PRACTICAL : 1
Aim:  To study about open loop control system.
Apparatus :  Open loop trainer kit, connecting wires, DMM and connecting wires
Theory:Definition: A system in which control action is totally independent on output of system is
called open loop control system.
Feature:
1. Output is not compared with reference input so their correspond of fixed operating
condition.
2. Used in practice only if relation between input and output is known and there is no
disturbance.
3. Any system which operates on time is open.
Merits
1. Simple in construction and design.
2. They are economic.
3. Easy for maintenances.
4. Convenient to use.
Demerits
1. Inaccurate and reliable.
2. Inaccurate result with parameters variables.
3. Recalibration of controller is necessary to maintain quality and accuracy.
Figure:
Control Element
Plant Process
Process Unit
Controller
Process
Figure:2
Observation table:
INPUT
A
ERROR
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
Charging Current I
(uA)
Vo/p(V)
Conclusion: 
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 2
Aim:  To study about close loop control system.
Apparatus:  Closed loop trainer kit, connecting wires, DMM and connecting wires
Theory:Definition: A system in which control action is totally dependent on output of system is
called closed loop control system. In this type of system output is feedback to the input of
system.
Feature: Output is compared with reference input and according to that control action is
done.
Merits :
1 Accurate in action.
2 Recalibration is not required.
3 Less accurate components may serve the purpose.
4 Distortions are taken care by feedback present.
Demerits :
1 Complex in construction.
2 Difficult to maintain.
3 Overall system is expensive.
Example :
1. Temperature controller of an oven.
2. Missile launcher.
3. Voltage stabilizer
Figure:Reference
Selection
Plant
Process
Control
Element
Figure:1
Feedback
Element
Process Unit
Feedback Controller
Controller Process
Figure:2
Procedure :
Observation table :
INPUT
A
ERROR
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
0
+
Charging Current I
(uA)
Vo/p(V)
Conclusion : 
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 3
Aim: To study the operation of a Type 0 Control System
Apparatus : Adtrons Trainer Kit, Adtrons Test Signal Generator, Digital Multimeter 2
No.
Theory:The control system is that by means of which any quality in a machine, mechanism or
other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is a feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output in either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in the presence of
disturbance.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system, some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature  Flow, and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is an important feature of control system. Errors in the control system
can be attributed to many factors changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient periods and many also cause steady state errors. Imperfections in the system
component, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier drift, as well as aging or
deterioration, will cause errors at steady state.
Steady state errors are a measure of accuracy of a control system. The steadystate
performance of a control system is generally judged by the steady state errors due to steps,
ramp or acceleration input, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers we shall investigate such performance, namely a type of steady state
error, which is caused by the incapability of the system follow particular types of input.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to a step input, but the same system
may exhibit non zero steady state error to ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
input may etc. This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual may frequency be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitude of a steady state error due to these
individual input are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers steady state error for step input and infinite error for
ramp output. Type 1 offers zero errors for step and constant error ramp input, whereas type 2
offers zero error for both step and ramp inputs.
Figure:
G(S)
H(S)
BLOCK DIAGRAM
c(t)
r(t)
E1 = E2 = E3
t
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E3
E2
E1
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E1 E2 E3
TIME
Procedure:1.
Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See the supply LED glows.
16.
From the reading, analysis the result and plot input/output graphs.
Observation TableI:A.
Step Input:
Input Voltage R(S)
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Input R(S)
Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
VDC
Output C(S)
Volts
Error
R(S)C(S)
Error/Step
(R(S)C(S))/R(S)
Time
Secs.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Observation TableII:B.
Ramp Input:
Input R(S)
Sr.No.
Volts
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Output C(S)
Volts
Error
R(S)C(S)
Observation TableIII:C.
Parabolic Input:
Time
Secs.
Sr.No.
Input R(S)
mVs
Output C(S)
mV
Error
R(S)C(S)
mV
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Conclusion: 
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 4
Aim: To study the operation of a Type 1 Control System
Apparatus : Adtrons Trainer Kit, Adtrons Test Signal Generator, Digital Multimeter 2
No.
