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with new NDT methods and applications. and hoisting equipment. Theterms Nondestructive examination (NDE). Nondestructive inspection (NDI). Nondestructive testing methods are routinely applied in industries where a failure of a component would cause significant hazard or economic loss. Thermography.component or system without causing damage.Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in scienceand industry to evaluate the properties of a material.Because NDT does not permanently alterthe article being inspected. and research. piping. Liquid penetrant testing. troubleshooting. . it is a highly valuabletechnique that can save both money and time in productevaluation. and Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe thistechnology. Leak testing (LT). APPLICATIONSOF NDT NDT is used in a variety of settings that covers a wide range of industrial activity. such as in transportation. CommonNDT methods include          Visual inspection (VT). being continuously developed. Radiography inspection. Acoustic emission testing (AE or AT). Eddy-current testing. building structures. Ultrasonic testing. Magnetic-particle testing. pressure vessels.

are not typically regarded as Visual Inspection as these Inspection methodologies require specialized equipment. etc. hearing. Visual Inspection. X-Ray equipment. used in maintenance of facilities. data acquisition.1) VISUAL INSPECTION Visual inspection is a common method of quality control. and data analysis. Visual inspection had a false positive rate of 2% and a false negative rate of 23% OPTICAL AIDS USED FOR VISUAL INSPECTION: ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Microscope Borescope Endoscope Flexiscope Telescope Holography 2) LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION . mean inspection of equipment and structures using either or all of raw human senses such as vision. Inspections requiring Ultrasonic. touch and smell and/or any non-specialized inspection equipment. A study of the visual inspection of small integrated circuits found that the modal duration of eye fixations of trained inspectors was about 200 ms. Infra-red. The most accurate inspectors made the fewest eye fixations and were the fastest. training and certification.

Section of material with a surface-breaking crack that is not visible to the naked eye.1. surfaceporosity. forging andwelding surface defects such as hairline cracks. Noted for its low cost andsimple process. 3. Penetrant is applied to the surface. Excess penetrant is removed. leaks in new products. or ceramics). also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT). 4. 3) MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION . The penetrant maybe applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials. 2. rendering the crack visible. In this the fluorescence also used to detect the minute crack by using “ultraviolet” rays FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is a type of dye penetrant inspection in which a fluorescent dye is appliedto the surface of a non-porous material in order todetect defects that may compromise the integrity or qualityof the part in question. and fatigue cracks on in-servicecomponents. Dye penetrant inspection (DPI). is awidely applied and low-cost inspection method used tolocate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials(metals. LPI is used to detect casting. plastics. Developer is applied.although for ferrous components magnetic-particleinspection is often used instead for its subsurface detectioncapability.

Indirect magnetization occurs when no electric current is passed through the test object. MAGNETIZING TECHNIQUES       Magnetizing using a magnet Magnetizing using an electromagnet Contact current flow method Using thread bar Using coiling Inducedcurrent flow PROCEDURE USED FOR MPT ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ Surface preparation of component before testing Initial demagnetizing Degreasing and cleaning Magnetization of the component Applying the magnetic particles / powders Viewing Marking of defect Final demagnetization Removal of magnetic particle from component 4) EDDY-CURRENT TESTING . The piece can be magnetized by direct or indirect magnetization. Direct magnetization occurs when the electric current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field is formed in the material. nickel.Magnetic particle Inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron. but a magnetic field is appliedfrom an outside source. cobalt. and some oftheir alloys. The magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to the direction of the electric current which may be either alternating current (AC) or someform of direct current (DC). The process puts a magnetic field into the part.

Because ECT is electrical in nature. currents opposed to the ones in the coil are induced in the material is known as eddy currents. it is limited to conductive material. and the presence of defects causes a change in eddy current. Variations in the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of the test object.There are also physical limits to generating eddy currents and depth of penetration (skin depth). OTHER EDDY CURRENT TESTING TECHNIQUES ☺ Pulsed eddy current ☺ Saturation eddy current testing ☺ Eddy current array Eddy Current Probes 5) RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING . ECT has a very wide range of applications.Eddy-current testing (also commonly seen as eddy current testing and ECT) is one of many electromagnetictesting methods used in non-destructive testing (NDT)making use of electromagnetic induction to detect andcharacterize surface and sub-surface flaws only in conductivematerials. When the coil approaches a conductive material. This gave an indication about the defect (or) any inclusion. PRINCIPLE The magnetic field oscillates at the same frequency as the current running through the coil.

