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ILASS -Americas 2007

20th Annual Conference on

Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems

Book of Abstracts

20 Years of ILASS [
then and now...
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DV0.9 - DV0.1
DV0.5

28,080,000
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(112,300,000
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$90,000
( 81,000)

Annual Cost of Wasted Water

$80,000
( 72,000)

100
80
70
60

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CUMULATIVE VOLUME (% )

90

50
40
30
20
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$70,000
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$60,000
( 54,000)
$50,000
( 45,000)
$40,000
( 36,000)
$30,000
( 27,000)
$20,000
( 18,000)
$10,000
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1

10

20

DROP SIZE DIAMETER (µm)

40

5,616,000
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280,000gal
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561,600gal
(2,250,000
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2,808,000
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(11,230,000
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5 (20)

10(40)

50(200)

0
100(400)

Total System Flow in gpm (l/min)

500(2000)

ILASS-AMERICAS BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Chair

Will Bachalo
Artium Technologies, Inc.

Vice-Chair

Greg Smallwood
National Research Council Canada

Treasurer

Steve Londerville
Coen Company, Inc.

Secretary

Doug Talley
Air Force Research Laboratory

Member-at-Large

Vince McDonell
University of California, Irvine

Member-at-Large

Michael Benjamin
Parker Hannifin Corporation

Member-at-Large

Jim Drallmeier
University of Missouri, Rolla

Member-at-Large

Ken Giles
University of California, Davis

Member-at-Large

Corinne Lengsfeld
University of Denver

Member-at-Large

Chuck Lipp
Dow Chemical Company

Member-at-Large

Rudolf Schick
Spraying Systems Co.

Past-Chair

Chris Edwards
Stanford University

Ex Officio

Norman Chigier
Carnegie Mellon University

ILASS-AMERICAS 2007 CONFERENCE
Local Arrangements Chair

Rudolf Schick
Spraying Systems Co.

Program Chair

Shankar Subramaniam
Iowa State University

Suite 302 Toronto. Parrish Mail Code 480-106-252 30500 Mound Road Warren.com Spraying Systems Company Rudolf Schick North Ave. Vice President 203 College Street.com www.goodrich.com Parker Hannifin Corporation Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division Adel Mansour. Chuck Lipp 2301 Brazosport Blvd. OH 44060 Ph: (440) 954-8171/8100 Fax: (440) 954-8111 amabsour@parker. Inc.D.O.D.schick@spray. Ph.com Procter & Gamble Corporate Engineering Technologies Labs 8256 Union Centre Blvd.schick@spray.com www. B-1226 Freeport. Box 7900 Wheaton. OH 45069 John Hecht Ph: (513) 634-9625 hecht.nektar.com Goodrich Corporation Turbine Fuel Technologies Tim Griffith Chief Engineer. CA 92186-5376 Ph: (619) 544-5000 Direct: (619) 544-5260 oskam_gary_w@solarturbine s.com Dow Chemical Company Engineering and Process Sciences Dr.com Spray Analysis and Research Services Rudolf Schick Vice President P. Gareth Oskam Applied Research Lead Combustion Engineering P.com www. IL 60189-7900 Ph: (630) 517-1409 Fax: (630) 260-7593 rudi. CA 94070 Ph: (650) 631-3100 Fax: (650) 631-3150 cvarga@nektar. at Schmale Road Wheaton. Hicks.com www. Paul G.parrish@gm.sprayconsultants. MI 48090-9055 Ph: (586) 986-0692 Fax: (586) 986-0176 scott.com Woodward. Ph. Hamideh Parizi.com Solar Turbines Inc.parker. Ontario M5T 1P9 Canada Ph: (416) 979-5544 1-800-969-2708 Parizi@simulent. IA 50265 Ph: (515) 271-7231 Fax: (515) 271-7205 Kevin.com www. Box 85376 San Diego.com . TX 77541-3257 Ph: (979) 238-9091 Fax: (979) 238-0140 charlipp@dow.spray. New Product Development 811 4th Street West Des Moines.ILASS-07 LIST OF SPONSORS ILASS – Americas thanks the following Sponsors for their generous contributions toward the success of this year’s conference: Coen Company.com Nektar Therapeutics Chris Varga 150 Industrial Road San Carlos.com www.simulent. Steve Londerville Chief Technical Officer 100 Foster City Blvd. IL 60189-7900 Ph: (630) 517-1409 Fax: (630) 260-7593 rudi.D.Eng. R&D Technical Team Leader 9200 Tyler Boulevard Mentor. West Chester. Dr.spray. Foster City. MI 49464 Ph: (616) 772-9171 x8381 phicks@woodward. CA 94404 Ph: (650) 638-0365 Fax: (650) 638-0355 slonderville@coen.jp@pg. Ph.com www..com/gasturbine General Motors R&D and Planning Scott E. P..com Simulent Inc.O. Inc. 700 North Centennial Street Zeeland.gordon@goodrich.

including CFD. academics. spray dryers. • Manufacturer's exhibits showing the latest instrumentation and hardware in the field. operation.ILASS . and atomization for metal powders and spray forming. researchers. and performance of liquid atomizers and spray systems. In addition. spray combustion. pressure back sprays for domestic or medical use. All aspects of atomization and spray processes will be covered. North and South America. vapor concentration. spray coating. agricultural applications. such as in spray reactors. fire fighting sprays. including: • Instrumentation related to sprays for drop size. • Technical committee meetings enabling participants to engage in specific topical discussions in areas of personal interest. the 2007 conference will include a retrospective of the last 20 years of our organization and activities and events to ensure we provide a solid technology base for spray researchers for the next 20 years. patternation. Like previous ILASS conferences. drop concentration. • Design. film thickness. it provides a venue for industrialists. and students engaged in the scientific development and practice of atomization and spray processes to meet and share recent developments in the field. .AMERICAS 2007 20th Annual Conference On Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ILASS-2007 is the 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. etc. The ILASS-Americas 2007 Conference will include: • Tutorial sessions representing a discussion of topics of broad interest to the spray community • Technical sessions at which state-of-the-art research and methods are presented. humidifiers. drop velocity and impact. • Transfer processes in which liquid sprays are used. • Modeling of flow phenomena inside and outside of atomizers.

Conference participants are strongly encouraged to join those Technical Committees with which their interests are aligned. • An Exhibitors’ Display will be held from Wednesday – Friday in the St. • The Conference Banquet will be held at the Field Museum. S. P. recognizing the best graduate student presentation will be presented. Hewitt. This award is sponsored by Parker-Hannifin’s Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division in honor of Harold Simmons’ contributions to ILASSAmericas from its inception. and most famous T-Rex. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area – Third Floor. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area – Third Floor. Clair Salons 1. Attendees will eat and socialize near Sue. Parrish. and the Harold C. Simmons Award. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area – Third Floor. They will also be posted throughout the day on the Message Board. Benjamin. McDonnell. Chigier. the world’s largest. . During the banquet both the Robert Marshall Award for the best paper from the 2006 conference. • The ILASS-Americas Annual Business Meeting will be held during Lunch on Thursday. S. K. R. • Lunch will be served each day as indicated at the time listed in the program in the Grand Ballroom B & C – Second Floor.PROGRAM NOTES AND SPECIAL EVENTS • Registration will take place between 600 and 7:30 pm on Tuesday in the St. most complete. Schmidt S. Parrish Program changes will be announced before each morning's Plenary Session. Smallwood A. Bellan. • A Continental Breakfast will be served each morning from 7:00 to 8:00 am in the St. All are encouraged to attend. C. • Technical Committee Meetings will be held from 4:40 to 5:40 pm on Wednesday and 4:50 to 5:35pm on Thursday. Giles C. located in the middle of the beautiful Museum Campus near the Chicago lakefront. Day Wednesday Thursday • Technical Committee Computation and Modeling Diesel and Automotive Sprays Agricultural Sprays Industrial Combustion and Sprays Rocket & Air Breathing Power Fuel Atomization Physics of Atomization Spray Measurement and Instrumentation Chair(s) J. 2 & 3 – Third Floor. • Morning and afternoon refreshment breaks will take place as indicated at the time listed in the program in the St. Please contact the committee chairs for further information. Londerville M. Lipp. D. Jensen N. Lengsfeld V. Please check the Message Board often for updates. G.

• Dantec Dynamics. digital imaging and photography equipment. • En’Urga Inc. They offer diagnostic and analytical equipment. • Sympatec Inc. These companies represent the leading technologies in spray characterization. • Malvern Instruments • Spray Analysis and Research Services • Spraying Systems Co. • TSI Incorporated • Vision Research Inc. diagnostics. Inc. 2 & 3 – Third Floor. Also. • Artium Technologies.MANUFACTURER EXHIBITOR INFORMATION There are nine manufacturer exhibits at this year’s conference. Please take the time to visit the exhibits located in St. Inc. • LaVision Inc. Clair Salons 1. . most have been long-term supporters of ILASSAmericas. spray characterization services and spray nozzles. imaging and analysis.

EXHIBITORS .

Artium has combined the latest technology in lasers. mounted on an aircraft or inside a wind tunnel.artium. Inc. also referred to as a PDPA or PDA) on the market. signal processing.500 μm while being exposed to extreme icing conditions. Artium Technologies also produces a Laser-Induced Incandescence instrument for soot characterization for both combustion system emissions monitoring and carbon black production. is capable of making droplet size measurements simultaneously spanning a range of 1 to 1.com. Inc. is leading the way in development of the next generation of instrumentation for spray dynamics characterization. http://www.Artium Technologies. In addition to standard and custom PDI and LDV instruments. This new instrument. and computer software with our globally-recognized expertise in two-phase flow research to produce the most compact and automated Phase-Doppler Interferometer (PDI. Through funding from NASA GRC and the US Navy ONR we have developed a unique flight-based Dual-Range PDI to meet a broad range of cloud and drizzle measurement requirements. . Additionally Artium is conducting research under NIH NIDDK support to apply spray technology and characterization to islet encapsulation and transplantation in an effort to treat Type 1diabetes. CA 94022-2036 Phone: 408-737-2364 Fax: 408-737-2374 Email: wbachalo@aol. The Dual-Range PDI has been successfully demonstrated at the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel.. Contact Information: Will Bachalo Artium Technologies 14660 Saltamontes Way Los Altos Hills. Founded in 1998 by key former employees of Aerometrics.com For more information please visit our web site.com or info@artium.

200 Williams Dr.Dantec Dynamics. Inc. http://www. micro fluids. thermodynamics.co. and environmental protection. research institutions and industry use Dantec Dynamics equipment in a wide range of applications in the fields of fluid mechanics.weissman@dantecdynamics. Inc. mechanical and civil engineering.dantec. develops and manufactures advanced instrumentation for diagnostics and research into fluid dynamics. . combustion technology and materials/components. Universities. NJ 07446 Phone: 201-236-2466 Fax: 201-236-2469 Email: cliff.uk. Contact Information: Cliff Weissman Dantec Dynamics. spray atomization.com For more information please visit our web site. Ramsey.

1291-A Cumberland Avenue West Lafayette.com For more information please visit our web site. calibration. .com.com or sales@enurga. Our products include an extinction tomography based optical spray patternator. is the industry leader in customized optical diagnostic equipment for the most challenging factory floor application. and particulate characteristics. En'Urga Inc. design. http://www. IN 47906 Phone: 765-497-3269 Fax: 765-463-7004 Email: deepa@enurga. emissivity. development. Jongmook Lim En’Urga Inc. and installation of instruments suitable for the measurement of temperatures. has 10 years experience in optical diagnostics and research. Contact Information: Dr. Our expertise in emission and absorption tomography in hostile environments enables measurement and control of varied processes in a wide array of industries. gas concentrations. serving many Fortune 50 companies and Federal Government agencies.En’Urga Inc. We specialize in research. and a capacitance tomography based two phase pipe flow analyzer. an imaging infrared spectrometer. Yudaya Sivathanu or Dr.enurga.

LaVision, Inc. is a recognized specialist in global and local laser imaging techniques.
We have developed integrated systems for flow mapping, combustion diagnostics,
surface and material deformation and spray diagnostics. Measurable spray parameters
include geometry, droplet size, shape, velocity and liquid vapor transition. Applications
cover diverse fields including, fuel delivery, agriculture, pharmaceuticals as well as
numerous fundamental studies.

Contact Information:
Dr. Callum Gray or Dr. Steven Anderson
La Vision, Inc.
301 W. Michigan Ave., Suite 403
Ypsilanti, MI 48197
Phone: 734-485-0913
Fax: 240-465-4306
Email: callum.gray@lavisioninc.com or steven.anderson@lavisioninc.com

For more information please visit our web site, http://www.lavision.com.

Malvern Instruments is a global company that develops, manufactures and markets
advanced analytical systems used in characterizing a wide variety of materials, from bulk
powders to nanomaterials and delicate macromolecules. Innovative technologies and
powerful software produce systems that deliver industrially relevant data enabling
customers to make the connection between micro (eg particle size) and macro (bulk)
material properties (rheology) and chemical composition (chemical imaging). Malvern
solutions are proven in sectors from cement to pharmaceuticals and support the
understanding, improvement and optimization of many industrial processes. Extensive
industry experience and analytical expertise enable Malvern to deliver exceptional
support to customers worldwide.

Contact Information:
Henrik Krarup or Paul Norlander
Malvern Instruments
10 Southville Rd.
Southborough, MA 01772
Phone: 508-480-0200
Fax: 508-460-9692
Email: info@malvernusa.com or salesinfo@malvern.co.uk

For more information, please visit our web site: http://www.malvern.com.

Spray Analysis and Research Services, a service of Spraying Systems
Co., assists customers in a wide range of industries with spray system optimization.
This includes spray nozzle specification and selection through performance testing and
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); troubleshooting problems in existing spray
operations; and developing new ways to utilize spray technology. Our services
include research, consulting, computer modeling, spray characterization/performance
testing, proof-of-concept studies and spray nozzle/header prototype development. Spray
Analysis is home to the world's largest and most sophisticated spray laboratories and
conducts educational seminars on spray technology seminars twice annually for
individuals seeking an advanced understanding of the science behind atomization and
sprays.

Contact Information:
Rudolf Schick or Elizabeth Kucharz
Spray Analysis and Research Services
P.O. Box 7900
Wheaton, IL 60189
Phone: 630-665-5000
Fax: 630-260-7593
Email: rudi.schick@spray.com or elizabeth.kucharz@spray.com

For more information please visit our web site: http://www.SprayConsultants.com

IL 60189 Phone: 630-665-5000 Fax: 630-260-7593 Email: rudi.com or elizabeth. Spray characterization. cooling.kucharz@spray. Our product line includes the industry's most extensive line of spray nozzles. and provides spray controllers.spray. CFD analysis and prototyping/fabrication services are available through Spray Analysis and Research Services group. is the world’s leader in spray technology. drying. proof-of-concept studies. lances and injectors. Our dedicated sales engineers are located in 85 offices around the world and are supported by 11 manufacturing facilities in the Americas.com For more information. we serve customers in hundreds of industries with spray cleaning. With more than 70 years of experience.O. P.com. please visit our web site: http://www.schick@spray. . Contact Information: Rudolf Schick or Elizabeth Kucharz Spraying Systems Co. coating applications and more. performance testing. Box 7900 Wheaton.Spraying Systems Co. accessories and standard and custom spray headers. Europe and Asia. software and turnkey systems designed to optimize spray nozzle efficiency and automate spray system operation. showers. AutoJet® Technologies is a division of Spraying Systems Co.

with several innovative features to guarantee the best possible results. we have been well known for high quality laser diffraction technologies.500um.sympatec. Since our beginning days in the Harz Mountains of Germany in 1984. Our HELOS/VARIO can measure from 0. Contact Information: Alan Pieper or 9A Princess Rd. and 26mm. Lawrenceville. which explains our no-nonsense approach to physics and hardware. . please visit our web site: http://www. 13mm.25um to 3. with a 5mW HeNe laser and auto-focusing of the 31 element detector.Sympatec specializes in Laser Diffraction instruments for measurement of droplet size distribution in sprays. for the best balance of laser intensity and particle count. Our patented beam expander offers 3 beam sizes: 2mm. We offer a choice of 7 measurement ranges (lenses).com For more information. Sympatec is still owned and managed by the 4 PhD Physicists that founded the company. NJ 08648 Phone: 609-844-1020 Fax: 609-844-1225 Email: usa@sympatec. Construction is thick extruded aluminum mounted to an X-95 backbone. to concentrate on the droplet size range you are most interested in. with the best possible sensitivity.com.

Our PDPA System. please visit our web site: http://www. High Wycombe. TSI instruments are used around the world. and Bangalore. China. and one even went to Mars to measure the velocity and direction of Martian winds. We also maintain a network of knowledgeable manufacturers’ representatives and distributors to provide local support worldwide. and universities. like every TSI instrument.com or particle@tsi. Beijing. United Kingdom. MN 55126 Phone: 651-490-2856 Fax: 651-490-3824 Email: jshakal@tsi. Arlanda Stad. USA. and government facilities in every industrialized country. Germany. They went to the North and South Poles and served on desert battlefields. Our corporate sales and service offices (St. in nearly every major industry and technical discipline. Stamatios Pothos TSI Incorporated 500 Cardigan Rd. Sweden. They are found on mountaintops and ocean beaches. They often play a pivotal role in designing or modifying production processes or energy conversion systems. Aachen. Shoreview. and schools. particulates. Minnesota. India) provide regional customer support.tsi.com For more information. TSI has a worldwide presence with over 800 dedicated employees working in facilities in North America and Europe and Asia. governments. TSI serves the needs of industry. They are used in submarines. office towers. research institutions.TSI Incorporated designs and manufactures precision instruments used to measure sprays. They flew in the space shuttle. Paul. and other key parameters in environments the world over. Contact Information: Joe Shakal or Dr. identify and solve measurement problems. with applications ranging from pure research to primary manufacturing. often in crucial research or control situations. They are used in industrial. factories. is backed by unique technical expertise and outstanding quality. flows. TSI instruments help people investigate. France.com . university. They operate in laboratories and on farms. Marseille.

http://www. 100 Dey Rd. The Phantom product family has been recognized for their innovations in high-speed digital camera technology and sensor design receiving numerous research and development awards. Vision Research prides itself on the light sensitivity.visionresearch. allowing the user to see details of an event when it’s too fast to see. Their broad line of cameras.com For more information please visit our web site. the high resolution and image quality of their cameras. Contact Information: Tim Mills or Ray Maguire Vision Research. Wayne. the robust yet easy to use software interface. and Digital Broadcast and Cinematography. designs and manufactures high-speed digital imaging systems used in measurement and entertainment applications. Industrial and Commercial. marketed under the “Phantom” trademark. Engineering. but too important not to™. Sports and Entertainment.mills@visionresearch. VRI cameras add a new dimension to the sense of sight. Automotive. and the reliability and versatility of their Phantom camera family which continue to be the benchmark for all other high speed digital camera manufacturers. Inc.com .Vision Research Inc. span a variety of application domains including Defense. NJ 07470 Phone: 248-546-0251 Email: tim. Scientific and Medical Research.

We at ILASS Americas extend you a warm welcome and wish you a great conference. North and South America. we’ve grown and developed since our very first meeting in Madison. In addition. ILASS-2007 will provide a venue for industrialists. Please take advantage of the free networking time set aside to connect with old friends and make new ones. There is no better opportunity to learn about the latest advancements in sprays and atomization and to network with other experts in the industry. this year’s conference will include a retrospective of the last 20 years of our organization and activities and events to ensure we provide a solid technology base for spray researchers for the next 20 years. Grand Ballroom Pre-Function Area (Sponsored by ILASS Americas) ILASS-2007 is the 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. academics.PROGRAM SCHEDULE Welcome to the ILASS-Americas 2007 20th Annual Conference TUESDAY . researchers. Wisconsin in 1987. . 2007 6:00 pm – 9:00 pm Reception and Registration. and students engaged in the scientific development and practice of atomization to meet and share recent developments in the field. Like previous ILASS conferences. As an organization.MAY 15.

and Rolf D. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area (Sponsored by Woodward Inc. Princeton University Dynamics of Droplet Collision 8:50 am – Transition to General Sessions SESSION 1A SESSION 1B AUTOMOTIVE SPRAYS SPRAY MODELING (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Scott E. General Motors R&D Modeling requirements for Large Eddy Simulation of multicomponent fuel two-phase flows using Continuous Thermodynamics Josette Bellan and Laurent Selle. 2007 7:00 am – Breakfast Room: St.) 7:45 am – Welcome and opening remarks. Parrish. Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology . and Chia-fon Lee. University of Wisconsin-Madison 9:00 am Multi-Hole Injector Spray Characterization Utilizing White Light Volume Illumination and Schlieren Techniques Adam Pawlowski. Reitz.. Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology.WEDNESDAY . Law. Parrish. General Motors R&D. Aachen Reinhold Kneer.MAY 16. Grand Ballroom Salon B & C 8:00 am – Invited Lecture: Chung (Ed) K. RWTH Aachen and Scott E. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Chairpersons: Josette Bellan.

Reitz. and Stephen D. Clair Salons 1. Talley. Air Force Research Laboratory. Germany A Continuous Thermodynamics Formulation for the Vaporization of Liquid Mixtures Way Lee Cheng. Yudaya Sivathanu. En’Urga Visible Light Extinction Tomography . Sven Jerzembeck.9:25 am Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Common-Rail Ethanol and Propylene Glycole Sprays at Engine-Like Conditions Peter Spiekermann. Clair Meeting Room. Norbert Peters. Stephen D.. Heister. Chia-fon Lee. Canino.Break. NRC Canada This session was organized by the Measurement and Instrumentation Technical Committee. Jaal Ghandhi. Posters Breaks in Room: St. University of Wisconsin-Madison A New Spray Model for Transient Diesel Sprays with Time-varying Injection Rates Neerav Abani. Pre-Function Exhibition Room: St. RWTH Aachen. Rolf D. Purdue University DENSE SPRAY DIAGNOSTICS (Room: Lakeshore West) Moderator: Greg Smallwood. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by General Motors. R&D and Planning) SESSION 2A SESSION 2B Panel Session ATOMIZATION (Room: Lakeshore East) Chairpersons: Douglas G. Purdue University 10:30 am On the Contribution of Orifice Design to the Primary Atomization Process James V. Christian Felsch. University of Wisconsin-Madison 10:15 am . Heister. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 9:50 am Fuel film measurements of an impinging Diesel spray Ben Steinhaus. Exhibits. A one page “mini-paper” that provides some details regarding the methods discussed is included in the book of abstracts.

Air Force Research Laboratory Terry Parker. Stephen A. Talley. CNES. Olivier Desjardins.10:55 am The primary breakup of a round liquid jet by a coaxial flow of gas Dokyun Kim. Bruno Vieille. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. University of Illinois at Chicago. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Parker Hannifin Corporation) SESSION 3A SESSION 3B ELECTROSTATICS DROPLET DEFORMATION AND BREAKUP (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Farzad Mashayek. Exhibits. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Chairpersons: Chia-fon Lee. University of Toronto . Parviz Moin. Posters Lunch Room: Grand Ballroom B & C Exhibition Room: St. Sandia National Laboratory Ballistic Imaging Moderated Discussion Panelists and Audience 11:45 am Low pressure atomization and mixing to simulate cryogenic fluid behavior in a thermodynamic vent system for long storage duration Philippe Konieczny.A. France 12:10 pm . Argonne National Laboratory X-Ray Extinction Mark Linne. Marcus Herrmann. Lightfoot. Stanford University 11:20 am A Method to Predict Atomization Performance in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors Malissa D. Douglas G. Danczyk. Clair Salons 1. and Nasser Ashgriz. Colorado School of Mines Infrared Scattering Jin Wang. Jean-Paul Thibault.Lunch Break. and Dimitrios Kyritsis.