Theory :The control system is that by means of which any quality in a machine, mechanism or
other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is a feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output in either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in the presence of
disturbance.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system, some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature  Flow, and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is an important feature of control system. Errors in the control system
can be attributed to many factors changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient periods and many also cause steady state errors. Imperfections in the system
component, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier drift, as well as aging or
deterioration, will cause errors at steady state.
Steady state errors are a measure of accuracy of a control system. The steadystate
performance of a control system is generally judged by the steady state errors due to steps,
ramp or acceleration input, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers we shall investigate such performance, namely a type of steady state
error, which is caused by the incapability of the system follow particular types of input.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to a step input, but the same system
may exhibit non zero steady state error to ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
input may etc. This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual may frequency be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitude of a steady state error due to these
individual input are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers steady state error for step input and infinite error for
ramp output. Type 1 offers zero errors for step and constant error ramp input, whereas type 2
offers zero error for both step and ramp inputs.
Figure:
G2(S)
G1(S)
G3(S)
H(S)
BLOCK DIAGRAM
c(t)
r(t)
E1 = E2 = E3= 0
t
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E3
E2
E1
E1 = E2 = E3
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E1 E2 E3
t
TIME
Procedure :1.
Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See the supply LED glows.
Observation TableI:A).
Step Input:
Input Voltage R(S)
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Input R(S)
Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
1 Volts
VDC
Output C(S)
Volts
Error
R(S)C(S)
Error/Step
(R(S)C(S))/R(S)
Time
Secs.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Observation TableII:B).
Ramp Input:
Sr.No.
Input R(S)
Volts
Output C(S)
Volts
Error
R(S)C(S)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Observation TableIII:C).
Parabolic Input:
Time
Secs.
Sr.No.
Input R(S)
mVs
Output C(S)
mV
Error
R(S)C(S)
mV
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Conclusion: 
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 5
Aim : to study the operation of a type 2 control system.
Apparatus :  Adtrons Trainer kit, Adtrons test signal generator,. Digital Multimeter 2
NOS.
Theory:The control system is that by means of which any quantity of interest in a machine,
mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desired manner.
An automatic control or regulating system is feedback control system in which the
reference input or the desired output is either constant or slowly varying with time and in
which the primary task is that is to maintain the actual output at the desired value in presence
of disturbances.
There are many examples of automatic regulating system some of which are the
automatic controls of pressure, temperature, flow and of electric quantities such as voltage,
current and frequency.
System error is important feature of control systems. Errors in a control system can be
attributed to many factors. Changes in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors
during transient in the system components, such as static friction, backlash, and amplifier
drift, as well as aging or deterioration, will cause at steady state.
Steady state error is measure of the accuracy of a control system. The steady state
performance of a control system is generally judged by steady state error due to step, ramp or
acceleration inputs, which are considered to be the standard test signals.
In these trainers, we shall investigate such performance, error a type of steady state
error which is caused by the incapability of the system to follow particular types of inputs.
Any physical control system inherently suffers steady state error in response to certain
types of inputs. A system may have no steady state error to step input, but the same system
may exhibit nonzero steady state error to a ramp input.
Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs, ramp
inputs etc. This is reasonable classification scheme because actual inputs may frequently be
considered as combinations of such inputs. The magnitudes of steady state error due to these
individual inputs are indicative of the goodness of the system.
Type 0 control system offers constant steady state error step input and infinite error
for Ramp input. Type 1 offers zero error for step constant error for the Ramp input, whereas
type 2 offers zero error for the both step and Ramp inputs.
Figure:G3(S)
G2(S)
G1(S)
H2(S)
H1(S)
BLOCK DIAGRAM
c(t)
r(t)
E1 = E2 = E3= 0
t
TIME
c(t)
r(t)
E1 = E2 = E3= 0
t
TIME
c(t)
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
18
r(t)
E1 = E2 = E3
t
TIME
Procedure : 1.
Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. See that supply LED
glows on.
14. Now keep the toggle switch of test signal generator in the Restart position the
parabolic signal is available at the output.
15. Observe the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output. Voltage
for different input voltages. Record your observation in tableIII.
