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History and Anthropology

,
Vol. 16, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 167–186

Their Body is Different, Our Body is
Different: European and Tahitian
Navigators in the 18th Century
Anne Salmond
20a.salmond@auckland.ac.nz.
University
AnneSalmond
00000June
of
2005
Auckland
History
10.1080/02757200500116105
GHAN111593.sgm
0275-7206
Original
Taylor
2005
16
and
&
and
Article
Francis
(print)/1477-2612
Francis
Anthropology
Ltd
Ltd
(online)

This paper examines exchanges of navigational knowledge between Tahitian navigators
and European explorers in the mid-18th century. Although Tahitian and European sailors
accomplished way-finding at sea in ways based on very divergent assumptions about the
ocean, the cosmos and persons, Tahitian navigators were able to board European ships, and
pilot them safely through the islands. At first each side drew upon their own familiar
practices to make sense of the other; using ostension or pointing, linguistic exchange and
experience of each other’s vessels as bridgeheads to produce a kind of rough intelligibility.
Much was lost, however, in these partial and approximate exchanges. Here, exchanges
between European and Tahitian sailors and their very different knowledge systems are used
to explore the intricacies of cross-cultural encounters.
Keywords: Navigation; Tahiti; Voyaging; Cross-Cultural Encounter
In this paper, I will discuss exchanges of navigational knowledge between Tahitian
navigators and European explorers in the mid-18th century. Way-finding at sea is a
complex art, and Polynesian and European voyagers accomplished this in very different ways, based upon divergent assumptions about the ocean, the cosmos and persons.
In Polynesia, various kinds of ancestors were called upon in navigational practice,
whereas in European way-finding, instruments had a similar kind of agency. Yet during
the early encounters between Tahitians and Europeans, island navigators were able to
board European ships, and pilot them safely through the islands. In these collaborations, the survival of the ship was at stake; passages through coral reefs had to be
negotiated, coral outcrops avoided and “the stern test of landfall” had to be met (Lewis,
1982) – either an island did or did not appear over the horizon when and where it was
Correspondence to: Anne Salmond, Pro-vice-Chancellor, Equal Opportunities, The University of Auckland, Rm.
108a, Bldg. 119, East Wing, Clocktower 22, Princess Street, Auckland, NZ. Email: a.salmond@auckland.ac.nz
ISSN 0275–7206 print/ISSN 1477–2612 online/05/020167–20 © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd
DOI: 10.1080/02757200500116105

168

A. Salmond

expected. On most occasions, this was successfully transacted. Here, I will investigate
these collaborations between different knowledge systems, and how they were accomplished.
In the mid-18th century, Tahiti and the surrounding islands were unknown to
Europe. On contemporary charts of the world, the South Sea appeared as a vast expanse
of ocean stretching between south-east Asia and the Americas, dotted with a few
scattered islands, a partial coastline of Australia and a squiggle indicating the west coast
of New Zealand. To the south of the ocean, it was thought that a large imaginary continent, Terra Australis Incognita, must exist in order to counterbalance the northern
landmasses. From the 1760s, competing European monarchs sent a series of expeditions to the South Sea, hoping to set up strategic bases and claim Terra Australis for
their own dominions.
In 1767, when Captain Wallis on the Dolphin arrived at the island, Tahiti was
“discovered” and Wallis claimed it for the British monarch. Once news of the island
was reported in Europe, it became an imperial crossroads. Over the next decade, the
Dolphin was followed in quick succession by two French ships commanded by Louis
Bougainville; three British expeditions led by Captain Cook; and three Spanish expeditions from Lima, sent by an anxious Viceroy of Peru who had been warned that the
British intended to settle the island. As each of these expeditions landed, they raised
their flags, ritually took possession of the island for their monarch and gave it a name
– Wallis named it King George’s Island; Bougainville called it New Cythera, after the
island of Aphrodite, the goddess of love; Cook called it Otaheite, its local name; and the
Spaniards called it Amat’s Island, after the Viceroy – an illuminating choice in each
instance.
In this flurry of voyages, each expedition was the end-point of a system of long-range
control, described by John Law (1986) for an earlier period in Europe. Here, artifacts,
people, texts and technologies were brought together in a single system, as European
nations vied to protect or expand their imperium. The ships were robust and durable,
capable of carrying 100 or more men, and trade goods, armaments and supplies for a
voyage of months, even years. These craft were owned and run by agencies of the
Crown, which recruited, trained and paid the sailors; ran the dockyards in which ships
were built and repaired; equipped them with gear, sails and supplies; and established a
global network of bases.
The backbone of this system was a chain of command which ran from the monarch;
to the department of government which drafted the instructions which guided the
voyage, selected the ship and appointed its crews; to the captain, who had supreme
command of the ship, within his orders and a strict set of naval conventions; to the
officers and the petty officers; and down to the ordinary sailors. This chain of
command in turn was upheld by a system of punishments and rewards in which courtmartials, floggings and other penalties, or promotions, were meted out; by the lay-out
of the ship, which placed the ship’s commander in a Great Cabin, the officers in smaller
cabins, and the men jammed together in their hammocks in a lower deck; and by
constant drilling. The disciplined daily routine was ruled by the hourglass and the
ship’s bell; the sequence of meals and watches (which determined who was on deck);

