You are on page 1of 30




U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Central Division
Chicago, IlL, 60605 U.S.A.

Abstract. Sediment movement in rivers is a complex phenomenon. The rate of sediment transport is
related to many variables such as water discharge, average flow velocity, stream power, energy slope,
shear stress, water depth, particle size, water temperature, and strength of turbulence. Different theories
of sediment transport were developed by assuming different independent variables as the dominant
variables. This survey provides a comprehensive review of the important theories of incipient motion and
sediment transport. It discusses basic concepts and findings upon which knowledge of sediment transport
is based and presents mathematical derivations and equations only in sufficient detail to illustrate some
basic concepts. Data collected from natural rivers and laboratory flumes are used to compare the accuracy
and applicabilityof different sediment transport equations. Finally, procedures are suggestedfor selecting
sediment transport equations under different flow and sediment conditions.
1. Introduction
Sediment m o v e m e n t in rivers has been studied by both hydraulic engineers and
geologists for centuries because of its importance in the understanding of river
hydraulics, river morphology, and related matters. Sediment transport is complex
and often subject to semiempirical or empirical treatment. Most theoretical treatment is based on the idealized and simplified assumption that the rate of sediment
transport can be determined by one or two dominant factors, such as water discharge,
average flow velocity, energy slope, shear stress, etc. Numerous equations have been
published. Each equation is supported by limited laboratory data and, occasionally,
by field data. The calculated results from various equations often differ drastically
from each other and from the measured data. Consequently, none of the published
sediment transport equations has gained universal acceptance in confidently predicting sediment transport rate, especially in rivers.
This p a p e r provides a comprehensive review of the important theories of incipient
motion and sediment transport. Emphases are placed on basic concepts and findings
upon which knowledge of sediment transport is based, rather than on the mathematical derivations. The reliability of each equation discussed in this paper is judged from
the validity of assumptions used in its derivation and the comparisons with measured
data from laboratory flumes and rivers. Emphases are placed on the comparisons
between calculated and measured results from rivers. Because of space limitations
some sediment transport equations are not discussed here. This, however, should not
be interpreted as a sign of disagreement or lessening of their importance.

2. Incipient Motion
In the study of sediment transport, the first thing to consider is the flow condition
under which particles of sediment on the bed start to move, i.e., the condition of
incipient motion. Most sediment transport equations require certain parameters at
Geophysical Surveys 3 (1977) 39-68. All Rights Reserved
Copyright (~) 1977 by D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.



incipient motion. Most criteria for incipient motion can be obtained from a balance
of forces acting on a sediment particle as shown in Figure 1, or from a balance of
moments due to these forces. The magnitudes of these forces can be determined from
either a shear stress or a velocity approach.





Vd- /

Fig. 1. Diagram of forces acting on a sediment particle in open channel flow.

The shear stress or tractive force acting at the bottom of an open channel is the pull of
water on the wetted area. In a uniform flow, the tractive force equals the effective
component of the gravity force acting on the body of water, parallel to the channel
bottom, i.e.,
r = yDS,


where ~, is the specific weight of water, D is the average water depth, and S is the
energy or water surface slope. The two most significant and widely known analyses of
incipient motion from the shear stress approach are those made by White (1940) and
Shields (1936).
White assumed that the influence of slope S and left force F~ in Figure 1 have on
the incipient motion is of little significance and hence can be neglected when they are
compared with other factors. The drag force Fa is proportional to the shear stress,
r and the square of particle diameter d, i.e.
F,~ = C a r d 2.




The overturning moment can then be written as
M o = C1C2"rd 3.


