You are on page 1of 21

Drug Name

Type

Azidothymidine (AZT)

thymidine analog

gets phoshorylated to
nucleoside; lacks 3' OH

Didanosine

adenosine analog

gets phoshorylated to
nucleoside; lacks 3' OH
open chain struc instead of
pentose ring, causing

Acyclovir

guanine analog

termination of DNA
rpln; converted to acyclovir
triphosphate by thymidine
kinase

Tenofovir

AMP analog

lacks pentose ring

cytosine arabinoside "Cytarabine"

deoxycytidine analog

unusual planar struc
induces DNA damage

adenosine arabinoside "Vidarabine"

deoxyadenosine analog

unusual planar struc
induces DNA damage

5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine "Decitabine"

cytidine analog

disrupts epigenetic process
of methylation; has N atom
at 5' position of cytidine

5-azacytidine

cytidine analog

disrupts epigenetic process
of methylation; has N atom
at 5' position of cytidine

5-fluorouracil - THYMINE

uracil analog

converted to FdUMP;
inhibits syn of thymine
nucleotides

azathioprine - ORGAN

purine analog

metabolized into 6mercaptopurine (a purine syn
inhibitor)

allopurinol - GOUT

purine analog

lowers conversion of purines
to uric acid end products
(xanthine, hypoxanthine)

adenosine 4 - SLOW HEART

purine (nucleoside)

slows heart rate

ciprofloxacin

quinolone

inhibits gyrase activity

nalidixic acid

quinolone

novobiocin

coumarin

camptothecin

n/a

etoposide

n/a

prevents topoisomerase II
from re-ligating DNA;
apoptosis

actinomycin D

Streptomyces strain, fungus

binds tightly to dsDNA

build-up of positive supercoils
around rpln fork
n/a
prevents topoisomerase I
from re-ligating DNA; DNA
breakage

rifampin

Streptomyces strain, fungus

blocks formation of 1st
phosphodiester bond in txn
initiation

alpha-amanitin MUSHROOM

toxin

blocks mRNA production

diptheria toxin

bacterial exotoxin

inactivates EF-2;
disrupts translocation of
mRNA

streptomycin - 30

Streptomyces strain;
aminoglycoside

prevents ribosome assembly
by binding to 30S

tetracycline - ELONGATION
70

4-ring struc; Streptomyces
strain

binds 70S ribosome to
prevent access to aminoacyltRNA

erythromycin TRANSLOCATION - 70
chloramphenicol - PEPTIDYL
TRANSFERASE
cycloheximide - PEPTIDYL
TRANSFERASE

macrolide struc.

binds to 70S ribosome

n/a

n/a

n/a

blocks peptidyl transferase

puromycin

aminoacyl-tRNA structural
analog

causes peptide to fall out of
ribosomal P site

Rotenone

Complex I of ETC

Piericidin A

Complex I of ETC

Amytal

Complex I of ETC

Antimycin A

Complex III of ETC

CO

Complex IV of ETC

Inhibit Cytochrome Oxidase

Azide

Complex IV of ETC

Inhibit Cytochrome Oxidase

Hydrogen Sulphide

Complex IV of ETC

Inhibit Cytochrome Oxidase

Cyanide

Complex IV of ETC

Inhibit Cytochrome Oxidase

Oligomycin

Complex V of ETC

Inhibits ATP Synthase

Atractyloside

Binds outer portion
(innermembrane space) of
Adenine Nucleotide
Transporter

Inhibits ADP/ATP transport

Bongkrekic Acid

Binds inner portion (matrix) of
Adenine Nucleotide
Transporter

Inhibits ADP/ATP transport

Inhibitit NADH
Dehydrogenase
Inhibitit NADH
Dehydrogenase
Inhibitit NADH
Dehydrogenase
Inhibits cytochrome B of
Cytochrome Reductase

nonpolar outside) Destroys Proton Gradient Gramicidin (ionophore) forms channel within membrane Destroys Proton Gradient .DNP Uncoupler of ox phos Destroys Proton Gradient Aspirin Uncoupler of ox phos Destroys Proton Gradient Thermogenin (UCP) Uncoupler of ox phos Destroys Proton Gradient Valinomycin (ionophore) Mobile Carrier of K+ (polar inside.