A Tahitian voyaging canoe might be 60 feet long or more. they became enemies by definition. transmuting them into space gridded by lines of latitude and longitude. It was said that you could always recognize a star navigator by his blood-shot eyes. allowing a safe and rapid downwind journey home. as was the case of European ships during this period. pistols. this was a system of exploration and settlement by kin-based replication. and navigational knowledge taught in the kin-based schools of learning. and preceding the Viking oceanic explorations by about 2. This alchemy was effective. stripped of substance and emptied of people. they often seemed unaware that they were in seas traversed for centuries by others. the seas they traversed were quite different from those sailed by 18th-century Europeans. and a covered shelter on its platform. and these weapons could be used against them. the sailors exercised another kind of power. a portable biota and a viral kinship system. the wind and current patterns and numerous other items of navigational information were memorised for the return voyage. and crossed by sea-paths between clusters of the known islands. and carried supplies for a voyage of weeks. whose ancestors had crossed the Pacific. According to current scholarly accounts.History and Anthropology 169 the casting of the log and other instrumental observations which helped to determine the location and course of the vessel. Voyages of exploration were often sailed upwind. durable outrigger or double canoes. As they sailed. If the islanders dared to attack a ship or its people. joined around the edges of the horizon by the great arching bowl of the sky. During such expeditions the navigator slept as little as possible. Rather than a system of long-distance control. These weapons were used only against enemies. pikes. rapidly moving eastward across the Pacific from island to island. a sacred place where people went to cleanse themselves in times of spiritual trouble. In unfamiliar waters a skilled navigator could identify and name new swells by studying the sea hour after hour. and below this rock . According to early Tahitian accounts. “discovering” and claiming places that had long been inhabited. If countries were at war. This system of long-range exploration and settlement was made possible by fast. rather than months or years at sea. carrying perhaps 50 people or more and supplies for some weeks. charting the islands and surrounding ocean. never in support of internal authority. conducting ceremonies of possession and giving new names to the islands and settlements. their ancestors saw the Pacific Ocean as a flat plane. raising flags. because as successive European crews visited the archipelago.000 years.000 years ago. The power of these ships came to a point in their weapons: cannons and muskets for fighting at a distance. swords and cutlasses for hand-to-hand combat.1 Although Tahitian navigators crossed the ocean with confidence. Te Tumu or the “rock of foundation”. the navigator or fa’atere guided the canoe by means of chants to the ancestral gods. and the sequence of stars. ceaselessly scanning the sea and the night sky and keeping watch for land clouds and homing birds. For the Tahitians were also voyagers and explorers. Such vessels were built and crewed by groups of kinsfolk. And as they sailed through the Society Islands. their ships were bound to attack and seek to destroy each other. It was also a marae. The islands in this sea were fixed on a rock. they came in a great migration which began in Island Southeast Asia perhaps 5. with a double hull.

it is said that their fleets of canoes carried images of the gods. Ra’iatea had been established. appeared on a stage erected for the purpose. they were re-tracing the sky voyages of their star ancestors (Henry. priests. who acted as their prompter. As the stars emerged one by one. The sky stood on star-pillars between the sky and the islands.170 A. north to the Marquesas and east to the Tuamotu islands. whose boundaries were marked by a marae. and that priests and navigators were often the same people. the realm of darkness and ancestral power. It is thus not surprising that Polynesian voyaging was closely linked with the ancestor gods. The missionary Ellis gave a vivid description of the arrival of an arioi flotilla: [They] advanced towards the land. a great stone temple. 1859: 237) On this occasion. with their wild distortions of person. navigators. there was Te Po. An old Tahitian narrative explains that at the beginning of the world. each with their own star. a generative source produced space and then shooting stars. the fleet had arrived to entertain the locals. warriors and famed lovers. (Ellis. antic gestures. an arioi . mingling with the sound of the drum and the flute. 1907). According to Tahitian accounts. painted bodies. a society of orators. 1974). attended by their chief. ‘Oro. a cosmic darkness inhabited by the gods and ancestors. south to the Cook and Austral Islands. while others were used as canoe rollers. On their expeditions. and the Areois. the moon. travelling performers. At the heart of this expansionary history was Tupaia. According to early Tahitian accounts. When Tahitian navigators sailed off from a marae at the edge of the land. When arioi travelled en masse to the great ceremonies at Taputapuatea. therefore. and some of these bodies were strung up in trees. the dashing of the sea. in the mid-18th century. a fleet of canoes assembled and travelled under ‘Oro’s protection. where new marae with the same name were established. their drums and flutes sounding. and pairs of dead men and fish (including sharks and turtles) on their prows as offerings for ‘Oro. however. Feathered images of the ancestor. When ‘Oro’s image was consecrated at this great marae. a marae at Opoa on the ancient island of Ra’iatea – Taputapuatea – was dedicated to the war-god. The island of Ra’iatea (also called Hawai’i) was described as the first land created by the ancestor Ta’aroa. Salmond and beyond the layered arches of the sky. The district around Taputapuatea was known as Te Po. The cult of ‘Oro was led by the arioi. and their representatives met periodically at Opoa. together with stones from Taputapuatea. new stars were created. and the homeland from which all other islands had been settled. distinguished by their tattoos and red barkcloth garments. in the mid-18th century ‘Oro’s cult was in a state of rapid expansion. and vociferated songs. and some of the carved boards on marae represented the stars which stood above them. and on their voyages. with their streamers floating in the wind. and feasts staged for their entertainment. A star god eventually created “the kings of the chiefs of the earth … and the chiefs in the skies”. As they beached by the marae. and the rolling and breaking of the surf … the whole … presented a ludicrous imposing spectacle. drums and conch trumpets sounded. it became the centre of a far-flung voyaging network (Oliver. were carried across the archipelago. the sun and comets.2 Large houses were built to accommodate them on their travels. they sailed in canoes across the sky.

the feathered god and the girdle on ‘Oro’s sacred canoe. and in about 1760 he carried an image of ‘Oro from Ra’iatea to Tahiti. counsellor and strategist for Purea and her family. the realm of ancestors. however. the Europeans entered Tahitian history. 1991) According to this prophecy.History and Anthropology 171 priest who featured largely in the first European visits to the islands. and embarked with the young chief. while the bodies of “the glorious offspring of Te Tumu” and the islanders would be different. hoping to inscribe its coastlines on the maps of the world. ancestors or some new kind of being. And this land will be taken by them The old rules will be destroyed And sacred birds of the land and the sea Will also arrive here. and Purea as the “queen” of Tahiti. while the Tahitians thought that the Dolphin was a floating island. when the Dolphin brought the first Europeans to the island.3 When the Dolphin arrived at Tahiti. he initiated the construction of a great marae at Papara. Warriors from Borabora had attacked his home island. tangling these histories together. Tupaia was put in charge of the sacred treasures. the fundamental orders of the world were recounted in cosmological chants that derived all kinds of beings from a single generative origin. (Driessen. our body is different We are one species only from Te Tumu. and sailed to exile in Papara in Tahiti. At first. and soon became the lover of Purea. the island was “discovered” and the islanders entered European history. Tupaia was a priest at Taputapuatea. 1982: 8–9. Distraught at this desecration. although they had had prior warning of their arrival. the warriors chopped down a great tree which sheltered the marae of Taputapuatea. and when they decided to install Purea’s son as the paramount chief of Tahiti. When the high chief of the island was killed. or perhaps a craft from Te Po. they sprang from a single cosmic source. see also Driessen. wife of the high chief of the district. and announced that a new kind of people were coming to the islands: The glorious offspring of Te Tumu will come and see this forest at Taputapuatea. when the Boraborans attacked Ra’iatea. Equally. Their body is different. a priest named Vaita entered a trance. different entities were created which then came together to generate new forms of life. the strangers were linked to the islanders by shared descent from Te Tumu. While they might differ in material appearance. they were not certain whether the Europeans were people like themselves. In 1767. which were subsequently set apart in the world by acts of division. In about 1750. and during these raids Tupaia was wounded and his lands were taken. Within this shared network of kinship. Tupaia joined the local arioi. Tupaia acted as high priest. From this source. In Polynesia. will come and lament Over that which this lopped tree has to teach They are coming up on a canoe without an outrigger. but . the past and the future. Wallis was searching for Terra Australis Incognita. they described Tupaia as Purea’s “right-hand man”. a red feathered girdle for his son and an image of ‘Oro were made and consecrated at Taputapuatea. all beings had form and spirit.