The resisting moment is the product of submerged weight of the particle C3(ysy r ) d 3 and its moment arm C4d, i.e.
M r = C3C4("ys - "yf)d4,


where ys and yf are the specific weight of sediment and fluid, respectively. A particle
will start to move when the shear stress is such that M0 = Mr. This critical value of
shear stress can be obtained from Eqs. (3) and (4), i.e.,
9 cr = C ( v s - v i ) d ,


where C is a coefficient. Thus the critical shear stress is proportional to the particle
Shields (1936) believed that it was very difficult to express analytically the forces
acting on a sediment particle. He used dimensional analysis to determine some
dimensionless parameters and established his criterion of incipient motion. Shields
assumed that the factors which are important to the determination of incipient
motion are shear stress r, the difference in density between sediment and fluid
(Ps -Pt), the particle diameter d, the kinematic viscosity v, and gravitational acceleration g. These five parameters can be grouped into two dimensionless quantities

d('T/p[)l/2/p = dV:~/1/


~-/d(p~ - p / ) g = " r / d y 1 ( p J p / - 1)


where Yr is the specific weight of fluid; and U, is the shear velocity. The relationship
between these two parameters was then determined from experiments as shown in
Figure 2. Although the Shields diagram shown in Figure 2 has been accepted by most

~ ,



O. 1

~ Sands in Turbulen~ Boundary Layer




Fig. 2.

S h i e l d ' s D i a g r a m ; r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d i m e n s i o n l e s s critical s h e a r
stress a n d s h e a r velocity R e y n o l d s n u m b e r ,


Bogardi (1968). a criterion for incipient motion can be expressed as a function of average flow velocity or the local velocity where the particle is situated on the bed. He found that the probability depends not only on the statistical variation in turbulence but also on the location and orientation of }he .66]} + 0.66. dl~. which is proportional to the square of shear velocity. U . The magnitudes and directions of the lift. The energy required for this vertical movement is in the form of energy due to turbulent vortices.2. among others. drag. (3) The resistance force acting on a particle equals the product of a friction coefficient and the difference between submerged weight of the particle and the lift force acting on the particle. and (4) Incipient motion occurs when drag force equals resistance force. At incipient motion pK3U~cr/(Ps -P)g K4 = ~'S(% . The assumptions and relationships used by Yang to develop his critical velocity at incipient motion are: (1) The drag and lift forces acting on a sediment particle are proportioned to the square of the relative velocity between the particle and fluid. and Yang (1973). 1. They vary with respect to time and location. Gessler (1965. Equation (10) is another form of Shields parameter.0. 2.) .3.d/~. at least experimentally. it still has some basic deficiencies. (10) where K is a coefficient. E N E R G Y A N D STATISTICAL A P P R O A C H E S Yalin (1963) presented photographic evidence that sediment particles can leave their position in a vertical upward direction. and ~o is the terminal fall velocity of sediment particle.05. VELOCITY APPROACH It has been established.42 CHIH TED YANG engineers as a criterion for incipient motion. and resistance forces shown in Figure 1 are all subject to change in turbulent flow. 2. established criteria for incipient motion from velocity approach. Yang's criteria for incipient motion are: VSo) = {2. The comparison between Equations (8) and (9) and the measured data by eight different investigators are shown in Figure 3. p is the density of water. Some of these deficiencies were pointed out by Yang (1973). 1970) made an attempt to measure the probability that grains of a specific size will stay.2<U. 7 0 -< U. (9) where Vc~ is the critical average flow velocity at incipient motion.d/u<70 (8) and Vcr/w = 2. that the drag force acting on a particle is proportioned to the square of the relative velocity between fluid and particle. Basically. (2) Flow velocity follows the logarithmic law distribution. Neill (1967). cr is the shear velocity at incipient motion.5/[log (U.T)K = constant. Yang's analysis is used here to explain some basic concepts of velocity approach. Thus. and ~'cr is the shear stress at incipient motion.

5. when the tractive force reached Shields' parameter. Gessler also found a close relationship between this probability and Shields' critical shear parameter. relationshipbetween dimensionless critical velocity and shearvelocity Reynoldsnumber.66 I T `~~ ! L 1 I L L Lll{tl I0 ) I I IllllI l I Ill I00 SHEAR VELOCITY REYNOLDS NUMBER~ ILl.. individual grain.S. ~W~ o Vcr ]'~O l / i~. Yang'sDiagram.. . Waterways Experiment Station 24 3 22 E 20 # 18 > 16 14 -SMOOTH TRANSITIOR > COMPLETELY ROUGH 12 i0 8 6 i. 3.5 " I U. i000 Res U~d ~j Fig. one might say that for a stable channel of uniform material.d ' + 0.THE MOVEMENT 28 "' 9 I OF SEDIMENT I I 1 ]IIII 43 IN R I V E R S II I I I ' I I I I I l'I I I I I EXPLANATION 26 0 Casey ~z Grand Laboratory A Gilbert o Kramer 9 Thljsse V Tison 9 Vanonl 9 U. J ~ ~ 2. From a practical point of view. the probability for any individual grains to stay is 0.

