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• The assembly of apparatus used to change
some characteristic ( e.g. voltage , ac to dc,
frequency, pf, etc) of electric supply.


Sub-station 3 .

abnormal occurrences such as possibility of explosion etc. it should be located at the load center. 4 . As much as possible. consideration must be given to the maintenance of regulation clearances. For safety. 2.Laying out a substation 1. facilities for carrying out repairs and maintenance. It should be located at a proper site. It should provide safe and reliable arrangement.

It should be easily operated and maintained. 5 .Laying out a substation 3. It should have a low initial cost and low operational and maintenance costs. 4.

Classification of Sub-station • According to service equipment • According to constructional features 6 .

• According to service equipment . Transformer sub-stations Switching sub-station Power factor correction sub-station Frequency changer sub-stations Converting sub-stations Industrial sub-stations 7 . 3. 6. 5.called to a substation to change voltage level or improve power factor or convert ac to dc power 1. 4. 2.

Transformer sub-stations • Change the voltage level of electric supply • Transformers are the main component 8 .

Switching sub-stations • Voltages are not changed • Simply performs the switching operations of power lines 9 .

Power factor correction sub-stations • Improve the power factor of the system • Generally located at the receiving end of the lines • Generally uses synchronous condensers as the power factor improvement equipment 10 .

Frequency changer sub-stations • Change the supply frequency • Uses VFT’s or VFD’s 11 .

Converting sub-stations • Changes ac power into dc power 12 .

Industrial sub-stations • Specialized substations supplying to specific industrial requirements 13 .

Indoor sub-stations Outdoor sub-stations Underground sub-station Pole-mounted sub-station 14 . 3. 4. 2.• According to constructional features 1.

Indoor sub-stations • For voltages of 66kV 15 .

the clearances between conductors and the space required for equipment becomes large that it is not economical to install the equipment indoor.Outdoor sub-stations • For voltages beyond 66kV • For high voltages. 16 .

17 .Underground sub-stations Used for: • highly populated areas • when space available for equipment and building is limited • when cost of land is high.

There should be a provision for emergency lighting and protection against fire. There should be reasonable access for both equipment and personnel. switches.Underground sub-stations • While laying out an underground sub-station. and fuses should be air cooled to avoid bringing oil into the premises. 2. 4. 3. There should be good ventilation. 5. The transformers. There should be provision for remote indication of excessive rise in temperature. The size of the station should be as minimum as possible. 18 . the following points must be kept in view: 1. 6.

Pole-mounted sub-stations • This is an outdoor substation with equipment installed overhead on H-pole or 4-pole structure. • The cheapest form of sub-stations for voltages not exceeding 11kV ( or 33 kV in some cases) 19 .

In case of repair of transformer or oil circuit breakers.Pole-mounted sub-stations • The following points may be noted about pole mounted sub-stations: 1. 20 . gang isolator should be open and the circuit breaker should be isolated. 2. There should be periodical check up of the dielectric strength of oil in the transformer and oil circuit breakers.

2. 4.Transformer sub-stations • Classifications 1. 3. Step-up sub-station Primary grid sub-station Secondary sub-station Distribution sub-station 21 .

• Outdoor type 22 .Step-up sub-stations • The generation voltage (13.8 kV to 24 kV) is stepped up to high voltage (115 to 500 kV).

electric power is received by the primary grid sub-station which reduces the voltage level to 66kV to 115kV for secondary transmission.Primary grid sub-stations • Here. • Generally of outdoor type 23 .

the voltage is further stepped down to 4.Secondary sub-stations • Here. The lines run along the important road sides of the city. • Generally of out-door type 24 .16kV to 34.5kV.

4-wire for supplying to the consumers. • Located near the consumer’s localities and step down the voltage to 230V. • Majority of distribution sub-stations are pole-mounted type 25 . 3phase.16kV to 34.5kV lines is delivered to distribution sub-stations.Distribution sub-stations • The electric power from 4.

Equipment in a Transformer substation 1. 7. 2. 4. Bus-bars Insulators Isolating switch Circuit breaker Power transformers Instrument transformers Metering and indicating instruments Others 26 . 5. 3. 8. 6.