University of Missouri – Rolla. P. Penn State University . Exhibits. Carlucci and Arturo De Risi.1:30 pm Electrostatic Atomization of Vegetable Oils G. Posters Breaks in Room: St. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Modeling Droplet Breakup Processes in Biodiesel Engines under Micro-Explosion Conditions Kuo-Ting Wang. Imperial College. S.) SESSION 4A DIAGNOSTICS (Room: Lakeshore East) Chairpersons: James A. Chia-fon Lee. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Antonio. and M. Trujillo. Shrimpton. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Exhibition Room: St. Clair Salons 1. University of California San Diego Ali Jafari and Nasser Ashgriz. University of Illinois at Chicago. University of Illinois at Chicago A model for deformation of liquid jets and droplets subjected to gaseous flows Alireza Mashayek. University of Toronto 1:55 pm Electrostatically Assisted Fuel Injection and Charged Droplet Combustion Eric Anderson.Break. Sandia National Lab SESSION 4B COMPUTATIONAL METHODS (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Chris Edwards. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign 2:20 pm POSTER SESSION 3:00 pm . Italy and Dimitrios Kyritsis. Drallmeier.F. and Mark Linne. Stanford University. and F. University of Lecce. Mashayek. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Solar Turbines Inc. J. London. Al-Ahmed.

and Bassem F. Brooks Moses. Combustion Physics Lund University David L. Ford Motor Co. Paciaroni. Linne.. Drallmeier. International Scientific Solutions Incorporated Analytical Calculations of Spatial Accuracy of Collision Rate Computations Scott Post. Michigan Technological University 4:40 pm Technical Meetings Computational and Modeling (Room: Lakeshore East) Diesel and Automotive (Room: Lakeshore West) Industrial and Agricultural Sprays (Room: Ontario Board Room) 5:40 pm Close 1st Day . Hai Lan. Megan E. Armaly. Chris Edwards. Friedrich. Mark A. Lund University Megan Paciaroni. Bradley University. Shankar Subramaniam. Sedarsky. James A. and Song-Lin Yang. Igor V.3:25 pm Propagation of ultra-short laser light pulses in spray environments Edouard Berrocal. Stanford University 3:50 pm Development of a Non-intrusive Film Thickness Measurement Technique for Dynamic Sheardriven Thin Liquid Films Mark A. Iowa State University 4:15 pm Ballistic imaging of the near field for jets in gaseous crossflow David Sedarsky. Sandia National Lab Beyond the Point Particle: LES-Style Filtering of Finite-Sized Particles. Meglinski. Foo-Chern Ting. University of Missouri – Rolla Accurate Spray Simulations using the Lagrangian-Eulerian Method Rahul Garg.

Irvine 9:00 am Investigation of the Effect of Injector Internal Geometry on Penetration of a Plain Liquid Jet into a Subsonic Crossflow Chris Bolszo. Irvine . Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area (Sponsored by Nektar Therapeutics) 8:00 am – Invited Speaker: Antonio Cavaliere. Derek Dunn-Rankin. United Technologies Research Center Chairpersons: Corinne Lengsfeld.THURSDAY .Cr:YSGG Laser Interaction with a Stream of Droplets Peter Chueh. and Corinne Lengsfeld. University of Denver 9:25 am Towards A Robust Phenomenological Turbulent Jet-inCrossflow Atomization Model Sachin Khosla. UC Irvine Cellular response of Human Lung Cells to EHDA Michelle Zeles-Hahn. University of California. CFD Research Corporation. University of Colorado School of Pharmacy. University of California. University of Denver. Alex Conley. Clifford E. Ioana Rizoiu. University of Denver Yvonne Lentz. and May Corn. and Derek DunnRankin. 2007 7:00 am – Breakfast Room: St. Thomas Anchordoquy. Vincent McDonell. Naples Liquid Jet in Gas Cross Flow Room: Grand Ballroom Salon B & C 8:50 am – Transition to General Sessions SESSION 1A SESSION 1B CROSSFLOW ATOMIZATION BIOLOGICAL SPRAYS (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Sachin Khosla. CFD Research Corporation Er. Smith. University Federico II. Biolase Technology.MAY 17.

Oregon State University. J. and Shankar Subramaniam. Spraying Systems Co. Centro de Investigación en Energía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Clair Salons 1. Apte. Schick. United Technologies Research Center. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Procter & Gamble) SESSION 2A SESSION 2B INDUSTRIAL COMPUTATIONAL METHODS (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Ravi K. University of California. Iowa State University 10:30 am Numerical Simulation of Spray Pattern in a Liquid Flashing Column R. Exhibits. México. and University of California. Posters Breaks in Room: St. Heshmat Massah. Oregon State University . Corinne Lengsfeld. Guillermo Aguilar. and Michael Benjamin. Ansys Inc A Refined Level Set Grid Method for Simulating Primary Atomization Marcus Herrmann. Sourabh V. Marco Arienti. Irvine. Parker Hannifin Corporation Chairpersons: Sourabh V. University of Denver 10:15 am . Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Exhibition Room: St. Morelos. Madabhushi. Madabhushi. Riverside A Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach for Two-Phase Flows with Fully Resolved Interfaces Ehsan Shams.Break. Apte. Stanford University 10:55 am Insights Into Flashing Spray Characteristics Using a Capillary Tube Expansion Model Henry Vu. Riverside Octavio Garca-Valladares. United Technologies Research Center Understanding EHDA and Protein Stability Michelle Zeles-Hahn.9:50 am Modeling the effect of momentum flux ratio on the wake velocity characteristics of a liquid jet in crossflow Ravi K. University of California. Elizabeth Nottingham.

Trujillo. Spraying Systems Co. and Ramachandra Diwakar. SOLAR Turbines Inc An implicit implementation of surface tension in finite volume models for two-phase flows Mehdi Raessi. Markus Bussmann. Madabhushi. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Goodrich Corporation) SESSION 3A SESSION 3B SPRAY MODELING SIMULATIONS (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Rolf D. Spraying Systems Co . and Ravi K. Reitz. Javad Mostaghimi. Rolf D. Marcus Herrmann. J.PCTS.F..11:20 am Modeling Sprays for Lean Premix Prevaporized Fuel Injection in Gas Turbines Gareth Oskam. University of Toronto. Gardner. General Motor Corporation CFD Analysis for NOx-Control in Refinery K. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Schick and K. Clair Salons 1. R. Posters Lunch Room: Grand Ballroom B & C Exhibition Room: St. Reitz. Andreas Lippert. K. R. University of Toronto 11:45 am Effect of Fan Air Flow Rate on the Spray Distribution M. and Heinz Pitsch Stanford University 12:10 pm – Annual Business Meeting. Choi . University of Wisconsin-Madison. Penn State University Chairpersons: Nasser Ashgriz. Schick. Cronce. and R. Conservative Level Set/Ghost Fluid Method for Simulating Primary Atomization Olivier Desjardins. Exhibits. C. Inc. and and M. Brown. United Technologies Research Center 1:30 pm Development of a Next-Generation Spray and Atomization Model Using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Methodology Wei Ning.

Oklahoma State University Brian Miller and Khaled Sallam. Raj M. Kuo-Cheng Lin. and Milind A.Break. Jog. Oklahoma State University. University of Alberta Spray Characterization of a multihole injector Yangbing Zeng. Exhibits. Andreas Lippert and Ronald Grover. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Simulent Inc. Spraying Systems Deutschland GmbH 2:45 pm . De Ketelaere and K. University of Cincinnati. Oklahoma State University. Wulteputte. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Exhibition Room: St. Campbell Carter.Leuven. Jog. Manglik. Cummins Inc. Taitech Inc. and Scott Post. Impact. Kalpak Gatne. AFRL Experiments and Simulations of Spreading. Posters Breaks in Room: St. AutoJet Technologies.) SESSION 4A SESSION 4B DIAGNOSTICS DROPLET IMPACT (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Khaled Sallam. Anthonis. Purdue University Chairpersons: Milind A.1:55 pm Lagrangian to Eulerian conversion schemes for estimating deposition probability rates M. and Yudaya Sivathanu.. Lange. University of Cincinnati. Department BIOSYST. Bradley University 3:10 pm Velocity and Size Measurements of Aerated Spray using Digital Microscopic Holography Jaiho Lee. Belgium CFD Analysis Of Gas Cooling Stefan Markus.U. Iftekher Rahman. Clair Salons 1. University of Cincinnati . Carlos F. General Motors Corporation 2:20 pm Modelling of Water-Air Internal-Mix nozzles J.. L. B. and Recoil of Surfactant Solution Droplets on a Hydrophobic Surface Arun Sanjeev.

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Splashing of Mono-disperse Spray Injected onto a Cylindrical Rod of Various Surface Shapes S. Korea University. H. En'Urga Inc. S. A. Jepsen. Yoon.) . Krarup. Woodward Governor Company Impact of Plasma-Sprayed Particles on Textured Silicon Wafers Andre McDonald.C. N. Sanjeev Chandra. Johnson & Son Inc.G. Y. Guillermo Aguila. Jongmook Lim. Heat Transfer Phenomena Due to Impact of Multiple-Cryogen Droplets onto Skin Phantom Jie Liu. S. Kim. University of Toronto. Christian Moreau. Larry Rosenzweig. Prabodh Varanasi. Lee. R. S.. Yudaya Sivathanu and Paul Sojka. University of California. Sandia National Labs 4:00 pm Atomization of a common nasal spray formulation as a function of applied force and velocity H. National Research Council Canada 4:50 pm Technical Meetings Rocket and Airbreathing Power Fuel Atomization and Industrial Combustion (Room: Lakeshore West) Physics of Atomization (Room: Lakeshore West) Spray Measurement and Instrumentation (Room: Ontario Board Room) 5:35 pm Close 2nd Day 6:00 PM – ILASS Banquet The Field Museum (Sponsored by Spraying Systems Co. En'Urga Inc. General Electric Global Research. Department of Mechanical. En'Urga Inc. J. Kim. University of Toronto. Riverside 4:25 pm Optical and Mechanical Patternation of an High Flow Rate Industrial Gas Turbine Nozzle Yudaya Sivathanu. Malvern Instruments Inc. Paul Hicks. Nitin Sharma and Yong Chen. Purdue University.3:35 pm Measurement of Spatially Resolved Mean Velocities in a Transient Spray using Statistical Correlation Velocimetry Jongmmok Lim. D.

and Thomas Riedel. Spraying Federico II. Kyoung-Su Im. Heister. Powell. Spraying Systems Co. Drallmeier. GmbH On the Linear Stability of Compound Capillary Jets Maksud (Max) Ismailov. . William A. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Breakup of a laminar axisymmetric liquid jet Sadegh Dabiri. F. McCarthy. 2007 7:15 am – Breakfast Room: St. University of Minnesota Extinguishment of Horizontal Wood Slabs Fire by a Water Spray Tri Poespowati. and James A. Yujie Wang. Stephen D. University of Missouri – Rolla 8:00 am Fuel Effects on the Spray and Combustion Processes Within an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Tiegang Fang. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Area (Sponsored by Spray Analysis and Research Services) SESSION 1A SESSION 1B SESSION 1C DIESEL JET ATOMIZATION (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) FIRE SUPPRESSION (Room: Grand Ballroom A ) Chairpersons: Jin Wang. Joseph. The Institute of National Technology. Chia-fon Lee.. Systems Co. Keith Knasiak. and James E. Seong-Kyun Cheong and Jin Wang.FRIDAY . Irvine. Jr. Argonne National Lab. Sirignano.MAY 18. Eaton Corporation Chairpersons: Antonio Chairpersons: Jerry Cavaliere. University of California. Robert Bosch. Malang Indonesia 8:25 am Improved Method to Determine Spray Axial Velocity Using X-Ray Radiography Alan Kastengren. Xin Liu. University Hagers. Argonne National Laboratory. Purdue University Water Mist Simplification Effects on Fire Suppression Modeling: A Challenge to the Industry Geoff Tanner. Daniel D.

University of Toronto Scale Up of Two-Fluid Nozzles for Chemical Processing Douglas Greminger. J. Clair Meeting Room Pre-Function Exhibition Room: St. Nasser Ashgriz. John Abraham. Carnegie Mellon University. H. Derek Dunn-Rankin. Landry. Purdue University Large Scale Rain Simulator Preliminary Design and Validation Keith F. Chia-fon Lee. Dow Chemical Company 9:15 am Predicting breakup characteristics of liquid jets disturbed by practical piezoelectric devices Mina Rohani. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of liquid nanocylinder and nanojet breakup Anupam Tiwari. Clair Salons 1. and John Abraham.Break. Spray Analysis and Research Services SESSION 2A SESSION 2B SESSION 2C SPRAY CONTROL SIMULATIONS INDUSTRIAL (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) (Room: Grand Ballroom A ) Chairpersons: Will Bachalo. Purdue University Chairpersons: Chuck Lipp. Irvine Subcritical and supercritical nanodroplet evaporation: A molecular dynamics investigation E. Procter & Gamble Ken Giles. Chuck Lipp. and A. Exhibits.8:50 am Soot Formation within Conventional and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Yi Xu. Ken Giles. Artium Corporation Chairpersons: A. Duane Needham. and Faryar Jabbari. Jason Stamper. H. Davis 9:40 am Independent control of flow rates and droplet size spectra from fan nozzles using a single actuator D. 2 & 3 (Sponsored by Dow Chemical Company) . S. University of California. Carnegie Mellon University Atomization of Detergent Slurries: Effects of Bubbles and Solids Particles John Hecht. Dow Chemical Company 10:05 am . McGaughey. J. S. Davis Discrete Phase Based Method (DPM) of Modeling Splash Plate Atomizers Araz Sarchami. University of Californina. University of California. McGaughey. Posters Breaks in Room: St. Knasiak. Mikkilineni.

and Sean Emerson. University of Toronto Experimental investigation of liquid film stripping at a sharp corner Ben Steinhaus. Lou Chiappetta. Lightfoot.A. Irvine Chairpersons: Malissa D. University of WisconsinMadison 10:45 am A Preliminary Investigation of Flow Scaling for Injector Characterization P. Engine Research Center. Sanjeev Chandra. Andrew Corber. University of Toronto Modeling Biodiesel Spray Breakup with Well-Defined Fuel Properties Jonathon McCrady. Sanjeev Chandra. Talley. Concordia University Methodology for Using Fuel Spray Measurements in a Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Exhaust Simulation James E. Valerie Stringer. McCarthy. John Costello. Air Force Research Laboratory Chairpersons: Douglas G. McDonell. National Research Council of Canada Computational Study of Breakup Time of Liquid Sheets Mohammad Movassat. United Technologies Research Center Disintegration of a radially spreading liquid sheet Rajeev Dhiman. Jr. Walter Borst. Energy Research Consultants and University of California.. Rolf D. Reitz. Tim Shedd and Jaal Ghandhi. and Chia-fon Lee. Eaton Corporation 11:10 am Design and Validation of a Fuel-Air Mixer for a Portable Reformer May Corn. University of Illinois . Alan Hansen. University of WisconsinMadison Modeling Low-Pressure Injections in Diesel HCCI Engines Yong Sun. Air Force Research Laboratory 10:20 am Producing small molten tin droplets by using a pneumatic droplet generator Afsoon Amirzadeh Goghari.SESSION 3A SESSION 3B SESSION 3C INDUSTRIAL FILM AND SHEET ATOMIZATION DIESEL (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Grand Ballroom A) (Room: Lakeshore West) Chairpersons: Vincent G. Ali Dolatabadi.

B. AutoJet Technologies B. Wulteputte. Energy Research Consultants . Iowa State University Chairpersons: John Hecht.A. University of WisconsinMadison In-line nozzle monitoring system based on recursive least squares De Ketelaere.V. Rolf D. Procter and Gamble Chairpersons: Yangbing Zeng. Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS) 12:25 pm End of Conference Optimization of Airblast Atomization for Reducing Pollutant Emissions from a Recuperated Gas Turbine Engine Operated on Biodiesel Christopher T. Krishna and Thomas Butcher. R. Bradley University Spray Velocity and Drop Size Measurements in Vacuum Conditions Renaud Lecourt. Vincent G. L. Brown. McDonell. Ulises M. Brookhaven National Laboratory 12:00 noon Droplet Collision Modeling in MultiDimensional Spray Computations Achuth Munnannur. ESA-ESTEC Spray Characteristics of an Airblast Atomizer on Biodiesel Blends C.. Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS). J.. Mondragon. Prof.SESSION 4A SESSION 4B SESSION 4C SPRAY MODELING INDUSTRIAL BIODIESEL (Room: Lakeshore East) (Room: Lakeshore West) (Room: Grand Ballroom A) Chairpersons: Shankar Subramaniam. Energy Resources Division. Reitz. Anthonis. ONERA Johan Steelant. General Motors Corporation 11:35 am Intra-Parcel Collision Model Scott Post.

MI. 48 . Sanjeev. Manglik. Applied Research Laboratory. Petrilla.A. M. B. Argonne National Laboratory. J. Parkhill. Armaly. Wayne State University. and Jin Wang. Applied Research Laboratory. Brinckman.A. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. M.W. Trujillo. Liu. David L. J. Lai. Division of Engineering. Industrial. Jog. Department of Aerospace Engineering. Lan.A. X. Penn State University Vaporization of a nHeptane Droplet using Molecular Dynamics B. Drallmeier. University of Missouri-Rolla Effects of an Induced Perturbation on the Interaction of Separated Gas Flow and Shear-driven Thin Liquid Films M. M. Armaly.M. Department of Aerospace Engineering. K. and B. and Nuclear Engineering. Micci. University of Missouri-Rolla A Numerical Study of In-cylinder Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Yuxin Zhang and Harold Schock. P. Feldman Combustion Research & Flow Technology. Friedrich. M. and G. Hung. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Visteon Corporation Dynamics of the Shock Waves Generated by High-Speed Liquid Jets Kyoung-Su Im. Friedrich. Seong-Kyun Cheong. Department of Mechanical.E. Huzzayin. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. A. Trujillo. Penn State University. O. Applied Research Laboratory. Hosangadi.F.-C. Detroit. Applied Research Laboratory.A. and M. University of Cincinnati Film Separation Criterion with Experiemental Validation for Dynamic Sheardriven Thin Liquid Films in Separated Gas Flows M.S. Inc. R. (CRAFT Tech) Impact Dynamics and Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces A. Michigan State University. Penn State University Towards an Efficient Nonlinear Atomization Model for Thin Liquid Films Carsten Mehring. Penn State University. H.POSTER SESSION Equilibrium Condition for Lagrangian Bubble and Droplet Motion A. F. Drallmeier. and B.F. Penn State University M.A. Edge.F. Penn State University M. Colorado School of Mines CFD Methodology for High-Speed Liquid Jet Venting and Breakup Predicitions K.A. A. Gatne.

ABSTRACTS .

IL. Law Princeton University Recent advances on the dynamics of head-on droplet-droplet and droplet-film collision are discussed.K. the experimentally observed nonmonotonic outcome of merging versus bouncing in response to increasing impact inertia are phenomenologically described and theoretically analyzed. May 2007 Dynamics of Droplet Collision C. yielding satisfactory explanation of the various collision outcomes. Invited Presentation . were simulated. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. as well as the energy budget.ILASS Americas. For droplet-droplet collision. yielding results that largely agree with experimental observations. Chicago. the dynamics of the rarefied flow in the interfacial gap. For dropletfilm collision. and molecular attraction through the van der Waals force leading to interface merging. were formulated and analyzed. The collision dynamics on the evolution of the surface contours of the droplet and film. The roles of viscous loss through the droplet internal motion. experiments revealed nonmonotonic response when the film thickness was varied.

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Multi-Hole Injector Spray Characterization Utilizing White Light Volume Illumination
and Schlieren Techniques
A. Pawlowski and R. Kneer*
Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer
RWTH Aachen University
52056 Aachen, Germany
S. E. Parrish
General Motors R&D and Planning
30500 Mound Road
Warren, MI 48090-9055 USA
Abstract
Spray characteristics from multi-hole injectors intended for use in direct-injected spark-ignited engines have been
evaluated in a pressurized spray chamber. The liquid and vapor phase of the spray has been investigated using a
combination of white light volume illumination and a z-type schlieren technique. The effects of fuel pressure, nozzle
geometry, fuel type and ambient temperature on spray characteristics were investigated at an ambient pressure of
0.55 MPa and an ambient temperature of up to 300°C. For the investigated conditions, the presence of liquid fuel
was found to be a good marker for the spray tip position until the completion of the fuel evaporation process. The
presence of fuel vapor is restricted early in the injection process to the spray periphery and the region close to the
nozzle. Fewer holes and higher injection pressure increase the spray penetration, whereas the influence of ambient
temperature is small. A comparison between E85 and indolene revealed spray penetration to be similar. However,
liquid phase persisted longer in the case of E85. The governing influence appears to be not the lower boiling point of
ethanol but the higher latent heat.

*

Corresponding author

Wednesday, Session 1A - 1

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Common-Rail Ethanol Sprays at Diesel
Engine-Like Conditions
P. Spiekermann, S. Jerzembeck*, S. Vogel, C. Felsch and N. Peters
Institut für Technische Verbrennung
RWTH Aachen University
Templergraben 64, 52064 Aachen, Germany
Abstract
Experimental Common-Rail Ethanol Sprays are investigated in a high pressure vessel for pressures up to 50 bar and
temperatures up to 800 K. Mie-, Shadow- and 1-D Raman optical measurement techniques are used for the spray
investigations. The liquid and gaseous spray penetrations obtained from all experiments are compared with results
from corresponding transient numerical CFD simulations. Furthermore, measured and calculated fuel mass fractions
and temperatures of the gaseous phase are compared for one reference experiment. The agreement between
experiment and simulation is found to be very good.
Spray penetration for liquid and gas phase is discussed with respect to effects of ambient gas density and ambient
gas temperature variations.
A reference spray vessel experiment is investigated in detail. The spray model parameters in the CFD simulation are
adjusted such that the simulation results match the experimental data in terms of liquid and gaseous spray
penetration. Moreover, the experimentally obtained fuel mass fraction and the temperature of the gaseous phase are
compared to simulation data. These quantities are the determining ones for auto-ignition timing and subsequent heat
release in Diesel engine applications. Thus, capturing these quantities well is an essential prerequisite in all CFD
simulations that address Diesel engine combustion.
In addition to the reference experiment, three other cases are investigated with the spray model parameters in the
CFD simulations kept unchanged with respect to the reference case, in order to validate the predictability of the
spray models applied. It is found that these additional simulations yield very good results as well.

*

Corresponding author

Wednesday, Session 1A - 2

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Thickness Using Refractive
Index matching Methods
B. C. Steinhaus and J. B. Ghandhi*
Engine Research Center
University of Wisconsin – Madison
Madison, WI 53706 USA
Abstract
The spatial distribution of fuel film thickness resulting from the impingement of a diesel fuel spray on a surface
was measured in a chamber at conditions similar to early injection conditions used for low temperature diesel
combustion. The volume of the adhered fuel and radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was
injected normal to, and at a 45° angle to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353, 427 and 500 K,
with densities of 10, 25 and 50 kg/m3. Two injectors, with single-hole nozzles having diameters of 120 and 207 µm
were used. The results show that the adhered fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but
was minimally affected by the chamber density and spray impingement angle. The maximum fuel film thickness and
film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. Initial results indicate that the effect of injector
nozzle diameter was slight, with a larger diameter depositing more fuel on the surface for comparable condition.

