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State Investment House Inc. vs.

CA
State Investment House Inc. vs. CA
GR No. 101163 January 11, 1993
Bellosillo, J.:
Facts:
Nora Moulic issued to Corazon Victoriano, as security for pieces of jewellery to be sold on commission,
two postdated checks in the amount of fifty thousand each. Thereafter, Victoriano negotiated the checks to State
Investment House, Inc. When Moulic failed to sell the jewellry, she returned it to Victoriano before the maturity
of the checks. However, the checks cannot be retrieved as they have been negotiated. Before the maturity date
Moulic withdrew her funds from the bank contesting that she incurred no obligation on the checks because the
jewellery was never sold and the checks are negotiated without her knowledge and consent. Upon presentment
of for payment, the checks were dishonoured for insufficiency of funds.
Issues:
1. Whether or not State Investment House inc. was a holder of the check in due course
2. Whether or not Moulic can set up against the petitioner the defense that there was failure or absence of
consideration
Held:
Yes, Section 52 of the NIL provides what constitutes a holder in due course. The evidence shows that: on the
faces of the post dated checks were complete and regular; that State Investment House Inc. bought the checks
from Victoriano before the due dates; that it was taken in good faith and for value; and there was no knowledge
with regard that the checks were issued as security and not for value. A prima facie presumption exists that a
holder of a negotiable instrument is a holder in due course. Moulic failed to prove the contrary.
No, Moulic can only invoke this defense against the petitioner if it was a privy to the purpose for which they
were issued and therefore is not a holder in due course.
No, Section 119 of NIL provides how an instruments be discharged. Moulic can only invoke paragraphs c and d
as possible grounds for the discharge of the instruments. Since Moulic failed to get back the possession of the
checks as provided by paragraph c, intentional cancellation of instrument is impossible. As provided by
paragraph d, the acts which will discharge a simple contract of payment of money will discharge the instrument.
Correlating Article 1231 of the Civil Code which enumerates the modes of extinguishing obligation, none of
those modes outlined therein is applicable in the instant case. Thus, Moulic may not unilaterally discharge
herself from her liability by mere expediency of withdrawing her funds from the drawee bank. She is thus liable
as she has no legal basis to excuse herself from liability on her check to a holder in due course. Moreover, the
fact that the petitioner failed to give notice of dishonor is of no moment. The need for such notice is not
absolute; there are exceptions provided by Sec 114 of NIL.