slope. channel pattern. S H E A R S T R E S S A P P R O A C H DuBoys (1879). The original DuBoys equation can be expressed by qs = K l ~ ( r .39i/d 3/4.44 C H I H TED Y A N G 3. sediment loads. believes that the rate of bed-load transportation is dominated by excess shear stress. water depth. and channel pattern to transport the given water discharge and sediment load.' r c r ) B1. REGIME APPROACH Fundamentally. among others. and A1.1. average flow velocity. According to Straub (1954) experiments Kt = 0. A river is 'in regime' when there is no long term scour or deposition. 'Regime theory' is an inductive theory of channel self-formation that has grown systematically since about 1890. as well as water temperature. Regime equations were developed as a result of long term field measurements of channel dimension.~rcr). such as water discharge. particle size. Different theories and equations have been developed based on assuming different dominant factors as the independent variable. Bed load is defined as the part of sediment load that moves by rolling or sliding along the bed. 3. energy slope. 3. a river tends to adjust its width. their applications are limited to those rivers with similar conditions from where the regime equations were derived. ~rcris critical shear stress. shear stress. (11) where qs is sediment load per unit width. and hydraulic shear stress. B1 are coefficients. The DuBoys type equation can be expressed by the general form qs = a l ( ' r . Blench (1969) made a systematic study of the regime theory and equations. Because all the regime equations were derived from measured field data. (13) . Most sediment transport theories and equations were developed from one of the following approaches. DuBoys assumed that the sediment moves in layers. depth. Most regime equations express channel dimension as well as sediment load as power functions of water discharge. bed configuration. it is important to consider the relative importance of these variables and select one or two as the dominant factors governing the rate of sediment transport. water discharges. (12) where K~ is a function of sediment size. where d is the particle size.2. stream power. In the process of developing a sediment transport equation. roughness. and gradation. intensity of turbulence. ~. Theories of Sediment Transport The rate of sediment transport in rivers is related to many variables. It is virtually impossible for us to consider all these variables simultaneously and to develop an equation which contains all of them explicitly. Some of these variables are interrelated and dependent on each other. These layers move because of tractive force (shear stress) applied to them.

Wash load is defined as the part of sediment load that consists of particles finer than those found in the stream bed. / w ) is a function of (U. respectively. . Engelund and Hansen's (1967) equation is a more recent one obtained from a shear stress approach. (17) where A2 and B2 are coefficients. Shields measured various values of shear stress and bed load at least twice as large as the critical value and then extrapolated to the point of zero bed load. Pi is the fraction of a given grain size d. Thus. Laursen's equation can be expressed in a dimensionally homogeneous form Ct = E{[pi(d/D)V/6/('l'/7"c. one caused by skin friction and the one caused by bed forms."rcr)]](')/s "y)d. Shields' equation can be expressed by (q. Colby developed four graphical relations from measured data to express the bed-material ./yq)(y. Suspended load is the part of sediment load transported mainly in suspension. In so doing. with wash load excluded.- 1)]f(U.THE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT IN RIVERS 45 In his process of developing a criterion for incipient motion.Vc. VELOCITY APPROACH Donat (1929) and Colby (1964) expressed the rate of sediment discharge as functions of average flow velocity. water depth. a is often selected as the distance equal to the surface roughness which is equivalent to the average bed material size. and f ( U . i .)~2. Ys and y are specific weight of sediment and water./o2) were developed by Laursen for the calculation of total load and bed load. k is the grain roughness. and Ii and I 2 c a n be read from the work charts published by Einstein (1950). Bed-material discharge is defined as the part of sediment load that consists of particles large enough to be found in appreciable quantities in the stream bed./w).6U. respectively. is the shear velocity. They divided the total shear stress into two parts. particle size. and concentration of fine material on the bed-material discharge. Laursen (1958) developed an equation which can be used to calculate either total load. - - (14) where q is water discharge per unit width. The basic form of this type of equation can be expressed by: qs = A 2 ( V . Two differentf(U. total load is the sum of bed load alad suspended load./o))}. water temperature. and S is energy slope. 3. and V and Vc. Colby (1964) investigated the effect of flow velocity. or bed load. Caa[Ii In (30D/k )+ I2] (16) where U. Their equation is qs = l t. Ca is the sediment concentration at reference level a . (15) where Ct is total sediment concentration. respectively.3. are average velocity and critical velocity. a sediment transport equation was established.y/Sy) = 10(z .

