You are on page 1of 65




Synopsis SYNOPSIS .

.Objective: The objective of this project is to design the automatic boat parking using RF technology in order to avoid the border crossing and to avoid the fire accidents with in the boat automatically. Scope: In this project fire sensor is used to avoid the firing accidents and a RF transmitter and receiver circuit is used to avoid the border crossing.9MHZ . We are using a Radio frequency range of 433.

Introduction INTRODUCATION .

Brief Methodology: The project is designed with          RF Transmitter RF Receiver Microcontroller Fire sensor Alarm Driver circuit LCD Display Submersible Pump Motor Fire sensor is the special type of sensor used to identify the fire.9MHZ. If the boat goes beyond the border means the receiver cannot receive the signal. We are also using a RF Transmitter and RF Receiver circuit to alert the drivers when they are to cross our country border. So it sends a control signal to . In this project we are using this sensor to detect any fire near the engine. When the boat is inside the region means the receiver in the boat will receive the signal without any interruption. The transmitter always transmits a signal with frequency of 433. If any fire is sensed means the sensor sends a signal to the microcontroller which in turns activates a submersible pump which intakes the sea water and pour it around the accidental area.

For the second signal the microcontroller stops the engine of the boat for a few minutes in order to alert the driver .the microcontroller. The microcontroller in turn activates a voice alarm about the incident.



the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer.ATMEL 89C51 MICRO CONTROLLER Description: The AT89C51 is a low-power. high-performance CMOS 8 –bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS51TM instruction set and pin out. which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. Features: . The on-chip Flash allows the programs memory to be reprogrammed in –system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.

 Compatible with MCS_51TM Products  4K Bytes of In-system Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1.000 Write/Erase Cycle  Fully Static Operations: 0 Hz to 24MHz  Three –Level Program Memory Lock  128 x 8 –Bit Internal RAM  32 Programmable I/O Lines  Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters  Six Interrupt Sources  Programmable Serial Channel  Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes .


The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K Bytes of Flash. In addition. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. . 128 bytes of RAM. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. two 16-bit timer/counters. timer/counters. a five vector interrupt architecture. the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. 32 I/O lines. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. a full duplex serial port. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89C51 Pin Description: VSS: Supply voltage. GND: Ground. .

Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming. As an output port each pin can eight TTL inputs. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. and outputs the code bytes during program verification.Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-direction I/O port. External pull-ups are required during program verification. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. when 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the . Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address /data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 1 : Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-direction I/O port with internal pullups. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs.

internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 1pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (Ill) because of the internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL Inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 1 also receives the loworder address bytes during Flash programming and verification. As inputs. Port 3 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memories that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (Ill) because of the internal pull-ups. As inputs. Port 2 : Port 2 is an 9-bit bi-direction I/O port with internal pullups. during accesses to external .

data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receive some control signals for Flash programming and verification.) because of the pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 3 : Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-direction I/O Port with internal pullups. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some controls signals during Flash programming and verification. . The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (Ill. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 special Function Register. As inputs.

1 TXD (serial output port) P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) RST : Reset input.Port Pin Alternate Functions P3. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. .5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.0 RXD (Serial input port) P3.

that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. .ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency. and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. This pin also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8Eh. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise. the pin is weakly pulled high. If desired. Note however. With the bit set. Setting the ALE –disable bit has no effect if the micro controller is in external execution mode.

EA should be strapped to Vcc for internal program executions. Note. however. will be Internally latched on reset. EA. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. This pin also receives the 12-volt . except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.PSEN : Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. EA / VPP : External Access Enable.

To drive the device from as external clock source.programming enable voltage (Vpp) during Flash programming. respectively. XTAL 2 : Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. which cam be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. for parts that require 12-volt Vpp. XTAL2 should be left unconnected while . as shown in Figure1. of an inverting amplifier. XTAL 1 : Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. OSCILLATOR CHARACETRISTICS: XTAL 1 and XTAL2 are the input and output.

the device normally resumes program execution. It should be noted that then idle is terminated by a hardware reset. The mode is invoked by software. On-chip hardware inhibits . The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divideby-two flip-flop. but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. from where it left off. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by hardware reset. up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control.XTAL 1 is driven as shown in Figure2. Idle Mode: In idle mode.

. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset.access to internal RAM in this event. the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. but access to the port pins is not inhibited.


The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits.RF TRANSMITTER AND RF RECEIVER General Description: The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. . The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal.

Features: _ Operating voltage _ 2.4V~12V for the HT12E _ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology _ Low standby current: 0.4V~5V for the HT12A _ 2.) at VDD=5V _ HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium _ Minimum transmission word _ Four words for the HT12E _ One word for the HT12A _ Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor _ Data code has positive polarity _ Minimal external components _ HT12A/E: 18-pin DIP/20-pin SOP package Applications: _ Burglar alarm system _ Smoke and fire alarm system _ Garage door controllers _ Car door controllers _ Car alarm system .1_A (typ.

_ Security system _ Cordless telephones _ Other remote control systems Pin Configuration: .


The 212 series of decoders are capable of decoding information’s that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen.General Description: The 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. If no error or unmatched codes are found. and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information. They are paired with Holteks 212 series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table). The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. . the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. Of this series. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a Programmed 212 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. For proper operation.

4V~12V _ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology _ Low standby current _ Capable of decoding 12 bits of information _ Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders _ Binary address setting _ Received codes are checked 3 times _ Address/Data number combination _ HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits _ HT12F: 12 address bits only _ Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor _ Valid transmission indicator _ Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium _ Minimal external components Applications _ Burglar alarm system _ Smoke and fire alarm system _ Garage door controllers _ Car door controllers .Features: _ Operating voltage: 2.

_ Car alarm system _ Security system _ Cordless telephones _ Other remote control systems .


. This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received. The decoders will then check the received address three times continuously. Otherwise it is always low. The decoders receive data that are transmitted by an encoder and interpret the first N bits of code period as addresses and the last 12_N bits as data. where N is the address code number. If the received address codes all match the contents of the decoders local address.Functional Description: Operation: The 212 series of decoders provides various combinations of addresses and data pins in different packages so as to pair with the 212series of encoders. A signal on the DIN pin activates the oscillator which in turn decodes the incoming address and data. The output of the VT pin is high only when the transmission is valid. the 12_N bits of data are decoded to activate the output pins and the VT pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission.

The key board is interfaced with encoder data lines. Encoder: In this circuit HT 640 is used as encoder.Keypad: The keypad consists of eight key in which each key represents the one operation. If any one key is pressed the corresponding signal is given to encoder. The 3 18 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system .

The encoder output address pins are shorted so the output encoded signal is the combination of (A0A9) address signal and (D0-D7) data signal. It is otherwise set floating internally. Various packages of the 318 encoders offer flexible combination of programmable address/data is transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. Each address/data input is externally ternary programmable if bonded out. The capability to select a TE trigger type further enhances the application flexibility of the 318 series of encoders. . The output encoded signal is taken from 8th which is connected to RF transmitter section. In this circuit the input signal to be encoded is given to AD7AD0 input pins of encoder.application. They are capable of encoding 18 bits of information which consists of N address bit and 18-N data bits.

the transistor is conducting so tank circuit is oscillated.RF Transmitter: When ever the high output pulse is given to base of the transistor BF 494. Then the modulated signal is given LC filter section. After the filtration the RF modulated signal is transmitted through antenna. The tank circuit is consists of L2 and C4 generating 433 MHz carrier signal. .

RF Receiver: The RF receiver is used to receive the encoded data which is transmitted by the RF transmitter. They are paired with 318 series of encoders. The 3 18 decoder are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system application. The 3 18 . Then the encoded signal is given to decoder in order to get the decoded original signal. For proper operation a pair of encoder/decoder pair with the same number of address and data format should be selected. The comparator circuit is constructed by LM558. The comparator is used to convert the saw tooth signal to exact square pulse. Decoder: In this circuit HT648 is used as decoder. Then the amplified signal is given to carrier demodulator section in which transistor Q1 is turn on and turn off conducting depends on the signal. Due to this the capacitor C14 is charged and discharged so carrier signal is removed and saw tooth signal is appears across the capacitor. Then the received data is given to transistor which acts as amplifier. Then this saw tooth signal is given to comparator.