*

Corresponding author

Wednesday, Session 1A - 3

2 California Institute of Technology1 .1. May 2007 Modeling Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation of Multi-Component Fuel Two-Phase Flows Using Continuous Thermodynamics Laurent C. Pasadena CA 91125 Jet Propulsion Laboratory2 . Criteria are proposed to select the formulation best suited for LES. This analysis represents the precursor to a future study for modeling the MC LES equations. and these formulations are not equivalent. are possible. The filtered equations contain two categories of subgrid-scale (SGS) terms that must be modeled: (1) SGS terms and (2) terms representing the ‘LES assumptions’. In contrast to single-component (SC) fuels. rather than a single one. Assumptions not present in corresponding SC LES equations are examined and assessed. Wednesday. it is shown that two LES formulations. California Institute of Technology. Pasadena CA 91109-8099 Abstract The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) equations for multi-component (MC) fuel two-phase flow are derived from the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) equations by filtering the DNS equations using a top-hat filter.1 . USA.IILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. These criteria are used in conjunction with evaluations based on a DNS database and lead to the final LES equations. Selle1 and Josette Bellan∗. Session 1B . Chicago.

Cheng1. McCrady2. The cooler ambient temperature due to expansion also assists in inhibiting formation of the species. Lee1* 1 Department of Mechanical Science Engineering 2 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana. The formation of nitrogen oxide. IL 61801. These include the KelvinHelmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor model for describing the droplet breakup process and the Shell model. * Corresponding author Wednesday. The modified KIVA code is shown to accurately predict the major combustion characteristics. thus. then. USA Abstract Numerical calculations using the KIVA 3V code developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are performed to compare the operation of a small bore high speed direct injection engine using biodiesel and diesel fuels. Stringer1. Experimental data shows that diffusion flame may exist when biodiesel is injected at 3° after topdead-center. L. Hansen2 and C. V. The combustion process starts in the later part of the cycle with delayed fuel injection. calibrated for biodiesel and low temperature combustion. Chicago. IL. even though the main combustion process can be described as HCCI from the single peaked heat release curve. The fuel library is expanded to include properties of soybean biodiesel using BDProp. Reduction of over 90% is observed when fuel injection is delayed from 335° to 363°. include the peak combustion temperature. Deferring injection time reduces the production of nitrogen oxide significantly. L. F. Formation of nitrogen oxide is described by the extended Zeldovich mechanism. frozen at the maximum value as in the extended Zeldovich model. J. Session 1B . are characterized by rapid initial formation. A.2 .ILASS Americas. for both biodiesel and petroleum based diesel fuel. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Several modifications to the code are made to improve its capability with biodiesel simulations. A longer combustion process is observed in conventional diesel. May 2007 Comparisons between a High Speed Direct Injection Engine Operating with Biodiesel and Petroleum Based Diesel W. This allows the fuel vapor-air mixture to better mix upon ignition. preventing high temperature flame. Formation of nitrogen oxide is correctly predicted by the modified KIVA code also. The simulations show that biodiesel has a longer ignition delay and lower peak combustion pressure. so is nitrogen oxide emission. heat release rate and ignition timing.

Their analysis also reveals an exponential response function of time for the droplet to reach the surrounding gas velocity. However.2 . It is assumed that the instantaneous injection velocity affects the spray tip with an exponential response function and that the response time is the particle residence time. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. realistic injection profiles are usually time-varying and thus steady-state gas -jet theory cannot be applied directly. [11] studied the response function of a droplet to the surrounding gas velocity. There have been attempts to study non-stationary jets and sprays. Such gas-jet theorybased models have been used extensively to determine the spray-tip penetration for steady-state injections by various researchers [3. [6]. Zhang et al. involved a study of a sudden decrease in injection velocity. The model is tested with different injection profiles and different ambient densities. Measurements by Borée et al. where x is the position of the spray tip and Uinj. Crowe et a l. These spray models are a direct extension of gas-jet theory based on steady injections [3. May 2007 A Model to Predict Spray-tip Penetration for Time -varying Injection Profiles Neerav Abani* and Rolf D. The results have been found to agree well with experiments and fine-mesh CFD computations. in a study of self-similar. However. In this work we propose a relatively simple explicit model that can be used to predict spray tip penetration. but as the mesh size is increased to be compatible with practical engine computations. Keywords: Sprays. They showed their model worked well for a linearly increasing injection velocity profile. Currently available zero-dimensional combustion modeling codes use spray penetration models which are based on a quasi-steady assumption [1. quadratic and exponential injection profiles using measurements. they did not consider other injection velocity rate shapes.3 . Graduate Research Assistant email: abani@wisc. there is a need for a better predictive model for spray penetration that can be used with practical time-varying injection velocity profiles and realistic engine ambient conditions. the spray-tip penetration. CFD Introduction: Spray models are extensively used in the modeling and simulation of various combustion systems. 2]. They found that the temporal evolution of the spray front follows the same form as the forcing function at the nozzle. _________________________________ *Corresponding author. Previous works pertaining to simple one-dimensional spray models include the packet penetration model of Desantes et al.2 is the suddenly decreased injection velocity. The results are also compared with numerical results from a CFD code that has been calibrated for spray simulations. we present a new method. such as Internal Combustion engines and Gas Turbine engines. Wan et al. which is based on jet-theory and a superposition integral formulation to determine an effective injection velocity and hence. In this work. The model also can be used to predict equivalence ratio distributions for combusting sprays and jets.ILASS Americas. Breidenthal [10]. the prediction accuracy becomes poorer. However. IL. 4. Droplet. The comparisons agree very well and the new spray penetration model offers an efficient method to predict penetrations. The approach involves using an effective injection velocity for the spray tip based on a representative spray response time. Super-position integral. Reitz Engine Research Center. leads to a self-similar result. This self-similarity function can be thought of as the response function of a particle in the jet to a change in injection velocity. their results and model only apply to a sudden decrease in injection velocity from an initial constant value to a constant lower value. This Helmholtz theory is also shown to yield the well-known velocity decay rate of turbulent gas jets. and 5]. 4]. turbulent jets postulated that if the flow is non-stationary or non-steady a choice of selfsimilarity function is the exponential function. [7 ]. [9] also modeled spray penetration for evaporating sprays by using scaling parameters. University of Wisconsin-Madison Abstract A new model to predict spray-tip penetration for a time-varying injection profile has been formulated based on gasjet theory. but their study did not include a wide range of tested injection profiles. where an injected spray particle instantly travels with a different momentum once it is overtaken by a speeding subsequently injected particle. CFD modeling of sprays and jets provides good predictions of tippenetration. They found that a time-scale of the form x/ Uinj. Hence. Session 1B . Chicago. A Duhamel superposition integral is used to determine the effective injection velocity for time-varying injection rates. [8] studied the effects of flow acceleration on turbulent jets with linear. consistent with the theory of translation of jet vortex rings from Helmholtz’s vortex motion analysis [11]. and they proposed a self-similar result based on a temporal scaling.edu Wednesday. This approach is an improvement over other quasisteady state models in the literature. Vortex Motion.

The computations show that as the inlet of the injector is rounded the amplitude of the unsteadiness is reduced and for large enough radii the unsteadiness is absent. Axisymmetric. it is hypothesized that the wavelengths associated with unsteadiness could be amplified by the boundary layer instabilities at the exit of the nozzle and lead to the primary atomization of the liquid jet. Moreover.D.ILASS Americas. The results are summarized and compared against classical linear theories. as the injector length is increased local maxima in the amplitude of the unsteadiness are observed. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. * Corresponding author Wednesday. Heister* School of Aeronautics and Astronautics Purdue University West Lafayette. IN 47907-2023 USA Abstract A series of parametric computational studies are conducted to assess the frequency/wavelength of disturbances that issue into the atomizing jet as a result of instabilities in the vena-contracta formed at the orifice entry. Furthermore. May 2007 On the Contributions of Orifice Hydrodynamic Instabilities to Primary Atomization J. Session 2A . Canino and S. Chicago. IL.1 . laminar incompressible computations are performed for a variety of orifice lengths and inlet rounding levels.

2 . Kim∗. The characteristic mechanisms of the jet breakup are consistent with the experimentally observed physical mechanisms and the corresponding stability analysis. CA 94305 Abstract Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the primary atomization of a round liquid jet surrounded by a coaxial flow of gas.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. motion and topological changes of the liquid jet are described by the RLSG method. Session 2A . A Refined Level Set Grid (RLSG) method coupled to a Lagrangian spray model is used to capture the whole breakup process of the liquid jet. Chicago. In the near field of the liquid jet. O. May 2007 The Primary Breakup of a Round Liquid Jet by a Coaxial Flow of Gas D. IL. Desjardins. ∗ Corresponding Author Wednesday. The ligaments are growing from the liquid core and broken into various sizes of drops. Moin Center for Turbulence Research Stanford University. M. The small broken drops are transferred to a Lagrangian stochastic spray model in order to describe the secondary breakup process. where the primary breakup occurs. Herrmann and P. The drop-size distribution of the resulting spray is dependent on the grid size for drops smaller than two G-grid cells.

This paper investigates the atomization efficiency and droplet distribution from films with strong gas-phase influences. Danczyk and D. Distribution Unlimited. IL.A. Lightfoot * . Session 2A . Wednesday. A. efforts are made to keep the model as general as possible so that it applies to many types of atomizers and a wide range of operating conditions. In this process a disturbance is created on the film surface then broken down into droplets via stripping. G.ILASS Americas. A specific example involving a gas-centered swirl coaxial injector is given to illustrate how the theory would be applied.3 . * Corresponding author Distribution A: Approved for public release.D. A prediction of atomization efficiency based on a general theory of the droplet creation process is given. CA Abstract The ability to predict atomizer performance can reduce the cost of system development in many areas. The theory relates the mass of film lost via atomization to the mass of liquid introduced into the atomizer to predict atomization efficiency and offers some estimations of primary droplet diameter. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. S. Chicago. Talley Air Force Research Laboratory Edwards AFB. May 2007 A Method to Predict Atomization Performance in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors M. however.

38000 Grenoble. The multiple sprays are used to thermally de-stratify and control both liquid and ullage.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. An experiment is carried out to investigate low-pressure atomizer performances with conventional as well as highly evaporating fluids available to simulate cryogenic fluid close to room temperature. France Abstract During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations. which control heat and mass transfer. Various concepts are under consideration. CNES Laboratoire des Ecoulements Gophysiques et Industriels.4 . J. Chicago. ∗ Corresponding Author Wednesday. Thibault+ and B. Centre Spatial d’Evry. Konieczny+∗. independently of liquid-vapor interface position. UJF-CNRS-INPG BP 53. a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to reduce self-pressurization effect without propellant resettling. The efficiency of the system is closely connected to liquid droplets size and velocity. IL. Session 2A . Vieille++ ++ Direction des Lanceurs d’Ariane. all of them using multiple injectors supplied by a low pressure pump which can be optionally coupled to a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger. May 2007 Experimental investigations of cryogenic fluid in a thermodynamic vent system for long-time storage + P. P.

Path integrated extinction for the first two nozzles were obtained using the SETscan® OP-600 patternator. Session 2B . Only one six view angles is shown for the figures. 2. West Lafayette. S. Data from laser sheet extinction tomography that have been presented in the past have focused on oil and water sprays with peak path integrated absorptances of approximately 60% [1. Some sample results obtained during the study are reported. The second is an aircraft engine nozzle with a water flow rate of 1200 lbs/hr. Similar agreement between the measurements and the calculations were obtained for the ketchup jet. Lim.. there is a high degree of confidence in the results. J. Statist. Even for essentially obscuring jets. The convergence of the algorithm to the measured values is within 0.. Y. Therefore.237 1. Experimental Apparatus Three different nozzles were used in this study.5%.. Vardi. Table 1: Characteristics of ketchup nozzles Parameter Total surface area (mm2) Patternation no. Atomization and Sprays. small differences in nozzle performances can be obtained. Introduction Laser sheet extinction tomography has become a popular technique used in the quality assurance of injectors. J.Visible Light Extinction Tomography for Dense Sprays Yudaya Sivathanu and Jongmook Lim En’Urga Inc. Measured and deconvoluted path integrated absorptance for the oil and water sprays. Figure 1.06 9.2]. it can be concluded that the method works reasonably well for very dense sprays. Soc. Y.. Narayanan.834 References [1] [2] [3] Lim. The last is a ketchup dispenser. V.. 13:27-43 (2003). For a cloud of droplets from a nonabsorbing spray.. The path integrated extinction is deconvoluted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) method [3]. The OP2-200 patternator was used to obtain data from the ketchup dispenser. D.254 0.279 2. the liquid surface area per unit volume. Theory Laser extinction tomography involves measurement of path integrated extinction from multiple view angles. Figure 1. and Chang. which had a peak absorptance value of 0. is identical to the local extinction coefficient. J. Based on the study. The contour plot of surface area densities for the water spray is shown in Fig. Contour map of surface area densities for the water spray. The deconvolution provides the local extinction coefficient. and Sivathanu.55 12. provided the drop sizes are much greater than the wavelength of light..166 2. with an oil flow rate of 375 lbs/hr.230 0. Sample characteristics obtained for three ketchup nozzles are shown in Table 1.99. Atomization and Sprays 15:687-698 (2003). IN 47906 This study examines the feasibility of visible light extinction tomography for understanding the structure of dense sprays. Sivathanu. B. The hollow cone behavior of the nozzle is evident. and Lee. 1. 55:569612 (1993).. 1291-A Cumberland Avenue. Results Path integrated extinction measurements from the first two nozzles are shown in Fig. (12 sector) Maximum density (mm-1) Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2 Nozzle 3 11. with the center value being less than 5% of the peak.. This present study extends the use of laser extinction tomography to sprays that have extinction greater than 90%. Wednesday.902 0. R. The first is a large industrial nozzle. Y.

Results are quantitative and can be used in repeatable systems to build up a pseudo-image.[1] Labs.com/video/6a7c7e10642258cc/X.avi. optically dense diesel sprays.05 ms.E. cases examined can be viewed online. in a scattering plane. (2002).27μm and an Nd:Yag laser operated at the 1263. T. the most relevant experiments have been conducted at initial temperatures of 873 K and 12. pp. Atomization and Sprays.. Figure 2 is a contour plot of the SMD as a function of axial and radial position for the times 0. These plots are based on data obtained throughout the data acquisition grid (axial locations in 5 mm increments and radial locations in 0. Introduction Measurements near the fuel injector outlet are difficult to make due to the high number densities of droplets and the transient nature of the spray event. to produce [5] http://www. Measurement layout for infrared dense spray meassteady state and spray dissipation). J. smd_movie_comb. tion and scattering signals is used with the known scattering response from droplets to invert the acquired signals into sauter mean diameter and volume fraction. Optical measurements were based upon dual wave. Figure 1. This paper summarizes work with infrared laser probes to produce spatially and temporally resolved Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and liquid volume fraction data from the spray interior. Transient. G. Details of this measurement can be found in the literature. 843-855 (2006). this system is coupled to a high pressure.. fundamental frequency (1. T. 40. M. Hall. Paciaronni. Full movies for all urements. yet identical. Figure 1 depicts a schematic of the meas. dows (chosen for their visible and infrared transmittance properties). events have been used to construct two-dimensional contour plots of the Sauter mean diameter and volume fraction within the spray. Labs Engineering Division. The combination of extinctwhere X is smd_movie_cold. of size or volume fraction results.begelhouse. and 3.45 ms (which represent a 0.5 atm.[3] Linne.. pp. Wednesday.55 ms. vf_movie_comb. Applied Optics... two orthogonal directions through barium fluoride win. co-aligned probe volumes.Quantitative Measurements of Sauter Mean Diameter and Volume Fraction in Dense.. and Parker. both cw..E.06μm). 44. Droplet size results for the combusting spray.[2] Labs. Session 2B .2 This work is the culmination of many years of effort and complements the more recent efforts focused on imaging measurements of the dense spray (note that two significant techniques have emerged: ballistic imaging3 and X-ray extinction4). M. T.1 ms time average during spray development. cal access was provided normal to the injector axis in 16. 28. Parker* and J. This system used a tunable CO2 laser [4] MacPhee. et al. CO 80401 This abstract summarizes a measurement technique that provides time and spatially resolved droplet size and volume fraction measurements within transient. J. Colorado School of Mines. T. and Parker.E. and Parker. 836-846 (2006). Experiments in Fluids.E. Diesel Sprays T. pp. A.3 mm increments). Science. urement layout. single orifice diesel spray nozzle and Figure 2. results are presented as contour plots of SMD and liquid volume fraction with one contour plot for each 100 μs in the spray development. Golden. 1261operated at 9. 6049-6057(2005). Results Results from multiple. pp.References length coaxial beam scattering and extinction and opti. Experimental Apparatus Experiments have been conducted in a system capable of producing high pressures and temperatures while providing optical access. 2. 295. 6. E. vf_movie_cold.1 extensions that allow application of the measurement in very dense regions are also described. 7.

Argonne. analogous to optical Schlieren imaging. DOE under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. Note that we are able to measure the fuel mass density quantitatively. IL 60439. and are extremely small quantities of magnitude <10-5. 2006). Lee) and Professor Sol Gruner Group at Cornell University. Journal of Engines (SAE International. The work is a collaboration between the ANL group (X.S. Fig. Im. respectively. Experiment and results The ultrafast tomography experiments were performed at the D-1 beamline of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The injection pressure was set at 40 MPa. the fine structures and dynamics of the fuel spray core can be elucidated with ultrafast x-ray radiography and phase-contrast imaging. Methods For x rays in most materials. 2: Diesel sprays at different injection stages visualized by ultrafast x-ray phase-contrast imaging. x rays are highly penetrative in materials composed of low-Z materials due to the intrinsically low interaction cross section. where δ and β refer to the refractive index decrement and the absorption index of the x rays in the medium. with high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Fuel was injected from a low-pressure directinjection system with multi-orifice. as shown in Figure 2 [2].S. Fig. to be published. Fezzaa. SAE Paper 2006-01-1041. K. Y. The small but measurable δ gives rise to phase contrast at gas/liquid interfaces. we are able to elucidate the 4-dimensional spray density structure (time evolution of fuel volume fraction at given coordinates spatially). USA Dense sprays of direct-injection diesel and gasoline fuels in the near-nozzle region have been successfully visualized by µs and sub-µs x-ray radiography and phase-contrast imaging. By developing an ultrafast computed microtomographic technique. S. Argonne National Laboratory. NSF and NIH via NSF under award DMR-9713424.K. However. Introduction The detailed analysis of the fuel sprays has been well recognized as an important step for optimizing the operation of internal-combustion engines to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Session 2B . 1: Fuel density distribution 1 mm from the orifice exit and 2 ms from the start of injection after tomographic reconstruction.. Therefore. The work and the use of the APS are supported by the U. the structure and dynamics of highly transient and dense fuel sprays have never been fully visualized in the near-nozzle region due to many technical difficulties associated with conventional visible-light-based visualization techniques. Wednesday. pp. References [1] [2] X. it is possible to obtain the images with a much higher temporal resolution. The absorption measurement yields the line-of-sight fuel density distribution. The spray chamber is designed to rotate and to translate in precise steps while the x-ray source and the detector are stationary. A cross section of the reconstructed fuel mass distribution at 1 mm from the nozzle exit is shown in Figure 1 [1]. The phase contrast mechanism is more effective with weakly absorbing materials such as fuel. Liu. K. The injection nozzle rotated a small angle increment of 1° covering 180° rotation. K. it would be possible to image the pintle motion during the injection process and the sprays just exit from the orifice with temporal resolution better than 1 µs. and W. This makes x rays a useful tool for spray studies designed to overcome the limitations of visible light in the near-nozzle region. X-ray single-shot phase-contrast images of a diesel fuel spray were collected at the 7-ID beamline at the APS with a temporal resolution of about 450 ns. Wang. With our latest development. 576-584.Visualizing Dense Sprays by Ultrafast X-ray Radiography and Phase-Contrast Imaging Jin Wang Advanced Photon Source. By using intense x-ray beams from synchrotron radiation sources. Because of the phase enhancement at the interfaces. Fezzaa et al. CHESS is funded by the U. Liu et al. Cheong. the index of refraction is less than unity as n =1− δ − iβ ..

Paciaroni. present a few ballistic images. Paciaroni. a diesel spray issuing into 1 atm 4 . Paciaroni. J. G. 2 "Single-shot two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media". 5 “Ballistic Imaging of the Liquid Core for a Steady Jet in Crossflow”. Delplanque. Hall. Ballistic Imaging When light passes through turbid media. in fact. requiring acquisition of an image in a single shot. Introduction Observation of primary breakup in the near field of atomizing sprays has proven difficult in many cases because a dense fog of droplets obscures the interior of the near field. ballistic images are simply specialized shadowgrams. We have been concerned that insufficient ballistic photons would exit truly dense sprays to form an image at a camera. and T. Gord and T. but we have proven this technique can acquire images through media with an optical depth of 14 with high spatial resolution in a single shot. 44:31. 3 "Single-Shot Two-Dimensional Ballistic Imaging of the Liquid Core in an Atomizing Spray". M. 5100-5109. most of it is multiply scattered (sometimes called “diffuse photons”) but a small portion is scattered just a few times (low order scattering. Kerr gating for early light Our work includes high speed flows and transient diesel sprays. Linne. and then describe extensions for the future. J. we will describe ballistic imaging systems. (2000). M. 1. we have demonstrated the application of a new laser diagnostic named ballistic imaging 2 to a steady atomizing water jet 3 . M. 40. have postulated that there actually is no liquid core to an atomizing diesel spray. T. These techniques take advantage of the signatures of the ballistic and snake light: 1) coherence with the input light. 836-846. 4 "Ballistic Imaging of the Near Field in a Diesel Spray". 43:26. spatial resolution etc. The ballistic photons carry a shadowgram image of any structures within the turbid medium. In this talk. (2005). Fig. Me. and a jet in cross flow 5 . The snake photons also carry such an image but with some degradation in image fidelity. comparison to a shadowgram. One can observe a periodic core structure with voids. (2004). sometimes called “snake photons”) and some of it actually passes through without scattering (called “ballistic photons”). Wednesday. M. T. Linne. Linne . Atomization Sprays 10:355–386. An example ballistic image of a transient diesel spray issuing into 1 atmosphere is shown here. This paper will describe the technique. J. The images are acquired similar to shadowgraphy. For this reason we developed a system that uses a 2 ps shutter (an optical Kerr gate) to sample both ballistic and very early light. The 2 ps shuttered image was frozen in time with excellent spatial resolution (better than 40 μm). Session 2B . T.-P.Ballistic Imaging for the Dense Region of Atomizing Sprays M. discuss common questions or misunderstandings (e. Applied Optics. Diffuse photons carry no information about the interior because they appear to come from randomly arrayed sources. 6627-6634. Hall. 16:1.). Experiments in Fluids. (2006).A. M. Such a system naturally samples narrow solid angles and polarized light as well. Ballistic image of a transient diesel spray4 taken at the nozzle. a liquid core in the case of an atomizing spray. Smallwood and Gülder 1 . Recently. Meyer. Applied Optics. and 4) directionality (the light is collinear with the input and exits with a small solid angle). This is not the only way to perform ballistic imaging. (2006). Parker. Uncertainty about the liquid core (if one exists. In fact. Linne. Paciaroni and M. Linne Sandia National Laboratories. 3) preservation of the input polarization state. and then describe future directions. “Ballistic imaging” is a catch-all name that identifies techniques that isolate ballistic. photons from diffuse photons in order to acquire images of interior structures.g. exactly what it consists of and how it might behave) is most pronounced in high Weber number sprays. Smallwood and Ö. Livermore CA This paper describes ballistic imaging. a relatively new technique for imaging internal structures inside the dense region of an atomizing spray. cavitation within the jet itself destroys it very near the jet exit. Until recently this assertion remained untested. or ballistic + snake. Gülder. 51-70. 1 “Views on the structure of transient diesel sprays”. 2) early arrival. Parker and M. Atomization and Sprays. attempt to answer common questions.

