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POWER ELECTRONICS

ELECTRONICS

DC-DC CONVERTERS

Dr. Adel Gastli

Email: adel@gastli.net

http://adel.gastli.net

Learning Objectives

¾To learn the switching technique for

dc-dc conversion and types of dc-dc

converters

¾To study the operation of dc-dc

converters

¾To understand the performance

parameters of dc-dc converters.

¾To learn the techniques of analysis

and design of dc-dc converters

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-DC Converters

2

CONTENTS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Introduction

Buck Converter

Boost Converter

Buck-Boost Converter

Čuk Converter

Two Quadrant Converters

Full Bridge Converter

Summary

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-DC Converters

3

INTRODUCTION

¾Step-down (Buck) converter: where the

output voltage of the converter is lower

than the input voltage.

¾Step-up (Boost) converter: where the

output voltage is higher than the input

voltage.

¾Step-down/step-up (Buck-Boost)

converter.

Dr. Adel Gastli

DC-DC Converters

4

Continuous conduction mode (CCM) Is Vs S Vs + - + D Io Vo - Vo ON Io OFF ON ton T ton T Is Mode 1 Mode 2 Typical converter topology and waveforms Dr. f ) Dr.BUCK CONVERTER • Voltage step-down and current step-up converter. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 5 Vs Vo ON Io OFF ON ton T ton T Is Vs T Va = F (ton . Adel Gastli Va ton = = ton f k= Vs T Duty ratio (0-1) or turn ratio of equivalent transformer Va ton ton Va = Vs = kVs T DC-DC Converters Constant frequency operation Variable frequency operation 6 . 1.

Adel Gastli V0 rms DC-DC Converters 1 = T 1 Pi = T ∫ kT 0 ∫ kT 0 v02dt = kVs 1 v0 idt = T ∫ kT 0 Vs Vs R = Ri = = I a kVs / R k V kV Ia = a = s R R Dr. PWM control is more popular Dr. f s ) ton Is a linear function is the on pulse width. Controlling ton is known as PWM control fs is the switching frequency.Va = F (ton . Adel Gastli 7 DC-DC Converters Rms value of output voltage v02 Vs2 dt = k R R Input power Effective input resistance seen from the source Vs + - Ri 8 .

Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 10 . ton = ? Solution T = 1 1 = = 0.• Neglecting power losses in the circuit elements: Vs I s = Va I a I a Vs 1 = = I s Va k Dr. Va = 5 V .417 × 0.2 ms f 5 ton 5 Va = Vs = k Vs = 12k = 5 ⇒ k = = 0.417 T 12 ton = 0.1) Dr.0834 ms (Study also example 5. Adel Gastli Ia ≥ Is Step-up action in current DC-DC Converters 9 Example f = 5 kHz ( switching frequency ) Vs = 12 V .2 = 0.

Adel Gastli OFF ton Va +_ D ON DC-DC Converters 11 Io Iomax ΔI Iomin ton ΔI = T Va V T (1 − k ) = s Tk (1 − k ) L L Independent of the magnitude of load current It’s a function of ton and T.Low Current Ripple Is Vs Io L V1 V1 S Vs + - Mode 1 di L 0 = Vs − Va dt Mode 2 L I0max I0min ON T ΔI Continuous conduction Is di0 = −Va dt Va (T − ton ) L Peak-to-peak ripple current ΔI = T 1 ⎡ ton ⎤ + Ia = i dt i dt L L ∫ton ⎥⎦ T ⎢⎣ ∫0 Dr. and L Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 12 .

Dr. Adel Gastli ON OFF ON ΔI charge ΔI discharge io Vo ΔV0 kT T DC-DC Converters 13 The average capacitor charge current.(Page 187) Low Voltage Ripple Is V1 L Vs Io V1 S Vs + - D C R Vo iL ic Assumptions: • voltage ripple ΔVo is a small percentage of dc voltage Vo • ripple current through inductor flows into filter capacitor and not R. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 14 . which flows into for ton/2 + toff/2=T/2 is ΔI 4 IC = The capacitor charge ΔQc is ΔQc = I C T ΔIT = 2 8 The capacitor voltage variation is ΔV0 ΔQc ΔIT ΔV0 = ΔVc = = C 8C Dr.

Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters Critical inductance 16 .Remember ΔQc ΔIT = ΔV0 = C 8C f = 1 T fC = ΔI = V0T (1 − k ) L 2 T2 π 2 ⎡ fC ⎤ ΔV0 (1 − k ) = (1 − k ) = ⎢ ⎥ V0 8LC 2 ⎣ f ⎦ 1 2π LC Independent of load resistance R and load current Io Low value of fC/f will provide low voltage ripple. Adel Gastli Vs (1 − k )k 8 LCf 2 DC-DC Converters 15 The condition for critical continuous inductor current and capacitor voltage is satisfied when: ΔI IL = 2 Vs V1 ON ON ΔI IL v0 OFF Δ V0 kT T V0T 2kVs (1 − k ) = 2 I L = 2 I a = ΔI = LC R (1 − k ) R LC = 2f Dr. ΔV0 = ΔVc = Dr.

the ripple voltage ΔI IL ΔVC =2Va: Va (1 − k ) = 2Va 2 8 LCC f (1 − k ) CC = 16 Lf 2 Dr. Adel Gastli Duty cycle. If the peak-to-peak ripple current of inductor is limited to 0. k Filter inductance. The switching frequency is 25kHz. C Critical values of L and C. The required average output voltage is Va=5V at R=500Ω and the peak-to-peak output ripple voltage is 20mV. determine: a) b) c) d) Dr.Vs If VC is the average capacitor V1 ON OFF voltage. L Filter capacitor. DC-DC Converters 18 . Adel Gastli Va ON Δ V0 kT T Critical capacitor DC-DC Converters 17 Example: Finding the values of LC filter for the Buck Converter ¾ Vs=12V.8A.

4μF 2 2 −3 16 Lf 16 × 5.Va = 5V Va 5 = = 0.8 Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 19 ΔIT c) ΔV0 = 8C ΔI 0.4167) = CC = = 0.4167 = 41.83μH fΔI 25000 × 0.83 × 10 × (25000) Dr.4167 ) (1 − k ) = ⇒L= = 145. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 20 .Solution Vs = 12V.8A. f = 25kHz.67% a) k = Vs 12 V0T b) ΔI = (1 − k ) L V0 5(1 − 0.83mH 2f 2 × 25000 1− k (1 − 0.8 ⇒C = = 3 −3 8 fΔV0 8 × 25 × 10 × 20 × 10 = 200μF d) 1− k (1 − 0. ΔI = 0. ΔVC = 20mV.4167) LC = R= × 500 = 5.

Is Switch Stress V1 L Io C Vo S Vs Peak voltage stress on the switch: + - D R Vsw max = Vs − V1min = Vs Peak current stress through the switch: I sw max 1 Vs = I a + ΔI max = I a + 2 8 fL k=0.5 Dr. Adel Gastli Vs − Va V τ1 = a τ 2 L L τ1 Va k = = Vs τ 1 + τ 2 1 − k3 τ1 T .Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) i0 ΔI = ΔI 0 ton τ1 τ2 τ3 T k= ΔI = Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 21 2. k3 = τ3 T and τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 = T VT k Va VT τ 2 = a (1 − k3 − k ) = s (1 − k3 − k ) L 1 − k3 L L DC-DC Converters 22 .

2. The amount of current ripple. The filter capacitor value if the voltage ripple is to be less than 1% of the output voltage. The converter components are R=10Ω. The inductor for which the converter would just enter in the discontinuous conduction mode. and f=40kHz. Dr. L=5mH. 4. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 24 . 3. Plot the output voltage and current waveforms and determine: 1.ΔI i0 0 τ1 τ2 1 τ1 + τ 2 ΔI T 2 1 T −τ3 = ΔI 2 T 1 = ΔI (1 − k3 ) 2 Ia Ia = τ3 T VsT Ia = k (1 − k3 − k ) 2L Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 23 Example A dc-dc converter converts a source of 48V to 12V. The mode of operation.

045A L 3.1.25) ⇒ f c = 2. 2 2L Vs Va 12 ΔI = = 1. k= .current ripple VaT ΔI = (1 − k ) = 0.094mH DCM ⇒ LC = 2Ia (Study also example 5.5 ) Dr.Critical filter inductance for DCM VsT k (1 − k ) = 0.000 ⎥ (1 − 0.17 μF 2 2 4π f c L 4.01 = V0 2 Dr.0225 A. Adel Gastli fC = 2 ⎡ fc ⎤ ⎢ 40.filter capacitor for ΔV0/V0=1% ΔV0 π2 = 0. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 26 .079kHz ⎣ ⎦ DC-DC Converters 1 2π LC ⇒ C= 25 1 = 1.mode of operation Va ΔI VsTs = k (1 − k ) = 0.2 A >> ⇒ CCM Ia = 2 R 10 2.