The 318 decoders are capable of decoding 18 bits of information that consists of N bits of address and 18-N bits of data. the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. If no errors or unmatched codes are encountered. the 3 18 decoders provide various combinations of address/ data numbering different package. Then the output data signal is given to microcontroller or any other interfacing device. It then compares the serial input data twice continuously with its local address. In this circuit the received encoded signal is 9th pin of the decoder. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. In addition. Now the decoder separate the address (A0-A9) and data signal (D0-D7). .series of decoder receives serial address and data from that series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. To meet various applications they are arranged to provide a number of data pins whose range is from 0 t08 and an address pin whose range is from 8 to 18.

FIRE SENSOR In our project we use intensity detector as sensors. If radiation (flame) falls upon a semiconductor its conduction capability increases. A photoconductor is a device consisting of a slab of semiconductor in bulk form or in the form of a thin film deposited on an insulating surface with ohm contact fixed at opposite ends. the conductivity of the material is proportional to the concentration of charge carriers present. This photoconductive effect is explained as follows. Radiant energy supplied to the semiconductor causes covalent bonds to be broken and hole-electron pairs in excess to those generated thermally are created. These . which are essentially photo resistors or photoconductors.

Where as a thin film photoconductor may pass photoconductor may pass photocurrent of 10ma/mill lumen of broadband (sunlight) illumination. COMPARATOR .increased current carriers increase the voltage of the material. A bar of semiconductor material will typically pass a photoconductor of 30^f/mill lumen input. and hence such a device is called a intensity sensors or photoconductor may change by several kilo ohms.

with the liquid crystal material sand witched in between them. which makes the liquid crystal molecules to maintain a defined orientation angle. they have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid. The inner surface of the glass plates are coated with transparent electrodes which define the character. symbols or patterns to be displayed polymeric layers are present in between the electrodes and the liquid crystal.LCD DISPLAY INTRODUCTION: Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals. but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. . Rather than having a melting point. An LCD consists of two glass panels.

and hence the LCD appears transparent. which would result in activating / highlighting the desired characters. The light rays passing through the LCD would be rotated by the polarisers. light rays are rotated by the two polarisers and the liquid crystal.One each polarisers are pasted outside the two glass panels. By using backlighting. When sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes. they are compatible with low power electronic circuits. in a particular direction When the LCD is in the off state. The LCD’s don’t generate light and so light is needed to read the display. Since the LCD’s consume less power. These polarisers would rotate the light rays passing through them to a definite angle. and can be powered for long durations. such that the light rays come out of the LCD without any orientation. the liquid crystal molecules would be aligned in a specific direction. The LCD’s are lightweight with only a few millimeters thickness. reading is possible in .

The recent advances in technology have resulted in better legibility. . The LCDs have even started replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics.the dark. having a limited amount of numeric data. To achieve a better / suitable contrast for the display. The LCD’s have long life and a wide operating temperature range. and also in small TV applications. with maximum allowable transients of 10mv. calculators and measuring instruments are the simple seven-segment displays. more information displaying capability and a wider temperature range. The LCDs used exclusively in watches. These have resulted in the LCDs being extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics. Changing the display size or the layout size is relatively simple which makes the LCD’s more customer friendly. the voltage (VL) at pin 3 should be adjusted properly. POWERSUPPLY: The power supply should be of +5V.

if available. setting the ‘E’ bit simultaneously with RS and R/W would violate the module’s set up time. The module should be isolated from the other circuits. If a parallel port is used to drive the RS. A separate instruction should be used to achieve proper interfacing timing requirements. active high. Utilize the Host’s extended timing mode. Use instructions. to accompany each module transaction. Address or control lines can be assigned to drive the RS and R/W inputs. R/W and ‘E’ control lines. which could cause a flickering display. so that stray voltages are not induced. when transacting with the module.A module should not be inserted or removed from a live circuit. . so as to realize the interface timing requirements. HARDWARE: Develop a uniquely decoded ‘E’ strobe pulse. The ground terminal of the power supply must be isolated properly so that no voltage is induced in it. which prolong the Read and Write or other appropriate data strobes.

Don’t touch the display surface with bare hands or any hard materials. or drill attachment holes in the PCB. This will stain the display area and degrade the insulation between terminals. . the space between the module and the fitting plate should have enough height. Do not use organic solvents to clean the display panel as these may adversely affect tape or with absorbant cotton and petroleum benzene. to avoid causing stress to the module surface. to protect the polarizer.MOUNTING: Cover the display surface with a transparent protective plate. When assembling the module into another equipment. Do not damage or modify the pattern wiring. The processing or even a slight deformation of the claws of the metal frame will have effect on the connection of the output signal and cause an abnormal display.

Lower temperature can cause retardation of the blinking speed of the display. ground it properly. the display will be normal. while higher temperature makes the overall display discolor. When an electrically powered screwdriver is used to install the module. bubble generation or polarizer peel-off may occur with high temperature and humidity. While cleaning by a vacuum cleaner. . to dissipate the heat generated by the ICs while functioning for longer durations. Static electricity of the electrically powered driver or the vacuum cleaner may destroy the module. When the temperature gets to be within the normal limits.Make sure that there is enough space behind the module. Polarization degradation. do not bring the sucking mouth near the module. ENVIRONMENTAL PRECAUTIONS: Operate the LCD module under the relative condition of 40C and 50% relative humidity.

The first eight characters of a single line display. all the pixels of a character gets activated in the following manner: All the characters of a single line display. the module should be initialized by software. TROUBLE SHOOTING INTRODUCTION: When the power supply is given to the module. as in CDM 16116. The first and third line of characters of a fourline display operated in the two-line display mode. The first line of characters of a two-line display as in CDM 16216 and 40216. operated in the two-line display mode. Condensation on the terminals can cause electro-chemical reaction disrupting the terminal circuit. as in CDM 20416. .Contact with water or oil over a long period of time may cause deformation or colour fading of the display. as in CDM 16108. with the pin 3 (VL) connected to ground. If the above mentioned does not occur.

the data may not be visible on the display. check the initialization and the software routine. either the display on/off flag is in the off state or the display shift function is not set properly. When the display shift is done simultaneous with the data write operation. A slower interfacing frequency would rectify the problem. even though it is present in the DD RAM. . if the display of characters in the subsequent lines does’nt take place properly. check the DD RAM addresses set for the corresponding display lines. IMPROPER CHARACTER DISPLAY: When the characters to be displayed are missing between. When uncertainty is there in the start of the first characters other than the specified ones are rewritten. When it is unable to display data. In a multi-line display. the data read/write is too fast.Make sure that the control signals ‘E’ . R/W and RS are according to the interface timing requirements.

If a character not found in the font table is displayed, or a
character is missing, the CG ROM is faulty and the controller IC
have to be changed
If particular pixels of the characters are missing, or not
getting activated properly, there could be an assembling problem
in the module.
In case any other problems are encountered you could send
the module to our factory for testing and evaluation.

Crystalloids dot –matrix (alphanumeric) liquid crystal
displays are available in TN, STN types, with or without
backlight. The use of C-MOS LCD controller and driver ICs
result in low power consumption. These modules can be
interfaced with a 4-bit or 8-bit micro processor /Micro
The built-in controller IC has the following features:

 Correspond to high speed MPU interface (2MHz)
 80 x 8 bit display RAM (80 Characters max)
 9,920 bit character generator ROM for a total of 240
character fonts. 208 character fonts (5 x 8 dots) 32
character fonts (5 x 10 dots)
 64 x 8 bit character generator RAM 8 character generator
RAM 8 character fonts (5 x 8 dots) 4 characters fonts (5 x
10 dots)
 Programmable duty cycles
1/8 – for one line of 5 x 8 dots with cursor
1/11 – for one line of 5 x 10 dots with cursor
1/16 – for one line of 5 x 8 dots with cursor
 Wide range of instruction functions display clear, cursor
home, display on/off, cursor on/off, display character blink,
cursor shift, display shift.
 Automatic reset circuit, that initializes the controller /
driver ICs after power on.

Block diagram:
The ac voltage, typically 220rms, is connected to a
transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the
desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave
rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor
filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually
has some ripple or ac voltage variation.
A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the
same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load
connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage
regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage
regulator IC units.