London Abstract Straight (or used) vegetable oils can be used as liquid fuels. the performance of the electrostatic atomization of soybean oil is compared with that of a regular diesel fuel at different atomizer geometrical parameters and flow conditions. S. Shrimpton2 and F. In our experiments. Al-Ahmad1 . atomization of these oils presents a significant challenge. This is primarily due to the high viscosity of these oils (more than 10 times higher than the viscosity of regular diesel oil). mashayek@uic. J.1 . however. In this work. IL.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.edu Wednesday. This method offers many advantages with respect to the quality and control of atomization for such highly viscous bio-fuels. May 2007 Electrostatic Atomization of Vegetable Oils G. a charge-injection method is used for electrostatic atomization of these electrically-insulating oils. ∗ Corresponding Author. which results in poor atomization using conventional fuel-injectors. The atomizer optimal operating condition as a function of the atomizer geometry parameters and bulk flow is specified and the response of the total injected and spray currents with respect to the applied voltage are investigated. Mashayek1∗ 1 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering Imperial College. Session 3A . Chicago.

K. A.2 . Chicago. and comparing average droplet size for ten sprays. Anderson1. IL 61820 USA 2 Department of Engineering for Innovation University of Lecce Lecce. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Carlucci2. Morphological differences between different levels of charge were dramatic. it was found that the standard deviation was cut in half by electrostatic assistance. E10 droplets at various charge levels were ignited and the flame was recorded with a high speed camera.ILASS Americas. * Corresponding author Wednesday. C. P. May 2007 Electrostatically Assisted Fuel Injection and Charged Droplet Combustion E. A. and D. De Risi2. Fraunhofer diffraction measurements were made on the sprays. Session 3A . and the relative span factor of an individual spray was reduced by approximately 10%. IL. Italy Abstract A gasoline fuel injector was modified to allow the induction of electrostatic charge to the spray as an additional means of controlling fuel dispersion. Kyritsis1* 1 Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana.

Mashayek1. The zeroth and first order terms correspond to the deceleration and deformation of the liquid body respectively. * Corresponding author Wednesday. CA 92093-0411. Toronto. 5 King’s College Road. Session 3B .1 . There is good agreement between the present calculations and experimental data. Ashgriz2* Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California San Diego.ILASS Americas. La Jolla. The axisymmetric formulation is used for calculating the spreading of the spherical droplets while the two-dimensional formulation is used for predicting the spreading of the liquid jet’s cross section in cross flows. USA 2 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Toronto. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. ON. May 2007 A Model for Deformation of Liquid Jets and Droplets Subjected to Gaseous Flows A. The model is based on the expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations in a series of small parameters. IL. Jafari2 and N. A. Chicago. M2M 2G5 Canada 1 Abstract An analytical model is used to calculate the deformation and spreading of the two-dimensional and axisymmetric liquid drops in a gas stream.

The occurrence of micro-explosion and the subsequent breakup promotes droplet atomization and enhance droplet dispersion which in turns improves engine performance and reduces emissions of soot and unburned hydrocarbon. the initial droplet size showed a significant effect on the secondary droplet velocity with small initial droplet radius. the mathematical formulation of the bubble generation and growth inside the droplet. F. which allows a generic probability function to be inserted. On the other hand. But numerical results show that secondary droplets tend to be smaller with ethanol-rich mixtures. Ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. May 2007 Modeling Droplet Breakup Processes in Bio-fuel Diesel Engines under Micro-explosion Conditions K. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. is proposed.ILASS Americas. The secondary droplet velocity for an initially 10 μm is six times as high as those with initial sizes larger than 15 μm. Wang and C.2 . it is observed that high ambient pressure is more likely to induce micro-explosion. Comparison of droplet behaviors for ethanol-tetradecane mixtures with and without micro-explosion shows that micro-explosion shortens the droplet lifetime. Session 3B . so does the parent droplet size. * Corresponding author Wednesday. However. Lee* Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana. IL. Chicago. T. It is found that micro-explosion is possible for ethanol/tetradecane mixtures in typical diesel engine operation. IL 61801-2906 USA Abstract A numerical study of micro-explosion for multi-component droplets in diesel engines is presented. and the final explosion of the droplet. After the explosion that shatters the droplet. There exists an optimal composition of about 50% of ethanol for micro-explosion. The first part of the model comprises the thermodynamic description of the droplet. the size and velocity of secondary droplets are determined by a linear stability analysis. An extension to the previous model. Mixture composition does not have significant effect on the secondary droplet sizes.

. At present. side and forward scattering detection geometries. The improvement and development of new laser based techniques for optically dense sprays requires suppressing the multiply scattered component from the detected signal. USA Abstract Conventional laser diagnostics for spray characterization are limited in dense spray regions due to errors introduced by multiple scattering. It is deduced. Paciaroni. Berrocal*.berrocal@forbrf.1 . that performance in removing the contribution of diffuse photons using an ultra-fast time gate increases for smaller droplets. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. * edouard. P. Due to the fact that singly scattered photons travel. the amount of suppressed diffuse photons drops to ~20%. the optimization of such time-gated techniques requires predictions related to the broadening of the incident ultra-short pulse as it propagates through the spray. and high optical depths. back and side scattering pulses have long durations (characteristic to the dimension of the probed scattering medium) and the scattering orders are well separated in time. Chicago. E.se Wednesday. However.ILASS Americas. ~50% of the unwanted diffuse photons are removed from the detected signal when applying a 2ps time gate. we numerically calculate photon times-of-flight within a homogeneous collection of fuel droplets by means of a Monte Carlo model specifically designed for spray diagnostics. USA M. The droplet distribution considered is typical for fuel sprays and is deduced from the modified Rosin-Rammler formula (droplet mean diameter D = 14 µm. Sedarsky. Sweden M. Box 118. Lund Institute of Technology. are assumed in this work. Dayton. Ohio 45440. a shorter distance than the multiply scattered photons. on average. A large detection acceptance angle. Livermore. Innovative Scientific Solutions. May 2007 Propagation of ultra-short laser light pulses within spray environments E. and SMD = 23 µm). OD = 5 and OD = 10. In this paper. A. L. 2766 Indian Ripple Rd. the averaged Lorentz-Mie scattering phase function is deduced and employed in the simulations. at OD =5. ultra-fast time-gated detection can experimentally be performed using femtosecond laser pulses (~100fs) and ultra-fast detection devices (~2ps). The contribution of each scattering order within the total time-resolved signal is also shown and analyzed. Lund 221 00. D. Box 969. Linne Sandia National Laboratories.O. IL. However. a promising solution consists in temporally selecting the first portion of the signal reaching the detection area.lth. Session 4A . Department of Combustion Physics. California 94551. The scattering medium assumed is a 10 mm cubic volume and temporally resolved calculations are carried out for the back. θa = 15º.. In contrast to the forward scattering pulses. For the forward scattering detection and at OD = 10. larger scattering volumes and higher optical depths. Inc. From this distribution.

verification of a unique fringe spacing. A high speed imaging lineof-sight method for characterization of the film surface instabilities and cross-correlation of events at two spatial locations is also discussed. which enables a controlled development of a thin shear-driven film and subsequent analysis of the film just before a sharp expanding corner. Control variables include gas and film velocities. Chicago. are presented for use as a diagnostic approach with these dynamic films. and film surface tension. H. surface tension. Session 4A . Lan. imaging quality. and measurement of the fringe spacing. shear and gravitational forces on the film at the corner are not clear. IL. An interferometric film thickness measurement technique. J. The approach centers on the concept that a single unique interferometric fringe spacing will exist over a valid fringe image.F. Armaly Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla.A. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Friedrich*. N.A. However. Contribution of the results toward developing a comprehensive film separation model is discussed. May 2007 Development of a Non-intrusive Film Thickness Measurement Technique for Dynamic Shear-driven Thin Liquid Films M. film flow rate. and B.E. Important considerations for accurate measurement of the film thickness with time include the optical configuration. along with a Fast Fourier Transform based post processing method. Wilke. MO 65409-0050 USA Abstract The behavior of a shear-driven thin liquid film at a sharp expanding corner is of interest in many engineering applications. Drallmeier. A primary parameter for understanding and predicting the film behavior at the corner is film thickness.2 .ILASS Americas. * Corresponding author Wednesday. details of the interaction between inertial. An experimental facility has been constructed.

Even the most advanced models do not account for other important structural features. We describe application of the diagnostic technique to a jet in crossflow (JICF) and present new data including statistics for relevant spray features (e. facilitating investigation of the gas-liquid shear layer instabilities and their frequency components. the time required to complete the process is more difficult to measure with conventional imaging techniques due to the high optical density in this region. providing high resolution. single-shot images of the liquid core in a water spray issuing into a gaseous crossflow. A time-gated ballistic imaging instrument is used to obtain high spatial resolution. IL. such as wake effects. surface tension. Chicago. under some conditions. single-shot images of the liquid core in a dense spray.. When properly applied. * david. Ohio. Paciaroni Innovative Scientific Solutions. 22362 Sweden M. Deflection leads to a curved liquid-jet profile. liquid inertia. different Weber numbers). this results in an under prediction of the volume flux in the near-wall region. May 2007 Near Field Fluid Structure Analysis for Jets in Crossflow with Ballistic Imaging D.3 .g.sedarsky@forbrf.g. prevaporized (LPP) gas turbine duct as one example. Air Force Research Laboratory. These problems in understanding the breakup process remain because experimental observations of primary breakup are complicated by dense spray effects such as multiple scattering and low signal levels. Session 4A . Errors in the near field can be important when fuel injection is closely coupled to an anchored flame. California 94551 USA Abstract In this work we present ballistic images of a liquid jet produced by a plain-orifice atomizer ejecting into a crossflow of air. The balance of aerodynamic drag. Linne Sandia National Laboratories. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Dayton. Sedarsky * Department of Physics. Livermore. periodic features are evident on the windward edge of the JICF. Ohio 45433 USA M. Series of these images reveal a near-nozzle flow field undergoing breakup. The characteristic geometry for an LPP duct incorporates the injection of liquid-fuel into a high temperature and pressure air stream as depicted schematically in Figure 1. This arrangement is relevant to fuel injection within a lean. Dayton. While the onset of jet-column breakup is well characterized. Dense spray effects on breakup and atomization are also typically ignored leading to uncertainties in the near field.lth. Zelina Propulsion Directorate. Lund University.ILASS Americas.se Wednesday. mean droplet size. and viscous forces induces both deflection and deformation of the jet column. and number density) for various experimental conditions (e. In contrast. premixed. Inc. Lund. and subsequent fragmentation. breaking the liquid column into large segments near the point of curvature (termed “column breakup”). ballistic imaging can mitigate these difficulties. 45440 USA J. deformation increases the frontal crosssection of the jet column increasing drag interaction along the liquid-gas shear layer. This leads to a stripping of smaller ligaments and fragments directly from the column surface (termed “surface stripping”).

As such. ∗ Corresponding Author Wednesday. and to provide refinements that extend the range of validity of the models. Stanford. but causes significant errors in the filtered centerline velocity and resolved-scale viscous dissipation at Reynolds numbers of 10 and 100 for particles with diameters as small as 1/16th of the filter radius. we show that the addition of an axial dipole component to the standard single-point force provides a substantially improved model. May 2007 Beyond the Point Particle: LES-Style Filtering of Finite-Sized Particles Brooks Moses∗ and Chris Edwards Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University. Chicago. IL. We present results for the specific case of solid spherical particles. Session 4B . it can be used to investigate the validity of point-particle models for particles of finite sizes. without recourse to the point-particle limit. CA 94305 Abstract Multiphase LES-style spatial filtering provides a rigorous means of modeling flow over computationally-unresolved particles and droplets.0 for particles with diameters as large as 1/2 of the filter radius. illustrating that a single-point-force model derived from the point-particle assumption produces reasonably accurate results at a particle Reynolds number of 1.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Further.1 .

as well as for quantitative comparison with experiments. the traditional LE simulations that do not use any computational particle number density control mechanism are demonstrated as incapable of providing grid converged mean field estimates. Subramaniam∗ Department of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University. As an alternative. We construct a model [1] for the numerical error resulting from backward estimation by decomposing it into statistical and deterministic (bias and discretization) components. Garg and S. Our study reveals that the error (with respect to analytical solution) incurred in estimating mean interphase momentum transfer by a very commonly used scheme like fourth order Lagrange polynomial interpolation for representative choice of numerical parameters (approximately 5 spray droplets per cell and one realization) is as high as 80%. the discrete phase model (DPM) in Fluent. KIVA. A novel static test that admits an analytical form for the interphase momentum transfer term is devised to test the accuracy of four popular interpolation schemes. Chicago. and their convergence with number of droplets and grid resolution is characterized.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. IL. for example. May 2007 Accurate spray simulations using Lagrangian–Eulerian method R. Session 4B . ∗ Corresponding Author Wednesday.2 . Accurate calculation of the interphase momentum transfer term in LE simulations is crucial for predicting qualitatively correct physical behavior. The study shows that our new improved LE simulation method is able to overcome the aforementioned limitation of traditional LE simulations. Ames. IA 50010 Abstract The Lagrangian–Eulerian (LE) approach is used in many computational methods to simulate spray systems. an improved LE simulation technique that uses computational particle number density control mechanism is proposed. as well as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large–eddy simulations (LES) that approximate the dispersed–phase spray droplets (or particles or bubbles) as point sources. With the aid of a time evolving test problem.

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Theoretical Convergence Characteristics of Calculations of Drop Collisions Rates
S. L. Post
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bradley University
Peoria, IL 61625 USA
Abstract
Multidimensional models that are used for engine computations must include spray sub-models when the fuel is
injected into the cylinder in liquid form. One of these spray sub-models is the droplet interaction model, which is
separated into two parts: first, calculation of a collision rate between drops, and second, calculation of the outcome
once a collision has occurred. This paper focuses on the problem of calculating the collision rate between drops
accurately. Computing the collision rate between drops or particles when they are non-uniformly distributed and
sharp gradients are present in their distribution, such as in Diesel sprays, is a challenging task. This paper analyzes
the theoretical errors that arise from the finite discretization of the spatial domain through which the drops move.
This analysis yields predictions for the errors made in collision calculations.
Introduction
In many engineering applications, it is necessary to
compute the collision rate among particles or drops. In
Diesel engines the atomization of liquid fuel injected at
high velocities into a high-pressure ambient
environment results in a large number of small drops.
The standard approach [1] to modeling these sprays
involves tracking the liquid drops in a Lagrangian
frame of reference by with the gas in an Eulerian frame
of reference. This is referred to as the Lagrangian-Drop
Eulerian-Fluid (LDEF) approach. Because there are so
many drops in a typical diesel spray, a Monte Carlo
technique is used to simulate the drops, with the total
mass of liquid broken into discrete parcels. Each parcel
contains a number, typically O(1000), identical liquid
drops.
An important physical process in the near-orifice
region is collisions among the drops that result from
atomization. This collision process may lead to further
break-up of the drops or to coalescence of drops.
Hence, collisions have a significant effect on drop sizes
in the spray, which in turn affects vaporization rates and
combustion characteristics. The standard approach to
computing collision rates among drops is to assume that
the drops are uniformly distributed in the gas-phase
computational cell in the discretized space and employ
concepts from the kinetic theory of gas to estimate the
collision rates. In order to do this, the number density
of drops for every computational cell has to be
estimated. The number density is total number of drops
in the cell divided by the volume of the cell. In each
grid cell it is assumed that all of the drops in the parcels
that reside in that cell are uniformly distributed
throughout the cell. If the drops truly are uniformly
distributed in space, then the computed number density
is independent of the size of the cell, assuming that

each cell contains a statistically sufficient number of
computational parcels. The challenge with this
approach is that as the drops are formed near the
injector, sharp gradients result in the distribution of the
drops in the vicinity of the spray centerline. For
example Figure 1 illustrates a 2D computational grid
with cell sizes O(1 mm) employed to model a diesel
spray corresponding to the conditions of Siebers
experiments [2], and Figure 2 shows computed profiles
of the drop distributions in those sprays. The
assumption of uniform distribution of drops breaks
down near the spray centerline and particularly near the
injector orifice. This implies that as the size of a
computational cell near the orifice is changed, the
number density of drops in the cell would change.
As a result, it has been shown by Aneja and Abraham
[3], Subramaniam and O’Rourke [4], and Hieber [5]
that spray computations that employ the LDEF
approach do not yield converged results as the grid is
refined. Approaches to deal with this problem have
been postulated by Asheim et al. [6], Schmidt and coworkers, [7-10], Nordin [11], and Post [12,13]. But to
this point no one has quantified how much numerical
error arrives from a given grid size employed.
In this paper, a mathematical analysis of the collision
rate calculation is employed. Expressions for the
numerical error within a given grid cell, as well as for
the computational do-main as a whole are derived. The
paper closes with summary and conclusions.
Methodology
As described in the previous section, in spray models,
the drops are followed in a Lagrangian frame of
reference once they are formed as a result of
atomization.
In this approach, for the collision
calculation it is assumed that the drops from each parcel

Wednesday, Session 4B - 3

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Biodiesel Airblast Atomization Optimization for Reducing Pollutant Emission in Small
Scale Gas Turbine Engines
C. D. Bolszo and V. G. McDonell
UCI Combustion Laboratory
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-3550 USA
Abstract
The present study assesses modifications to the fuel preparation process (and subsequent emissions impact) in a
commercial diesel fired gas turbine system for operation on soy biodiesel fuel (B99). The influence of liquid properties and injector operation on the resulting droplet sizes and evaporation characteristics are assessed. A theoretical
analysis of plain-jet airblast atomization and subsequent spray properties at atmospheric and engine conditions is
carried out for two different plain jet airblast atomizer configurations. An adaptation to an existing empirical Sauter
mean diameter is presented which accounts for the differing fuel properties found in B99 compared to DF2. A theoretical analysis of the influence of the fuel injector operation and liquid properties on the fuel evaporation characteristics is also carried out. In order to assess the overall NOx emissions performance attained, comparisons are made
with well stirred reactor results. The theoretical and experimental findings indicate that, while it is possible to improve NOx emissions for B99 through optimization of the fuel injection process, other factors in addition to atomization contribute to the generally higher NOx emissions observed for B99. Finally, discussion of an alternative approach to improving performance is presented in which blends of ethanol and B99 are used to achieve fuel properties that result in further optimized fuel preparation and therefore potentially further improved emissions.

Thursday, Session 1A - 1

ILASS Americas, 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, May 2007

Towards A Robust Phenomenological Turbulent Jet-in-Crossflow Atomization Model
S. Khosla*, A. Conley, C. E. Smith
CFD Research Corporation,
Huntsville, AL 35805 USA
Abstract
Jet In Crossflow (JIC) atomization models are typically based on liquid to air momentum ratio and gas Weber number. Although turbulence in a jet can significantly alter JIC atomization, the effect of turbulence is not considered
when characterizing jet breakup. In this paper, we demonstrate that commonly used injectors for augmentor applications produce high levels of turbulence in the jet, while injectors commonly used in research laboratories consists of
moderate to no turbulence in the jets. Thus, JIC models built using near laminar conditions will not produce accurate
predictions in practical applications.
In this paper, we present the beginnings of a phenomenological JIC atomization model that can account for turbulence in the jet. High fidelity VOF simulations for JIC atomization validated against high resolution, high-speed
photography will potentially be used to describe the primary and secondary breakup processes. The initial model is
developed by identifying and curve-fitting non-dimensional parameters through a wide range of experimental data.
Significant emphasis has been placed on minimizing the total number of correlations and maximizing the use of
non-dimensional parameters throughout primary and secondary atomization. The existing model is not a phenomenological model, but has the basic framework of the desired physics-based model. Future VOF simulations may fill
the gap in modeling and lead to a robust, phenomenological, turbulent JIC atomization model.

*

Sachin Khosla

Thursday, Session 1A - 2

USA. (2) the subsequent increase in droplet velocity as jet bending becomes significant due to increasing momentum exchange with the crossflow. The effects of jet wake on droplet velocity are correctly captured in the calculations: (1) a decrease in droplet streamwise (crossflow direction) velocity away from the injection plane due to the increasing blockage of the spanwise-flattening jet and. Madabhushi* United Technologies Research Center. Chicago. Session 1A . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Simulations are carried out at different liquid-to-gas momentum flux ratios to understand the effect of jet injection conditions on droplet velocity profiles.3 . The main result from this paper is the finding that the observed increase in droplet streamwise velocity with injection velocity at the same crossflow conditions can be explained by assuming a dependence of primary breakup droplet size on injection velocity using empirical correlations. CT 06108 ABSTRACT The spray velocity characteristics in the wake of a liquid jet in crossflowing air are studied numerically using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. May 2007 MODELING THE EFFECT OF MOMENTUM FLUX RATIO ON THE WAKE VELOCITY CHARACTERISITICS OF A LIQUID JET IN CROSSFLOW Marco Arienti and Ravi K. ___________________ *Corresponding author Thursday. East Hartford.ILASS Americas.

Lengsfeld Department of Engineering University of Denver Denver. Y. The purpose of this study is to assess toxicity. * Corresponding author Thursday. Anchordoquy. G. the effects of this aerosolization technique on human pulmonary epithelial cells have yet to be examined. Chicago. Session 1B . IL.ILASS Americas. The low transfection rates exhibited by non-complexed plasmid DNA after being processed through these nebulizers have been primarily attributed to loss of molecular integrity as a consequence of shear-induced degradation. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. CO 80208 USA Abstract Current aerosolization methods for the delivery of gene therapies to the lungs such as jet and ultrasonic nebulization have been shown to decrease the activity and effectiveness of these treatments. K. Transfection was not detected with either formulation. S. Because comparable responses were also observed in the absence of the electrospray when cells were administered these formulations.1 . J. we attribute the inflammatory response to the addition of a foreign agent as opposed to the aerosolization technique. A recent investigation has shown electrostatic sprays to be a gentle method by which non-complexed plasmid DNA can easily be aerosolized without a substantial loss in molecular integrity. Zeles-Hahn*. and C. We observed an increased cytokine response 9 hours postadministration for both naked DNA and PEI/DNA complexes. inflammatory response. T. However. Lentz. May 2007 Cellular Response of Human Lungs Cells to EHDA M. and transfection efficiency of naked and PEI-complexed plasmid DNA delivered via an electrostatic spray to normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells in vitro. There was little to no cellular toxicity observed throughout all experiments.