4 q2/3/d = qZ/3 s/ d . (21) w h e r e A4. The Meyer-Peter and M/iller formula enjoys great popularity in central Europe.047(ys-y)d + 0 . Meyer-Peter and Miiller (1948) transformed the Meyer-Peter equation to an energy or slope type equation. This type of equation has the basic form of qs =m4(s-gcr) B4. (22) where R is the hydraulic radius. B3 are coefficients. Another well-known sediment formula in this category is the Meyer-Peter et al. and concentration of fine material on bed-material load. water temperature. B4 are coefficients. (19) where q and q . Scr are energy slope and critical slope. Schoklitsch (1934) suggested an equation which has the basic form qs = A3(O . some agreements between calculated and observed results can be found in the literature.). and O. are water discharge and critical discharge per unit width. y and Ys are specific weight of water and sediment. (18) where A3.17. SLOPE APPROACH After 14 years of research and analysis. (1934) equation which can be expressed by 0. equation can be applied only to coarse material with particle size great than 5 ram. 3.4. In spite of many inaccuracies and uncertainties in the data used by Colby. Most sediment rating curves obtained at gaging stations have the basic form of Equation (18). and p is the density of water.O . O~ are water discharge and critical discharge. The Schoklitsch equation can be written as qs = 7 0 0 0 ( $ 3 / 2 / d 1/2)(q _ q~. DISCHARGE APPROACH Based on laboratory experiments. and S. For mixture of non-uniform material. water depth. respectively. . the one due to grain resistance St. 35% of the mixture is finer than d35. 2 5 p 1/32/3 q~ . 3. respectively. that is. d should be replaced by d35.46 CHIH TED YANG load mainly as a function of average flow velocity with correction factors to reflect the influences of particle size. ) ~3. respectively. (20) The Meyer-Peter et al. Their equation can be written as yRS~ = O. is responsible for the bedload motion.5. respectively. Meyer-Peter and Miiller believed that only a portion of the total energy loss.

and tan a is the friction coefficient. / w +(1.457 log U . unit stream power9 Maddock's equation combines the concept of unit stream power and regime theory. is the shear velocity.0. STOCHASTIC APPROACH There are two basic differences between this approach and previously mentioned approaches. log Ct = 5.435. 1973) believed that there should be a balance between the rate of energy expenditure and the rate of sediment transport. Yang defined the unit stream power as the rate of potential energy expenditure per unit weight of water. the velocity slope product VS is the unit stream power.VcrS/w) (24) where C. Yang (1973) used the concept of unit stream power and dimensional analysis to develop his dimensionless unit stream power equation.7. Bagnold. U. 47 STREAM POWER OR UNIT STREAM POWER APPROACH Bagnold (1966). i. and Ackers and White defined the stream power as the product of shear stress per unit bed area and average velocity. 1973) and 156 sets of field data (Yang and Stall. These equations are not presented here. is the total sediment concentration in parts per million by weight. The basic approach of Ackers and White is very similar to that of the Bagnold's. Maddock's (1973. eb is the bedload efficiency factor. The value of VcrS/o can be obtained from the product of slope S and Vc. Ackers and White emphasized the use of dimensional analysis and expressed the rate of sediment transport as a function of several dimensionless parameters. 1976) basic approach is similar to that of Yang's (1972). (2) It is suggested that the ./w calculated from Equations (8) and (9).. 1976) to test the accuracy of Equation (24). 1976). u is the kinematic viscosity of water. The values of eb and tan a can be determined from charts developed b~ Bagnold. (23) where r V is the stream power. and VcrS is the critical unit stream power required at incipient motion. / w ) 9log (VS/to . 3.01( V/o))]. and Yang (1972. He used 1093 sets of laboratory data (Yang. Ackers and White (1973).314 log U . Yang made one of the most elaborate verifications of the validity of his equation.6. A total of 25 equations are required to determine these parameters and the rate of sediment transport. The application of Ackers and White's equation is limited to subcritical flow with Froude number less than 0.409 log wd/u -0. Bagnold's equation for total load (wash load excluded) can be written as qs = "rV[eb/tan a + 0.THE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT IN RIVERS 3. o) is the fall velocity of sediment with particle diameter d.799 -0. A graphical solution is used for Maddock's equation. Both Yang and Maddock emphasized the importance of the velocity-slope product. Maddock (1973.0.286 log w d / u .e. (1) The critical value at incipient motion is not considered in this approach because it fluctuates and is difficult to determine.8.

