.
3 Overall system is expensive.
Example :
1. Temperature controller of an oven.
2. Missile launcher.
3. Voltage stabilizer
Figure:Reference
Selection

Plant
Process

Control
Element

Figure:-1

Feedback
Element

4

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Process Unit

Feedback Controller

Controller Process

Figure:-2

Procedure :

## Connect the digital micro ammeter as shown in fig.

Adjust the potentiometer at 0 point.
Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. You can see that indicator glows.
We can observe that constant source is charging the capacitor.
Note charging current in the observation table.
Also note that error voltage at output of the feedback controller.
Observe that the output voltage approaches the input command voltage. Error voltage
will reduce to glow and relay will switch off the constant current source and let the
capacitor discharge.

Observation table :-

5

## Control Theory Lab Manual

INPUT
A

ERROR
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+

Charging Current I
(uA)

Vo/p(V)

Conclusion : -

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 3
Aim:- To study the operation of a Type 0 Control System
Apparatus :- Adtrons Trainer Kit, Adtrons Test Signal Generator, Digital Multi-meter -2
No.

Theory:The control system is that by means of which any quality in a machine, mechanism or
other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is a feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output in either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in the presence of
disturbance.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system, some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature - Flow, and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is an important feature of control system. Errors in the control system
can be attributed to many factors changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient periods and many also cause steady state errors. Imperfections in the system
component, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier drift, as well as aging or
deterioration, will cause errors at steady state.
Steady state errors are a measure of accuracy of a control system. The steady-state
performance of a control system is generally judged by the steady state errors due to steps,
ramp or acceleration input, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers we shall investigate such performance, namely a type of steady state
error, which is caused by the incapability of the system follow particular types of input.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to a step input, but the same system
may exhibit non zero steady state error to ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
input may etc. This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual may frequency be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitude of a steady state error due to these
individual input are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers steady state error for step input and infinite error for
ramp output. Type 1 offers zero errors for step and constant error ramp input, whereas type 2
offers zero error for both step and ramp inputs.

7

Figure:

G(S)

H(S)
BLOCK DIAGRAM

c(t)

r(t)

E1 = E2 = E3

t
TIME

c(t)

r(t)

E3
E2
E1
TIME

8

## Control Theory Lab Manual

c(t)

r(t)

E1 E2 E3
TIME

Procedure:1.

Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See the supply LED glows.

## Time Response Analysis:

A. Setup Signal Analysis:
2.
Connect step test signal generator output to the i/p terminals of the trainer.
3.
Connect Digital Multimeters each at the input and output terminals.
4.
Switch on the test signal generator and select STEP signal for the output.
5.
Adjust step signal by STEP ADJ potentiometer for 1V, 2V, 3V,... and for each
reading, observe and record the output voltage in the observation table-1.
6.
From the readings calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input,
output graphs
B. Ramp Signal Analysis:
7.
Connect the Ramp Signal form test signal generator to the input terminals.
8.
Keep Digital Multi-meter at the I/P and O/P terminals for 0-200 mV range or
0-2V range.
9.
Press the discharge switch momentarily to start the ramp signal.
10.
Input voltage will go on increasing at a predefined rate. Observe input and
output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input
voltage at 10 mV, 20 mV, 30 mV ... 250mV. Record your observation in tableII.
11.
From the reading, analysis the steady state error and plot input/output graphs.
C. Parabolic Signal Analysis:
12.
Connect parabolic signal from test signal generator to the input terminals.
13.
Connect digital multimeter at the input and output to the inout terminals of the
trainer kit.
14.
Press the discharge switch momentarily to start the parabolic signal.
15.
Observe the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output
voltage for different input voltages. Record your observation Table-III.

9

## Control Theory Lab Manual

16.

From the reading, analysis the result and plot input/output graphs.

Observation Table-I:A.

Step Input:
Input Voltage R(S)
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Input R(S)
Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts

VDC
Output C(S)
Volts

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Error/Step
(R(S)-C(S))/R(S)

Time
Secs.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Observation Table-II:B.

Ramp Input:
Input R(S)
Sr.No.
Volts
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Output C(S)
Volts

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Observation Table-III:C.

Parabolic Input:

10

Time
Secs.

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Sr.No.