High speed images of the resulting interaction indicated that droplets required relatively low laser energy to shatter as compared to the energy that would be required to fully vaporize. the Er. + Corresponding author Thursday. CA 92697-3975 USA Abstract The use of Er.Cr:YSGG laser is used in conjunction with a water spray. May 2007 Er. California + Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.Cr:YSGG Laser Interaction with a Stream of Droplets P. The results show that a combination of effects is responsible for the relatively modest laser attenuation through the water spray. University of California Irvine.2 .79 micron wavelength with high absorption properties in water. Although the laser is very strongly absorbed in water. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. To understand the processes involved. the interaction between the laser and a steady stream of 250 micron diameter monodisperse droplets produced by a piezoelectric generator was evaluated. I. Session 1B .ILASS Americas. To remove such tissues/materials. experiments show that the spray only modestly (less than 20%) attenuates the laser light reaching the tissue. Dunn-Rankin+ *Biolase Technology Irvine. and D. IL.Cr:YSGG mid-infrared solid state lasers for dentistry applications is growing rapidly because of the safe and effective removal of calcified tissues produced by the 2. The absorption generates pressures that can remove dental tissues/materials without the physical grinding of a conventional bur. Rizoiu*. Chueh*. Chicago. in this study.

In addition.ILASS Americas. EHDA does not apply the shear forces felt by other devices such as the jet nebulizer and ultrasonic nebulizer. Session 1B . It was proposed that EHDA would also be a better technique for atomizing proteins. IL. It has been published that EHDA can aerosolize DNA without loss of structural integrity. Zeles-Hahn* and C. S. properties that helped retain enzymatic activity after processing were an increase in enzymes concentration. Our research focused on comparing two enzymes (chymotrypsin and citrate synthase) atomized through jet nebulization and EHDA. used in applications such as fuel combustion. CO 80208 USA Abstract The method of electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA).3 . Of the published papers on the topic. Lengsfeld Department of Engineering University of Denver Denver. the outcomes of protein activity after being processed through EHDA have been mixed. G. It appeared that the enzymes remained more active after being processed through the EHDA system compared with the jet nebulizer. and a high melting temperature. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. May 2007 Understanding EHDA and Protein Stability M. * Corresponding author Thursday. an increase in flow velocity. Some proteins keep 100% activity after spraying while other lose activity depending on flow rates or concentration. Chicago. Structural integrity was monitored using enzymatic assays. has recently started making an appearance in the pharmaceutical world.

1 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Chicago. The gas flow field in the column is solved by the Navier-Stokes equations while trajectories of droplets are calculated by the discrete phase model (DPM). and sometimes impossible to complete. Box 7900 Wheaton. In this case study. different nozzle layouts are studied and compared for optimization of the nozzles and their respective placement. The flow field and the droplets’ calculation are closely coupled. Understanding the spray pattern in these dynamic environments is very important in the design of an overall spray system solution. 10 Cavendish Court Lebanon. May 2007 Numerical Simulation of Spray Pattern in a Liquid Flashing Column R. A critical factor in the operating process is a requirement that the spray have good coverage over the column while not impinging on the sidewalls. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling can be used effectively in this area. P.ILASS Americas. Session 2A . IL. a slurry feedstock is injected into a reaction column through numerous nozzles and a significant amount of the feed gets flashed quickly after exiting the nozzles. Schick Spray Analysis and Research Services Spraying Systems Co. allowing the interactions of spray and flow field to be accurately captured.O. Traditional laboratory physical experiments can be time-consuming. NH 03766 USA Abstract Spray columns and towers are fundamental in many industrial applications. * Corresponding author Thursday. In this case study. it is apparent that flow-spray interactions are vital in the prediction of spray pattern. IL 60189-7900 USA Genong Li* and Heshmat Massah Ansys Inc. From the simulation. CFD is the tool we used to optimize the position and the orientation of each nozzle in this spraying system. Droplet size distribution of the spray is closely accounted for as well. J. expensive. The gas from flashing produces a complicated flow field in the column that has a great impact on the spray pattern.

USA 2 Centro de Investigación en Energía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Privada Xochicalco S/N. concerning the spray atomization mechanisms of this flash evaporating fluid. México Abstract R134a cooling sprays are used widely in dermatological laser surgery applications. and overall mass flow rate. O. which is difficult to measure accurately. flow velocities. 62580 Temixco. Because of the high void fractions at the nozzle exits (~80-90%). Evaporation of the liquid within the spray nozzle is known to have significant effects on the characteristics of the resulting spray due to the rapid expansion of the vapor immediately upon exiting the nozzle. * Corresponding author Thursday.5 mm) tubes. high-speed flash lamp images were obtained for the spray forming from each of the nozzles. Aguilar1* 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. a one-dimensional model of external vapor/liquid interaction is developed which calculates the vapor phase velocity along the spray axis based on measured liquid phase velocity. however. Vu1. spray droplets are assumed to be fully formed and dispersed within a continuous vapor phase before exiting the nozzle. pressure and temperature distributions.160).2 . García-Valladares2 and G. This study examines flare flashing of a high superheat fluid flowing through large L/D ratio micro tube nozzles (L/D=40. These numerical results provide exit conditions for the spray nozzle and are then correlated to external spray characteristics determined experimentally. This provides a method to determine spray droplet size evolution near the nozzle exit. because of the high transient heat fluxes and precise control of cooling duration possible. semiempirical numerical model of refrigerant flow through capillary tubes is used to quantify regions of liquid and vapor phase. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer measurements of spray droplet diameter and velocity distributions along the spray axis are obtained along with spray temperatures measured using a miniature thermocouple. Little information exists. Riverside. Droplet evaporation rate and R134a vapor partial pressures are also determined through an energy balance using the measured temperature data. The results of this work provide insight into flash atomization mechanisms and how to better manipulate spray characteristics to achieve the desired heat transfer. CA 92521. Because of the difficulty in experimentally studying internal two-phase flow in micro-diameter (~0. Morelos.80. Based on this assumption. such as port wine stain treatment. Session 2A . a one-dimensional. Additionally.Insights Into Flashing Spray Characteristics Using a Capillary Tube Expansion Model H.

CFD modeling may speed development but success is limited by the quality of the spray models. Thursday. LPP requires the formation of a fuel spray in a stream of air prior to injection into the combustor. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Solar is assessing LES/DES spray predictions by comparison with drop measurements in a 2D premix duct. Comments will be made on the types of spray model that must be considered when analyzing premixing flows. IL. Oskam Solar Turbines Incorporated San Diego.ILASS Americas. Chicago. Session 2A .3 . This paper will present a selection of the data collected and the comparison with LES/DES predictions. 92101. USA. Modeling Sprays for Lean Premix Prevaporized Liquid Fuel Injection in Gas Turbines Gareth W. Abstract Lean Premix Prevaporized combustion reduces nitrogen oxide emissions in stationary gas turbines. California. May 2007.

O. which is simpler and more cost-effective than Phase-Doppler analysis. 12. the shape of the distribution changed from Gaussian to flat to bifurcated distribution.O. While the correlation is still being developed. Chicago. However. the width of the distribution was consistently wider for the deposition distribution compared to the air velocity distribution. IL 60189-7900 USA Abstract In tablet film coating application. Cronce Spray Analysis and Research Services P. may be used to determine the bifurcation limits of the spray. Box 7900 Wheaton. and the bifurcation occurred at slightly lower fan air flow rates for the deposition distribution compared to the air velocity distribution. * Corresponding author Thursday. the effect of fan air flow rate on air velocity. spray distribution plays a critical role in helping achieve a uniform coating [1]. Session 2A . droplet size. Inc. droplet size. In this study. J. Phase-Doppler. and deposition distributions. Choi* PCTS. and deposition distributions was examined at varying atomizing air and water flow rates. and 18” distances from the nozzles. Schick and K. so that the liquid is distributed evenly on the target.4 . and gravitational method were used to measure air velocity. IL. Box 633. The primary role of fan air in this application is to shape the spray into a flat fan. and for various sizes of commonly used external-mix two fluid atomizers. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Hot-wire anemometer. Montgomeryville PA 18936 USA R. May 2007 Effect of Fan Air Flow Rate on the Spray Distribution M. L. droplet size. The results showed that air velocity. as the fan air increased from zero velocity. respectively at 6. P. the implication of this finding is that air velocity analysis. and deposition distributions followed the same trend in that.ILASS Americas.

ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. IL.1 . since during the atomization of liquid jets by coaxial fast-moving gas streams. Chicago. To address all of these challenges we present a balanced force Refined Level Set Grid (RLSG) method for collocated. and grid-convergence properties of the balanced force RLSG method. the details of the formation of small-scale drops from aerodynamically stretched out ligaments are governed by capillary forces [1]. volume preservation. handle large numbers of topology changes and drops. unstructured finite volume flow solver grids that can be coupled to a Lagrangian spray model. Several different generic verification examples are presented. Special emphasis is placed on the accurate treatment of surface tension forces. discussing the accuracy. one has to track the position of the phase interface accurately. ∗ Corresponding Author Thursday. Session 2B . and ensure grid-independent numerical results. treat the singular force of surface tension in an accurate and stable manner. Herrmann∗ Center for Turbulence Research Stanford University. May 2007 On Simulating Primary Atomization Using the Refined Level Set Grid Method M. CA 94040 Abstract To simulate primary atomization. Stanford.

Herrmann 2006). A balanced force algorithm (Francois et al. mesh-free technique with a finitevolume flow solver. is developed for direct simulations of two-phase flows. This approach merges the naturally adaptive nature of particle-based schemes. Session 2B . OR 97331 Abstract A hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian (hLE) scheme. ∗ Corresponding Author: sva@engr. Chicago. May 2007 A Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach for Two-Phase Flows with Fully Resolved Interfaces Ehsan Shams and Sourabh V. Apte∗ Department of Mechanical Engineering Oregon State University 204 Rogers Hall. Corvallis.orst. IL. particle-based scheme for interface tracking (Hieber & Koumoutsakos 2005) is first integrated with a co-located grid based finite volume solver. with the relative flexibility offered by grid-based solvers for complex flows. The accuracy of the particle-based scheme is first verified for standard test cases on interface tracking.edu Thursday. combining a particle-based.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. for efficient representation of the interface between two media.2 . The hybrid scheme is then applied to perform coupled two-phase flow simulations of stationary drop and rising bubbles. A mesh-free. for accurate representation of surface tension forces. 2006. is used to solve the two-phase flow equations on a fixed background mesh.

Since the equations are solved only near an interface. May 2007 An implicit implementation of surface tension in finite volume models for two-phase flows M. Mostaghimi Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies. which is often the strictest one. The surface tension force in the implicit model consists of an explicit part. Using the implicit model. IL. The surface tension force is applied on velocity field by solving a system of equations iteratively. Email: mraessi@mie. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. the surface tension time step restriction. can be exceeded without destabilizing the solution. Session 2B .ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. University of Toronto Abstract We present an implicit implementation of surface tension in finite volume models for two-phase flows. ∗ Corresponding Author. M. Chicago. and an implicit part which represents the diffusion of velocities induced by surface tension on an interface between two fluids. Raessi∗. and J.utoronto. which is the regular continuum surface force (CSF). the computational time spent on the iterative procedure is insignificant.3 .ca Thursday. Bussmann.

Session 2B . therefore eliminating one of the major limitations of the level set technique. E. ∗ Corresponding Author Thursday. IL. The ghost-fluid method provides a way of handling the interfacial forces and large density jumps associated with two-phase flows with good accuracy. Pitsch Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University. M. May 2007 Conservative Level Set/Ghost Fluid Method for Simulating Primary Atomization O. Chicago. We then use this technique to simulate the turbulent atomization of a liquid diesel jet. Herrmann and H. This methodology is applied to simple test cases to assess its performance.4 . Moureau. Knudsen.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Following the ideas of Olsson and Kreiss (2005). Mass conservation issues are greatly reduced in the process. V. CA 94305 Abstract This paper presents a novel approach for simulating incompressible two-phase flows by combining a conservative level set technique and the ghost-fluid method. Desjardins∗. the liquid-gas interface is localized using a hyperbolic tangent level set that is transported and reinitialized using fully conservative numerical schemes. while avoiding artificial spreading of the interface.

Chicago. At an appropriate time. and the numerical results compare well with experimental data obtained from X-ray and other measurements. a switch from the Eulerian approach to the Lagrangian approach is made in order to benefit from the advantages of the traditional Lagrangian droplet treatment beyond the dense spray region near the nozzle. drop number and drop distributions are determined using the local liquid mass fraction and local liquid surface density. The effects of nozzle passage geometry and injection conditions on the development of cavitation zones and the nozzle discharge coefficient were investigated. May 2007 Development of a Next-generation Spray and Atomization Model Using an EulerianLagrangian Methodology Wei Ning and Rolf D. together with a nozzle flow cavitation model and an evaporation model for the Eulerian liquid phase. the integrated spray and atomization models have been used to predict diesel spray development and atomization under various operating conditions. As an integral part of this study. * Corresponding author Thursday. In the present study. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison. Finally. such as Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability analyses. Session 3A . the drop size. the new model is based on the assumption that high-pressure spray atomization under modern diesel engine conditions can be described by considering the turbulent mixing of a liquid jet with ambient gases. Reitz* Engine Research Center. IL. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. WI 53705-1687 USA Andreas M. Vaporization in the Eulerian liquid phase is also accounted for with an equilibrium evaporation model. a three-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) was developed to simulate the cavitating flow within diesel injector nozzle passages.ILASS Americas. two transport equations based on the turbulent mixing assumption are solved for the liquid mass fraction and the liquid surface density (liquid surface area per unit volume). several previously proposed techniques are used to correct for vortex stretching and compressibility effects in high-speed free jets. To describe the dispersion of the liquid phase into a gaseous medium. MI 48090-9055 USA Abstract A next-generation spray and atomization model for high-pressure diesel sprays has been developed and implemented into an engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (KIVA-3V). Lippert and Ramachandra Diwakar Powertrain Systems Research Laboratory General Motors Research and Development Center Warren. which was also developed and implemented in this study. As in the existing ELSA (Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization) model. In contrast to the widely used Lagrangian atomization models that are based on liquid jet instability analyses.1 .

AB T6H 4M5 Canada Abstract Eulerian deposition models use existing deposition probability functions of Lagrangian nature. their development is complex and expensive. Thursday. IL. Rahman and C. with CVRT giving slightly better results. I. F. May 2007 Lagrangian to Eulerian Conversion Schemes for Estimating Deposition Probability Rates M.ILASS Americas. Both schemes showed excellent agreement with experimental aerosol deposition data in the human respiratory tract. both analytically and experimentally. two numerical schemes were investigated to convert Lagrangian deposition probabilities into their Eulerian equivalents: one based on the traditional Generation Residence Time (GRT) and the other on Control Volume Residence Time (CVRT).2 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. As an alternative. Session 3A . Lange* Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton. Chicago. While functions based on instantaneous deposition rate would be ideal to capture the time dependent features often relevant for aerosol inhalation.

Chicago. Wulteputte(2) and B.. These models can be used to determine the optimal setting for a certain process or to monitor the nozzle during operation. IL. (2) B-9051 Gent. Optimisation is employed to determine the model parameters. Belgium Abstract In this paper. Advantages and disadvantages of the models are discussed. After tuning the model on a certain dataset.U. Initial tests reveal that the model allows to discriminate between in tact and damaged nozzles. the prediction capabilities are assessed on a different data set. type CasterJet). De Ketelaere(1) (1) Department BIOSYST. USA. The different models are tested on a nozzle to cool the slab in a casting process (Spraying Systems Inc. * Corresponding author Thursday.ILASS Americas.3 . May 2007 Modelling of water-air internal mix nozzles for process monitoring J. Anthonis *(1). (2)Autojet Technologies (1) K. to model the pressure inside an internal mix nozzle. Session 3A . several models are discussed. Several model structures are proposed. Wheaton. based on physical insight or by model structures proposed in the ISO standard. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.Leuven (1) B-3001 Leuven. IL. L.

20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. IL. IL 60189-7900 USA R. Box 7900 Wheaton. P. scrubbers. Gardner Spraying Systems Co. spray nozzles add value by providing controlled volumes of liquid with predictable drop size and consistent spray coverage. Session 3B . In addition. While immense care is taken to optimize placement.S.O. May 2007 CFD Analysis for NOx-Control in Refinery K. Schick Spray Analysis and Research Services P. downstream of process gases .A Abstract In the refining business there is a large push by the industrial community to reduce emissions. bag filter houses. IL 60189-7900 U.1 . Knowing these values remains vital for the optimization of gas conditioning processes. Greenhouse gases as well as nitrous oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are the targeted pollutants. Governmental legislation outlined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its MACT II guideline is a major thrust. Spray nozzles are an important factor in this process. Chicago. The operation of this equipment is highly dependent on the humidity and temperature of the gases and so careful control must be integrated.O. this often leads to failure due to the inability to predict spray performance in the application environment.ILASS Americas. and electrostatic precipitators are used to reduce emissions prior to gases venting to the atmosphere.cyclones. Thursday. CFD is used to identify problem areas that would have caused wetting on walls and more importantly eroded metal sections from the heavily catalyst-laden process stream. Brown and R. This process can be facilitated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the end. adjustments were made to original nozzle placement suggestions in order to optimize the gas conditioning process. Box 7900 Wheaton. In refineries. In this case study. The process of controlling the gas temperature and humidity is referred to as the gas conditioning process. the all-important placement of nozzles is often times misunderstood and therefore inaccurate.

The effects of the mass. mass-averaged velocity and mass-averaged flow angle. Session 3B . To avoid the uncertainty from the simplifications of current primary atomization models. a semi-empirical approach is used in this study which circumvents primary atomization by injecting droplets with a size representative of post primary atomization. The predicted penetration and plume angle are primarily dependent on those two parameters. namely. * Corresponding author Thursday. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. velocity and flow angle profiles at the nozzle exit on predicted spray dynamics are examined in detail. Two controlling parameters are identified.ILASS Americas. Chicago. May 2007 Spray Characterization of Multi-Hole Injectors Yangbing Zeng * . and instead it is their joint effect depicting the mass distribution over the flow angle that determines the predicted spray dynamics. MI 48340-0050 USA Abstract This paper presents a modeling study of a multi-hole injector. It was found that the separate profiles themselves are not critical.2 . Accurate modeling of injector characteristics is a key step to establish robust math-based simulations for engine design and development. IL. Andreas Lippert and Ronald Grover General Motors Corporation Warren.

May 2007 CFD Analysis Of Gas Cooling J. on the cooling behavior inside a spray tower for a typical flue gas will be discussed. Germany markuss@spray. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Special attention is paid to the effect of the two-phase gas jets on the flow field. Session 3B . The heat and mass transfer is computed with Fluent. IL. 10 73614 Schorndorf. inner mixing air atomizing nozzles and flow back nozzles. Chicago. Markus* Spraying Systems Deutschland GmbH Paul-Strähle Str. * Corresponding author Thursday.de Abstract In many industrial processes hot gas is cooled down due to the evaporation (boiling) of sprayed droplets. S.ILASS Americas. The effects of two different atomizer types.3 . The interaction between the discrete droplets and the average gas flow depending on the tower geometry is described for different drop size distributions.

When individual droplets are brought in focus during the reconstruction process. The small field view associated with the method was overcome by constructing a map the spray field by patching several reconstructed holograms. Carter Air Force Research Laboratory.ILASS Americas. Stillwater. * Corresponding author Thursday. May 2007 Velocity and Size Measurements of Aerated Spray using Digital Holographic Microscopy J. Sallam* Oklahoma State University. Lin Taitech Inc. and velocities can be obtained using this technique. OH 45433 USA C. A three dimensional map of the droplets’ locations. sizes. IL. OK 74078 USA K. The flow field in three-dimensions is easily expressed by several two-dimensional slices. Session 4A . Wright-Patterson AFB. Chicago. In the present work the use of digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM) for probing this dense spray region is investigated. Beavercreek. it is possible to get the velocity measurements for each droplet by using a two laser pulses to store double-pulsed holograms on a double exposure CCD sensor. Moreover. B.A.1 . Miller. The technique proved to be successful in measuring droplet sizes and velocities in three dimensions. Lee.-C. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Probing the dense spray region near the injector is optically challenging for traditional spray diagnostics like Phase Dppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). and K.. the sizes and locations can be measured. OH 45433 USA Abstract Aerated liquid jets are of interest due to their applications in ramjet and scramjet engines.

Nitin Sharma. The spatial correlation coefficient between all the pixels in the image plane is then calculated from the ensemble of images.C. Sojka Maurice J. Statistical Image Correlation Velocimetry consists of obtaining several ensembles of the entire transient spray event at 1000 Hz. Furthermore. 1291-A Cumberland Avenue West Lafayette. rather than on a single set of successive shots. 1525 Howe Street Racine. without needing to resolve individual droplets. The velocities obtained using SICV were compared with those obtained using a conventional Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA). Johnson & Son.ILASS Americas. and Prabodh Varanasi S. WI 53403 Abstract Statistical Image Correlation Velocimetry (SICV) was used to obtain mean velocity information in the spray issuing from a consumer fragrance injector.2 . it is also not necessary to have well defined streaklines to estimate the velocity because the correlation is based on the statistics of the successive images. IN 47907 and Yong Chen. the mean velocity distribution is obtained. Based on the magnitude of the spatial correlation coefficient at different locations in the image plane. Session 4A . * Corresponding author Thursday. IL. Inc. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette. Chicago. IN 47906 and Ariel Muliadi and Paul E. These velocities can be estimated from spatial correlation of streaklines in the images. The mean velocities estimated from the fragrance dispenser compare reasonably well with those obtained using conventional PDA. May 2007 Measurement of Spatially Resolved Mean Velocities in a Transient Spray using Statistical Image Correlation Velocimetry Jongmook Lim* and Yudaya Sivathanu En’Urga Inc. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.

Depending on the application a small amount of liquid. A design goal for the pump designers is to achieve actuation independent size distributions. Session 4A . Besides varying the force of the actuation.3]. Both actuators have a moving platform that pushes the bottle upwards while the nozzle is maintained in a fixed position. Assuming complete liquid transfer this shot weight consistency indicate that the stroke length of the pump is consistent for all the actuations such that a consistent volume/mass of nasal spray formulation is Thursday. over the counter formulation in standard bottle and pump configuration is presented to both actuators. To prevent discharge from the nose after application. IL. It represents a non-invasive delivery route as compared to drugs delivered by injection and has the ability of delivering a wide range of therapeutics from small molecules to larger molecules such as peptides. is delivered by each actuation. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.G. 1) that allows positioning of the nasal pump nozzle at variable distances to the laser beam. It was subsequently capable of delivering an actuation force equivalent of lifting from 1 kg to 7. The laser diffraction instrument is set to acquire data at 1000 Hz as the atomized nasal spray passes through the laser beam. Besides measuring the droplet size distribution. The combined use of automated actuators and Laser Diffraction equipment allows the experimenter to study the atomization of the nasal spray.8 N to 74 N). the pumps are weighed before and after each actuation to determine the shot weights. Experimental Two different automated actuators were used to generate the energy for the atomization. perform method validation and follow compendial testing as outlined in the draft guidance document from the agency. nasal delivery has been recognized as an effective route for systemic active drugs. Two basic principles exist for the automated actuators: 1) a pneumatic force based actuator and 2) an electrical velocity based actuator. At the end of the experiment both actuators produce a text file containing a time resolved log of platform displacement and applied force. Chicago.2). May 2007 Atomization of a common nasal spray formulation as a function of applied force and velocity H. Synchronization is obtained by passing a TTL signal between the actuator and the Laser Diffraction instrument. proteins and nucleic acids [2. The actuators are placed in a control device (Fig. In the current study a high viscous (no-drip). Actuator 1 requires clean. Southtborough. Both actuators use a load cell that is internally calibrated using two different weights. the time required for the actuator to reach full actuation force may be specified in the range from 0.1 ml.5 kg (from 9. The increased viscosity further helps to increase the droplet sizes generated from the nasal spray [4. Laser Diffraction is recommended for assessment of the droplet size distributions and automated actuation platforms for minimizing the variability of the droplet sizes generated from the nasal pumps.1 g material with a RSD of 1%. Actuator 2 is an electrical. In order to perform meaningful comparisons all data is integrated over a 30 millisecond period from the fully developed portion of the spray events (Fig. 0.1 to 2 seconds. Introduction Besides relief of nasal congestion. Results and Discussions The actuators deliver consistent shot weights: each actuation delivers approximately 0.3 . The formulations are typically delivered by either multi or single dose metered pump devices or syringe type pumps.ILASS Americas. Different atomization behavior is observed and characterized by Laser Diffraction as specific parameters are varied on the two actuators. compressed air at 80 -120 PSI. stepper motor actuator that allows the velocity and acceleration of the moving platform to be specified. MA 01772 USA Abstract The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research under the Food and Drug Administration has drafted a guidance document “Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Nasal Aerosols and Nasal Sprays for Local Action”[1] informing the Pharmaceutical industry on how to submit data to the agency when performing In Vitro testing of nasal sprays. Krarup Malvern Instruments Inc.5] and droplet sizes above a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 10 micron are considered not to enter the regions of the lungs. the formulation viscosity is sometimes increased by addition of microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl-cellulose.