16. From the readings, analyze the result and plot inputoutput graphs.
Observation TableI:A.
Step Input:
Input voltage R(S) = ________VDC
Sr. No.
Time in sec
Output C(S)
Error
R(S)C(S)
Error/step
(R(S)C(S))/R(S)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Observation TableII:B.
Sr. No.
Ramp Input:
Input R(S)
Output C(S)
Error
R(S)C(S)
Observation TableIII:
C.
Sr. No.
Parabolic Input:
Input R(S)
Output C(S)
Error
R(S)C(S)
Error
(R(S)C(S))/R(S)
Conclusion: 
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 6
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
21
In potentiometer the output voltage depends on knob position which is given by,
e(t)=us* (t)
us= E/2N V/rad
E= applied voltage to start terminal.
By connecting to potentiometer in parallel the arrangement allows comparison of two
located shaft.
The output voltage is taken out at the variable terminal of two potentiometer and it is
given by
C(t)=V(s)*Q1(t)Q2(t)
General disadvantage is poor resolution.
Figure:
Error Detector
Procedure:
Observation table:Sr. No
POSITION
in Degree()
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 7
Aim:  To study potentiometer as variable power supply.
Apparatus:  Trainer, potentiometer, probes and DMM.
Theory:It is an electromechanical transducer that converts mechanical energy to electrical
energy.
The input is displacement of knob. It can be linear or rotational depending upon the
potentiometer type i.e. linear or rotational. When voltage is supplied to fixed terminal, the
variable terminal gives voltage which is proportional to the knob setting. This voltage may
vary linearly or nonlinearly.
Rotary potentiometer is available in single revolution or multirevolution form, with
limited or unlimited rotational motion.
Potentiometers commonly are made with wire wound or conductive plastic resistance
material.
Conductive plastic has following advantages: Infinite revolution
Long rotational life
Good output smoothness
Low static noise
The voltage e(t) is proportional to shaft position c(t) in case of rotary motion, therefore
e(t)=Ks. c(t)
Where Ks is proportionality constant.
Now For Nturn potentiometer,
Ks=E/2N V/rad
Two remotely located shaft positions can be compared by using two potentiometers connected
in parallel. Output is taken across variable terminals of two
e(t)=Ks(1(t)2(t))
Procedure:
Fixed Terminals
Variable Terminals
(a)Equivalent Circuit
+
L

(f)
Observation Table:
Sr.No
Knob position ()
Output voltage(V)
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL:8
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
26
Figure:
Proportional Band P3
P1
set
value
_
Buffer Stage
K
Controlled
o/p
+
P2
Simulated process
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Connect the required supply and switch ON the unit. See that the supply LED glows.
Adjust the set value to say 2.0V with the help of the set value adjust potentiometer P1.
Let P2 & P3 be in their minimum position.
Let the process value input be the 0V.
Observe the error signal. As process value is zero, error signal will be same as set
value i.e.2.0V
6. Observe the controlled output . You will observe that the output is steady value
determined by the proportional potentiometer P3,Since the p3 is minimum position the
gain is 1 and hence the output will be same as the error signal.
7. Now slowly increase the process value and monitor Output and conclude yours result
Simulated
Process
Value (Volts) (S.P.V.)
Output Value
Vout(Volts)
1
2
3
4
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 9
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
28
N(t) = KP e(t) +
Kp t
e ( t ) dt
Ti 0
Figure:
Proportional Band P4
P1
Integral Time P3
Set
value
1/TIS
+
+
K
Controlled
o/p
+
P2
Simulated process
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Connect the required supply and switch ON the unit. See that the supply LED glows.
Adjust the set value to say 6.0V with the help of the set value adjust potentiometer P1.
Let P3 & P4 be in their minimum position.
Let the process value input be the 0V.
Observe the error signal. As process value is zero, error signal will be same as set
value i.e.6.0V
6. Observe the output of the integral derivative action, after momentarily discharging
capacitor with help of discharge switch.
Value
1
2
3
4
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 10
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
30
Figure:
Procedure:
1. Switch on the experiment kit.
2. Set about 1Hz frequency with help of function generator and set 1V peak to peak on
the CRO. Give this as a input signal to the lag compensator i.e. connect CH1 of CRO
to i/p of compensator N/W.