rpln euk topoisomerase II DNA rpln prok + euk RNApol DNA txn. viral DNA rpln prok reverse transcriptase. bac DNA txn. bac DNA txn. viral DNA rpln prok reverse transcriptase. rpln euk topoisomerase I DNA txn. RNAdependent DNApol. bac DNA rpln prok DNA gyrase.Targets prok/euk? Inhibited Enzyme Inhibited Cell process prok reverse transcriptase. gene expression euk thymidylate kinase DNA rpln euk purine syn enzymes DNA rpln euk xanthine oxidase purine synthesis euk n/a n/a prok DNA gyrase. rpln prok DNA gyrase. viral DNA rpln euk DNApol DNA rpln euk DNApol DNA rpln euk DNA methyltransferase DNA methylation. RNAdependent DNApol. rpln . gene expression euk DNA methyltransferase DNA methylation. RNAdependent DNApol. viral DNA rpln prok DNApol.

translocation prok peptidyl transferase RNA tln. mRNA translocation prok n/a RNA tln. initiation prok 70S ribosome RNA tln. elongation euk peptidyl transferase RNA tln.produced in coconuts . elongation prok + euk aminoacyl-tRNA RNA tln.prok RNApol DNA txn euk RNApol II DNA txn euk GTPase RNA tln. elongation prok 70S ribosome RNA tln. elongation insecticide bacterial antibiotic antibiotic is a streptomyces antibiotic toxic glycoside from a plant has sugar and noncarb element respiratory toxin .

protein in the mito of brown adipose tissue in kids. generates heat activation of thermogenin due to hormone induced release of fatty acids from triglycerides in the brown tissue make inner membrane permeable to compounds that cant usually cross . dissipation of H+ gradient that doesn't go through ATP synthase.increases proton permeability .increases proton permeability is a streptomyces antibiotic make inner membrane permeable to compounds that cant usually cross .

e. HIV) 100-300x affinity for reverse transcriptase over DNApol. sleep regulation (high: awake.e. anthrax anti-cancer anti-cancer anti-cancer not used as an antibiotic .Applications Notes targets retrovirus replication (i. minimal effect on DNApol targets retrovirus replication (i. minimal effect on DNApol herpes (HSV) treatment treat HIV infection anti-cancer. anti-cancer tumor suppressor genes expressed tumor suppressor genes expressed anti-cancer suppresses organ transplantation rejection gout treatment treat supraventricular tachycardia. UTI. HIV) 100-300x affinity for reverse transcriptase over DNApol. low: asleep) used for respiratory.

Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. also contains phalloidin binds actin and inhibits MT depolymerization in liver cells from Death Cap mushroom mRNA translocation by GTPase blocked antibiotic antibiotic antibiotic meningitis treatment lab tool no clinical use not used broadly. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption . prok and mitochondria not effected TOXIC to euk & prok. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. CTerminal puromycin causes peptide to fall out of P-site Decrease ATP Syn.tuberculosis treatment rifamycin family causing intestinal problems initially and later kidney and liver failture. may inhibit mito ribosomes toxic to euk. Decrease ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn.

Increase ETC & O2 consumption . Increase ETC & O2 consumption dissipates proton gradient Decrease ATP Syn.Decrease ATP Syn. Increase ETC & O2 consumption dissipates proton gradient Decrease ATP Syn. Increase ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn. Increase ETC & O2 consumption Decrease ATP Syn.

Van Gierkes's G6Phosphatase deficiency Liver Type 2 .Type/Name Glycogen Storage Diseases Enzyme Affected Primary Organ Type 0 Glycogen Synthase Liver Type 1 .4 & α-1.McArdle's Absence of muscle Syndrome phosphorylase skeletal muscle Type 6 . muscle . muscle Type 5 .Cori's or Forbe's (Limit Dextrinosis) α-1.6 glucosidase (acid matlase) deficiency skeletal & cardiac muscle Type 3 . skeletal & cardiac muscle Type 4 Andersen's Disease Absence of branching enzyme glucosyl 4:6 transferase liver.Pompe's Disease Lysosomal α-1.Her's Disease liver Type 8 deficiency of liver phosphorylase deficiency of liver phophorylase kinase liver.6 glucosidase debranching enzyme deficiency liver.