ILASS Americas. The drop surface areas are directly proportional to the local mass. Performing optical and mechanical characterization of these high flow rate nozzles is of interest for quality assurance and nozzle improvement programs. mechanical patternation is performed using a twenty four-sector patternator. IN 47906 and Paul G. Towards this end. the feasibility of evaluating design and development iterations of high flow rate nozzles using optical patternation is demonstrated.4 . Also. May 2007 Optical and Mechanical Patternation of an High Flow Rate Industrial Gas Turbine Nozzle Yudaya Sivathanu* and Jongmook Lim En’Urga Inc. Therefore. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. 1291-A Cumberland Avenue West Lafayette. and species transfers. the objective of the study is to determine the impacts on performance of a nozzle tip redesign initiated to improve fuel injector performance. the nozzles provide an efficacy test of the SETscan optical patternator for highly obscuring sprays. IL. Hicks Woodward Governor Company 700 North Centennial Street Zeeland. The angular distribution of mass fluxes obtained from both the mechanical patternator compares reasonably well with the angular distribution of surface area densities obtained from the optical patternator. Session 4A . The SETscan optical patternator that is used in this study is based on statistical deconvolution of path integrated extinction measurements obtained at six view angles and 512 parallel paths at each view angle. Based on the study. momentum. * Corresponding author Thursday. The differences between the original and the re-designed nozzle are immediately apparent with the optical patternator. optical and mechanical patternation of the original and a proposed redesign are discussed. energy. MI 49464 Abstract Many industrial gas turbine nozzles have a very high flow rate of fuel. the theoretically calculated path integrated extinction based on the local surface areas reported by the patternator agrees within 1% of the measured path integrated extinction. Although obscuration caused by the fuel drops was greater than 90% at the center of the spray. In particular. Chicago. The local drop surface area per unit volume is obtained from the deconvolution.

Chicago. Sanjeev. recoil.1 . IL. Jog* Department of Mechanical. OH 45221 Abstract The impact dynamics. The numerical treatment included the dynamic surface tension variation for surfactant solutions and different values for the advancing and receding contact angles. Manglik. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. which breaks up and ejects secondary droplets. A volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique was used to track the liquid-air interface. spreading and recoil behavior of water and aqueous surfactant solution droplets on a hydrophobic surface (Teflon) are captured using a high-speed digital video camera at 4000 frames per second. A. Industrial. The decrease in surface tension at the liquid-air interface and change in the wetting characteristics of the liquid-solid interface facilitates larger initial spreading and weaker recoil of surfactant solution droplets compared to water drops. and M. Session 4B . * Corresponding author Thursday. O. M. Impact and Recoil of Surfactant Solution Droplets on a Hydrophobic Surface A.ILASS Americas. P. The highspeed visualization reveals the water droplets to spread and then recoil sharply so as to form a vertical column. Cincinnati. K. and Nuclear Engineering 598 Rhodes Hall. The solution of lower molecular weight (higher mobility) surfactant (SDS) showed a higher maximum and final spread with weaker recoil compared to the higher molecular weight (lower mobility) Triton X-100 solution. Gatne. and rebound/break up were carried out with a finite volume method on a structured grid. Box 210072 University of Cincinnati. R. P. which resulted in accurate prediction of the drop impact-spreading-recoil behavior on a hydrophobic surface. May 2007 Experiments and Simulations of Spreading. Computational simulations of the spreading. The computational scheme based on the VOF method was able to capture the dynamics of this droplet-surface interaction phenomenon observed in experiments.

convex.kr Thursday. Chicago. A. Lee1. Kim1. Kim1. USA Abstract Though there are numerous studies on drop impact phenomena. Liquid drops of nearly uniform size have been injected under operating pressures of 1-3 bar onto an aluminum cylindrical rod of 2 mm diameter. N. The top surface shape of the rod is tilted with 0-60 degree angle and the impact surface contour is shaped as concave. R. IL. S. and the characteristics of the splashed droplets are virtually non-existent. May 2007 Experimental and Numerical Studies on Splashing of Mono-disperse Spray Injected onto a Cylindrical Rod of Various Surface Shapes S. Box 5800. how splashed corona and its necking introduce splashed droplets. D. J.ac. 136-713. Korea 2 Mechanical Environments. NM 87185. Albuquerque. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Jepsen2. the entire physics of the drop impact is not well understood to date. An energy balance is applied to model the relevant splashing phenomenon. The changes in gas pressure of surrounding and impact substrate roughness and wettability are additional parameters which complicate the analysis and prediction of the drop impact phenomena. when splashing occurs. 1 Department of Mechanical. Sungbukgu.ILASS Americas. The liquid volume that remains on impact surface as a function of Weber or/and Reynolds numbers is also an unexplored area. Here we consider the simplest question possible: What are the characteristics of the splashed droplets subsequent to their impact? The spatial variations of SMD and its distribution for both water and diesel splashed droplets are reported for respective impact surface shapes. Session 4B . Preliminary results obtained from numerical simulation are presented herein.O. Seoul. For example. Y. and cone. Yoon1*. Sandia National Labs P. H. * Corresponding author: skyoon@korea.2 . S. 5-Ga. Korea University Anamdong.

To better understand the heat transfer mechanisms during and after CSC. droplet velocity and multiple droplet impact frequency on the overall cooling efficiency and establish the similarities and differences of these parameters with those measured for CSC. Liu and G. * Corresponding author Thursday. CA 92521 Abstract Cryogen Spray Cooling (CSC) is an auxiliary procedure that pre-cools the epidermis during Laser Dermatologic Surgery (LDS) to avoid non-specific epidermal thermal damage. May 2007 Heat transfer between cryogen droplet and epoxy skin model 1 J. Using this setup.3 . Single or multiple cryogen droplets impact onto a skin model instrumented with a fast-response thin-film thermocouple. To avoid the effect of boiling of the cryogen drop during the impact process. we conduct our experiments within a chamber pressurized above the saturation pressure of R134a at room temperature. we analyze the effect of initial surface temperature. The surface temperature variations are recorded and used to calculate surface heat fluxes.ILASS Americas. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Chicago. droplet size. Aguilar* Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California-Riverside Riverside. Session 4B . we first observe the heat transfer between a single and multiple cryogen (R134a) droplets and an epoxy skin model. IL.

The surfaces were maintained at 350oC.4 . molten nickel and molybdenum particles were photographed during spreading on silicon wafers that were patterned with micron-sized columns to make a textured rough surface. Sanjeev Chandra1*. NY 12309 3 Industrial Materials Institute National Research Council Canada Boucherville.ILASS Americas. A rapid two-color pyrometer was used to collect the thermal radiation from the spreading particles to follow the evolution of their temperature. they were sensed by a photodetector and after a known delay. Chicago. May 2007 Impact of Plasma-Sprayed Particles on Textured Silicon Wafers André McDonald1. and Christian Moreau3 1 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Toronto Toronto. As droplets approached the surface. increasing the space between each column increased the splat cooling rate as the columns penetrated into the liquid splat. QC J4B 3G8 Canada Abstract Plasma-sprayed. a fast charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was triggered to capture time-integrated images of the spreading splat from the substrate front surface. It was found that the micron-sized columns impeded splat fluid flow during spreading. providing larger surface areas for heat transfer. promoting splashing and changes in morphology. When the column height was on the order of the splat thickness. * Corresponding author Thursday. ON M5S 3G8 Canada 2 GE Global Research Niskayuna. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Session 4B . Larry Rosenzweig2. Illinois.

ILASS Americas. Tien Mun Foong. Yuan-chung Lin.1 . and injection timings play important roles in soot and NOx emissions. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. Lee* Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana. IL. * Corresponding author: cflee@uiuc.edu Friday. May 2007 Fuel Effects on the Spray and Combustion Processes Within an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Tiegang Fang. High-speed Mie-scattering was employed to investigate the liquid distribution and evolution. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were studied under similar loads. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Chicago. and Chia-fon F. It is found that biodiesel fuel leads to longer liquid penetration and low soot formation with increased NOx emissions. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. Session 1A . IL 61801 USA Abstract An optically accessible single-cylinder high speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion evolution using different fuels including European low sulfur diesel and biodiesel fuels.

with injections into N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. May 2007 Improved Method to Determine Spray Axial Velocity Using X-Ray Radiography Alan L. The injection pressure is 250 bar. the hydroground nozzle has the greater momentum. IL 60439 USA Thomas Riedel Diesel Systems . was found in previous work to be subject to a significant degree of noise. In this work.Commercial Vehicles/ Engineering Systems Application Robert Bosch GmbH Stuttgart.2 . Sprays from two different single-hole axial tip geometries (hydroground and non-hydroground) and two injection durations (400 μs and 1000 μs) have been used. For the 1000 μs duration sprays. This determination. IL 60439 USA Abstract X-ray radiography is a technique that has provided important insights into the structure and behavior of diesel sprays in recent years. Session 1A . Kastengren. Chicago. the trends of spray axial velocity with axial position are quite similar between the two nozzles. the results of the analysis for four different sprays from light-duty diesel common rail injectors will be examined. though it appears that the injectors have not yet reached steady state at the end of the data record. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. After demonstrating the superiority of the fitting method over the previously used method. a fitting procedure is implemented to substantially improve the results from this analysis. Christopher F. An analysis method has been developed to derive the mass-averaged axial velocity from the radiography data. IL. For the 400 μs duration injections. Powell Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Argonne. This is surprising considering that the cone angle of these sprays is quite different. however. Germany Seong-Kyun Cheong. The maximum velocity seen in the long-duration sprays is 20-25% less than the Bernoulli velocity. and Jin Wang Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Laboratory Argonne.ILASS Americas. Friday. Calculations of the spray momentum show that the spray from the non-hydroground nozzle has more total axial momentum than the spray from the hydroground nozzle. Xin Liu. limiting the usefulness of the analysis. possibly due to differences in the injector current histories between the non-hydroground and hydroground nozzle sprays. Yujie Wang. Kyoung-Su Im.

Chicago. For diesel combustion at conventional ambient condition. * Corresponding author Friday. Xu and C. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.ILASS Americas. The total soot mass had a peak value about 1% of total fuel mass. Soot oxidation becomes a dominant factor after the total soot amount reaches the peak at the end of injection. Even lower ambient oxygen concentration or other ways to promote better near wall mixing could further lower the flame temperature to have sootless diesel combustion. The FILE technique has the capability to obtain two-dimensional time-resolved quantitative soot measurements. IL 61801-2906 USA Abstract The soot formation processes of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion were investigated by a newly developed Forward Illumination Light Extinction (FILE) soot measurement technique in a constant volume spray chamber. Session 1A . F.3 . Lee* Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana. IL. which demonstrates that only a small fraction of hydrocarbon fragments are converted into soot. Combustion at 800K ambient temperature and 21% to 15% ambient oxygen concentration had much lower soot generation than conventional diesel combustion. May 2007 Soot Formation within Conventional and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Y. it was found that soot generation begins shortly after the beginning of premixed combustion and increases rapidly as the flame penetrate into the chamber.

May 2007 Breakup of a laminar axisymmetric liquid jet S. The flow is considered to be laminar and axisymmetric. Sirignano Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California. Dabiri∗. ∗ Corresponding Author Friday. A boundary-fitted orthogonal grid has been used. Effects of the geometry such as lengthto-diameter ratio and curvature of corners of the nozzle on the growth of interfacial waves and breakup distance are studied. The disturbance in jet is caused by perturbing the mass flux of liquid through nozzle by five percent. Session 1B . Creation and growth of surface waves due to KelvinHelmholtz and capillary instabilities leading to breakup of jet are captured. IL. A. W. CA 92697 Abstract The flow of a liquid through a nozzle and resulting jet in a stagnant gas is investigated numerically. Two-phase flow and surface tension are modeled using a level-set formulation. Irvine.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Numerical simulation is performed using a finite-volume method. Chicago.1 .

show that DPD is a useful tool for sub-micron fluid flow simulations. is shown to be applicable for the nanocylinders. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization ad Spray Systems. IL. Abraham* School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette. We show that the global rupture time follows predictions from linear stability theory and the dynamics near the breakup point agree well with the theoretical predictions which state that breakup is accelerated due to thermal fluctuations.2 . in combination with the results from this study. we use a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD)-based model for two-phase flows to simulate the breakup of liquid nanocylinders and nanojets. IN 47907-2014 USA Abstract In this work. This study shows that DPD is able to capture the thermal induced breakup phenomena. Session 1B . which states that liquid cylinders are unstable to disturbances with a wavelength longer than their circumference. Chicago.edu Friday. The coarse-grained nature of DPD along with its flexibility to allow for the modeling of complex fluids. Rayleigh’s criterion.ILASS Americas. We are able to recover the time evolution of minimum jet radius as given by prior theoretical analysis. It is shown that satellite drops are not observed at the nanolevel because of the significant role played by thermal fluctuations which leads to a symmetric breakup of the neck joining the two main drops. in agreement with prior molecular dynamics simulations.Tiwari and J. In the nanojet simulations. May 2007 Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations of Liquid Nanocylinder and Nanojet Breakup A. we find that the presence of a repulsive wall is necessary to prevent clogging of liquid at the syringe wall. * Corresponding author: jabraham@purdue.

IL. An axisymmetric. W. Lafayette. ∗ † Corresponding author.3 . inviscid linear instability analysis has been developed to compliment the Bian and Mashayek work and to provide insight into the droplet sizes formed under a variety of conditions. The present work was initially studied as a homework problem in a graduate class taught by the co-author at Purdue during the fall 2006 semester. Purdue University. The effect of the thickness of the outer fluid will also be assessed parametrically. May 2007 On the Linear Stability of Compound Capillary Jets Maksud (Max) Ismailov∗. Inner and outer fluid density and surface tension are to be varied parametrically to assess their influence on the droplet sizes formed. Heister† School of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Differences in density and surface tension between the inner fluid (the medicine) and the outer fluid (the coating) provide for complex interactions relative to capillary instability. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. IN Abstract Compound capillary jets are utilized in the manufacture of coated tablets within the pharmaceutical industry and present an interesting atomization problem.ILASS Americas. The present study was motivated by a ILASS 2006 presentation by Bian and Mashayek who developed a one dimensional nonlinear treatment of the instability. Chicago. Session 1B . Graduate Research Assistant Professor Friday. Stephen D.

Sigura-gura 2. * Corresponding author. type of wood (i. and River Red gum using a modified mass loss cone calorimeter equipped with a water spray system. Tel: +62 341 551431. porosity). The effectiveness of water in suppressing the fire is determined to be primarily thermal effects. Malang .com.ILASS Americas Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. The time taken to extinguish the fire under suppressive action is determined as functions of irradiance heat flux.Indonesia Abstract Experiments were carried out on the extinguishment of burning wood slabs of Western Red cedar.e. Poespowati* Department of Chemical Engineering The Institute of National Technology Jl.e. 112. recovery time of water evaporation in the sample structure increased with sample porosity. Other results indicated that average evaporation rate is a function of the external heat flux and type of sample (i. Evaporation time of water layer on the surface sample decreased with an increase of porosity. Radiata pine. Bend.au Friday. Session 1C . i. Chicago. The slabs are subjected to an electrical radiant heater to enhance the burning rate. The water is applied as a uniform spray from a single nozzle of 1/8” BLM 4-90o -angle “Delavan” full cone with a round spray pattern. an evaporation time and a recovery time. E-mail address: poespowati@yahoo. ext. May 2007 EXTINGUISHMENT OF HORIZONTAL WOOD SLABS FIRE BY A WATER SPRAY T. porosity) . Behavior of second ignition or re-ignition time after extinguishment process shows that overall re-ignition time increases as the water application time is increased. IL. On the other hand. and flow rate of water application. fax: +62 341 553015. Overall re-ignition time decreases as the increases oh external heat flux and sample porosity significantly influenced the evaporation and recovery times.e.1 .

Chicago. Tanner* and K. Several efforts have been made over recent years to do just that. A. ignoring the affect of radial position and fluid pressure. F. a simulation is only as meaningful as the quality of the initial assumptions and parameters used to drive the model.O. the fire protection industry and computational fluid dynamic software designers continue to struggle with methods to model the formation. Knasiak Spraying Systems Co. Industrial Products Division P.2 . Session 1C . * Corresponding author Friday. However. with positive results and incredible progress. whether it is using a single bulk drop size statistic to characterize the entire spray field. It is with this in mind that the authors offer a challenge to the fire protection and the computational fluid dynamic software industries: incorporate a comprehensive water mist droplet characterization into fire suppression models. May 2007 Water Mist Simplification Effects on Fire Suppression Modeling: A Challenge to the Industry G. IL. Box 7900 Wheaton. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. delivery and flame interaction of water mist drops. IL 60189-7900 USA Abstract As the use of water mist continues to gain acceptance as a practical fire suppression agent. or simply a lack of practical understanding of spray nozzle technology.ILASS Americas.

4500 µm. the drop size shall be in the range of 500 .3 . Knasiak*. Kalata Spray Analysis and Research Services Spraying Systems Co. The measured rain fall distributions were the most uniform at the highest nozzle heights. For each rain rate separate spray nozzle was chosen. It must be able to simulate rain rates ranging from 1. Session 1C . rain resistance (top spraying) and water integrity (side spraying). Wheaton. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Chicago.14 mm/min. Schick and W.ILASS Americas. The top spraying rain simulator was build and tested for the drop size and rain fall distribution with variable spray heights and rain rates. IL. R. Furthermore. The simulator has to be designed to support two types of tests. Abstract The United States Army is interested in building a rain test simulator. J.07 . The measured drop size fell within the desired size range. * Corresponding author Friday. May 2007 Multiscale Design of Rain Simulator K. IL 60189-7900 USA.

However. Measurements of an actual piezoelectric’s dynamics show that driven with single frequency harmonic signal. we study the interaction of these output waves to estimate the range of frequencies where irregularity effects are likely to occur on the surface of the jet that might lead to nonuniform droplet formation. Chicago. Control strategies designed to eliminate these unwanted dynamics can then retain uniform breakup over a wide range of input frequencies. IL.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. CA 92697 Abstract In this paper. Friday. a piezoelectric is often used to generate disturbances growing along the jet. D. Session 2A . To break a capillary jet into droplets. Irvine. it disturbs the jet with three output sine waves: one steady state response and two very lightly damped modes corresponding to the structural resonances of the device. In this paper. May 2007 Predicting Breakup Characteristics of Liquid Jets Disturbed by Practical Piezoelectric Devices M. we study the breakup characteristics of a jet of liquid.1 . Rohani. studies limited to linear behavior are unable to predict how the jet behaves if it is subjected to a multiplefrequency input. Jabbari Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California Irvine. and F. Dunn-Rankin. Rayleigh’s linear theory predicts that uniform droplets are produced when the jet is perturbed by a single wavenumber disturbance.

With passive nozzles. independent control of both pressure and flow with a single actuator would be desirable. Past studies have shown that nozzle flow rate can be accurately manipulated by pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve. supply pressure to the nozzle while the duration of the PWM signal. in relation to the off time. A direct-acting. Thus. The duty cycle of the highfrequency modulation was used to throttle a solenoid poppet valve to manipulate outlet pressure. K. however. Design Strategy The system described in this paper utilized a modulated square wave driving a solenoid valve to control pressure and flow. Traditionally.2 . The prototype was tested with 8002 and 8006 flat fan nozzles over a pressure range of 125 to 625 kPa and a flowrate range of of 240 to 1080 ml/min (8002 nozzle). Giles* and D. consequently. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.5) range of 150 to 250 µm was obtained. IL. 3. The liquid pressure supply to a spray nozzle can also be an important issue because it regulates the average and distribution of sizes of the droplets being delivered. provided the temporally-averaged flowrate. While additional design and development work is necessary to bring the technique to commercial use. This paper reports the development of a method and prototype where a single actuator is used to provide real time control of flowrate through and pressure into a spray nozzle. where flow is a function of the square root of pressure. the solenoid drive signal allowed decoupled control of droplet size (pressure) and average flow rate. Because the desired flow rate and the desired pressure are derived from different parameters. Pulse width modulation of flow through nozzles has been developed as a means to control flowrate independently of droplet size. and because spray components are typically expensive. Therefore. The proper flow rate is often a function of nozzle spacing on a spray boom and vehicle speed over ground. the square Corresponding author Friday. Needham Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering University of California-Davis Davis. chemical type. because agricultural spraying is a * low margin business. This allows flowrate to be manipulated without changes in droplet size spectra. the flowrate and droplet size spectrum are coupled and changes in one are coincident with changes in the other. this technique requires a separate system and actuator for liquid pressure and droplet size control. control of the two independently would be beneficial to the applicator. 4]. Wind speeds. the preliminary data establish the feasibility of the method. 2. the volumetric flowrate and resulting droplet size spectra are critical parameters. Additionally. Chicago.ILASS Americas. a pulsing solenoid valve is designed to be actuated to a fully open state when energized (assuming a normally closed valve). with the duty cycle of the drive signal being linearly related to the average flow rate [1. and plant canopy often determine the droplet size that is required. The waveform was repeated at a 10 Hz rate. the flow rate through a nozzle is important in order to deliver the specified amount of active ingredient to a specified area. May 2007 Independent Control of Flow Rates and Droplet Size Spectra from Fan Nozzles Using a Single Actuator D. Manipulation of the duration of the high frequency PWM signal provided control of the pressure drop across the valve and. The lowfrequency pulse duty cycle was used to meter the average flow rate by enabling/disabling the instantaneous flow rate that resulted from the outlet pressure. However. average flow rate and instantaneous pressure (droplet size) may be controlled independently. pressure in an agricultural sprayer has been regulated on a total system basis by opening and closing an inline or a bypass valve in the fluid supply system. direct-current solenoid valve was controlled using a complex waveform including a burst current for initiating movement of the valve plunger. Introduction In agricultural spraying from mobile equipment. if the valve is controlled with a complex metering function. a high frequency PWM signal for plunger positioning and an off period. Typically. The flow through a valve and the pressure across the valve in steady-state are usually related. CA 95616-5294 USA Abstract In processes were sprays are generated using pressure or orifice nozzles. Session 2A . A droplet size (Dv0.

edu Friday. S. the transition from subcritical to supercritical evaporation is observed to occur at an ambient pressure 1.1 . McGaughey∗ Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University. IL. Between ambient temperatures of 300 K and 800 K. Mikkilineni. Landry. ∗ Corresponding Author. The evaporation is considered to be supercritical if the surface temperature of the droplet reaches the LJ argon critical temperature during its lifetime. S. Pittsburgh.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. and A. For subcritical conditions. May 2007 Subcritical and Supercritical Nanodroplet Evaporation: A Molecular Dynamics Investigation E. PA 15213-3890 Abstract Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the subcritical and supercritical evaporation of a Lennard-Jones (LJ) argon nanodroplet in its own vapor.4 times greater than the LJ argon critical pressure. J. Chicago. a range of conditions are considered to define a transition line between subcritical and supercritical evaporation. H. Using a new technique to control both the ambient temperature and pressure. Session 2B . mcgaughey@cmu. the droplet lifetimes obtained from the simulations are compared to independently predicted lifetimes from the D2 law.