3. Connect o/p terminals of the circuit to the CH2 of CRO through probes.
4. You will see a lagging pattern on the CRO. Measure the Phase angle sin 1(v1/v2). Set
xy mode to see a lagging pattern.
Note down the phase angle for other different frequencies through the lagging pattern.
Observation Table:
I/P Amplitude=2V (peak to peak)
Passive Network:
Sr.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
i/p Frequency
o/p amplitude(PtoP)
Phase Difference
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 11
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
33
Figure:
Lead Network
Procedure:
i/p Frequency
o/p amplitude(PtoP)
Phase Difference
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 12
Aim: To study for phase leadlag compensation circuit (active/passive).
Apparatus: CRO, probes, compensation, kit, function generator.
Theory:
In general there are two situations in which compensation is required.
1. When system is absolutely unstable & compensation is used to stabilize it.
2. The system is stable, but compensation is used to obtain required performance.
The systems which are type2 or higher are usually absolute unstable. For these systems
compensation is required.
Figure:
Procedure:
i/p Frequency
o/p amplitude(PtoP)
Phase Difference
Conclusion:
Teachers Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PRACTICAL: 13
Aim:  Introduction to MATLAB.
Software:  MATLAB Software
Theory:
What is MATLAB?
MATLAB is a highperformance language for technical computing. It integrates
computation, visualization, and programming in an easytouse environment where
problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation.
MatLab is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not
require dimensioning.
The name MatLab stands for MATrix LABoratory.
Features of MATLAB:
MatLab features a family of addon applicationspecific solutions called toolboxes.
Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MatLab functions (Mfiles) that extend
the MatLab environment to solve particular classes of problems.
MATLAB containing some windows & pull down menus when you open you can see
1. Command Window: This is the main window for issuing commands and seeing results,
and is what has been used in this class up to now.
2. Command History: An ordered list of all commands issued in the Command Window.
3. Current Directory: The files in the user directory currently available for use in the
Command Window.
4. Workspace: a list of variables that have been used in the Command Window.
5. Launch Pad: a variety of packages that may be available with Matlab. We won't
consider this window further.
Programs :
Ex 1 Generate a sine wave
clc;
clear all;
x=[0:0.1:4*pi];
y=sin(x);
plot(x,y);
title('Graph of sin(x)vsx');
xlable('x');
ylable('y');
grid
num=[8 56 96];
den=[1 4 9 10];
sys4=tf(ntitle('first plot');
subplot(2,1,2);
pzmap(sys1);
title('second plot');
um,den);
subplot(2,1,1)
pzmap(sys4);
C(S)/R(S)=
Ex 4 Nyquist Criterion
10/ s3+7s2+10s+10
clear all;
close all;
clc;
num=10;
den=[1 7 10 10];
sys1 = tf(num,den);
subplot(3,1,1);
step(sys1);
title('step response');
subplot(3,1,2);
impulse(sys1);
title('impulse response');
grid
Ex 5 Root Locus
G(S)H(S) = K/s(s+6)(S^2+4s+13)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
pnum=1;
a=[1 6 0];
a=[1 4 13];
den=con(a,b);
rlocus(num,den);
Ex 6 Bode plot
G(S)H(S) = 2(s+0.25)/s^2(s+1)(s+0.5)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=[2 0.5];
d1=[1 1.5 0.5 0 0];
sys1= tf(n1,d1);
margin(sys1);
Ex 7 Bode plot
G(S)H(S) = (9s^2+1.8s+9)/(S^3+1.2s^2+9s)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=[0 9 1.8 9];
d1=[1 1.2 9 0];
w= logspace(2,2,100);
bode(n1,d1,w);
Ex 8 Nichols Chart
G(S) = 20/s(s+2)(s+0.5)
clear all;
close all;
clc;
n1=20;
d1 =[1 7 10 0];
sys =tf(n1,d1);
nichols(sys);
Conclusion:
Teacher Sign: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
BIRLA VISHVA KARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
42