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ASSIGNMENT

:
“BIOTECHNOLOGY OF MICROBES.”

DEFINITION:
Biotechnology is the use and genetic manipulation of living things
including microorganisms, their products and cells in industrial processes to
make commercial products and provide services.

GENETIC MANIPULATION OF MICROBES OR STRAIN IMPROVEMENT:

REASON FOR USE OF MICROBES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: The main reason for the use of microorganisms to produce compounds that can otherwise be isolated from plants and animals is the ease of increasing production by genetic manipulation. After a desired strain has been isolated.The science and technology of manipulating and improving microbial strains in order to enhance their metabolic capacities in biotechnological applications are referred to as strain improvement. water. They also serve as platforms for better technology. They are found in soil. developmental program is initiated to improve titers by modification of culture conditions using mutations and recombinant DNA techniques. Microbes do produce array of valuable products but in small amounts. Thus it is for medical applications. yogurt and cheese. Some of these drugs are proteins that are produced by bacteria. The wide variety of microbial habitats reflects an enormous diversity of biochemical and metabolic traits that have arisen by genetic variation and natural selection in microbial populations. RED BIOTECHNOLOGY: The field of red biotechnology seeks to develop new drugs to treat diseases. 1. BIOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES OF MICROBES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY: Obtaining the complete genome (totality of the genetic material in the DNA) sequence of a microbe provides information about its biological capabilities and modifying them for agricultural purposes and better disease diagnostic tools. Humans exploit this microbial diversity in production of fermented foods such as bread. POTENTIALS OF MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: Microbes are more than just handy tools for biotech industry. . glaciers and hot springs. Regulatory mechanisms have evolved that enable a strain to avoid excessive production of its metabolites so that it can compete efficiently with other forms of life and survive in nature. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY: Microorganisms are too small to be seen by unaided eye. animal intestines as well as in more extreme settings such as rocks.

which are useful in a variety of molecular biology techniques. GREEN BIOTECHNOLOGY: The field of green biotechnology works to improve crops. for example. adenoviruses which cause respiratory tract infections but may also be useful as gene therapy vectors and phages (viruses that infect bacteria). 2) COMMON VIRUSES USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: Popular viruses in biotechnology include retroviruses like HIV. E. Thus it is for agriculture applications using genetically modified crops. Specially designed bacteria or genetically altered algae. most strains do not. Although certain strains of E.a bacterium that in nature causes a disease called crown gall. make it useful to biotechnology researches. the strains generally used in laboratories have already been altered or selected for desirable characteristics. MICROORGANSMS USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: 1) COMMON BACTERIA USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: Escherichia coli are the best known and most useful microbe in the field of biotechnology.coli is normal inhabitant of the intestine. The same attribute that makes this bacterium a disease of plants. WHITE BIOTECHNOLOGY: The field of white biotechnology seeks new sources for industrial materials e. specially tailored microbes are used to help produce valuable chemicals. its ability to insert its genetic material into the cell of its host plant.coli are pathogenic and cause illness. BLACK BIOTECHNOLOGY: It works to invent new sources of fuel many of which involve microbes. 4.2. It is simple to culture and is therefore useful in wide variety of experiments. Thus it is related to industrial applications. (using microbes instead of chemicals) 3. 3) COMMON ALGAE USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is most popular algae in biology labs. which incorporates their genetic material into their host cell genomes. APPLICATIONS OF MICROBES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: . Moreover.g. Another famous bacterium that is used in biotechnology is Argobacterium Tumefaciens. are possible sources of fuel that could help to replace oil in the future. sometimes by inserting genes taken from microbes.

Then vector is added to growing cell (tissue culture) in vitro lab. Normal cell reproduces passing on desired gene. humans) into bacteria. 1. Biofungicides utilize microbes that kill fungi.g. Some microbes have appetite for gas. 5. BIOREMEDIATION: Biotechnology is coming to the aid of environment through the development of bioremediation and biosorption. To create a viral vector some genes are removed from a virus and replaced with a desired gene. 2. 6. E. 4. Without it biotechnology would not be as advanced as it is. Fermentation results in foods such as bread. PRODUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS: Recombinant DNA technology is used to modify bacteria to produce human growth hormone. MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL: Bioinsecticides and bioherbicides use fungi. human blood clotting factors and insulin. Bacteria multiply exponentially to make millions of copies and thus become factories for the desired product. nor would it include such a broad range of applications. 7. a bacterium bacillus thuringiensis is used to create environment friendly insecticides. PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED FOOD: Fermentation is a microbial process in which enzymatically controlled transformations of organic compounds occur. outside body. GENE THERAPY: Viral vectors are created and used to carry altered DNA into cells. Restriction enzymes cut this piece of DNA at . wine and beer. Microbes are also important in production of food additives and thickening agents. healthy and pancreatic cell. Vector enters cells and deposit new genes into cells. the use of living organisms to return environment to its natural state. INSULIN PRODUCTION: Human gene for making insulin is extracted from a normal. This method may be used to correct certain genetic disorders. oil or other toxic chemicals thus cleaning up environmental pollutants. RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY: In recombinant DNA technology DNA is inserted from other organisms (e.g. bacteria and viruses to control insects and weeds. 3.Microbes are a fundamental element of biotechnology.

. correct conditions. Then human insulin gene is added to the plasmid between cut ends and sealed. The plasmid now contains the human insulin gene. Insulin is removed from bacterial factory and purified. The great advantage of MFC is the direct conversion of organic waste into electricity. A suitable bacterium has its plasmid cut also using restriction enzymes. Anode respiratory bacteria have the ability to convert bio-waste to electrons.specific locations. Microbial fuel cell is bio-electrochemical fuel cell where the anode reaction is controlled by microorganisms. 8. Bacteria are grown in sterile. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL: Microbial fuel cell can help convert biowaste into electricity.