Sarchami.ILASS Americas.N. In the present model. To refine the jet impingement model and use a more accurate sheet thickness and velocity distributions. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. streams of droplets impinge on the splash plate and breakup into smaller droplets. Chicago.Tran 1 Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department.utoronto. Canada Abstract A discrete particle model (DPM) is used to simulate the spray formation by a splash plate nozzle. Toronto. a continuous liquid jet impinges on a solid surface and spreads radially forming a liquid sheet. 2H.Ashgriz*. Later. Droplet diameter and velocity distributions after impingement are determined based on the liquid sheet thickness and velocity distribution obtained from an invicid theory for a jet impingement. this liquid sheet breaks into small droplets forming the spray. 1N. May 2007 Discrete Phase Based Method (DPM) of Modeling Sheet Formation and Breakup 1 A. IL.ca Friday. 2 Chemical Engineering Department. University of Toronto. Session 2B . In a splash plate nozzle. This model is implemented in Kiva3V to determine the droplet size and velocity distribution further downstream of the nozzle. * Corresponding Author:Ashgriz@mie.2 . Droplet diameter and velocity are now functions of initial droplet impingement angle and the distance from the impinging point. instead of a continuous liquid jet. DNS simulation of impinging jet on a plate has also been performed.

C. when both nozzles are operated at conditions above 24 kJ/kg. High-velocity. May 2007 Scaleup of Two-Fluid Nozzles for Chemical Processing D. One way to minimize nozzle scale up risk is to develop drop size correlations to predict large scale nozzle performance from miniplant-sized nozzles. This is not too surprising. IL. both for new products and new processes for existing products. MI 48667 USA Abstract The purpose of process research is to minimize scale up risk. two-fluid external mix atomizers very well. Air/water drop size measurements on miniplant and plant size external mix nozzles have been correlated with the specific dispersion work that could be performed by isentropic expansion of the gas. as the correlations were developed for prefilming atomizers operating under conditions of low velocity and high gas-to-liquid mass ratios. * Corresponding author Friday. Greminger* and C. The drop size correlations based on the Weber and Ohnesorge numbers available in the literature do not fit air-water drop size data generated on high-pressure. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.1 .ILASS Americas. external mix nozzles have broader application in chemical processing because they operate at low gas-to-liquid ratios and are plug-resistant. Lipp Engineering and Process Sciences The Dow Chemical Company Midland. Session 2C . they produce drops of similar size. W. Chicago. While the larger nozzle can produce larger drops at conditions of low isentropic specific dispersion work.

The formula space comprised three different particle-size distributions of added solids each at three different volume fractions (0. The droplet size data at the highest solids loading level showed very little variation with air pressure.81 and 4. * Corresponding author Friday.05 mm to 3. Procter & Gamble 8256 Union Centre Blvd. The implication of these observations is that the atomization processes for highly concentrated slurries is controlled by a balance between intraparticle solid-particle/liquid adhesion forces and the turbulent flow field downstream of the nozzle.45 mm and the air annulus was held constant with inner and outer diameters of 3. Chicago. Hecht* and J. Two coaxial pneumatic nozzles were used.34.ILASS Americas. where the liquid jet diameter was varied from 3. The data also show only slight differences between the two nozzle sizes used. The data indicate that the volume median droplet size decreased with increasing air/liquid mass flow ratio. A. liquid-orifice size. but the results did not correlate to the atomization data even though the Ohnesorge number was of order unity. Stamper Process Technologies.63. or solid particle size.47. respectively. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. K. Davis Davis. Session 2C . West Chester. P. OH 45069 USA D. IL.23). Giles Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering University of California. but only slightly for concentrated slurries at higher air flow rates.2 . and 0. May 2007 Pneumatic Atomization of Laundry Detergent Slurries as affected by Solid Particle Size and Concentration J. Steady-shear rheology measurements were conducted for the different formulations. The droplet-size distribution at a fixed position 50 cm from the nozzle on the centerline of the spray was measured at air/liquid mass flow ratios of 0. 0. CA 95616 USA Abstract A parametric experimental study of pneumatic atomization of concentrated laundry detergent slurries was performed to better understand particle formation in pilot-scale spray dryers. and 0. 0. Nine different slurry formulas were tested.095.57 mm.16.

* Corresponding author Friday. To produce these droplets. The effect of various experimental parameters. not only increases the production capacity.5 Hz. droplets were generated during the fourth or fifth peak pressure. Droplets were produced from a 102 µm diameter nozzle at different ejection rates. and number of nozzles on droplet formation was investigated. Chicago. Depending on the length of the vent tube.ILASS Americas. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. more than 90% of droplets were smaller than the nozzle diameter. Then. The results showed that higher ejection rates. ON M5S 3G8 Canada Abstract A pneumatic droplet generator to produce molten tin droplets smaller than the nozzle diameter is described. Chandra Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Toronto Toronto. such as exit vent tube length. but produces small droplets in a relatively narrow size range (60-100 µm). 99% of droplets were smaller than the nozzle diameter and when the frequency was increased to 5 and 10 Hz. the required pressure variation was created within the droplet generator by connecting a 12 cm long tube to the exit vent. IL.1 . ejection rate (frequency). gas escapes through the exit vent and no further droplets emerge. Session 3A . A small nozzle is press-fit into a stainless steel nozzle holder attached to the bottom plate of the generator. May 2007 Producing Molten Tin Droplets Smaller than the Nozzle Diameter by using a Pneumatic Drop-on-Demand Generator A. The generator consists of a heated aluminum cylinder in which a cavity is machined. Amirzadeh Goghari * . At an ejection rate of 0. S. Opening the valve for a preset time sends a pressure pulse to the molten metal and ejects a single droplet. The system is connected to a gas cylinder through a solenoid valve.

Chicago.2 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. This study employs a plain jet airblast atomizer operated at fuel flow rates up to 20g/s and air pressures up to 15 bar at 293K. such that the droplet size and velocity of sprays that are too dense to measure can be determined semi-empirically from lower operating conditions. M-10 Ottawa. K2P2N7 Abstract Gas turbine injectors. Preliminary results show that if the air-fuel-ratio and percent pressure drop are held constant the measured droplet size increases with increasing ambient pressure. Session 3A . May 2007 A Preliminary Investigation of Flow Scaling for Injector Characterization P. with only minor variations in axial droplet velocity. well atomized fuel flows. at realistic operating conditions. The goal of this research is to establish scaling rules. ON. IL. are difficult to characterize due to the very dense sprays that result from large.ILASS Americas. Andrew Corber* Gas Turbine Laboratory Institute for Aerospace Research National Research Council of Canada 1200 Montreal Rd.. Friday.

3 . H. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. * Corresponding author Friday. Emerson United Technologies Research Center East Hartford. L. Borst. Costello. The design constraints led to the selection of a commercial. J. Chicago. IL.39 kg/h flow rate and at air-fuel ratios of 4 and 6. Unheated. which was 20 to 40 times higher than the design target. L. and S. off-the-shelf twin-fluid atomizer for the mixer. CFD modeling used these data to help define inlet boundary conditions and predict the mixing and vaporization performance of the fuel injector under heated conditions in a confined cylindrical geometry. Heated tests verified that the spray was fully vaporized before the exit plane of the cylindrical mixer. All of the constraints for the mixer were met with the atomizer except for the gas pressure drop. Chiappetta. May 2007 Design and Validation of a Fuel-Air Mixer for a Portable Reformer M. C. M.ILASS Americas. CT 06108 USA Abstract The challenge of atomizing and fully vaporizing a low flow rate of jet fuel in a logistic fuel reformer intended for portable fuel cell applications was met through a combined experimental and modeling effort. W. Session 3A . T. unconfined spray tests with the atomizer were conducted to acquire droplet size measurements at a 0. Corn*.

the liquid flow rate has only a minor impact. it was found that the liquid film thickness is a strong function of gas velocity with the liquid flow rate having a significant. These results show trends that are quite different than other recently published work on liquid film stripping. The gas flow rate is accurately determined using a 2-D PDPA system and ranges from about 50 to 200 m/s. liquid film encounters a sharp 45º angle. C. May 2007 Experimental Investigation of Liquid Film Stripping at a Sharp Corner B.ILASS Americas. the film may remain attached to the solid surface and flow around the discontinuity. J. The liquid flowing around the sharp corner and along the wall is captured and measured using a secondary pump and collection system. or it may be stripped into droplets that are dispersed in the gas phase. taking on values from 85 microns to partial dryout. Ghandhi* and T. At this point. On the other hand. In this study. As expected. the percentage of liquid remaining adhered to the corner is a strong function of gas flow. Steinhaus. and strongly suggest the need for further work in this area. Shedd Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Madsion.A. With the current setup.1 . Friday. 53706-1609 USA Abstract During port fuel injection in an internal combustion engine. the thin film is sheared by the high speed gas flow and flows toward the intake port where it will reach a geometric discontinuity – the valve lip or the valve seat. When the intake valve opens. IL. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. an experimental apparatus has been designed and fabricated that generates a uniform. Chicago. Session 3B . though secondary effect. thin liquid film whose flow rate is controlled independently from an imposed high speed gas flow. B. The liquid film thickness before the sharp corner is measured using a non-intrusive optical technique. a significant fraction of the injected fuel impinges on the back surface of the intake valve or on the intake runner walls and forms a thin film on the surface. WI.

Interface is reconstructed by a piecewise linear algorithm. Dolatabadi* Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Concordia University Montréal. Evolution of liquid sheets in space is presented to study the effect of flow parameters on the breakup length of liquid sheets moving in a gaseous medium. H3G 2W1. * Corresponding author: dolat@encs.2 . Results show that both surface tension and viscosity tend to stabilize the sheet by increasing the breakup length. Session 3B .concordia. Since the major reason of sheet breakup is the interaction between liquid and gas. May 2007 Computational Study of Breakup Length of Liquid Sheets M. spatial linear stability theory is applied on the sheet. IL. CANADA Abstract Primary breakup of viscous liquid sheets is studied. Chicago. viscosity. Effect of surface tension.ILASS Americas. Ohnesorge number. A. QC. and gas to liquid density ratio as nondimensional parameters. Volume of Fluid method is used to capture the interface between liquid and surrounding gas. while increasing gas to liquid density ratio decreases breakup length of liquid sheets. the boundary condition at the interface should be treated precisely. To implement this boundary condition. Movassat.ca Friday. Maximum growth rate resulted from stability analysis is imposed at the interface. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. and density is studied considering Weber number.

After impacting on a pin the spreading liquid sheet punctured. ON M5S 3G8 CANADA Abstract The spread and disintegration of thin liquid sheets. was photographed. Session 3B . Simple analytical models were developed to describe spreading of liquid sheets. Sheet velocity and maximum diameter were measured from photographs.ILASS Americas. Jets impacting on a plate spread into a smooth sheet with fingers around the edges whose number and length increased with jet velocity. creating holes that grew until the entire sheet had disintegrated. Chicago.3 . IL. * Corresponding author Friday. produced by the normal impact of a transient liquid jet on either a flat plate or the tip of a pin. May 2007 Disintegration of a radially-spreading liquid sheet Rajeev Dhiman* and Sanjeev Chandra Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Toronto Toronto. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.

The simulation results show that the spray structure of the swirl nozzle injection is sensitive to the intake flow field and in-cylinder gas density. The simulation results also show that swirl injectors are more suitable for low ambient pressure (<0. which is often used to simulate droplet breakup processes of high-pressure (50MPa~300MPa) diesel injections. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison. Reitz Engine Research Center. the spray penetration is too long. two types of low pressure (5MPa~20MPa) injectors were considered: a swirl injector and a multi-hole injector. Chicago. * Corresponding author Friday. Session 3C .3MPa). multi-hole injection applications. the hollow-cone spray collapses into a solid-cone spray. was recalibrated and extended for low-pressure.3MPa) conditions because at high pressures (>0.1 . WI 53706-1609 USA Abstract Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is being considered as an alternative to conventional engine combustion systems due to its high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Two techniques were used to improve the prediction of spray behavior: use of an independent collision mesh with random rotation. May 2007 Modeling Low-Pressure Injections in Diesel HCCI Engines Yong Sun* and Rolf D. while the spray structure of a multi-hole nozzle injection is less influenced by the in-cylinder flow and gas density. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) hybrid breakup model. was used to simulate the two types of injections. which can cause spray-wall impingement. IL. To prepare a homogeneous mixture for diesel HCCI combustion. Multi-hole injectors are more suitable for high ambient pressure conditions because at low pressures.ILASS Americas. and coupling the gas and liquid phases using polar interpolation. A modified version of the KIVA-3V R2 code. The numerical models were validated by comparing simulation results with experiments under different conditions.

McCarthy. Chicago. lean NOx trap (LNT). The fuel mass flow rate is a user input in order to evaluate a variety of fuel injection profiles. Jr. thus. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. IL. The spray profile is defined using probability density functions independent of the fuel injection rate resulting in a simple input file for the simulation. Fuel is injected into the exhaust tailpipe in a transient fashion covering a multitude of fuel injection rates to provide uniform and fully vaporized sprays at the inlet of the fuel reformer catalyst. low pressure diesel sprays are characterized using spray diagnostic equipment such that a representative spray profile is injected into the simulation directly at the nozzle exit. The method is used to support the development of Eaton’s aftertreatment program consisting of a low pressure diesel injector. E. optimize mixing elements and guide experimental configurations. May 2007 Method to Specify Fuel Injection Profiles for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment Simulations Using Fuel Spray Measurements J. Although fuel sprays are quite complex and difficult to model. Session 3C . diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. The simulation is used to compare fuel injection systems. diesel fuel reformer. eliminating the need to simulate fuel break-up. fuel-exhaust mixing elements. The drop size distribution is characterized in terms of a volume probability density function while the spray pattern is described in terms of a volume flux probability density function. Eaton Corporation 26201 Northwestern Highway Southfield. Friday.ILASS Americas. MI 48076 Abstract The goal of this work is to develop a method for simulating fuel and exhaust mixing in diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment systems using standard spray measurement techniques.2 .

but as the blend percentage increases greater than 5%.3 . Illinois 61801 USA Abstract The Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model. * Corresponding author Friday. Lee1* 1 Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering 2 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana. simulations for the biodiesel blends predict vaporization similar to that of diesel fuel. it shows a tendency to vaporize faster than any of the other pure biodiesel fuels when injected into engine-like conditions. Stringer1.Modeling Biodiesel Spray Breakup with Well-Defined Fuel Properties V. palm. McCrady2. and lard biodiesels were predicted. and this study shows the effect these differences will have on the vaporization of the fuel. C. B5 and B20 are also shown. Significant differences in the spray and vaporization between diesel-biodiesel blends of B2. Due to the lower boiling point and critical temperature of the coconut biodiesel. The biodiesel fuels that behave most like pure diesel include palm and lard biodiesel. F. J. P. Further studies such as measurement of the properties of the pure biodiesel fuels and diesel-biodiesel blends or experimental measurement of the spray of these fuels are needed to verify the models used in this research. L. C. Hansen2. Previous research indicates significant differences in density. the fuel vapor mass is shown to decrease. relies heavily upon the physical properties of the fuels being analyzed. At low blend percentages of B2 and B5. which is used to model the breakup of fuels in diesel engines. The vapor mass composition is also affected by the blend percentage and lower volatility of biodiesel. A. viscosity. coconut. Using fatty acid profiles of the source oils for biodiesel. surface tension and thermal conductivity between diesel and biodiesel fuels. These blends were modeled using the KIVA3VR2 engine code with modifications for a multi-component fuel. Spray images generated from these simulations also demonstrate a relationship between droplet diameter and vaporization of the fuel. These properties differ considerably between the biodiesel fuels. the physical properties and critical temperature of soybean. Session 3C .

The new Intra-parcel model proposed here has been validated and compared to experimental measurements. Novi.com Friday. May 2007 Intra-Parcel Collision Model Foo Chern Ting* Mindware Engineering Inc. This paper focuses on the problem of calculating the collision rate between drops accurately. it still suffers from numerics sensitivities. A new drop-drop collision model has been developed and implemented in the KIVA code to improve the droplet collision rate prediction. Recently it has been proposed to use a secondary grid for the collision rate calculation that is independent of the gas-phase grid. While this approach removes the constraint of using the relatively large gasphase grid cells for collision rate calculations. IL 61625 Song-Lin Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics.ILASS Americas. * Corresponding author: fting1@ford. Michigan Technological University. and second. Post Department of Mechanical Engineering. Chicago. calculation of the outcome once a collision has occurred. Computing the collision rate between drops or particles when they are non-uniformly distributed and sharp gradients are present in their distribution is a challenging task. Bradley University.1 . calculation of a collision rate between drops. One of these spray sub-models is the droplet interaction model.. Session 4A . Peoria. as is done in the NTC collision algorithm. which is separated into two parts: first. The IntraParcel model predicts drop size distributions more accurately than the other drop collision models currently available. Traditionally the collisions between parcels of drops have been computed using the same spatial grid as is used for the Eulerian gas-phase calculations. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Houghton. IL. MI 49931 Abstract Multidimensional models that are used for engine computations must include spray sub-models when the fuel is injected into the cylinder in liquid form. MI 48375 Scott L.

The CFD code KIVA-3V with the proposed modifications was used to simulate a typical high velocity. IL. a new approach is proposed where a radius-of-influence of collision is established for each gas-phase cell. Chicago. WI 53706. Reitz Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison. USA Abstract A significant portion of numerical dependencies in spray computations stems from droplet collision calculations. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Two additional strategies are also explored to further reduce numerical dependencies. thereby avoiding the need for a secondary mesh. To obtain fidelity in the simulations.ILASS Americas. Dynamic improvement to discrete particle resolution in under-resolved spatial regions is obtained by selective parcel-splitting. non-evaporating diesel spray and adequate mesh-insensitivity and reduced time-stepdependency were demonstrated.2 . Session 4A . a mean collision time obtained from the specifics of the collision process is used in computations. The radius-of-influence is used in estimating the collision probability for each parcel in the cell. * Corresponding author Friday. In this work. May 2007 Droplet Collision Modeling in Multi-Dimensional Spray Computations Achuth Munnannur* and Rolf D.

31410 and Johan Steelant ESA-ESTEC. Then. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. several correlations were established for the different injectors according to injection velocity and superheat level. This involves flashing atomisation which then rules engine ignition or droplet dispersion around the spacecraft. Noordwijk 2200 AG. compared with non-flashing conditions. * Corresponding author Friday. A literature survey was undertaken on flashing atomisation and on related detailed experiments. IL.ILASS Americas. May 2007 Spray Velocity and Drop Size Measurements in Vacuum Conditions Renaud Lecourt * and Philippe Barricau ONERA.1 . Mauzac. The results show how flash atomisation in vacuum conditions increases the droplet velocities and decreases their size. Netherlands Abstract Injection or expelling of liquid propellants in vacuum conditions occurs in rocket engine starts or ventings in orbit. Session 4B . France. to complement the literature database. From these results. Chicago. experiments were carried out to obtain spray drop velocity & size measurements when highpressure fluid is injected into near vacuum conditions typically observed downstream from rocket engine injectors and venting devices of upper-stages or spacecraft.

Chicago. Session 4B .2 . L. The input pressures of the fluids entering the spraying device are also measured. Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS). The considered spraying device has inlets for at two fluids. A mixture pressure sensor is mounted on the tube carrying the mixture from mixing chamber to the outlet to detect the pressure of the mixture. H.B. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. The calculated pressure and the measured actual mixture pressure are then used in a comparison process to determine whether or not the spraying device is functioning properly. IL. which has parameters that are derived recursively when the spraying device is installed in its operating position.-Denijs-Westrem. The measured input pressures of the fluids are used to calculate a predicted mixture pressure based on an empirica1 linear formula. B3001 Heverlee.V. and a mixing chamber in which the fluids are mixed.. Belgium Abstract A spraying device that sprays a mixture of fluids is monitored to determine whether it is functioning properly. Saelens2. Friday. Kasteelpark Arenberg 30. B-9051 St. De Ketelaere*1. Anthonis1 Division of Mechatronics. water and air.ILASS Americas. May 2007 Nozzle fault detection using recursive least squares 1 B. Wulteputte2 and J.A. Buchtenstraat 2. Belgium 2 AutoJet Technologies B.

Krishna∗ and Thomas Butcher Energy Resources Division Brookhaven National Laboratory Building 526.ILASS Americas. ∗ Corresponding Author 1 Friday. The sprays from the atomizer were characterized using a Malvern System 2600 spray analyzer. or more generally. The commonly used Lefebvre correlation for the SMD was found to represent well the data for the MMD. USA Abstract The cost and supply constraints of petroleum fuels and the concerns of global climate change has renewed interest broadly in finding liquid biofuels as extenders and substitutes for oil. whose spray characteristics were tested. Several blends of biodiesel with ASTM # 2 oil and also water as a high surface tension liquid were tested at various atomizing air to liquid flow ratios. to distillate fuels from petroleum (ASTM # 2 fuel). The conclusion for the turbine operation is that the overall combustion performance with the biodiesel blends should be similar to that with the petroleum distillate fuel. uses a plain jet type airblast atomizer. The work presented here was done in the context of testing such blends in another type of power generation equipment. microturbines. which has characteristics very similar to diesel fuel. it could be used to replicate the SMD data as well. Upton. Session 4C . and it is shown that with a simple multiplier. Chicago. Biodiesel is one such biofuel. The injector. NY 11973-5000. 20thAnnual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. There is a growing body of literature on the use of blends of biodiesel and distillate fuels in various types of combustion equipment such as diesel engines. May 2007 Spray Characteristics of an Airblast Atomizer on Biodiesel Blends C. and space heating equipment. IL.1 . A major conclusion was that the air to liquid flow ratio was the key parameter determining the spray characteristics as defined by the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) and these diameters were relatively insensitive to the changes in viscosities and surface tensions of the liquids tested. R.