Input R(S)
mVs

Output C(S)
mV

Error
R(S)-C(S)
mV

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Conclusion: -

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

11

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 4
Aim:- To study the operation of a Type 1 Control System
Apparatus :- Adtrons Trainer Kit, Adtrons Test Signal Generator, Digital Multi-meter -2
No.

Theory :The control system is that by means of which any quality in a machine, mechanism or
other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is a feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output in either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in the presence of
disturbance.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system, some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature - Flow, and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is an important feature of control system. Errors in the control system
can be attributed to many factors changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient periods and many also cause steady state errors. Imperfections in the system
component, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier drift, as well as aging or
deterioration, will cause errors at steady state.
Steady state errors are a measure of accuracy of a control system. The steady-state
performance of a control system is generally judged by the steady state errors due to steps,
ramp or acceleration input, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers we shall investigate such performance, namely a type of steady state
error, which is caused by the incapability of the system follow particular types of input.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to a step input, but the same system
may exhibit non zero steady state error to ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
input may etc. This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual may frequency be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitude of a steady state error due to these
individual input are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers steady state error for step input and infinite error for
ramp output. Type 1 offers zero errors for step and constant error ramp input, whereas type 2
offers zero error for both step and ramp inputs.

12

Figure:

G2(S)

G1(S)

G3(S)

H(S)
BLOCK DIAGRAM
c(t)

r(t)

E1 = E2 = E3= 0

t
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E3
E2
E1

E1 = E2 = E3
TIME

c(t)

r(t)

13

## Control Theory Lab Manual

E1 E2 E3
t
TIME

Procedure :1.

Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See the supply LED glows.

## A. Setup Signal Analysis:

2.
Connect step test signal generator output to the i/p terminals of the trainer.
3.
Connect Digital Multimeters each at the input and output terminals.
4.
Switch on the test signal generator and select STEP signal for the output.
5.
Adjust step signal by STEP ADJ potentiometer for 1V, 2V, 3V,... and for each
reading, observe and record the output voltage in the observation table-1.
6.
From the readings calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input,
output graphs
B. Ramp Signal Analysis:
7.
Connect the Ramp Signal form test signal generator to the input terminals.
8.
Keep Digital Multi-meter at the I/P and O/P terminals for 0-200 mV range or
0-2V range.
9.
Press the discharge switch momentarily to start the ramp signal.
10.
Input voltage will go on increasing at a predefined rate. Observe input and
output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input
voltage at 10 mV, 20 mV, 30 mV ... 250mV. Record your observation in tableII.
11.
From the reading, analysis the steady state error and plot input/output graphs.
C. Parabolic Signal Analysis:
12.
Connect parabolic signal from test signal generator to the input terminals.
13.
Connect digital multimeter at the input and output to the inout terminals of the
trainer kit.
14.
Press the discharge switch momentarily to start the parabolic signal.
15.
Observe the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output
voltage for different input voltages. Record your observation Table-III.
16.
From the reading, analysis the result and plot input/output graphs.

14

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Observation Table-I:A).

Step Input:
Input Voltage R(S)
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Input R(S)
Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts

VDC
Output C(S)
Volts

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Error/Step
(R(S)-C(S))/R(S)

Time
Secs.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Observation Table-II:B).

Ramp Input:
Sr.No.

Input R(S)
Volts

Output C(S)
Volts

Error
R(S)-C(S)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Observation Table-III:C).

Parabolic Input:

15

Time
Secs.

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Sr.No.

Input R(S)
mVs

Output C(S)
mV

Error
R(S)-C(S)
mV

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Conclusion: -

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

16

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 5
Aim :- to study the operation of a type 2 control system.
Apparatus : - Adtrons Trainer kit, Adtrons test signal generator,. Digital Multimeter 2
NOS.

Theory:The control system is that by means of which any quantity of interest in a machine,
mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output is either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is that is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in presence
of disturbances.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature, flow and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is important feature of control systems. Errors in a control system can be
attributed to many factors. Changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient in the system components, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier
drift, as well as aging or deterioration, will cause at steady state.
Steady state error is measure of the accuracy of a control system. The steady state
performance of a control system is generally judged by steady state error due to step, ramp or
acceleration inputs, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers, we shall investigate such performance, error a type of steady state
error which is caused by the incapability of the system to follow particular types of inputs.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to step input, but the same system
may exhibit non-zero steady state error to a ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
inputs etc. This is reasonable classification scheme because actual inputs may frequently be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitudes of steady state error due to these
individual inputs are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers constant steady state error step input and infinite error
for Ramp input. Type 1 offers zero error for step constant error for the Ramp input, whereas
type 2 offers zero error for the both step and Ramp inputs.