Froude number.872 325 39 X 3 (25) where X = [ VS~ 0. Instead of trying to find a dominant variable which dominates the rate of sediment transport. his procedure has been widely used in the United States despite its complexity. They expressed the total sediment concentration by the regression equation log C. Figure 4 shows the relationship between total sediment discharge and water discharge. (1966) from a laboratory flume with 0. which relates the instantaneous hydrodynamic lift force to the particle's weight.589 087 39 X2+ 109 503.747 340 85 X . Einstein's procedure is extremely complex and difficult for engineers to use in the field. He expressed the beginning and the end of the particle motion with the concept of probability. the agreement is often very poor. (1965). 3.107 404. rather than the average value.32]0. Validities of Different Approaches Most of the equations discussed here were derived under the assumption that the rate of sediment transport can be determined from one dominant variable. When such an equation is applied to other flow conditions. These equations were supported by limited data collected under carefully designed laboratory conditions.007 501 89 (26) Favorable comparisons between computed results and measurements. 4.8. especially from laboratory flumes and small rivers. He considered most of the variables which might influence the rate of sediment transport in his bedload function and computation procedure. were reported by Shen and Hung. Bishop et aI. His calculation procedure was modified or simplified by Colby and Hembree (1955). REGRESSION APPROACH Shen and Hung (1972) assumed that sediment transport is such a complex phenomenon that no single Reynolds number. because of the theoretical approach used and because calculated results often agree with the measurements within reasonable accuracy. Colby and Hubbell (1961).3 2 6 309. and Toffaleti (1969) for engineering purposes. say velocity. Field .93 mm sand are used here as an example to examine the validity of these assumptions. Einstein (1950) made one of the most significant contributions to the study of sediment transport from a stochastic approach. For any given value of O two different values of qt can be obtained. = . Laboratory data collected by Guy et al. they recommended a regression equation based on 587 sets of laboratory data.459 381 64+324 214. or combination of them can be found to describe sediment motion under all conditions. Colby (1964).48 CHIH TED YANG bedload transport is related to the fluctuation of the independent variable. However.

and a given sediment discharge can be transported by different water discharges.i 0.1 WATER DISCHARGE. 0001 0 iO Q. different sediment discharges can be transported by the same water discharge.THE MOVEMENT I0 1 OF SEDIMENT IN RIVERS I I I Illl I I I I Il~ 49 w J.0[ 13s < i o w E X p LAN. i mF 0 _J z i 84 4J cr 0. 4.AT I ON f co 7.. The same sets of data shown in Figure 4 . Some of Gilbert's (1914) data indicate that there is no correlation at all between water discharge and sediment discharge. Fig. J F-" i LIA 0 . Apparently.l torY UA 1. data obtained by Leopold and Maddock (1953) also indicate similar results. IN CUBIC METERS PER SECOND Relationship between total sediment discharge and water discharge for 0. I I I fill I I If Ill 0.93 mm sand. 0 0 1 co 9 Plane bed Q Dune o Transition & Standing wave i -A < O 1"- 0.0 ) r~ z 0 n~ .