They did not understand a word that was said. and surrounded the ship’s boats at the watering-place.5 The encounters which followed were tentative and violent. took it for granted that they could manage the meeting through material exchange. knives. (Robertson. Salmond these were different for different kinds of being. Red or ’ura was a sign of his presence. One might expect such divergent ways of being to generate distinctive strategies in the first encounters between islanders and Europeans. which generally proposed a shared material substrate but distinct types of consciousness for different forms of life. Wallis took this as theft. As it happened. a red pennant was hoisted on the beach. After this more canoes came out. fired the ship’s guns again. holding up cloth. on the other hand.4 A tahua (priest) made a long speech. Two days later. beads and ribbons. killing many more people. The local people came out to make peace with the Europeans. wrote in his journal: How terrible must they be shocked. their crews “hallowing and Hooting” and holding up plantain branches (ritual representations of their own bodies). and torn to pieces in such a matter as I am certain they never beheld before. when the “canoe without an outrigger” arrived. To Attempt to say what these poor Ignorant creatures thought of us. because according to Vaita’s prophecy. and grunting like pigs and crowing like cocks to indicate what they wanted. would be taking more upon me than I am able to perform. the islanders sought to engage with the strangers by means of ancestral power. This display of power was ominous. the ship’s sailing master. and more speeches were made. and offered their women to the sailors. and ordered a nine-pounder to be fired. there were claps of thunder and flashes of light. and many people were torn to pieces. Vaita’s prophecy was vindicated. with its red-painted gunports and upper sides. When islanders boarded the Dolphin and began to seize at the ironwork. the power of Wallis and his men was no longer seriously challenged. thunder and lightening were signs of his power. cannons were fired into the canoes. but stood with their guns at the ready and offered objects in return. Arioi warriors were sexually voracious. and human sacrifices his tribute. when Wallis sent an armed party of marines ashore in their scarlet jackets to “take possession” of the island. It seems likely that the Tahitians associated the strangers with the war god ‘Oro. when the Dolphin – a “canoe without an outrigger” – appeared off the coast of Tahiti. George Robertson. heralding the new arrivals. fearing that his men were about to be attacked. As they gazed at this strange vessel. Hundreds of canoes crowded around the ship. The next morning a huge crowd paraded with the red banner flying on a high pole. islanders crowded around the pole. causing havoc and killing many people.172 A. its crew would destroy the old rules and seize the islands. This was quite unlike Western cosmological assumptions. When they returned to the ship. When a flotilla of canoes attacked the Dolphin in reprisal. backed by the power of their weapons. The Dolphin’s crew. The Tahitians leaped overboard and retreated in their canoes. and placing offerings beneath it. 1955: 43) From this time on. trembling when the pennant snapped in the breeze. Wallis. When they attacked this great vessel. to see their nearest and dearest of friends Dead. and the sailors were . and threw his branch into the ocean.

worn only by high chiefs. 2003: 264). led by Tupaia. and forged a taio relationship with the French commander. intent on forging a close relationship with the Europeans. Purea was devastated. Purea spent a good deal of time with Wallis’s men. and invited Captain Wallis to her home. now incorporating the power of the British. A young man named Ahutoru. carefully sheltered under especially made hangars?” (Dunmore. for otherwise of what use would be the immense 60-foot canoes. This girdle. Each hull was crafted of two shaped logs lashed together. At the prow. Purea. During this part of the voyage. When Wallis and his men left the island. and he and his men learned little about island politics.History and Anthropology 173 probably being treated in this fashion. remarked: “I am quite sure that they sometimes sail over long distances. she presented him with a plaited coil of her own hair. At the stern. a kinsman of the local chief. one of the officers. appeared with her “right-hand man” Tupaia. With this girdle. 1971. Ahutoru went with them. Oliver. soon boarded Bougainville’s ship. As Fesche. the red pennant from the Dolphin was joined to the maro ‘ura or red feathered girdle brought by Tupaia from Ra’iatea. a conduit to the ancestors. Sketches of these craft were published in Bougainville’s account of the voyage. continued to work on the great marae. intent on visiting the King of France. The hair of a chief was sacred. a French officer. five or six feet above the water. stitched on a barkcloth sash. some of these canoes had portable shelters held up by carved columns. Purea intended to install her son as paramount chief of the island. put a bunch of red feathers on his hat. When Wallis sailed from Tahiti shortly after this ceremony. and the taumau or plaited rope of hair bound Wallis into Purea’s lineage. welcoming Wallis to the arioi society (Handy. when he changed his two attendants into a sow in litter and a red feather bunch as gifts for his wife’s family. their labours were interrupted by a brief flurry of excitement when a French expedition commanded by Louis Bougainville. showering them with gifts and attention. Nevertheless over the following months her people. the “queen” of Tahiti and a leading arioi. exchanging names with him. Four . The French gave detailed descriptions of these canoes. the first of which formed the prow and most of the hull. She went on board the Dolphin on a number of occasions. joined by cross-pieces on which the mast was set. and gave him a pregnant sow. with a fixed sail. In April 1768. This ritual established a taio or ceremonial friendship between the English captain and Purea which in Tahiti amounted to a partial exchange of identities. which were made of two narrow hulls. particularly the red-coated sergeant of marines. In a ceremony at the great arioi house. the first significant exchanges of navigational knowledge occurred between islanders and Europeans. When Bougainville’s expedition left the island. a long flat plank twelve feet long was set. arrived at Hitia’a on the opposite side of the island. Nevertheless. 1974). Bougainville stayed in Tahiti for only for three weeks. Bougainville’s men became the first Europeans to realize that the islanders were capable of long sea voyages. and half of which hung out over the water. through the friendship with Ahutoru. diplomat and mathematician. the second of which curved up to form the stern. half of which covered the canoe from incoming seas. while the other gifts evoked the actions of the god ‘Oro at his marriage. was made of feathered squares each embodying the power of a great leader.