17

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Figure:G3(S)

G2(S)

G1(S)

H2(S)

H1(S)

BLOCK DIAGRAM

c(t)

r(t)

E1 = E2 = E3= 0

t
TIME
c(t)
r(t)

E1 = E2 = E3= 0
t
TIME

c(t)
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
18

## Control Theory Lab Manual

r(t)

E1 = E2 = E3
t
TIME

Procedure : 1.

Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See that supply LED
glows on.

## I. Time Response Analysis

A. Step Signal Analysis:
2. Connect test signal generator output to the input terminals of the trainer.
3. Connect Digital Multimeter each at the input and output terminals.
4. Switch on the test signal generator and locate the STEP signal output.
5. Adjust step signal by STEP ADJ potentiometer for 1V/2V/3V/and for each
reading, observe and record the output voltage in the observation table-I.
6. From the reading calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input, output
graphs.
B. Ramp Signal Analysis:
7. Select Ramp signals from test signal generator press the discharge and release the
same, so that Ramp signal starts.
8. Keep Digital Multimeter at the input & output terminals for 0-200mV range, or 020V range.
9. Input voltage will go on increasing at a predefined rate. Observe input and output
meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input voltage at
10mV, 20mV, 30mV 250mV. Record your observation in table-II.
10. From the readings, analyze steady state error and plot input-output graphs.
C. Parabolic Signal Analysis:
11. Select parabolic signal from the test signal generator press the discharge and release
the same, so that parabolic signal starts.
12. Connect Digital Multimeter (voltage) at the input and output terminals of the trainer
kit.
13. Also connect the test signal generator output to the input of the trainer kit.

19

## Control Theory Lab Manual

14. Now keep the toggle switch of test signal generator in the Restart position the
parabolic signal is available at the output.
15. Observe the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output. Voltage
for different input voltages. Record your observation in table-III.
16. From the readings, analyze the result and plot input-output graphs.

Observation Table-I:A.

Step Input:
Input voltage R(S) = ________VDC

Sr. No.

Time in sec

Output C(S)

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Error/step
(R(S)-C(S))/R(S)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Observation Table-II:B.
Sr. No.

Ramp Input:
Input R(S)

Output C(S)

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Observation Table-III:-

20

## Control Theory Lab Manual

C.
Sr. No.

Parabolic Input:
Input R(S)

Output C(S)

Error
R(S)-C(S)

Error
(R(S)-C(S))/R(S)

Conclusion: -

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PRACTICAL: 6
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
21

## Aim : - To study potentiometer as an error detector.

Apparatus : - Two potentiometer (identical), DMM, Power supply, Connecting wires.
Theory :

In potentiometer the output voltage depends on knob position which is given by,
e(t)=us* (t)
E= applied voltage to start terminal.
By connecting to potentiometer in parallel the arrangement allows comparison of two
located shaft.
The output voltage is taken out at the variable terminal of two potentiometer and it is
given by
C(t)=V(s)*Q1(t)-Q2(t)

Figure:-

Error Detector
Procedure:-

22

## Connect the circuit as show in figure.

Apply input voltage to the fixed terminal.
Now fire one of the potentiometer in the step of 10 degrees starting from 0 degree.
By varying the potentiometer obtain the second voltage of the potentiometer and
detect the error and calibrated degree.
Obtain reading of voltage for different knob position within the step of 10 on second
potentiometer.

Observation table:Sr. No

POSITION
in Degree()

## Error Voltage (Verror)

In V

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

23

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 7
Aim: - To study potentiometer as variable power supply.
Apparatus: - Trainer, potentiometer, probes and DMM.
Theory:It is an electromechanical transducer that converts mechanical energy to electrical
energy.
The input is displacement of knob. It can be linear or rotational depending upon the
potentiometer type i.e. linear or rotational. When voltage is supplied to fixed terminal, the
variable terminal gives voltage which is proportional to the knob setting. This voltage may
vary linearly or non-linearly.
Rotary potentiometer is available in single revolution or multi-revolution form, with
limited or un-limited rotational motion.
Potentiometers commonly are made with wire wound or conductive plastic resistance
material.
Conductive plastic has following advantages: Infinite revolution
Long rotational life
Good output smoothness
Low static noise
The voltage e(t) is proportional to shaft position c(t) in case of rotary motion, therefore
e(t)=Ks. c(t)
Where Ks is proportionality constant.
Now For N-turn potentiometer,
Two remotely located shaft positions can be compared by using two potentiometers connected
in parallel. Output is taken across variable terminals of two
e(t)=Ks(1(t)-2(t))