H 9 Plane bed d D Dune 0 o Transition Standing wave 0. Relationship between total s e d i m e n t discharge and average water velocity for 0. I (-w L~ Q- F O ..I (.0 cIc b'-- rF (ZL Z O (J V') 0.001 --O I EXPLANATION .93 m m sand. IN METERS PER SECOND Fig. Although qt increases steadily with increasing V.. .9 QC -'r" O CO I-Z 0. Different amounts of total 1 l llll [ I 1 I1111 1. it is apparent that for approximately the same value of V the value of qt can differ considerably due to the steepness of the curve.. Some of Gilbert's data also indicate that the correlations between q~ and V are very weak. Z 0..50 CHIH TED YANG are plotted on Figure 5 to show the relationship between total sediment discharge and average velocity.2 C.0001 I I Illl 1.01 i o Ll.0 I I I t Ill I0 AVERAGE VELOCITY~ V. 5. Figure 6 indicates that there is no single relationship between total sediment discharge and slope.

slope. Figure 7 shows that there is a one to one correlation between total sediment discharge and shear stress when total sediment discharge is in the middle range of the curve. 6. 0. 5. velocity. I I I I11tl 0.93 mm sand. sediment discharges can be obtained at the same slope.0 EXPLANATION r-~ Z 0 c_) LIJ 0s IJJ O_ 0 _J Plane bed 9 [] Dune o Transition A Sta /~ / f I J 0. 0001 WATER Fig.01 S. which means for the same shear stress numerous values of sediment discharge can be obtained.001 I I I Iltll O. It is apparent from Figures~4.THE MOVEMENT I PY W OF SEDIMENT I I II111 51 IN R I V E R S I I I IIIII W >or" 1. 6 and 7 that more than one value of total sediment discharge can be obtained for the same value of water discharge. IN METERS I PER METER Relationship between total sediment discharge and water surface slope for 0. the curve b e c o m e s vertical.1 7 Cr < 0. and different slope can also produce the same sediment discharge. or shear stress. The validity of the assumption that total sediment discharge of a given .01 U 7 UJ UJ < p0 b- 0. For either higher or lower sediment discharge.001 SURFACE SLOPE.

the generality of an equation which was derived from one of these assumptions is also questionable." LU r.0 S T R E S S ~ r.d w -s 0.kl i11 ~E 1.d Standing w a v e p b-O b- F o. 7.52 CHIH 10 T-q~l TED YANG I lqll I F- R I.0 LU 0 1:3 Z (J LU Q3 m. (I) :Z: 0 [3 0 . Because of the basic weakness of these assumptions.01 tO n.EXPLANAT 1ON "xL) 03 9 Plane bed Z 0 Dune F-- o y Transition m IaA ~2 I 0. particle size can be determined from water discharge. or shear stress is now open to question.. with unit stream .93 mm sand. When the same sets of data are plotted on Figure 8. 1 ~ 0 .. I I I .0Ol G'I . 1.t SHEAR Fig. velocity. slope. Relationship I I IlillL IN K I L O G R A M S PER SQUARE METER between total sediment discharge and shear stress for 0.oootJ I 0.

93 mm sand.1 }- D 10 I UNIT 8. This is due to the fact that at low sediment discharge. KILOGRAM 0. total sediment concentration depends not only on the values of unit stream power and critical unit stream power but also on water depth. and standing wave. This phenomenon was explained in detail by Yang (1976).0001 POWERj VS.Z IO0 m 0 . However. I I l llll O.K I L O G R A M S PER SECOND Relationship between total sediment concentration and unit stream power for 0. dune. . power as the independent variable.000 OF I SEDIMENT IN RIVERS I I IIIII I 53 I I l lIll] I i0. The close relationship between total sediment concentration and unit stream power exists not only in straight channels but also in those channels which are in the process of changing their patterns from straight to meandering. transition. This close correlation exists in spite of the presence of different bed forms such as plane bed.000 5 J d E X P L A N A T I ON HI t~ 9 P]ane bed 0 Dune o Transition A Standing wave OZ tO00 (J ] g 13 I-[I u I-z c~ ej I'-..THE MOVEMENT 20. and to braided channels as shown in Figure 9.g _. or concentration. I I I I lil 0. the correlation between total sediment concentration and unit stream power is significantly improved.O01 STREAM PER Fig.01 IN M E T E R . data shown in Figure 8 also indicate some deviation from the straight line when the total sediment concentration is below 30 ppm. These data were collected by Schumm and Khan (1972).

The assumptions used in stochastic approach are more difficult to verify.K I L O G R A M S PER PER SECOND Fig. KILOGRAM IN M E T E R .J u z o 7-. However.000 L I I I Ill 1 l l I I Ill m i SCHUMM AND KHAN'S DATA m 9 STRAIGHT CHANNEL 9 MEANDERING TIIALWEG A BRAIDED CHANNEL Z m U J Z O J I000 z _- .001 UNIT STREAM POWER. Experiments made by Yang and Sayre (1971) indicate that step length of a given particle size is not a constant. certain deterministic assumptions are generally made. VS. Efficiency coefficients and factors were used by Bagnold (1966) and Ackers and White (1973) to determine the amount of power used in transporting bedload and suspended load. . The stream power approach emphasizes the rate of energy expenditure along the bed. it follows a gamma distribution. O I00~ t I I I Ill I ] I I I Ill 0. the step length equals 100 times its particle diameter. Einstein (1950) assumed that when a sediment particle makes a step to move forward. For instance. and to braided. The calibration of these coefficients and factors were based on limited laboratory data. Relationship between total sediment concentration and unit stream power during process of channel pattern development from straight to meandering. The pronounced scattering along some of their best fit calibration curves indicates that it is extremely difficult to determine these coefficients and factors accurately.01 0. even in a stochastic approach.54 CHIH TED YANG Z o 10. 9. in his stochastic approach.

or within a short time span. The calculated results from 13 different equations by the ASCE Task Committee are shown in Figure 10. the unit stream power equation has the highest accuracy rating.T H E M O V E M E N T O F S E D I M E N T IN R I V E R S 55 A major drawback of the regression approach is the lack of physical meaning of those parameters in the regression equation. (1960). and total load is replaced by bed material load. Equation (24). Field data used herein are considered by most engineers as reliable. the form of equation. All the above mentioned factors significantly reduce the number and source of field data available to compare the accuracy and reliability of different sediment transport equations. Data used in this article are those with total loads and their corresponding hydraulic data measured within a 24-hour period. Einstein (1944) measured the total sediment discharge from Mountain Creek at Greenville. Sediment Discharge in Rivers Measuring sediment discharge from natural rivers is an expensive and time consuming process. Total sediment load in a river has to be measured from a contracted section or from a man-made turbulent section where all the sediment particles are kept in suspension. i. sediment and hydraulic data have to be measured simultaneously. The non-generality of these assumptions is the basic reason why it is extremely difficult to recommend a universal equation for sediment transport. The ASCE Task Committee on Sedimentation (1971) made an analysis of the data collected from Niobrara River near Cody. Suspended load can be measured fairly accurately by a depth integrated sampler. A detailed comparison of these assumptions (Yang. In summary. The choice of variables. Among these 14 equations. Laursen's and Toffaleti's equation and Einstein's bedload function can all provide reasonable estimation of the total sediment discharge in the Niobrara River. 1955). Figure 10 also shows the calculated results from the unit stream power equation. Figure 11 shows the comparisons between measurements and computed results from 7 different equations by Vanoni et al. Figure 11 shows that the unit stream power equation is the only one that can provide a close estimation of the total sediment discharge in Mountain Creek. South Carolina. 5. to insure that these data are collected under approximately the same flow condition. and the computed results from the unit stream power equation by the author. 1972) by using more than 1000 sets of laboratory and field data suggests that total sediment discharge or concentration depends on unit stream power more than on any other variables. Nebraska (Colby and Hembree. and the determination of coefficients depend entirely on the data used in the regression analysis. However. . The Schoklitsch equation ranks second in accuracy. Wash load is excluded from total load when the former is significant. Colby's. and quite often used by them to compare the accuracy of different sediment transport equations. none of the assumptions used in deriving existing sediment transport equations are perfect. In order to compare the calculated results from a sediment transport equation and the measurements from a river.e. there is no reliable bedload sampler which can be used in rivers.