In these navigations. Their compass is the sun’s course in day-time. Emboldened by her alliance with Captain Wallis and his promises to return. the chiefs from the south allied with the chiefs from the north. Tutaha. their warriors descended upon Papara. and tried to steer the ship in that direction. Some days later. from isle to isle. hastened to establish his own relationship with the British. as linguistic communications improved between him and the French. Bougainville’s expedition visited Samoa. If these new arrivals belonged to his group. calling these the Navigator Islands. her husband Amo and their high priest Tupaia were forced to flee to the mountains. Before the investiture could take place. describing the phases of the moon and predicting the weather with great accuracy. they know their diurnal motion. Purea and her people were completing the great marae at Papara. At the final battle at Papara in December 1768. (Dunmore. the local people were deeply anxious. Ahutoru grabbed the wheel. where they threw down the stones of the great marae and seized its sacred relics. however. so many people were killed that the beach was covered with their bones. Although Ahutoru warned him against the Samoans. Amo and Tupaia. Ahutoru was able to name the stars in the night sky. they would surely try to avenge her. The “queen” went out to the Endeavour.6 Four months later when another European vessel. the Endeavour. arrived at Matavai Bay. Enraged by her presumption. Salmond days out from the island. which at first Ahutoru mistook for France. a fleet of canoes arrived at Matavai Bay.7 They had joined the attacks against Purea’s people. When Cook and his officers landed. following “the bright star in Orion’s shoulder” they would reach an island where he had some family. where he became the focus of much popular curiosity and scientific interest. including the red feather girdle into which the red pennant from the Dolphin had been woven.174 A. Ahutoru was the first Tahitian to voyage on a European vessel and survived the journey to France. and were acutely aware of her friendship with Captain Wallis. According to the journals. pointing out the stars which indicated the bearing of Tahiti. Purea sent a messenger to invite the leaders of the island to witness her son’s installation as paramount chief. and direct their course at sea by them. hundreds of the local inhabitants prostrated themselves. and told his companions that by sailing NNW for two days. seeking to re-establish their alliance with the British (Beaglehole. Back in Tahiti. During their westward Pacific crossing. 1955. they lose all sight of land. and Purea. Bougainville was impressed by the large outrigger canoes which zipped across the wake of the French ships at twice their speed. commanded by Captain James Cook and carrying a party of scientists and artists led by Joseph Banks. 2003: 268) The most distant island with which Ahutoru was familiar was 15 nights’ sail from Tahiti. When they ignored these directions. . the leader of the warriors who had defeated Purea’s people. As Bougainville noted: [T]he better instructed people of this nation have a name for every remarkable constellation. bringing Purea. and the position of the stars during the nights. holding up plantain branches in rituals of propitiation. and lest their own lineages be subordinated. 1962). Ahutoru gazed up at the stars and named them. therefore. which sometimes extend three hundred leagues.

1985). they would attack his people. Thinking this was a particular sign of favour. It is suggestive that these sketches feature arioi themes. just like a natural historian. Relationships were increasingly intimate. the location of islands in the surrounding seas.9 In return. When the astronomical quadrant. with their scientific and artistic equipment. was captured and roughly handled. In their increasing intimacy. and he quickly adopted a style which was indistinguishable from “naïve” European sketching. such exchanges were possible. Tupaia spent much of his time with the British. he was released.8 He must have been terrified that as soon as the British met Purea and heard her story. was stolen. who had tried to flee the bay in his canoe. while Tupaia was said to be one of the most intelligent and knowledgeable men in the archipelago. and Tahitian beliefs and customs – sacred knowledge. dictating placenames to be written along the coastlines. Cook tried to stay neutral in these struggles for power. after three months in . From this time on. and held it up as she returned ashore. Tupaia was enthralled with Solander and Parkinson’s sketches and drawings. Tupaia taught Parkinson about Tahitian dyes. As their mutual command of each other’s languages improved. and over the following days. 1928). but still volatile. Nevertheless. When the Endeavour sailed from Matavai Bay. Given the spiritual kinship forged between him and the Europeans. Purea was delighted. he tried to teach Banks and his companions about Tahitian navigation. he began a passionate affair with one of Purea’s women. while it is said that their tattoos featured naturalistic images of plants and people (Henry. but Joseph Banks was young and much less discreet. but recently a letter from Banks came to light which made it plain that one of these images (and by implication the whole series) had been drawn by Tupaia. When Cook and Banks returned with the quadrant. and not only through the medium of language. Tutaha. and that they employ red. He must have been gratified with the way that his enemy had been humiliated.History and Anthropology 175 where Cook invited her into the Great Cabin and presented her with a doll. especially Banks and his party. whimsically saying that this was an image of his wife. canoes and a chief mourner’s costume. Tutaha was affronted until he was also presented with a doll. taught in the schools of learning. as part of these artistic exchanges. which no doubt seemed like an ancestral image. which was kept under close guard in the fort. and he soon learned to sketch. Tupaia also worked with Banks and Cook on sketch charts of Tahiti and Ra’iatea. drawing many of the same subjects as these artists. arioi musicians and dancers. and Parkinson and Banks both acquired arioi tattoos. seething with rage about the way he had been treated. Banks was wealthy and well born. A series of watercolours survive from the voyage which used to be attributed to Joseph Banks (see Joppien & Smith. it is unlikely that Tupaia would have shared his knowledge with Banks’s party. a new depth of communicative exchange became possible. Some male arioi (no doubt including Tupaia) were skilled in painting and dying barkcloth. without the ceremonial friendship forged between Purea and Wallis. including marae. brown and black. with elegant clothes and an amorous disposition – just like an arioi. the predominant colours of bark-cloth painting. In particular. and fascinated by Banks’s retinue.10 After learning to sketch in the European style.