Procedure:

## Connect the power supply at input terminal of potentiometer.

Connect DMM at output terminal(variable)
Vary the angular position of knob and note output

24

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Fixed Terminals

Variable Terminals

(a)Equivalent Circuit

+
L
-

(f)

## (b)Housing at fixed reference output, Proportional to shaft position (variable supply)

Observation Table:-

25

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Sr.No

Knob position ()

Output voltage(V)

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PRACTICAL:8
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
26

## Aim: - To study the characteristics of the Proportional Control Action.

Apparatus: - Adtrons Trainer Kit, Digital Multimeter -02 Nos.
Theory:Proportional Control Action:
For a controller with proportional control action the relationship between the output of
the controller M(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is:
M(t) = KP e(t)
Or in the Laplace Transformed equation:
M(S)/E(S) =KP
Where KP is termed as the proportional sensitivity or gain. A block diagram of such a control
system is shown in fig.1 Potentiometer P1 is the proportional adjust potentiometer.
Potentiometer control action is essentially is amplifier with adjustable gain. Hence the
controlled output will always be the difference between set value and simulated process
input ,multiply by the proportional constant. Hence the output will always be proportional to
the difference.

Figure:
Proportional Band P3
P1
set
value

_
Buffer Stage

K
Controlled
o/p

+
P2
Simulated process

Procedure:-

27

## Control Theory Lab Manual

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connect the required supply and switch ON the unit. See that the supply LED glows.
Adjust the set value to say 2.0V with the help of the set value adjust potentiometer P1.
Let P2 & P3 be in their minimum position.
Let the process value input be the 0V.
Observe the error signal. As process value is zero, error signal will be same as set
value i.e.2.0V
6. Observe the controlled output . You will observe that the output is steady value
determined by the proportional potentiometer P3,Since the p3 is minimum position the
gain is 1 and hence the output will be same as the error signal.
7. Now slowly increase the process value and monitor Output and conclude yours result

## Set Value (Volts)

Simulated
Process
Value (Volts) (S.P.V.)

## Error Signal Eerror

(Volts)

Output Value
Vout(Volts)

1
2
3
4

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PRACTICAL: 9
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
28

## Aim: - To study the characteristics of the Proportional Integral Control Action.

Apparatus: - Adtrons Trainer Kit, Digital Multimeter -02 Nos.
Theory:The Combination of proportional control action and interregnal control action is
termed as proportional integral action. This combination action has the advantage of each of
the two individual control actions. The equation of a controller with this combined action is
given by,

N(t) = KP e(t) +

Kp t
e ( t ) dt
Ti 0

## The transfer function is

M (s)
1
=K p (1+
)
E(s)
Ti S
Where KP represents the proportional sensitivity and Ti.. Represents the integral time block
diagram of PI controller is as shown in the figure and block diagram of automatic control
system is shown in figure.

Figure:
Proportional Band P4
P1
Integral Time P3
Set
value

1/TIS

+
+

K
Controlled
o/p

+
P2
Simulated process

Procedure:-

29

## Control Theory Lab Manual

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connect the required supply and switch ON the unit. See that the supply LED glows.
Adjust the set value to say 6.0V with the help of the set value adjust potentiometer P1.
Let P3 & P4 be in their minimum position.
Let the process value input be the 0V.
Observe the error signal. As process value is zero, error signal will be same as set
value i.e.6.0V
6. Observe the output of the integral derivative action, after momentarily discharging
capacitor with help of discharge switch.