McDonell* Energy Research Consultants 23342 South Pointe Drive. Session 4C . The results show that.ILASS Americas. A comparison of these expressions reveals significant variation in predicted penetration which makes their application for engineering design questionable. * Corresponding author Friday. for the conditions studied. High speed shadowgraphy is used to document the penetration of liquid jets produced by each of the injectors for pressures ranging from 10 to 100kPa into a 60 m/s crossflow. In the present work. Ulises M.2 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. May 2007 Investigation of the Effect of Injector Discharge Coefficient on Penetration of a Plain Liquid Jet into a Subsonic Crossflow Christopher T. Chicago. CA 92653-1422 Abstract The injection of a liquid jet into a high speed crossflow has been studied extensively in the past decade or so. Illinois. To support the analysis. Suite E Laguna Hills. inclusion of the discharge coefficient in the expressions for penetration greatly reduces the scatter in the predictions. the typical practice of assuming unity discharge coefficient is examined in the context of these expressions and their use. new experiments are carried out using three injectors with varying discharge coefficients. including penetration. Brown. A wide variety of expressions have been developed describing aspects of the jet behavior. Mondragon and Vincent G.

The criteria employed in obtaining this reduced equilibrium form is analyzed in this work. ranging from analytical solutions to DNS are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the criteria developed. but involves additional characteristics of the flow. Parkhill. USA Equilibrium solutions to the Lagrangian equations of motion for bubbles and droplets can significantly reduce the computational cost of the corresponding calculations for the full form of these equations. Applied Research Laboratory. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Applied Research Laboratory. Various examples. Trujillo. It is shown that the key parameter defining this boundary between equilibrium and non-equilibrium is not only the particle time constant. May 2007 Equilibrium Condition for Lagrangian Bubble and Droplet Motion A. first for droplets in gas flows (sprays) and subsequently for bubbles in liquid. Edge.F. Chicago. IL. Penn State University.ILASS Americas.E. Penn State University. B. Penn State University. M.1 . as is suggested in the literature. Poster . Applied Research Laboratory.A.

IL. M. The structure of the molecule is maintained by constraining bond lengths and bond angles iteratively. Micci. Applied Research Laboratory. Petrilla. Penn State University. May 2007 Vaporization of a nHeptane Droplet using Molecular Dynami B. Penn State University A molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the characteristics of a nHeptane droplet vaporizing in N2 environments ranging from ambient conditions to supercritical temperatures and pressures. The model uses a Lennard-Jones and a torsion potential for inter-atomic interactions. M. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Chicago. Trujillo.A. Department of Aerospace Engineering. Department of Aerospace Engineering. One of the open questions in the literature that is addressed in the present work is the attainment of phase equilibrium as the pressure and temperature conditions vary from sub-critical to super-critical.2 . These dynamics are especially difficult to capture using a classical continuum approach since the temporal changes taking place are not adequately represented in any existing model.ILASS Americas.Penn State University. F. Poster . M.

. Chicago. and influence of long-range intermolecular forces during film rupture. heavy fuel-oil burners (e.3 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. flat-fan atomizers). surface tension. coupling with surrounding gas-phase flow.g. i. May 2007 Towards an Efficient Nonlinear Atomization Model for Thin Liquid Films C. * Corresponding author Poster .g..e. liquid viscosity. Various implementations of the model focusing on different physical aspects. effect of film geometry.purpose CFD solver is outlined. An extension and generalization of the current nonlinear film model towards a film atomization model suitable for implementation into a general. CO 80401. IL. are reviewed together with a validation of the predicted nonlinear wave-propagation characteristics for inviscid films using a two-dimensional discrete vortex method. USA Abstract Reviewed is a previously developed nonlinear thin-film lubrication model aimed at the prediction of spray formation from thin films such as those found in gas-turbine engines (e. Mehring * Division of Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden. rotary-cup atomizers) and in the paint industry (e..ILASS Americas. prefilming air-blast atomizers)..g.

and application of unified secondary breakup and vaporization of a liquid fuel venting problem.M. Inc.W. or atmospheric bulk-dispense problems. multi-phase thermodynamic framework is used which is applicable to both the gas and liquid phases. An enhanced volume-of-fluid (VOF) type methodology is utilized to capture the gas/liquid surface interface location. Hosangadi. CRUNCH CFD®. Density-based fluid dynamic equations are transformed to a “quasi-pressurebased” form. The current VOF approach is well suited for applications involving liquid jet discharge at lower ambient pressures. In place of a traditional VOF approach (with different thermodynamic treatments of gas and liquid). Inc. Chicago. (CRAFT Tech) Pipersville. May 2007 CRAFT Tech CFD Methodology for High Speed Liquid Jet Venting and Breakup Predictions K. such as liquid fuel venting.ILASS Americas. IL. In order to avoid resolving the surface breakup numerically. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. and the multi-element unstructured grid code. allowing the size of the droplets generated to vary spatially as well as in time with the local evolution of the gas/liquid interface. a unified. Relevant physics are modeled to predict liquid atomization/vaporization through a cascading process involving interface surface breakup. structured grid code CRAFT CFD®. and droplet secondary breakup and vaporization. where the liquid behavior is essentially incompressible making the numerical solution more difficult in a high-speed compressible flow environment. permitting grid adaptation to be applied to enhance gas-liquid interface tracking. PA 18947 Abstract CRAFT Tech.4 . has developed a robust computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology for simulating liquid jet discharge and breakup in high-speed gas/liquid flows. Brinckman * A. * Corresponding author Poster . primary droplet formation due to high-speed shear on a liquid blob. High resolution solutions of exemplary problems are presented. and G. primary droplet formation. CRAFT Tech applies a surface breakup model with correlations for droplet formation based on local shear and surface tension across the gas/liquid interface. and preconditioning is used which facilitates integrating the equations with widely disparate sound speeds. This approach is implemented in CRAFT Tech’s. including the interface capture of a vented liquid fuel jet into a supersonic freestream. Feldman Combustion Research & Flow Technology. gas-turbine fuel injection.

May 2007 Impact Dynamics and Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces A. Box 210072 University of Cincinnati. The drop deformation. Manglik. K. spreading and recoil dynamics are captured using a high-speed digital video camera at 4000 frames per second. Chicago. Cincinnati.ILASS Americas. P. On the hydrophobic substrate. IL. A finite volume method is used to numerically model the transient drop behavior and heat transfer. OH 45221 Abstract Heat transfer to a hot water droplet impinging on a cold substrate is numerically and experimentally investigated. The liquid-air interface is tracked by the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. Industrial. O. Gatne. the water drop spreads and then recoils sharply so as to form a vertical column. M. The hydrophilic surface facilitates larger drop spread followed by weak recoil. O. R. The high-speed visualization and computations reveal that surface wettability significantly affects the spreading-recoil behavior and droplet cooling. which leads to a higher rate of heat transfer from a hydrophilic surface compared to a hydrophobic surface. P. which breaks up and ejects secondary droplets. and M. A. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. * Corresponding author Poster . The droplet impact on both the hydrophobic (Teflon) and the hydrophilic (glass) surfaces are considered for a drop Weber number of 20. Huzzayin. Sanjeev. Jog* Department of Mechanical. and Nuclear Engineering 598 Rhodes Hall.5 .

The thin (~300 µm). Drallmeier.F.6 . 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. The objective is the development of a comprehensive separation criterion for predicting whether the film will separate from the corner and break up into droplets or negotiate the corner and stay attached. MO 65409-0050 USA The onset of separation of shear–driven liquid films from a solid surface due to a sudden expansion in geometry is studied. Chicago. horizontal film is driven by an adjacent gas flow and interacts with the separated gas flow at a sharp 60° expanding corner on the lower wall.A. Using these estimates. May 2007 Film Separation Criterion with Experiemental Validation for Dynamic Sheardriven Thin Liquid Films in Separated Gas Flows M. J. IL. Observations using high speed imaging as well as quantitative measures of liquid mass attached to the wall after the corner are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the criterion to predict the onset of separation. Poster .ILASS Americas.A. and B. Friedrich. surface tension forces and gravitational forces acting on the film over the breakup length. Armaly Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla. Quantitative estimates of the film thickness and velocity just before separation is made using a simple two-dimensional film propagation model. H. a force balance is then performed to predict the separation or attachment of the liquid film at the corner. Forces include momentum flux. Lan.

Chicago. as well as high speed imaging observations of the liquid film separation and breakup for both the undisturbed and disturbed flow are given. Quantitative measures of liquid mass attached to the wall after the corner.A. Drallmeier. Armaly Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla. May 2007 Effects of an Induced Perturbation on the Interaction of Separated Gas Flow and Shear-driven Thin Liquid Films M.7 . MO 65409-0050 USA The effect of an induced acoustic disturbance on the separation of a shear-driven liquid film from a solid surface due to a sudden expansion in geometry is studied. Friedrich. A thin (~300 µm). horizontal film. Poster . The perturbation frequencies were established based on the characteristic Strouhal numbers for the gas phase vortex shedding frequency.A. and B. as well as the characteristic frequency of the large amplitude instabilities on the surface of the film. IL. J. interacts with the separated gas flow at a sharp 60° expanding corner on the lower wall and is disturbed by pressure fluctuations induced downstream. driven by an adjacent gas flow.ILASS Americas.F. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.

4L V8 3-valve low pressure direct injection gasoline engine. Simulation results show that the effect of injector spray pattern.ILASS Americas. which is a commercial grid generator software program. May 2007 A Numerical Study of In-cylinder Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Yuxin Zhang and Harold Schock Automotive Research Experimental Station Department of Mechanical Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems.S. a new rezoner methodology was implemented. is a key factor to improve the fuel charge homogeneity in the cylinder. MI 48824 David L. Hung Visteon Corporation Van Buren Township. MI 48111-5711 Abstract A KIVA-3V based numerical simulation has been performed to study the in-cylinder flow field and fuel mixture formation process in a 5. IL. GRIDGEN. Poster . To resolve the problems of fine moving mesh in KIVA-3V. Chicago. enabled by the use of multi-hole fuel injectors to achieve spray tailoring flexibility. was used to build a fine mesh for the single cylinder with over a half million computational cells configured in 50 blocks.8 .

this shock waves generated by highly transient liquid jets are characterized by an weak but observable expansion immediately after the compression caused by the liquid deformation due to aerodynamic drag on the jet front. Unlike the conventional shock waves by a rigid body compression. X. and liquid sprays. Seong-Kyun Cheong. and also we demonstrated the dependence of the shock characteristics on spray angles. the dynamic behavior induced by the compression and expansion of the ambient gas in the vicinity of the shock front has been examined. 48202 Abstract Ultra fast x-radiography and a multiphase numerical simulation were used to reveal complete dynamical characteristics of the shock waves generated by supersonic liquid jets.9 . Lai Wayne State University.-C. With the quantitative analysis and the numerical simulation. Liu. IL.ILASS Americas. density contours. Detroit. IL 60439 M. Chicago. Argonne. 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Argonne National Laboratory. MI. and Jin Wang Advanced Photon Source. A transition mechanism from the transonic to the supersonic has been clearly observed. Poster . Under specific injection condition. we provided the detailed internal structures and interacting mechanisms between the ambient gas and liquid spray jet by simultaneously simulating the fluid parameters such as gas velocities. May 2007 Dynamics of the Shock Waves Generated by High-Speed Liquid Jets Kyoung-Su Im.

The not-dimensional numbers which control such a process have been identified. R. injected in quiescent gas medium and droplets in uniform air flow are reference conditions which allow identification of prevalent modes in deformation and fragmentation. They allow both to circumscribe regions of regime occurrences and to analyse the most important characteristics in terms of quantitative dependence on the not-dimensional numbers. The technological aspects are also relevant for both single and multiple injections. This inventory of phenomenological characterizations is collected in a large ensemble of experimental works devoted to the subject and reported in the literature. The diagnostics techniques which are the ground for such characterization and the specific coupling of these techniques to LJGCF configuration are also of interest as well as the assessment of their level of repeatability and accuracy. A. Ragucci++. In particular jets. Bellofiore+ + University Federico II.ILASS Americas 20th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Furthermore LJGCF is a configuration which is also of interest in classification of atomization regimes passing from plain “pressure” atomization to “air assisted” and “air assisted” processes. Chicago. which depend in turn on modes similar to those occurring in more simple configurations. Eventually the comparison of the semi-empirical correlations with those obtained from equations representing the physical laws including gradually increasing level of complexity (more terms. more complicated boundary conditions) allow both to frame the different behaviours and to focus a conceptual model in which the different parameters can be adjusted in a suitable way. CNR. reduced to the most significant ones and used to classify different relevant regimes according to several spay plume characteristics including shape parameters both of spray and of the residual skeleton of the liquid jet. Therefore the LJGCF is a prototypal configuration which synthesizes different “simple” behaviours as well as their interactions to be analyzed at an intermediate level of complexity. deforms and atomizes according to the oscillation reinforcement occurring on the liquid-air interface. Naples. They range from atomizationvaporization processes in most advanced gas turbine to liquid-gas mass exchange in Venturi scrubbers. Naples Abstract Liquid Jet in Gas Cross Flow (LJGCF) bends. IL. May 2007 Liquid Jet in Gas Cross Flow A. _______________________________ * Corresponding author . to homogenization of liquid film deposition. Cavaliere+. ++ Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione. more complex interactions.

. Wed. C Franco. E. A. A. E. A... Gatne. R. T. Wed. Anchordoquy. Armaly. F. Brinckman. Wed. Gatne. Thu. R.. Wed... K. Thu.... Poster Fri.. R. A. B. S. Ashgriz. Fri. N Abraham. Desjardins. D. Danczyk. K. S. J.. Wed. Canino. Edwards.. S.. V. De Ketelaere. D. Fri. Thu. Hecht.. Thu. Friedrich. Drallmeier.. M. Garca-Valladares. Wed. Dhiman. B. Friedrich. C. Huzzayin. W. S... A. O. S. Thu.. Thu.. C. A. Fri. F. Aguilar. 1B 1B 4B 2A 3A 1B 3A 3A 4B 2B 1A 4A 6 7 3B 2B 1B 4A 1A 3A 2 4C 3B 2B 4C 2A 3A 4A 4B 3A 3B 4A 1B 3A 2A 1B 3A 3A 3A 2A 1B 2A 3A 2A 2B 3B / / / / / / / / / / / / 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 3 2 / / / / / / 1 2 1 1 1 3 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 4 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 1 3 3 2 4 3 Dolatabadi. Wed. Wed.. Poster Poster Wed. Dunn-Rankin... Wed... D... Giles. W. Wed. K. Bolszo. J Ghandhi.. Thu. Edge. Thu.. S.. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Wed. N Ashgriz.. Fri. Poster Wed. Fri... A. Drallmeier. O. Thu. Herrmann.. Bussmann. Corber. J. Hung. G. M. M.... Thu. J.. A. Fri. Chen. P.. C. Greminger. Thu. L. K-S Ismailov. Fri... P.. A. Fri. Felsch. Wed. Thu. W. Hansen. M. Chandra. R. J Giles. Fri.. J. Jepsen. M. J Berrocal.. J. B. T. Wed. M. Brown. Thu. T. Thu. M.. Bellan. Poster Poster Thu. Cronce. Fri. Armaly.. J Apte. Grover.. Fang. Thu. Fri. Gardner. A. Thu.. Cheng. M. A. S Jia. W... P. Thu. O. R. Fri. Carlucci. S.. K. A... Thu. Goghari. Wed. Fri. Fri.. C. Fri. L. Wed. Heister. Wed. Herrmann.. Fri. Y. A. Chandra. Poster Poster Fri. Corn. A. A. Fri. Borst. D. Thu. Al-Ahmed. D. Fri.. Thu. Arienti. Fri. Fri. K. S.... D.. Herrmann. Fri. Wed. J. Jog. D. M. Chueh.. Emerson. Aguila. Hicks. Wed.. B. G. Fri. N. Thu. T. F. L. S.. K. Wed. M. Wed. Poster Poster 3B 4A 6 7 1B 2A 3 4B 3A 1A 1A 2A 4A 6 7 / / 2 2 / / 2 1 / / / / / / 1 3 1 2 2 2 …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Thu. Jabbari. K. Ghandhi. J. Chandra.AUTHOR INDEX Abani. Anthonis. Poster Thu. Thu. Friedrich. Jafari. Thu. Poster 2A 3B 4B 5 4B 1A 3B 2A 2C 3A 2C 3B 3C 2C 2A 1B 2A 2B 2B 4A 8 5 1A 1B 2A 3B 4B 1A 4B 5 / / / 2 1 2 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 4 4 / / / / / / / 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 .... Drallmeier. Im.. Jerzembeck. O. Choi. Garg.. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Fri. Anderson. B. Fri. Butcher. A... Costello. A.. Thu.. Desjardins. Chiappetta.. S. Brown. M.. Armaly. Thu. K. J. Heister. Dabiri... Fri.. Dunn-Rankin. F. Fri. M. V. Fri. C. P Carter. G... Anthonis..

. Thu. Reitz. Movassat. K-C... D. Mehring... Massah.. Moreau. P.. M. Wed. C. Post. Moin.. Thu. Fri. Thu.. H. Landry.. Fri. Wed. H. Khosla... R. E.. Fri... M.A. Thu.. Poster Wed.. S. Lengsfeld.. Linne.. Nottingham. A. M. Mashayek. Krarup.. T... Parker. Leuven. A. D.. Miller. R Konieczny. C. McCarthy. Y. Manglik. J. J.. Thu.. R. Micci. K. C-f Lee. R. Fri. Thu... H. Wed. Needham... Post... D. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Thu. S. J. Fri.. Fri. Wed. Thu. Liu. Thu. D. M. Poster Thu.. Wed. A. Wed. Wed. Thu. A. Thu. J. C-f Lee. Rahman. J. A.. J. H. Wed. Reitz. McDonell. Thu. D. G. K. Thu. Paciaroni. A. R. Ning. M. Thu. H. Thu. R.. Thu. K. Oskam. J. V... Fri. Knasiak. D. Wed. Thu. D. G. Thu. A. B. E. Krishna. X. Lange. M Linne. U..Jog..... K.. S. Wed. Thu. F.. A. McDonald.. C-f Lee. A. Wed. R. Thu.. Wed. Paciaroni. E Pawlowski. Lippert. B. Wed. W. D. Ketelaere. C-f Lee. R.. Thu. R. Kim.. Lan. Wed. Lim. Fri. C.. F. H... Fri. Mikkilineni. Mashayek. Manglik. A.. Pitsch. M. Moses. E.. Fri. Wed. M. C. Lentz.. Munnannur. Poespowati.. M. Meglinski. C.... Fri. D. Wed. Knasiak. Kim. Poster Thu. Fri. Y. Thu. Fri. Lin. Parrish. Lee. Lightfoot. D. Wed. D.. Wed. E. Lengsfeld. J. S.. Lippert. Kastengren. V. M. 3B 3B 3A 2A 3C 3C 4B 1A 4C / / / / / / / / / 3 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Fri. Poster Fri.. Thu. Powell. M.. Fri. Fri. Reitz. Madabhushi. R. A.. M.. Thu.. Raessi. Kim. D. Fri. Wed. A Peters. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Thu. C. J.... V. Wed... C-f Lee. Mondragon. D.. Thu. H. Fri. S.. B. Wed. T. Poster Poster Fri. Fri. Thu. Lan. Lipp... Thu. I.. S. S. McCrady. U. Reitz.. Fri. M. Thu.. Liu. McGaughey. 2B 4A 1 4 2B 4A 2A 4C 4B 4B 2B 3B 4A 2A 3A 1B 2A 4A 4A 2B 3 1A 1A 1A 4 2B 1C 4B 4A 1A 2B 3A 1B 3A 3C 4A / / 1 1 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 1 1 2 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 3 / / / 1 1 2 / / / / / / / / / / / 4 1 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 . Joseph.. Fri.. Thu. Lee. C. I. Thu. Fri. Thu. C.. Fri. P. Fri. S.. Wed. M. Lecourt. Mostaghimi. M Linne. E. N. Fri. Parkhill. Lim. Kyritsis. McDonell. N Pertilla.. Kneer.. 4B 1B 1A 4B 1A 2A 4B 4B 1C 1C 1A 2A 4A 4C 3A 4A 6 2B 3A 4B 1B 3B 1A 1A 3C 4B 4A 1B 1B 1B 3A 2A 4A 4A 4A 4A 2B 4A 2C 3A 3B 4B 1A 1A 5 4B / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 4 3 1 2 2 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 4 1 3 / 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 Markus. Wed... F. E.

Thu. Thu... Tiwari. Y.. S. Wed. Zeles-Hahn. Steelant.. Fri. L. Thu. Poster 1A 4B 3A 1A 4B 4B 1B 1B 3B 8 / / / / / / / / / 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 .. W. Wed. Sedarsky. Sanjeev. J-P. Fri. Wed. Fri.... Rosenzweig.. Yoon.. Sarchami. J.. Thu. Fri. H. Sirignano. Y. Y. Thu. Poster Wed.. Sedarsky.. Fri.. Sivathanu. Thu. J.. Thu. L. Thu. M..Risi. Trujillo. D.. A. B Steinhaus. Talley. S. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Wed.. B.... Subramaniam. Fri.. F-C. Steinhaus.. Wed. Poster Thu. Vu.. V. Wed. N. M. Thu. G. Wed. 3A 1B 2A 4B 4A 5 4B 2B 2A 2A 3B 8 4A 4A 1B 2B 4A 3B 3A 1B 4A 4A 2B 1A 4A 1A 2C 4B 1A 3B 3C 4B 3C 2A 1C 2A 4B 1B 3 4 4A 2A 2A 1A 2B 3B / / / / / 2 2 1 4 1 / / / / / 1 2 1 4 1 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 4 / / / / / / 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 2 1 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 Wang. K-T... Sun. Wulteputte. B. …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… …… Fri. M. M. S-L. J. Schock. Fri. Fri. Thu.. A. Wed. Wang. Thu. R. R.. P Stamper. Sallam. Thu. L. Zeles-Hahn.. Fri. Fri. J. Yang. A. J. Wed. Shrimpton. Rizoiu.. L Shams. Fri.. P.. Smith. Vieille. D. Sivathanu. Thu. Y. Spiekermann. Selle. R.. F... Thibault. K. Thu. G. P. Wed. Wed.. E. Schick. Rohani.. D. Wed. Y.. Trujillo. Zeng. Varanasi. Fri. A. Schick... Wed. T. A.. I. M. H. Sharma. Ting. J. Zhang. Fri. Tanner... Wulteputte L. Wang. L. Wed. Thu. Wang. S.. Schick.. C. Thu.. Fri.. Stringer. J. Thu. Thu. Sojka. Sivathanu.. Wed. S. E. Sanjeev. A. F. Y. Xu. Y. Shedd.. D.. Y. J. Poster Poster Thu..

000 0gal (22.000 0l) 2.1 1 120.1 DV0.000 ( 36.000) $20.000) $40.000) $10.000) $60.000 ( 9.000 0l) 5 (20) 10(40) 50(200) 0 100(400) Total System Flow in gpm (l/min) 500(2000) .808.080.000 0l) $90.5 28.000 ( 45.000) 100 70 60 X CUMULATIVE VOLUME (% ) 90 80 50 40 30 20 10 $70.9 .300.DV0.000) $50.000 ( 81.600gal (2.460.000 ( 54.000 ( 27.000 ( 18.Sponsors dpq (p-q) = [ Nidi Nidi p q ] DV0.616.000) Annual Cost of Wasted Water $80.000 0gal (11.000l) 561.230.000 ( 72.000) $30.000 ( 63.250.000 0gal (112.000 0l) 280.000gal (1. 9000) 1 10 20 DROP SIZE DIAMETER (µm) 40 5.

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY College of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering .