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Introduction to

306860 Chemistry 061
Semester 2, 2012


Khor Ee Huey
 BSc in Chemistry and Biology (Campbell)
 MSc in Analytical Chemistry (Warwick)
 PhD in Chemical Engineering (Curtin)

Research Interest

Water and Wastewater Treatment
Analytical Sciences
Membrane Technology
CFD Simulation

Teaching Team
Jason Chia
 Angnes Tiong
 Evelyn Chiong
 Wong Wei Ning








How to


Apply discipline knowledge. Information skills. Cultural understanding 4 • Produce laboratory notebook on practical work using effective communication skills and critical thinking skills at a level appropriate for tertiary education. precision and safety. Communication skills . Learning how to learn 2 • Evaluate chemistry related problems and phenomena creatively and critically.Unit Learning Outcomes: 1 • Apply the concepts and principles of chemical foundations and states of matter to basic problem solving. Thinking skills 3 • Carry out laboratory practical using correct techniques with accuracy. Professional skills.

Equation & Stoichiometry Electronic configuration & Periodic Table • Chemical bonding • Shape and Polarity of Molecules • Intermolecular forces and states of matter.Unit Syllabus Chemistry Foundation Understanding on Matter • • • • Basic concepts Atoms. • Structure of solids . Molecules & Ions Mole.

Learning activities(per week) Face-to-face:  1 ½ hours lecture  1 ½ hours tutorial  2 hours laboratory (fortnightly) Group/Self-study (suggestion):  2 hours on lab preparation and LecQuiz  1 hour reading text book  2 hours attempt on tutorial questions .

Assessment Summary Assessment item Worth Due Laboratory Notebook 20% Two weeks after each lab session Tutorials 10% Each Week Quizzes 30% Refer to Unit Outline Final examination 40% Week 16 Total 100% .

Assessment item Laboratory Worth Due 20% Two weeks after each lab session Laboratory Notebook 15% • Marking scheme can be found from the Moodle Laboratory Worksheet 5% • Preparation done before the every lab sessions Submission system: • Laboratory notebook should be ring-bound and submit to Administrative Assistant (Lydia) for endorsement before the submission deadline. . • Laboratory worksheet/ workplan should be submitted to respective tutor during laboratory session before the experiment starts.


Calculation is mostly correct. Experimental procedure is difficult to follow. Inferences are documented but not all supported by experimental data.  All inferences are supported by appropriate experimental results. Observations are completely missing or inaccurate. Recommendation and suggestions may not be viable. Safety precautions are given but too generic. note is made to explain mistake. Safety precautions are not always stated. Pen is not used consistently. Fail to include background information from literature review. Inferences are not supported by experimental data.Experiment Title: Name of Instructor: Student’s Name and ID: Excellent (6) Presentation & Appearance   Notebook is well organised or bound neatly with all pages numbered and follows the format given.   . Proficient (4)   6 points Introduction   Methodology & Safety   Results & Calculation    Clear statements of objective and valid hypotheses are provided based on literature review. Writing is difficult to read. Conclusions is not clear and not compared with hypothesis being tested Sources of errors are identified but too generic. Introduction is well written with significant and relevant information like definition of keywords. Pen is used exclusively. Lack of attention in providing critical safety information from MSDS. Data recorded is incomplete. Most writing is neat and legible. Calculation is correct with step-by-step working shown clearly.  6 points Beginning (2) Notebook is bound or fairly organised but with some headings missing and most pages numbered with minor mistakes in formatting. excessive crossing out of mistakes showing careless work. logic and viable. Writing is neat and legible. Observations are recorded correctly if there is any. Recommendation for improvement included are relevant.  Little attention is given to observation. Conclusion is clear and compared with hypothesis being tested. There is no conclusion included. Equipment set up sketch on procedures is properly labelled.  Moderately appropriate objectives and hypotheses are provided with little evidence from literature research. MSDS data was used to suggest relevant safety  precautions. 4 points Clear diagram and flow chart is included to describe  procedure.  Findings are not summarised. reaction equations. Calculation and working are incomplete and with major mistakes. Unclear objectives and off-the-mark or irrelevant hypothesis. Modification in procedure is not recorded. Data are mostly complete. Some introductory and background information provided is provided with errors  Flow chart is provided but with minor errors. Discussion & Conclusion      Accurate and complete and measurement data are recorded in appropriate table with correct significant figures and units. Possible source of errors identified. Data tables  are presented with minor errors spotted such as incorrect significant figures and missing units. 6 points Mark:      4 points Diagrams and flow chart not included at all. mistakes crossed out with single line. Data tables are messy and spotted with major mistakes (significant figures and units). Little or no attempt to identify sources of errors. but workings  steps are not clear and method used may not be fully described. Modification in procedure is not included. Safety precautions are rational and well thought. Recommendations and suggestions are completely missing. The work is poorly organised with major format error and no pages number is included. physical data included. Information from MSDS data was not used to suggest relevant safety precautions    Notebook is unbound and messy. Pen is often used. no notes are made to explain mistake.

26 points Comments: Points Collected 30 Mark Mark 20 Points Collected 23-22 Mark 15 Points Collected 15 Mark 10 Points Collected 8-7 29-28 19 21 14 14-13 9 6 4 27 18 20-19 13 12 8 5-4 3 26-25 17 18 12 11-10 7 3 2 24 16 17-16 11 9 6 2-1 1 17 marks 5 .

the team manager will also play the role of the researcher .Cooperative Team Learning 4-5 students in one team  5 team roles for laboratory work  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Team manager Researcher Technician Data analyst Safety officer If only 4 members in the team.

and 11 Time Tutorial sessions Venue Tutorial venues Scope TBA Format Description Worth MCQ + Subjective 4-5 Questions 5 .Review Quizzes (20%) Date Week 5.9. 7.

reflection Questions Total Worth 1 .Lecture Quiz (10%) Date Dateline Starting in Week 1 for 10 consecutive lectures Before Friday of the following week Venue Moodle access Scope Lecture for that week Criteria Format Have to attend lectures Description Part A Short Answer Question Part B Self.

Final Examination (40%) Week Duration Scope Format 16 2 hour 10 mins (10 mins reading time) All topics Description Worth Part A 15 Multiple Choices Questions 30 Part B 5 Short Answer Questions 35 Part C 3 Long Answer Question 35 Total Scoring Mark 100 .

(2010) Chemistry: The molecular science. S & Zumdahl. S.Essential Texts Zumdahl. S. Thomson/Brooks Cole . Stanitski & Jurs. 4th Ed.A (2010) Chemistry. 8th Ed. Thomson/Brooks Cole Moore.    Announcement Lecturer’s timetable (consultation hours) Lab schedule    Lecture slides Tutorial Lab Manual   Mark Sheet Useful links .

Important note: Attendance & Punctuality  Switch off or silent mode mobile phone  Late submission of assignment (-10% per day)  Deferral  F-IN. F  Plagiarism  No Spoon Feeding  No free rider  .

What to Expect??  Independent learning  Critical thinking  Analytical thinking  Problem solving skills  Team work  Communication .

Ground Rules: Laboratory Session:  Students must read and prepare before each experiment.  It is student’s own effort and responsibility to complete the lab 10-min before time.  Be punctual for every class.  Students must follow the rules and regulation in the laboratory strictly. Tutorial:  Students must attempt all the tutorial questions before class. .  Do not wait for solutions from lecturers before even trying the questions.

 Do not interrupt when someone is speaking.  Do not make noise during lecture except for discussion.  Other: Respect lecturers’ personal teaching timetable.  . values and languages. beliefs.  Make appointment before consultation via formal written email (student account only!)  Students are responsible for their own behaviour.Ground Rules: Lecture: Respect other's cultural and religious traditions.

2012 .Topic 1: Chemistry Foundation Semester 2.

Learning Objectives: Describe common steps in scientific methods Use significant figures and rounding to reflect the certainty of quantitative data Use percent of error and relative precision to compare accuracy and precision of experimental data .

What is scientific method? A systematic approach to research and experiment .

Scientific Method SCIENTIFIC LAW Summary of accepted relationship which supported by many experiments. . EXPERIMENT Controlled observations that test hypothesis HYPOTHESIS Tentative explanation. Prediction THEORY/MODEL Tested hypothesis/ explanation supported by many experiments.