## Simulated Process Error Signal Set

Output
Value
(Volts) Value
(Volts)
(Volts)
(S.P.V.)
(S.P.V)

Value

1
2
3
4

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PRACTICAL: 10
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
30

## Aim: To study about the active phase lag compensation network

Apparatus: CRO, Probes, Function Generator, compensation experiment kit
Theory:
In general there are two situations in which compensation is required. In the first case, the
system is absolutely unstable and compensation is required to stabilize it as well as to achieve
a specific performance. In second case, the system is stable but compensation is required to
obtain the desired performance. The system which are type-2 or higher in order are usually
absolute unstable. For these type of system clearly lead compensation is required because
only the lead compensator increase the margin of stability. In type-1 and type -0 system stable
operation is always possible if the gain is sufficiently reduced in such cases any of three
compensation viz lag, lead or lag-lead may be used to obtain desired performance.
Active Lag Compensation:
An active lag compensation network is shown in fig for an inverting operational
amplifier.
Vo =Rz (1+ 1 )
Vi Ri R2C1S
Where 1= R2C1S and Kp = Rz
Ri
Gs= Kp (1+ 1
) = Kp (1+1S)
1S
1S
1. Improves the steady state accuracy.
2. Suppress high frequency noise.
3. Applied specifically when error constants are specified.
1. Reduces the speed and noise.
2. Decrease system bandwidth.
3. Slow down transient response.
4. Require large value of RC components.
Limitation of Lag Compensator:
1. The rise and setting time is more because of reduced bandwidth.
2. System becomes more sensitive to parameter variation.
3. Band width of the system reduced due to lag compensator shifts the gain cross over
frequency to a lower frequency point.

31

## Control Theory Lab Manual

Figure:

Procedure:
1. Switch on the experiment kit.

32

## Control Theory Lab Manual

2. Set about 1Hz frequency with help of function generator and set 1V peak to peak on
the CRO. Give this as a input signal to the lag compensator i.e. connect CH-1 of CRO
to i/p of compensator N/W.
3. Connect o/p terminals of the circuit to the CH-2 of CRO through probes.
4. You will see a lagging pattern on the CRO. Measure the Phase angle sin -1(v1/v2). Set
xy mode to see a lagging pattern.
Note down the phase angle for other different frequencies through the lagging pattern.

Observation Table:
I/P Amplitude=2V (peak to peak)
Passive Network:
Sr.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

i/p Frequency

o/p amplitude(PtoP)

Phase Difference

Conclusion:

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PRACTICAL: 11
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
33

## Aim: To study for phase lead compensation circuit (active/passive).

Apparatus: CRO, probes, compensation, kit, function generator.
Theory:
In general there are two situations in which compensation is required.
1. When system is absolutely unstable & compensation is used to stabilize it.
2. The system is stable, but compensation is used to obtain required performance.
The systems which are type-2 or higher are usually absolute unstable. For these systems
compensation is required.
A passive lead network using two resistors &one capacitor has a transfer function of the form
Equation
Assuming impedance of souse to be zero & o/p lead impedance infinite. We desire the transfer
function.
Equation
2. It increases bandwidth & thus noise is increased.
3. It requires large values of components for RC n/w.
4. Not applicable when phase decreases rapidly near to crossover frequency.
1. Increase system bandwidth.
2. Lead compensation yields the desired response of system.
3. When fast transient response is desired it is applied.
Velocity constant is increase for a given relative stability.
Phase margin of system is increase.
Bandwidth resonant peak MP is increase.
Frequency response is faster.
In active lead compensation n/w is shown in fig. for an inverting op-amp.

Figure:

34

Procedure:

## Switch on the kit for lead compensation.

Set about 1k freq. with help of function generator & set 2v p-p on the CRO, give this as
input signal to lead compensation network. I.e. connect CH-1 of CRO to input of
compensation network.
Connect the output terminals of the circuit to CH-2 of CRO.
You will see a lissagious pattern of CRO; measure the phase angle by setting x-y mode for
it.
Note down the phase angle for other different frequency 2k and 5k.

35

## I/P Amplitude=2V (peak to peak)

Passive Network:
Sr.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

i/p Frequency

o/p amplitude(PtoP)

Phase Difference

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

36

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 12
Aim: To study for phase lead-lag compensation circuit (active/passive).
Apparatus: CRO, probes, compensation, kit, function generator.
Theory:
In general there are two situations in which compensation is required.
1. When system is absolutely unstable & compensation is used to stabilize it.
2. The system is stable, but compensation is used to obtain required performance.
The systems which are type-2 or higher are usually absolute unstable. For these systems
compensation is required.