stars and winds. including the sea gods who controlled the ocean. and informed by its own store of seafaring memories and knowledge. and he had become convinced of the priest’s navigational knowledge. counting elapsed time in nights or po. It is interesting that Cook was prepared to hand over the navigation of his ship to Tupaia. In the event. see also Pedersen. masts and the rigging of the canoe to follow the stars and find north and south. His canoe was also often named after an ancestor. in Polynesia. stars and winds. paid according to seniority and status. and largely trained at sea. he noted birds flying out at dawn or returning to land at dusk. and their “wooden world” was ruled by naval custom and routine. measurement and calculation. Although experienced sailors (and especially the ship’s master) also acquired an embodied knowledge of the sea. the officers largely guided the ship by the instrumental observation embedded in its daily routines. and the other points named after the winds. and by reference to a language of mapping. Tupaia sailed with them. he estimated his stage in the journey by dead-reckoning. guiding the voyage to a successful conclusion. the crew were not kinsfolk but wage labourers. This accomplishment was far from trivial. despite their rudimentary grasp of each other’s languages. At night. a navigator like Tupaia mastered chants to call upon ancestral power. In a similar fashion. Over long years of voyaging which began with an apprenticeship to an older kinsman. were identified. acting as the ship’s pilot through the Society Islands. swells bouncing off the land. but these were uncharted waters. until this knowledge became reflexive and embodied. others malevolent in their intentions. and their deflection patterns off islands. A Tahitian navigator and his canoe thus formed a single navigational device. star gods. and used the hull as a swell-gauging instrument. particular swells. he became a channel for their power. On board the Endeavour. It took .176 A. and clouds piling up over the land-mass. some benevolent. During his training. defined by a succession of named stars which rose or set in succession at a point on the bearing of a destination island. As the sea bounced off the hull. In discussing South American shamanism. all controlled by ancestors. As a destination island approached. As the navigator followed the starpath. given the differences between Tahitian and European ways of voyaging. Vivieres de Castro has suggested that when a shaman dons an animal mask and clothing. the navigator brought ancestral knowledge taught in the navigational schools together with the prow. Salmond Tahiti. During the day. on the other hand. navigational instruments were computational devices in which generations of voyaging experience were embedded. The sailors and marines were organized into ranks and messes. enhancing the navigator’s capabilities. and the power of various ancestors was built into it. and which required delicate calibration to local conditions. Tupaia and Cook managed to communicate sufficiently well to avoid these dangers. 2005). As Charles Frake (1985) and Edwin Hutchins (1996) have argued. he oriented himself by reference to a “wind compass” with the cardinal points fixed by the rising and setting of the sun and the shadow of the canoe’s mast at noon. who guided the canoe in the darkness. familiar seas were marked out by “star-paths” between known islands. the navigator learned to read the sea. 1998. he activates the power of a different body (Viveiros de Castro. When Tupaia chanted to the ancestors. with unpredictable coral outcrops and atolls. and the ancestors who controlled the winds.

while the depth of the coastal seabed was measured with the lead. These measurements were taken every hour.11 On the Endeavour’s voyage of discovery. and corrected at noon when the sun was at its zenith. estimates of longitude were still quite approximate. and the hours were recorded in the first column in the ship’s log. Coastal profiles were also sketched. An officer then looked up the time at Greenwich when these bodies were the same distance apart in the Nautical Almanac. a device with a triangular piece of wood (the “chip”) on the end of a rope knotted at regular intervals. the officers estimated the ship’s longitude by measuring the angle between the moon and some other heavenly body at night. were able to communicate sufficiently to guide the ships safely.History and Anthropology 177 long practice and precise co-ordination to use them effectively. “Tobia describes nine Islands lying between WNW and NW the most distant not more than two days sail and one very large one lying about four day sail. the captain and officers estimated the ship’s latitude by measuring the altitude of the sun above the horizon with a sextant. and the time corrected. so that the number of tagged knots unreeled when the glass ran out could be counted. memories and networks of communication. gridded for longitude and latitude and depicted from a vantagepoint high above the vessel. when a half-minute glass was upturned and the rope was let to run freely from the reel. new coastlines were charted using surveying techniques and their locations fixed by astronomical observation. and recorded in a fourth column. with its tables of the lunar distances from certain bright stars.” (PRO Adm 51/4547) Unfortunately he did not describe how these directions were transmitted – perhaps by pointing. and these two times were correlated. showing views of the island from the deck of the ship on particular bearings. before the Harrison chronometer became available. at an exact time recorded by the ship’s watch. which was thrown overboard until it floated beyond the wake. which was oriented to magnetic north (although magnetic variation caused major problems). especially near the approaches to harbours or lagoons.12 The instruments. The rate of the going of the watch was then estimated. when the ship sailed from Tahiti. calculated for every three hours during the year. extending the navigators’ senses. Perhaps the only way to investigate this issue is to examine surviving information from the voyages. and objects of power. published just before the voyage. it is not obvious how Cook and Tupaia. although during this voyage. Ship’s time was measured by an hour glass. During the Endeavour voyage. so that subsequent expeditions could use these graphic records as way-finding devices. Course or direction were determined by reference to the compass. or instructions . Given these very different voyaging systems. In the case of the Endeavour. the ship and the crew. and other European captains and island navigators. while the direction of the wind was recorded in a fifth column. capabilities. The speed of the ship was measured by the chip log. and the charts and profiles thus came together in a single navigational system. kept secret from imperial competitors or published to enunciate territorial claims. The charts were at once computational devices in which the knowledge of generations of voyagers was embedded. Each noon. and the “knots” and fathoms per hour at which the ship was traveling were recorded in the next two columns in the log. Ship time thus ran from noon to noon. These calculations enabled the track of the ship to be plotted on a chart. according to Pickersgill. the official record of the voyage. Accuracy was paramount.

he chanted for some time and then presented the local high chief with gifts including a black silk handkerchief and two bunches of red feathers. because one of the sailors was able to record Tupaia’s account of the Boraboran conquest of Ra’iatea. Tupaia guided the ship through a maze of reefs. “[the local priests] behaved so coolly that the captain did not know what to make of them. a pleasant wind sprang up that evening which carried them directly to Huahine. the young naturalist from the Royal Society. When they anchored in the lagoon. Tupaia went immediately to the local marae to thank Tane for their safe passage. On this occasion Joseph Banks. Tupaia told Banks and Cook that his people voyaged in these craft for 20 days or more. After several days of cruising. but Cook took him seriously. arriving at a view of Polynesian origins which accords closely with contemporary scholarship: In these Pahee’s [pahi] … these people sail in those seas from Island to Island for several hundred Leagues. where there were large double canoes or pahi in boathouses. According to Parkinson. seemed to be quite displeased. 1955: 154) Upon leaving Taputapuatea. communications were evidently quite sophisticated. and as they approached Borabora. As they approached one of the fare atua or god-houses. saying: “I plainly saw he never began till he saw a breeze so near the ship that it reachd her before his prayer was finishd. Tupaia . On the beach. Upon their arrival at Huahine. a narrative that is almost indistinguishable from oral histories recorded by the first missionaries to the island.178 A. The next morning. Tupaia chanted to the god Tane. By now. mocked Tupaia’s efforts. 1773: 69). This was obtuse. who was with him. After several days at Huahine. The to’o or images were the ancestors themselves.” (Beaglehole. When this comes to be prov’d we Shall be no longer at a loss to know how the Islands lying in those Seas came to be people’d. bound with sinnet cord to intensify their sacred power. asking him for a good breeze. when the wind died. the headquarters of the arioi society. Tupaia guided the ship to Ra’iatea. We did not know the occasion of their reservedness” (Parkinson. After this. Again Banks was sceptical. Tupaia sent an islander to dive down to check the depth of the ship’s rudder. As they walked along the coastline. Salmond in a mixture of Tahitian and English. Tupaia led Cook and his party ashore. Joseph Banks put his hand inside and tried to prise apart the bindings on one of the ancestral figures. When they arrived. the Sun serving them for a compass by day and the Moon and stars by night. he urged Cook not to land there. (Beaglehole. and then Cook ordered the Union Jack to be hoisted and took possession of the island. a European ship had been wrecked and all the crew killed by the Boraborans. he led his companions through the reef to Taputapuatea. for if the inhabitants of Uleitea have been at Islands laying 2 or 300 Leagues to the westward of them it cannot be doubted but that the inhabitants of those western Islands may have been at others as far to westward of them and so we may trace them from Island to Island quite to the East Indies. the home of his enemies. Tupaia took his companions to the great marae. On the beach. 1962: 314) Nevertheless. and to try to tear apart the binding was a terrible desecration. After receiving ritual gifts in return. he conducted the rituals of arrival. because in his grandfather’s time. because the god-houses were intensely tapu imbued with ancestral power. so he could guide the Endeavour safely through a passage in the reef. Toobaiah.