Figure2.5: Block diagram (Power supply)


The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. at point A and a negative potential at point B. The advantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as DC. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected to the precision rectifier. the positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners.Working principle: Transformer : The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0-230V) to (0-6V) level. Bridge rectifier: When four diodes are connected as shown in figure. the circuit is called as bridge rectifier. rest of the circuits will give only RMS output. . which is constructed with the help of op–amp. Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive potential.

through D3. . In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. through the secondary of T1. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse. The path for current flow is from point B through D1. Current flow will now be from point A through D4. up through RL. Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. and back to point A. through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. up through RL.The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. through D2. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier.

the peak output voltage across the load resistor is nearly 1000 volts. the maximum voltage that can be rectified at any instant is 500 volts. . which is 1000 volts. assume that the same transformer is used in both circuits.One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit. In the bridge rectifier shown in view B. With both circuits using the same transformer. the bridge rectifier circuit produces a higher output voltage than the conventional full-wave rectifier circuit. Therefore. This may be shown by assigning values to some of the components shown in views A and B. The maximum voltage that appears across the load resistor is nearly-but never exceeds-500 v0lts. The peak voltage developed between points X and y is 1000 volts in both circuits. the peak voltage from the center tap to either X or Y is 500 volts. In the conventional full-wave circuit shown—in view A. Since only one diode can conduct at any instant. the maximum voltage that can be rectified is the full secondary voltage. as result of the small voltage drop across the diode.

IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage. corresponding to power ratings from milli watts to tens of watts. control device. comparator amplifier.IC voltage regulators: Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. or an adjustably set voltage. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes. . Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source. a fixed negative voltage. and overload protection all in a single IC.

applied to one input terminal.Figure2. Vi. Similarly. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts. with the third terminal connected to ground. a regulated dc output voltage. from a second terminal. . Vo.6: Circuit diagram (Power supply) A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage. the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.

 For ICs. The double sided plate through – hole (PTH) boards are made by the print plate and etch method. relay circuits ---------. microcontroller.12 volts PCB DESIGN Design and Fabrication of Printed circuit boards INTRODUCTION: Printed circuit boards. plate and etch. print and etch.5 volts  For alarm circuit. MANUFATCURING: The manufacturing process consists of two methods. and print. LCD --------. . process control. op-amp. telecommunications and instrumentation. The single sided PCBs are usually made using the print and etch method. Some of the areas where PCBs are intensively used are computers. or PCBs. form the core of electronic equipment domestic and industrial.

PANELISATION: Here the schematic transformed in to the working positive/negative films. . which can be operated in every sequence of subsequent steps in the PCB process. the next operation is drilling. DRILLING: PCB drilling is a state of the art operation. Very small holes are drilled with high speed CNC drilling machines. required for void free through hole plating. For the PTH boards.The production of multi layer boards uses both the methods. The inner layers are printed and etch while the outer layers are produced by print. giving a wall finish with less or no smear or epoxy. SOFTWARE: The software used in our project to obtain the schematic layout is MICROSIM. plate and etch after pressing the inner layers. This is called penalization. The circuit is repeated conveniently to accommodate economically as many circuits as possible in a panel.

ETCHING: Once a multiplayer board is drilled and electro less copper deposited. SOLDERMASK: Since a PCB design may call for very close spacing between conductors. the image available in the form of a film is transferred on to the out side by photo printing using a dry film printing process. . The holes drilled in the board are treated both mechanically and chemically before depositing the copper by the electro less copper platting process. The ink is dried. developed in a mild alkaline solution and finally cured by both UV and thermal energy. exposed to UV.PLATING: The heart of the PCB manufacturing process. The boards are then electrolyticaly plated on to the circuit pattern with copper and tin. The tin-plated deposit serves an etch resist when copper in the unwanted area is removed by the conveyorised spray etching machines with chemical etchants. The solder mask ink is applied by screening. The etching machines are attached to an automatic dosing equipment. which analyses and controls etchants concentrations. a solder mask has to be applied on the both sides of the circuitry to avoid the bridging of conductors.

the circuit pads are soldered using the hot air leveling process. Thus the double sided plated through whole printed circuit board is manufactured and is now ready for the components to be soldered. leaving the board soldered and leveled. While removing the board from the solder bath.HOT AIR LEVELLING: After applying the solder mask. The bare bodies fluxed and dipped in to a molten solder bath. . hot air is blown on both sides of the board through air knives in the machines. This is one of the common finishes given to the boards.