Infant hepatomegaly. Hypoglycemia. early death. pain. Hepatomegaly. little or no lactate in blood after exercise. Kidney failure & thrombocyte dysfunction Accumulation of glycogen in lysosomes. myoglobinuria High glycogen in liver. Infantile form = death by 2. mild hypooglycemia. Cramps. Adult form = muscular dystrophyesque Accumulation of a characteristic branched polysaccharide. hyperketonia liver cells & renal tubule cells loaded w/glycogen. Improves w/age like 6 ↓ . hyperlipidemia. Death due to cardiac or liver failure in 1st year of life Diminshed exercise tolerance. myopathy Accumulation of a polysaccharide having few branch points. ketosis.s ↑ Manifestations hypoglycemia. Muscles have high glycogen content. cirrhosis. ketosis. Hepatomegaly. Juvenile form = myopathy. hyperlipidemia.

Disease Chagas Leishmaniasis Editing Glutamate Receptor in Brain RNA Editing in Mammals B-Thalasemmia Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Systemic Lupus Erythematosis Alzheimers Mad Cow Creutzfeld-Jacob Scrapie Cholera & E.Coli Pertussis Leigh Disease Lactic Acidosis Hypoglycemia Essential Fructosuria Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Diabetes Mellitus Classical Galactosemia Non-Classical Galactosemia Korsakoff/Wetberi berri hereditary mitochondrial diseases Lebers Kearns-Sayre MELAS MERRF ETC disorders Prion disease Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) .

asymptomatic and abnormal dipstick Deficiency in Aldolase B…stuck w/increased F-1-P…trapping pi. can cause cataracts. Thiamine deficiency -> decreased PDH. Cytidine Deaminase enters a stop codon (B-100-liver. stroke-like Myoclonic epiplepsy. deficiency in G deficiency in galactokinase thiamine deficiencys-->ataxia. ragged red fibers encepthalopathy due to abnormal change from alpha-helix to beta-sheet. cerebral hemorrhage iseases defect in NADH Dehydrogenase (COMPLEX I OF ETC)-->blindness Mitochondrial myopathy. defect in gluconeo. d due to UNRIPE ACKEE FRUIT-->inhibits beta-oxidation which doesn't produce acetylDeficiency in Fructokinase-->fructose excreted in urine. inhibiting gluconeogenesi & g high blood glucose-->sorbitol via aldosase reductase.MO RNA Editing via Guide RNA/Complex RNA Editing via Guide RNA/Complex Glutamine to Arginine in mRNA altering Ca2+ permeability via Adenosine Deaminase Apo-B Gene. memory loss. accumulate. can cause cataracts high blood galactose-->galactitol via aldosase reductase. also from collagen synth . alter PrPc-->PrPsc via beta sh ADP-ribosylate Galpha causing the inactivation of GTPase in Adynylate Cyclase same as above just for Gi Pyruvate DH deficiency-->Lactic Acidosis Occurs…increased NADH/NAD+. encephalopathy. alter PrPc-->PrPsc via beta sh Brain develops holes from Prions which contain no nucleic acid. damage brain Brain develops holes from Prions which contain no nucleic acid. B-48-Intestine) Mutations in Globin gene causing additional splice sites w/in mRNA Mutation in Calpain 3 gene generating new splice site at 16 = defective protein Produce antibodies that react with U1 RNA component of splicosome Diseased proteins stable. lactic acidosis. alter PrPc-->PrPsc via beta sh Brain develops holes from Prions which contain no nucleic acid. secondary structure mutation of the pro--chain gene (affects mainly type III collagen).

Organism Trypanosome Leishmania TSE. stuck w/increased G-1-P…trapping pi. Transmissible Spongiform Enephalopathy TSE. inhibiting gluconeogenesis & glycogen is enzyme deficiency . Transmissible Spongiform Enephalopathy massive liquid secretion-->life threatening diarrhea creased blood supply-->anaerobic in peripheral tissues oa needed for pyruvate carboxylase needed for GLUCONEOGENESIS cogenolysis-->hypoglycemia & jaundice 1-P URIDYL TRANSFERASE. Transmissible Spongiform Enephalopathy TSE.

ogenesis & glycogenolysis-->hypoglycemia & jaundice .

Diseases Guillain Barre Multiple Sclerosis Parkinson's Myasthenia Gravis Hirschsprung Barret's Esophagus Pernicious Anemia Peptic Ulcer Celiac Disease Acute Apendicitis Tay-Sachs Zellweger Syndrome Rickets/Osteomalacia Vitamin A Osteoarthritis Osteopetrosis OI Osteoporosis Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Chromatolysis wallerian degeneration .

deficiency.anchors fiber to lamina-->fragility and distruction…replaced by fibrous tissue loss of Nissl from cell body . small stature .MO Schwann's destroyed via large accumulation of lymphocytes. malabsorption Early .some retro but only few internodal segments. Presence of Lewy B Autoimmune attack on acetylcholine receptors. macrophages & plasma cells in Axon nerve fibers Myelin detached from axon and destroyed. Pus within lumen.Ulceration of Mucosa.excess joints wear out-->fluid build up increased osteoblasts type I collagen critical loss of bone mass due to GH or Estrogen deficiency Dystrophin . cns/weeks . extra occular muscles usually first to go Congenital MEGA COLON at RECTOSIGMOIDAL JNX.Necrosis of muscularis.1/2 days anterograde on neuron…. perforation-->Peritonitis. death lysosomal storage deficiencies-->accumulation of undigested substrate in lysosomes deficiencies in peroxisomes that cause abnormalities in myelination of nerve cells Vitamin D deficiency which is needed for ossification-->causes resorption bone formation . mutations in 1-4 genes Metaplasia in cells of lower via acidic damage from stomach. Increase in Glial cells. Stratified Squamous--> Simple Columnar Loss of Parietal Cells --> inadequate Intrinsic Factor --> Vitamin B12 not absorbed in Ileum Destruction of mucosa. shock. pus in peritoneal cavity-->septicemia. submucosa. muscularis via helicobacterium pylori --> scar tissue Loss of Villus in small intestine.pns/days.. vague abdominal pain Late . destruction of Oligodendrocytes Loss of Dopamine secreting cells in Substantia Nigra & Basal Ganglia.

3. Reduced cellularity Treat w/ L-Dopa Arrest of neural crest cell migration to 1 segment of distal colon.Other Demyelinating. Myeling breakdown. Proliferation of Astrocytes. 2. loss of muscle function .ascending motor paralysis 1. ENS absent Metaplastic cells are more prone to malignancy can erode into peritoneal cavity --> peritonitis & if any blood vessels near erosion site. they'll become e .

C8/T1 Acromioclavicular Separati Nursemaid's Elbow Pott's Disease Ankylosing Spondylitis .C5/C6 Klumpke's Palsy .Disease Patent Ductus Arteriosus Coarctation of Aorta Annular Pancreas Omphacele Umbilical Hernia Gastroschisis Meckel's Diverticulum Erb's Palsy .

MO Failure of TGF-B induction after birth-->doesn't close--->Down Syndrome. Coarctation of Aorta Extenions of Ductus Arteriosus muscles into Aorta causing pinching-->Turner Syndrome. Forearm:p Damage to Lower Brachial Plexus-->Claw/Ape Hand .pneumonia spread to spine…inflammation squaring of vertebra .bamboo spineo . Uppe Bifid ventral pancreatic duct encircling duodenum causing obstruction Damage to Upper Brachial Plexus-->Waiter's Tip .Arm:adducted/internally rotated.Loss of intrinsic hand muscles (ulnar & m Shoulder Elevates once corococlavicular ligaments tear as well Subluxation of Radial head from ANNULAR ligament "Tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis" .

Side Notes Obstetrician/Motorcycle Obstetrician/Cervical Rib fall on tip of shoulder .