History and Anthropology 179 guided the Endeavour to Hamanino. but also some effects of miscommunication. and the sailors recovered from the venereal infections they had caught in Tahiti. Tupaia had accomplished this prediction. common between November and January. and 30 or more coming back. There they were entertained by the arioi. “We again Launched out into the Ocean in search of what chance & Tupia might direct us to” (Beaglehole. and in defiance of the Borabora conquerors. Cook misunderstood the Tahitian words for north and south. the marae where he himself had been trained. Tupaia dictated a list of 130 islands with which he was familiar. this was an act of power. now controlled by a chief from Borabora. 1955: 151). Tupaia lost control of the voyage. At this same marae. into cartographic distance. which identified south as the direction towards which the north wind blows and vice versa. and watched the night voyages of his star ancestors. As soon as the Endeavour left the Society Islands.” When Cook asked him how this was possible. Cook also translated the distances traveled between islands. following his orders to search for Terra Australis Incognita. and Pounamu and Teatea. dancing and music. When they set sail again several days later. bringing a new kind of people. Although Cook and his men recognized and respected Tupaia’s technical ability as a navigator. Tupaia and Cook and Banks were on diverging trajectories. although he said . Despite Tupaia’s entreaties. described in “nights” by Tupaia. In fact. almost certainly the North and South Islands of New Zealand. where he said there were plenty of islands. however. and visited the local marae. given the easterly prevailing winds. which enabled Tahitian navigators to return home again. however. Now that Tupaia had reached the limits of his personal voyaging experience. Banks commented sardonically. and the authority of their power. the Southern Cooks and the Samoan archipelago. the Marquesas. At each island they visited. Vaita had prophesied that a canoe without an outrigger was coming. He sketched a chart of the islands around Tahiti. In the company of these powerful strangers. Tupaia must have spoken with ‘Oro in his dreams. he began to tell Cook about islands visited by other navigators. the most powerful in the islands. At the same time. resulting in further inaccuracies. Cook and his officers were able to draft a detailed chart of the islands. Banks collected new plants and artifacts. which he had previously visited in a voyage that “took 10 to 12 days going thither. This remarkable document shows many identifiable Polynesian islands. Perhaps he hoped to take the cult of ‘Oro to new islands. Its not surprising that Cook found this difficult to grasp. Tupaia conducted the proper rituals upon landing. he told him about westerly wind shifts in the summer. In addition to this chart. it suited Cook’s purposes for Tupaia to pilot the ship through this dangerous passage. with skits. it seems that they never accepted his role as a high priest of ‘Oro. His navigational advice came with the guidance of the gods. thus reversing the positions of a number of islands. As he piloted the Endeavour through the Society archipelago. he was taking the Endeavour on an arioi voyage. When he took his European companions to Taputapuatea. As they sailed round the archipelago. He urged Cook to sail to the west. however. his home harbour on the west side of Ra’iatea. including islands in the Tuamotus. During this journey. and he and Cook worked together on a final draft. Cook turned south. and eventually impossible to follow.

“Tahiti. During Boenechea’s return visit to Vaitepiha Bay on the south coast in 1774–1775. When the ship arrived on the east coast of Australia. Although Cook often visited Tahiti during his second and third voyages. Cook and his men had often chafed at their dependency upon the high priest. including eight in the Society Islands.180 A. produce and the character of its inhabitants. and often spoke with the local priests. and recruited two local navigators to guide the ships to the island. and when the island came into sight. a fabled homeland of their ancestors. He reported that there were many more islands in that direction. who pointed to the west. By contrast. and they mourned him and remembered him for generations. It seems that Maori thought the Endeavour was Tupaia’s ship. his value to the voyage was over. Tupaia and his contributions to the voyage are rarely mentioned in any detail. Ingenious Man. he decided to go to Ra’iatea. too. this sort of information was no longer useful (Beaglehole. they named each one. These must have been marvelous conversations. and in successive histories of the voyage. although he had visited only 18 of them. 1955: 442). During their six-month circumnavigation. he negotiated the initial encounters in each place they visited. he asked what it was. but proud and obstinate which often made his situation on board both Disagreeable to himself and those about him” (Beaglehole. Once accurate charts of the surrounding islands had been drafted. Cook remarked that “He was a Shrewd Sensible. the Spanish expeditions dispatched from Lima after news of Wallis’s and Cook’s voyages reached the Spanish court had no reliable charts to guide them through the islands. When he realized that this drawing represented the islands east of Tahiti. and Tupaia could no longer communicate with the local people. and the canoes came out to the ship. who could understand their language. and told them the number of days . Tupaia’s presence on the Endeavour made a great impression on local Maori. When he died in Batavia. Upon their return to Tahiti. Salmond he had visited only 12 of these. he no longer needed local assistance. When Boenechea was first dispatched to Tahiti in 1772. a man from Ma’atea (Corney. In this way. Cook and Bougainville had kept their charts and sailing directions a secret. 1955). He was a high priest from Ra’iatea. Although he impressed the sailors by always being able to point accurately towards Tahiti. and exclaimed. Puhoro told the Spaniards that he had visited all of these places.” They followed his directions. and wept bitterly when they heard he had died in Batavia. the man pointed at each of the bays and headlands in turn and named them. Puhoro agreed to sail on the frigate as a pilot during the return voyage to Lima. When Puhoro saw the ship’s pilot drafting a large scale chart of the islands. he picked up a man at Mehetia. and the storeship Jupiter by Puhoro.13 When they reached New Zealand. however. and were eager to seek similar assistance. When Cook returned to New Zealand on a second voyage. The Aguila was piloted by a Tahitian named Paparua. identifying each island by the passages through its reef. During the voyage. 1919). two in the Australs and two in the Tongan Archipelago. describing its harbours. he never worked again with an island navigator. but nevertheless the Spaniards heard about Tupaia’s navigational feats. the Spanish commanders gained extensive experience with island navigators. their crews cried out for Tupaia. As these men guided the ships past a succession of islands.