Theory   an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. Examples: • Atomic theory/model • Theory of evolution • Theory of relativity • The quantum theory Law  A statement of fact to describe an observation or relationship that is always true when tested.  Example: • law of gravity • Newton's laws of motion • The laws of thermodynamics • Boyle's law of gases • the law of conservation of mass and energy • Hook’s law of elasticity .


amount of substance (mol) • volume (dm3).392 x 106 km • density of the Sun = 2. density (gcm-3) Number: Scientific notation • diameter of the Sun = 1.8 x 10-8 gcm-3 . length (m). temperature (K). time (s).Quantitative Observation Measurement: number Unit + unit of measurement: SI Unit • mass (kg).

Reporting values from measurements  All measurements should be reported in correct significant figures: all of the certain digits and one estimated digits.  Estimated digit indicates the uncertainty of a measurement which depends on tolerance of measuring instruments .

53 Balance B give reading 3.52 g • Three SF.01 g • The actual value should be in the range of 3. . • The uncertainty of balance is  0.Compare measurements: Balance A gives reading 3.5245 g Balance B is more accurate than balance A. last digit “2” is estimated digit.51 to 3.

• 0.3 g (three significant figures) U Significant Figures L E S Zeros between non-zero numbers are always significant. (6 molecules. • 72. 60 s min-1) .R Non-zero numbers are always significant. • 6.0253 g (3 significant figures) Counting numbers and defined constants have infinite number of significant figures. • 60.5 g (three significant figures) All final zeros to the right of decimal place are significant.20 g (three significant figures) Zeros that act as placeholders are not significant.

475 m + 3.7219 x 10-4 g • Answer should round up to 4.5 m + 4.36 x 10-4 g – 6.Significant figures in arithmetic Addition and subtraction • Answer should have same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the measurement with the least number of decimal digits. Example 1 • 2.625 m • Answer should round up to 10.6 m Example 2 • 5.65 m = 10.381 x 10-5 g = 4.72 x 10-4 g .

46 x 10-4 g) ÷ (3.2 x 10-16 g/cm3 Example 2 • (4.607785714 x 1012 • Answer should round up to 3.0 x 1012 cm3) = 2.6 x 1012 .Significant figures in arithmetic Multiplication and Division • Answer should contain same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures in the calculation Example 1 • (6.3 x 10-4) ÷ (7.765 x 1011)x(5.153333 x 10-16 g/cm3 • Answer should round up to 2.0 x 10-5) = 3.

4315 g Uncertainty : 0.0001 g .Example 1: Digital Balance Report Value: 100.

Example 2: Bulb Pipette Report Value: 25.03 mL .00 mL Uncertainty : 0.

75 mL Uncertainty : 0.05 mL .Example 4: Graduated Cylinder Report Value: 8.

Example 5: Burette Initial Reading: 21.30 mL Uncertainty : 0.05 mL .05 mL Final Reading: 49.75 mL Uncertainty : 0.

10mL Burette Reading: 49.45 mL .30 mL = 28.05mL Burette reading/ mL 28.45 0.75 0.05mL Initial Burette Reading/ mL 21.30 0.Value Uncertainty Final Burette Reading/ mL 49.75 mL  21.

accepted valuex100 accepted value .Accuracy of Measurement  Accuracy: how close a measured value is to an “accepted value”.  Percent of error = experimental value.

Precision of Measurement  Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another. • average deviation/ relative precision • standard deviation .

Accuracy & Precision .

Systematic vs Random error  Low accuracy : large systematic error  Low precision : large random error .

Systematic error happen in one direction (always higher or lower than actual value) • Procedural: do not follow procedure correctly. . flaw in procedure. • Instrumental error: balance used is not calibrated properly. (do not show “zero”) etc. • Parallax error.

Example of Systematic Error: .

Example of Systematic Error: Parallax Error .

humidity of environment .02 mL. External conditions: . Instrument: pipette has a random delivery error of  0. second trial lower…) Do not follow procedure consistently.temperature and . Different experimenter. Record data wrongly.Random error  Happen in all direction (first trial higher than actual value.

 Percent of error to reflect accuracy. .Summary:  Typical steps of scientific method include observation.  A law summarizes observations and describes relationships in nature.  Report data in correct significant figures.  A theory is a hypothesis that has been supported by many experiments to explain an observation.  Relative deviation to reflect precision. hypothesis and experiments.  In quantitative measurement.