Continuous conduction mode (CCM) is L S Vs D + - Vs io C Vo VL OFF ton (V -V ) s o + - ON is ON T ΔI Continuous conduction Mode 1 Mode 2 io Typical converter circuit and waveforms Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 28 . Advantages • • • • Dr. Has high efficiency • It provides one polarity of (greater than 90%) output voltage and di/dt of the load current unidirectional output is limited by inductor current.Features of a buck converter Limitations • Input current is normally It requires only one discontinuous and a transistor smoothing input filter is Is simple required. 1. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 27 BOOST CONVERTER • Voltage step-up and current step-down converter. • It requires a protection circuit in case of possible short circuit across the diode path.

Adel Gastli NOTE: V0 1 = Vs 1 − k L L + Average voltage across inductor is 0 - Vs ton + (Vs − V0 )(T − ton ) = 0 diL = Vs dt ton V0 1 k= . the parasitic capacitance across open switch would bring it down.is L io S Vs D + - Vo Mode 1 Mode 2 Vs I s = V0 I 0 Dr. = Ts Vs 1 − k diL = (Vs − V0 ) dt I 0 Vs = = 1− k I s V0 DC-DC Converters 29 Forward voltage transfer ratio Vo/Vs can be ideally infinity for k=1. Vo/Vs 1 Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters k 30 . however.

Adel Gastli ΔQc I 0ton = C C I 0k V0 k = = fC R fC ΔV0 = DC-DC Converters ΔV0 kf C = V0 f 1 fC = RC 32 .Low Current Ripple is L io S Vs D + - Vo + - Vs Vs ΔI L = ton = k L fL di L L = Vs dt Mode 1 Mode 2 L Dr. Adel Gastli diL = (Vs − V0 ) dt f = 1 T DC-DC Converters 31 Low Voltage Ripple is L io V1 S Vs V0 + - Capacitor discharges through the load D C Vo Assumptions: ¾ voltage ripple ΔVo is a small percentage of dc voltage Vo R ¾ ripple current through diode flows into filter capacitor and not R. ΔV0 ton T Low value of fC/f will provide low voltage ripple. Dr.

Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 33 2. k3 = I0 = τ3 T and τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 = T 1 τ 2 VsT ΔI = k (1 − k − k3 ) 2 T 2L Load current average value Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 34 .Switch Stress Peak voltage stress on the switch: Vsw max = V0 Peak current stress through the switch: I sw max Vs 1 = I 0 + ΔI L max = I 0 + 2 2 fL k=1 Dr.Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) Average voltage across inductor is 0 ΔI Vsτ 1 + (Vs − V0 )τ 2 = 0 is 0 τ1 τ2 τ3 Ts k= τ1 T VT ΔI = s k L V0 τ 1 + τ 2 1 − k3 = = Vs τ2 1 − k − k3 .

Condition for continuous capacitor voltage Average capacitor voltage V0 V0 = ΔV0 2 I 0k = I0R V0 = 2 fCC ΔV0 Limit for Continuous conduction k CC = 2 fR (Study example 5. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 36 . Adel Gastli LC = k (1 − k ) R 2f DC-DC Converters 35 4.3.6 ) Dr.Condition for continuous inductor current Average inductor current I L = IL = Ia ΔI V V = s k = Ia = a 2 2 fLC R ΔI = Ia 2 Vs Vs k= 2 fLC (1 − k ) R ΔI Limit for Continuous conduction Dr.

BUCK-BOOST CONVERTERS • Voltage step-up and step-down converter. Vs is vL io S iL + - ton ΔI C L Vo R -V0 T iL is i0 Dr.Continuous conduction mode (CCM) Vs VL = Vs ton + (− V0 )(T − ton ) = 0 vL ton ΔI T -V0 V0 k = Vs 1 − k iL is I0 1 − k = Is k Voltage step-up action: k>0. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 37 1.5 i0 Voltage step-down action: k<0. Adel Gastli io S iL L C Vo R DC-DC Converters ΔI L = Vs V ton = s k L fL 38 .5 is + - Dr.

Condition for continuous inductor current Average inductor current I L = I a = ΔI Va kVs = = Ia = IL = R 2 2 fLC Ia kVs Vs k= 2 fLC (1 − k ) R ΔI Limit for Continuous conduction Dr. Adel Gastli 1 Vs = I 0 + ΔI L max = I 0 + 2 2 fL DC-DC Converters 39 3.Switch Stress Peak voltage stress on the switch: Vsw max = Vs + V0 Peak current stress through the switch: I sw max Dr. Adel Gastli Vk ΔI = s (Eq.85) 2 fL 2 DC-DC Converters LC = (1 − k ) R 2f 40 . 5.