including most of the NW Tuamotus. and 27 islands to the west. and this is the easiest navigation for them because. probably because it was too difficult to calibrate Tahitian names of stars and constellations with those used by Europeans. also listed by Tupaia. (Corney. with its 16 points. He told the Spaniards about the wind compass used by his compatriots. however. not only do they note by them the bearings on which the several islands with which they are in touch lie. Conclusion From the evidence of these voyages. For the Tahitians. Puhoro was an excellent source of knowledge about Tahitian navigational methods. in which part of the being of each was bound into the other. and perhaps only in this way. including kinship networks and alliances. “a foreknowledge worthy to be envied. 1919: 286) In addition. in spite of all that our navigators and cosmographers have observed and written about the subject. it seems that the exchanges between Tahitian and European navigators were characterized by a kind of rough intelligibility. and how they sailed by the stars to their destinations: When the night is a clear one they steer by the stars. By the ritual presentation of names and gifts. 1919). the taio shared part of each other’s identities. they have not mastered this accomplishment” (see Corney. Puhoro lived there for some months before returning to Tahiti. the gift of navigational information to the Europeans could be accomplished. the Spaniards remarked on the uncanny accuracy with which Puhoro predicted the next day’s weather each evening. and which islands had pearls in their lagoons. For the Europeans. Puhoro dictated a list of 15 islands to the east of Tahiti. 1919: 284–287 for an account of Tahitian navigational methods). but also the harbours in them. . each drew upon their own familiar practices to make sense of the other. its main produce. an ancestral relationship had to be established before the navigators could share their knowledge with the strangers. and they hit it off with as much precision as the most expert navigator of civilized nations could achieve. During the voyage to Lima. these being many. As he listed each island. The precise sequences of stars to be followed from one island to another were not listed. or ceremonial friendship. Like Tupaia. whether or not the island was inhabited. almost all of these places were inhabited. islands in the Marquesas and Fenua Teatea and Ponamu. When they reached Lima. including many of the Society Islands. the maritime practice of using local pilots to guide ships into unknown harbours gave a precedent for drawing upon the expertise of island navigators. According to him. for.History and Anthropology 181 it took to sail from one island to another. Through this exchange of personhood. which are almost certainly the North and South Islands of New Zealand. In the beginning. so that they make straight for the entrance by following the rhumb of the particular star that rises or sets over it. Puhoro made comments about its topography and reefs. This was achieved by forging a taio. Atiu and Rarotonga in the Cook Islands. and how many days it took to sail there from other named islands (Corney. the ferocity or otherwise of its inhabitants.

and naming these places. probably because the translational task was too difficult. however. At the same time. and the distinct fields of action and assumption in which they operated: Each is an order of engagement which partly inhabits or touches upon. to decide to travel to the European homelands to meet their viceroys or monarchs. Tahitian navigators were able to recite lists of known islands to the explorers. along with brief descriptions of their topography. One can try to enrich the account by delving into background information from a variety of sources. much was lost in these partial and approximate exchanges. Interestingly enough. Tupaia drafted a chart of the islands around Tahiti. and by indicating the bearing and elapsed nights of voyages between named islands. although this led to some confusion. At the same time. chants. 1999) – although not. Indeed. Each point of engagement is thus a replacement or reordering of elements located in a separate field of engagement altogether. who are long since dead. journals. each may seem to spin off on its own trajectory. this experience provided bridgeheads for practical collaboration. for instance. ostension or pointing at landmarks and destinations. binding them and their power into their own kinship networks. (Strathern. but this cannot be elicited at will. he was also able to help Cook to draft a chart. or grasped the mathematical calculations by which the Europeans charted the islands. from voyaging practice. the use of ancestral power is also largely absent from the literature on Polynesian voyaging (for a striking exception see Finney. provided a first step in sharing navigational information. but does not encompass the other. No doubt they hoped to recruit these leaders as taio. the ancestral strategies and purposes of the Tahitians remained largely unintelligible. inhabitants and produce. no-one at the time recorded crucial details of what happened. is common anthropological experience. perhaps drawing upon the island practice of drawing the relative positions of islands in the sand. Salmond As they began to learn each other’s languages. There is no evidence. And the sense of loss or incompleteness which accompanies this. Eventually. and . It is also clear that for them. by all accounts. the Europeans were not able to record much Tahitian navigational knowledge (for instance the starpaths between particular islands). As the navigators became familiar with each other’s vessels and their capacities. Marilyn Strathern has reflected upon the nature of complex engagements between different fields of action. Too often. Tahitian and European accounts are shaped by very different interests and questions. and the various Tahitian navigators they encountered. 1999: 2) I have this sense of loss about these early encounters. They understood enough about the power of the strangers and their systems of long-distance control. shaped by hindsight. At sea. and this attitude is replicated in most historical accounts of the voyages. sketches and charts survive to speak of their experiences.182 A. Her reflections could equally apply to the early encounters between Tahitian and European navigators. and all of the oral histories and some European sailors’ accounts are retrospective. In trying to understand Cook and his men. logs. the Spaniards and their crews. In discussing anthropological fieldwork and writing. only the oral histories. The ways in which island navigators called upon ancestors to guide their craft fell into the realm of superstition. It is not possible to talk with those who participated in them. that Tupaia or Puhoro ever mastered European navigational instruments.