Figure:

Procedure:

## Switch on the kit for lead compensation.

Set about 1k freq. with help of function generator & set 2v p-p on the CRO, give this as
input signal to lead compensation network. I.e. connect CH-1 of CRO to input of
compensation network.
Connect the output terminals of the circuit to CH-2 of CRO.
You will see a lissagious pattern of CRO; measure the phase angle by setting x-y mode for
it.
Note down the phase angle for other different frequency 2k and 5k.

37

## Observation Table:I/P Amplitude=2V (peak to peak)

Passive Network:
Sr.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

i/p Frequency

o/p amplitude(PtoP)

Phase Difference

Conclusion:-

Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

38

## Control Theory Lab Manual

PRACTICAL: 13
Aim: - Introduction to MATLAB.
Software: - MATLAB Software
Theory:

What is MATLAB?
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates
computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use environment where
problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation.
MatLab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not
require dimensioning.
The name MatLab stands for MATrix LABoratory.

Features of MATLAB:
MatLab features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes.
Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MatLab functions (M-files) that extend
the MatLab environment to solve particular classes of problems.

## How to start MATLAB?

On a Microsoft Windows platform, to start MATLAB, double click the MATLAB
shortcut icon on your Windows desktop.
After starting MATLAB, the MATLAB desktop opens Note the >> is the matlab
command prompt
To end your MATLAB session, select Exit MATLAB from the File menu in the desktop,
or type quit in the Command Window.
Note that nothing is saved when you exit, you will not be prompted to save.

MATLAB containing some windows & pull down menus when you open you can see
1. Command Window: This is the main window for issuing commands and seeing results,
and is what has been used in this class up to now.
2. Command History: An ordered list of all commands issued in the Command Window.
3. Current Directory: The files in the user directory currently available for use in the
Command Window.
4. Workspace: a list of variables that have been used in the Command Window.

39

## Control Theory Lab Manual

5. Launch Pad: a variety of packages that may be available with Matlab. We won't
consider this window further.

## What is the use of MATLAB?

MATLAB is an interactive program for scientific and engineering numeric
calculation.
It integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use
environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical
notation.

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Math and computation

Algorithm development
Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
Scientific and engineering graphics

Programs :
Ex -1 Generate a sine wave

## Ex-2 Plot Poles and Zeros

clc;
clear all;
x=[0:0.1:4*pi];
y=sin(x);
plot(x,y);
title('Graph of sin(x)vsx');
xlable('x');
ylable('y');
grid

## G(s)= 8(s+3)(s+4) / s(s+2)(s2+2s+5)

num=[8 56 96];
den=[1 4 9 10];
sys4=tf(ntitle('first plot');

p2=[12 34 67];
q2=[1 7 9 35];
sys1=tf(p2,q2);

40

## Ex -3 Time Respons Analysis

subplot(2,1,2);
pzmap(sys1);
title('second plot');
um,den);
subplot(2,1,1)
pzmap(sys4);

C(S)/R(S)=

Ex -4 Nyquist Criterion

10/ s3+7s2+10s+10
clear all;
close all;
clc;
num=10;
den=[1 7 10 10];
sys1 = tf(num,den);
subplot(3,1,1);
step(sys1);
title('step response');
subplot(3,1,2);
impulse(sys1);
title('impulse response');
grid

## G(S)H(S)= 10 (s-1)/ s2+5s+6

clear all;
close all;
clc;
num =[10 -10];
den =[1 5 6];
sys = tf(num,den);
nyquist(sys);

Ex -5 Root Locus
G(S)H(S) = K/s(s+6)(S^2+4s+13)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
pnum=1;
a=[1 6 0];

41

## Control Theory Lab Manual

a=[1 4 13];
den=con(a,b);
rlocus(num,den);
Ex -6 Bode plot
G(S)H(S) = 2(s+0.25)/s^2(s+1)(s+0.5)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=[2 0.5];
d1=[1 1.5 0.5 0 0];
sys1= tf(n1,d1);
margin(sys1);
Ex -7 Bode plot
G(S)H(S) = (9s^2+1.8s+9)/(S^3+1.2s^2+9s)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=[0 9 1.8 9];
d1=[1 1.2 9 0];
w= logspace(-2,2,100);
bode(n1,d1,w);

Ex -8 Nichols Chart
G(S) = 20/s(s+2)(s+0.5)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=20;
d1 =[1 7 10 0];
sys =tf(n1,d1);
nichols(sys);

Conclusion:-

Teacher Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
42

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