87) Iak V0 = = Ia R 2 fCC ΔV0 V0 Limit for Continuous conduction CC = k 2 fR (Study example 5.Condition for continuous capacitor voltage Average capacitor voltage Iak ΔV0 ΔVc = = V0 = 2 2 2 fC (Eq.4 0.2 0. Dr.8 Duty Ratio 1 42 .6 0.4. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 41 Comparison of Voltage ratio The buck-boost can reduce or increase the voltage ratio with unit gain for a duty ratio of 50%. DC-DC Converters 3 2 Buck-Boost 1 Boost Buck 0 0 0. 5.7 ) Dr. Adel Gastli Voltage Ratio Notice that only the buck converter shows a linear relationship between the control (duty ratio) and output voltage.

ČUK CONVERTERS • Voltage step-up and step-down converter. Adel Gastli -Vo Vs S D Vo Io Mode 2 Vs ton − V0 (T − ton ) = 0 V0 k = Vs 1 − k VL2 ΔI Is VC = Vs + V0 Vs VL1 - io Analysis is similar to that of a buck-boost converter. is io L1 S D + - Vs L2 Co Vo C is + R io - VC Is Dr. Adel Gastli Vs S D Vo Io DC-DC Converters is + 43 io - is + VC Is S Vs VC Vo D Mode 1 Io Mode 1 Mode 2 VC-Vo=Vs Vs-VC=-Vo VL1 = 0 is. DC-DC Converters 44 . Dual of buck-boost converter.io Dr.

e.TWO-QUADRANT CONVERTERS Enables the return of energy back to the source when the load does not need it. Adel Gastli D1 is L io S1 + D2 Vo _ DC-DC Converters 46 . Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters CCM only D1 + - L io S1 is Vs 45 S2 D2 is + Vo _ + - D1 L S1 io Vs S2 Mode -1 D1 is + - Vs Mode +1 S2 D2 L io S1 + Vo _ + - Vs S2 + D2 Vo _ Mode +2 Mode -2 Dr. (i. dynamic breaking of a dc motor) Example: Buck Topology is L io S1 + - Vs C + V_o R S2 Two-quadrant buck converter topology Dr.

Output voltage and current can have positive or negative polarities and power flows in both directions. Dr.is v1 v1 L io C S1 0 + - I2 Vs S2 + V_o R I0 io S1 and S2 can not be both ON at the same time. Example: Buck Topology is + - S1 Vs S4 L io S2 + V0 S3 Full bridge converter topology Dr. Always operates in the CCM. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 48 . Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 47 FULL-BRIDGE CONVERTER It is known as the four quadrant dc-dc converter. D2 S1 0 D 1 S2 I1 is 0 τ T Average value of output current can be positive or negative depending on the switching sequence of S1 and S2.

• S1-S3 forms one pair and S2-S4 forms another pair. and produces a bipolar voltage waveform as shall be seen shortly. Adel Gastli is DC-DC Converters 50 . D 3 D3 iL + V0 ton 0 Mode 4 is ON D2 S2 D2 S3 D3 S2 D2 S1. Dr. • This switching sequence is also referred as PWM switching.is Bipolar switching + - S1 D1 Vs S4 L io D4 + V0 S2 D2 S3 D3 • Switches are turned ON-OFF exclusively in pairs. S3 Ts D 2. D 4 t S2. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 49 S1. • When S1-S3 is ON S2-S4 is OFF and vice versa. S3 is + - S1 Vs S4 D1 D4 S2 L io + V0 + - S1 Vs S4 D1 D4 L io S3 D 1. S4 I0 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Vs − V0 vL − Vs − V0 Mode 1 is + - S1 Vs S4 D1 D4 L io + V0 S3 D3 + - S1 Vs S4 D1 D4 L io + V0 S2 D2 S3 D3 Mode 3 Mode 2 Dr.

¾ Analysis consisted of deriving control characteristics and component stress calculations. Voltage step-up converter is also a current step-down converter. ¾ Voltage step-down converter is also a current step-up converter and conversely. boost and buck-boost combination converters have been analyzed in continuous and discontinuous current conduction modes. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 52 .The average inductor voltage is zero (Vs − V0 )ton + (− Vs − V0 )(T − ton ) = 0 ⇒ V0 = Vs (2k − 1) V0 = 2k − 1 Vs ton (t is ON time of S ) on 1 k= T V0 = [− 1 → 1] for k = [0 → 1] Vs The output current peak-to-peak ripple is ΔI 0 = Vs − V0 2V ton = s k (1 − k ) L fL Does not depend on load resistance Ripple frequency is f=1/T. Dr. Adel Gastli DC-DC Converters 51 SUMMARY ¾ Buck. ¾ Single-switch. Dr. two-switch and four-switch topologies have been analyzed.

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