see Robertson (1955) Rowe (1955) and contemporary records held by Public Records Office in London: Captain Wallis’s journal (Mss Adm 55/35). [4] For illuminating reflections upon the first encounters between Melanesians and Europeans in Papua New Guinea. Mitchell Library. European myths. social hierarchies and technologies of power are still visible in many contemporary histories of these expeditions. the even earlier account given by Morrison. MS A2608. his account of events from the 1740s onward is one of the most reliable available. Since he was able to interview old people who were alive at the time of the Dolphin’s arrival at Tahiti. R. records kept by Lieutenant William Clarke (Adm 51/4538/97). 38. and who is reputed by the people themselves. ATL Micro Ms Coll 2 Reel 169. pp. [5] For accounts of the Dolphin’s voyage. as well as by Cook to have been one of the cleverest men of the island” (p. see Finney (1976. Francis Wilkinson (Adm 51/ 4541/95-6). London Missionary Society M660). obscuring Polynesian intentions and purposes. At the same time. the priest of Oro who had accompanied the God from Raiatea. but this is not simply an academic matter. to try to do justice to the complex. And this land will be taken by them The old rules will be destroyed And sacred birds of the land and the sea Will also arrive here. Hutchins (1995).History and Anthropology 183 their mutual impacts on each other. however. Henry Ibbott . and the different forms of life they inhabited. 1979. one can still see European systems of long-range control at work. Anonymous (Adm 51/4541/123-4). to which men like Tupaia and Puhoro and their knowledge systems made significant contributions. both in Europe and in Polynesia. describing him as “Tupaia. one of the Bounty mutineers. Irwin (1994). Gell (1985). Sydney. [2] An excellent account of the arioi in Tahitian and English is given by Rev. there are doubled and redoubled hazards of distance in time. many-sided dynamics of these engagements. 1978) and Taonui (1994). who died in 1857. and better anthropology. It seems better history. our body is different We are one species only from Te Tumu. These were very great voyages. an English missionary in Tahiti. Gladwin (1979). Notes 1 2 3 4 5 [1] For accounts of Pacific navigation. For these expeditions were collaborative accomplishments. Often. and the islanders’ lack of surprise. is also very valuable. mastered by their own myths or acting as bit-players in European dramas while their own accounts are trivialized or ignored. In the postcolonial Pacific. see Strathern (1990). Howe (in preparation). Levison et al. 16 of the manuscript) who later became Purea’s “paramour” (p. however. In these histories. John Orsmond in his unpublished manuscript The Arioi Wars in Tahiti. [3] For an account of these migrations. see the unpublished manuscript history of Tahiti by Rev. (1973). the islanders are rendered passive. will come and lament Over that which this lopped tree has to teach They are coming up on a canoe without an outrigger.13–17. 36). 1972. George Pinnock (Adm 51/4542/109-10). Thomson names Tupaia as the priest of ‘Oro who took the image of the god and the red feather girdle to Papara (p. Lewis (1967. and Cook’s voyages in particular now have almost mythical status. 2000). Thomson. Benjamin Butler (Adm 51/4541/125). Vaita’s prophecy still echoes: Their body is different. William Luke (Adm 51/4541/107-108).

and. Monkhouse (BM Add Ms 27889). most recently. Ship’s Log (BM Add Ms 8959). so his interest in Tahitian art was genuine. at least I never saw them do it” (Beaglehole. Adm 51/4548/155). Jonathan Monkhouse (Mitchell Library Log). Charles Clerke (Adm 51/4548/143-144). James Bootie (Adm 51/4546/134-135). Thomas (2001) asks why this chart. (1955). 2001). and is thus much more mediated than his paintings. so that dates and details given for particular episodes are often in disagreement. The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of Discovery: Vol. who treasured them as the representations of two deceased women from her own family. Francis Wilkinson (Adm 51/ 4547/149-150). On the whole. For an excellent later account of these events see Adams (1901). Wellington. Richard Pickersgill (Adm 51/4547/140-141). incorporates Cook’s understanding of the locations of some Pacific islands in addition to what Tupaia had to say. References Adams. slightly different versions are given by Morrison. Taylor (1968) and May (1973). Ridgewood NJ: The Gregg Press. See Parkinson’s (1773) account of dyeing cloth. W. William Hambly (Adm 4542/ 126-7). Samuel Horsnail (Adm 51/4543/117-9). The Voyage of the Endeavour 1768–1771. Thomson. Thomas Coles (Adm 51/4543/128). Anonymous (Adm 51/4547/153. J. nd). . and a meticulous account of the preparations for the voyage.” (Thomas. Salmond (Adm 51/4542/111-2). Many of the men were ill during their stay in Tahiti (including Captain Wallis) and their journal entries for Tahiti were written after the events described. Beaglehole. for the basic chronology of events during the Dolphin’s stay on the island. Anonymous (Adm 51/4544/131) and West (Adm 51/4544/132). Pender (Adm 51/4543/115-6). BM Add Mss 27955. Tahiti: Memoirs of Anii Taimai. though. C. pointing out a basic misunderstanding over Polynesian directional terms in its construction. Robert Molyneux (PRO Adm 51/4546/ 152. see Turnbull (1993). and the Muster Roll of the Dolphin (Adm 36/7580). Stephen Forwood (Adm 51/4545/133). For an intriguing discussion of the work that charts and maps do. B. For primary sources see also James Cook (PRO Adm 55/40. in imitation of our Handkerchiefs. For accounts of British navigation in the 18th century. but they seldom ever wear it thus printed (in checkers?) themselves. Rae (1997) and Villiers (1967). 2001: 4) The chart. were used for any of Tupaia’s paintings. see Beaglehole (1955. rather than English watercolours. into the juice. See Henry’s (1928) discussion of two dolls given by a Russian navigator to a high chieftainess. B. H.184 6 [6] 7 [7] 8 [8] 9 [9] [10] 10 [11] [12] [13] 11 12 13 A. Log in the Alexander Turnbull Library. Other. John Nichols (Adm 51/4544/129). I have relied on the excellent account given by George Robertson. See Cook in Beaglehole (1955: 157). (1968). For accounts of James Cook’s life and the Endeavour voyage. one of the Bounty mutineers (Rutter. John Beaglehole. 1969: 799). George Robertson. It is also interesting to note William Wales’s comment after his first visit to Tahiti during the second voyage: “Since Europeans have come amongst them they sometimes print [bark-cloth] in diverse figures by diping the End of a Bambo. cut properly. Joseph Banks’s journal (Auckland Public Library Grey Mss 47-75) and Charles Green (PRO Adm 51/4545/151). Ben Finney (2000) and David Turnbull (2000) have all discussed Tupaia’s chart at length. Zachary Hick (PRO Adm 51/4546/147-148). Tobias Furneaux (Adm 51/4542/113-4). identifying the islands and assessing its accuracy and significance. 27885). claiming that it presents “Tupaia’s vision … in its integrity. It could be worth checking whether Tahitian dyes. see also Marra (1967) and Parkinson (1773). 1937. Beaglehole gives an excellent description of the crew. “an extraordinary … document that fuses an indigenous perception of the world with the moralizing cartography of the Enlightenment” has been so little remarked on. Master (Adm 51/4539/102-6). 1. 1974). The most authoritative general discussion is in Oliver (1974). Nicholas Thomas (1977. Hough (1995). the ship’s master. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Adm 51/4548/154. The Quaker artist also had himself tattooed. Adm 55/39).

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