is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) to penetrate various materials. like Ir-192. variations in this intensity of radiation are used to determine thickness or composition of material. or industrial radiography. Wire type 3. Neutron radiographic testing (NR) is a variant of radiographic testing which uses neutrons instead of photons to penetrate materials.Radiographic Testing (RT). Detail sensitivity  Penetrameter 1. Plaque type  Radiographic exposure      6) ULTRASONIC TESTING . Co-60. This can see very different things from X-rays. Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source. because neutrons can pass with ease through lead and steel but are stopped by plastics. Contrast sensitivity 2. Step type 2. or in rarer cases Cs-137are used in X-ray computed tomography machine as a source of photons. RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING Geometric factors Radiographic film Intensifying screens Film density Radiographic sensitivity 1. Since the amount of radiation emerging from the opposite side of the material can be detected and measured. water and oils. Penetrating radiations are those restricted to that part of the electromagnetic spectrum of wavelength less than about 10 nanometres.

RIGHT: A defect creates a third indication and simultaneously reduces the amplitude of the back wall indication. one from the initial pulse of the probe. are transmitted into materials todetect internal flaws or to characterize materials. to monitor pipework corrosion. The depth of the defect is determined by the ratio D/ Ep.1-15 MHz. whichtests the thickness of the test object. very short ultrasonic pulse-waves withcenter frequencies ranging from 0.Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a family of non-destructive testing techniques based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the object or material tested. TYPES OF WAVES ☺ Longitudinal waves ☺ Transverse waves ☺ Surface (or) Rayleigh waves 7) ACOUSTIC EMISSION . and occasionallyup to 50 MHz. There are two indications. for example. and the second due to the back wall echo. In most commonUT applications. Principle of ultrasonic testing LEFT: A probe sends a sound wave into a test material. A commonexample is ultrasonic thickness measurement.

Rapid stress-releasing events generate a spectrum of stress waves starting at 0 Hz. AEis occurring during the processes of mechanical loading of materials and structures accompanied by structuralchanges that generate local sources of elastic waves. and have been reported at frequencies up to 100 MHz. but most of the released energy is within the 1 kHz to 1 MHz range. Acoustic emissions can be detected in frequency ranges under 1 kHz. temperature gradients or external mechanical forces.Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of radiation of acoustic (elastic) waves in solids that occurs when a material undergoes irreversible changes in internal structure. caused by the rapid release of localized stress energy. AE is commonly defined as transient elastic waves within a material.In particular. TYPES OF DEFECTS DETECT BY AET  Crack initiation & growth  friction  delamination  matrix cracking  fatigue crack growth  stress corrosion cracking  hydrogen embrittlement . an event source is the phenomenon which releases elastic energy into the material. Hence. and typically falling off at several MHz. for example as a result of crack formation or plastic deformation due to aging. which then propagates as an elastic wave.

noncontact mapping of thermal patterns or “thermograms”. For instance. in which the features of interest are naturally at a higher or lower temperature than the background. materials or systems through the imaging of the thermal patterns at the object’s surface. refers to all thermographic inspection techniques regardless of the physical phenomena used to monitor the thermal changes. there are two approaches in thermographic inspection: (1) PASSIVE. In addition.8) THERMOGRAPHIC INSPECTION Thermographic inspection refers to the non-destructive testing of parts.Strictly speaking. in which an energy source is required to produce a thermal contrast between the feature of interest and the background. for example: the surveillance of people on a scene. for example: an aircraft part with internal flaws. and (2) ACTIVE. . on the surface of objects through the use of some kind of infrared detector. nonintrusive. the term thermography alone. the application of a temperature sensitive coating to a surface in order to measure its temperature is a thermographic inspection contact technique based on heat conduction where there is no infrared sensor involved. is a non-destructive. Infrared thermography on the other hand.

pipelines can last indefinitely without leaks. As a means of long-distance transport. The primary purpose of leak detection systems (LDS) is to assist pipeline controllers in detecting and localizing leaks. reliability and efficiency. VACUUM CHAMBERS HELIUM LEAK DETECTOR . Pipeline leak detection systems are also beneficial because they can enhance productivity and system reliability thanks to reduced downtime and reduced inspection time. gases and other fluid products. If properly maintained. Methods of detection include hydrostatic testing after pipeline erection and leak detection during service. LDS are therefore an important aspect of pipeline technology. pipelines have to fulfill high demands of safety. Pipeline networks are the most economic and safest mode of transportation for oil. LDS provide an alarm and display other related data to the pipeline controllers in order to aid in decisionmaking.9) LEAK DETECTION Leak detection is used to determine if and in some cases where a leak has occurred in systems which contain liquids and gasses.