56 CHIH I I TED I IIIIII YANG I I i00 Z C) CJ . Nebraska. IN CUBIC METERS PER SECOND Fig. Q.=C OC 0 .. 10. The total sediment discharge in the Middle Loup River at Dunning. Nebraska and computed results of various equations. only the unit stream power equation and the modified Einstein method can provide good estimates of the total sediment discharge in the Middle Loup River (as shown between the two dashed lines). Their computed total sediment discharge from 5 different equations as well as the computed results from unit stream power equation by the author are shown in Figure 12. was measured by Hubbell and Matejka (1959). _J 1-0 1-- EXPLANATION 1. .J v Z Z I0 eY I-LtJ r.0 9 Measured o Unit S t ~ ~ *I* I I I l l l l 1.i GO F uJ (~_ GO .. Other equations cannot even indicate the general trend of variation of total sediment discharge at different water discharges.0 I _ _ Power Equation I I I I llll I0 I00 WATER DISCHARGE. Comparison between measured total sediment discharge of the Niobrara River near Cody. Among the 6 equations used in Figure 12.

Missouri. I I l]lll 1. :. South Carolina and computed results of various equations. Comparisonbetween measured total sediment discharge of the Mountain Creek at Greenville. Louis. The computed total sediment discharges from the unit stream power equation are also shown in Figure 13.1 I WATER DISCHARGE. IN CUBIC METERS PER SECOND Fig. ~ .1l-uJ <. Figure 13 shows the comparisons made by Jordan between measured and computed results from four different equations.0 I Q.9 r~ ~o~ I " 6' -r L) 7.J I--(2:1 FO"01 t-------~ l I 0. " .THE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT IN RIVERS l Ill [ I 57 /i I~'I E• 9 i.. . z IJJ 8 " 8.' . The bed material discharge in the Mississippi River at St.O __ Measured Stream Unit o Power Equation r~ z 0 (]3 rw r~ ~D 0 -A z O. was measured by Jordan (1965). It is considered that the measured bed material discharge can best . 11.

it depends only on the rate of supply from the upstream reach and watershed. Calculated results l~rom modified Einstein and Colby's method are two to three times as large as the measurements. I-- tJ im 0 0 t~ 03 _1 EXPLANATION kO k1.) TED YANG [] I - rY w Q- (D W z ~d w I ~/ oo 7~ A . Nebraska and computed results of various equations. KILOGRAMS - --- IILLL TOTAL SECTION Equation PER qt' SECOND Fig. The wash load is independent from the hydraulic factors of a river.58 CHIH z 0 < w (i. Comparison between measured total sediment discharge of the Middle Loup River at Dunning. was measured by Nordin (1964). New Mexico. Figure 13 indicates that the unit stream power equation is the most accurate one. The bed material discharge in the Rio Grande River near Bernaliilo.1 O- (D o & o 9 9 9 I ---- U n i t S t r e a m Power Modified Einstein Straub Kalinske Schoklitsch Meyer Peter-Muller ZL_LLL10 MEASURED AT - D SEDIMENT IN 100 DISCHARGE. Figure 14 shows that the computed results from the .1. 12. represent the total sediment discharge in a river with wash load excluded.

White et al. On the average the computed results from the modified Einstein method are three times as large as the measured bed material discharge.-I/. I I IIIII I I i ilil i000 q B M ) IN K I L O G R A M S i0. Data with . L o u i s .4 " to J EXPLANATION Unit Stream Power Equation 0 1 0 MEASURED I I IIIIII I0 BED MATERIAL I I I llili I I00 DISCHARGE. the unit stream power equation is rated superior to other equations. unit stream equation and Laursen's equation compare favorably with the measurements.000 I I IIII 11] i I 1 11r11 o J i000 /e I00 . Fig. Comparison between measured bed material discharge of the Mississippi River at St. With the exception of Yang's (1973). These data cover a wide range of variations of water and sediment discharges. The agreements are very good./ i u Z ~ ee //. Their comparison was based on over 1000 flume experiments and 260 field measurements. The comparisons between computed results from the unit stream power equation and measurements from six river stations are summarized in Figure 15. A total of 156 sets of data collected from six river stations were used to compare the applicability of different sediment transport equations. most equations discussed in this paper were reviewed and compared by them. (1975) recently reviewed sediment transport theories. water temperature. Missouri and computed results of various equations. velocity. slope. and Shen and Hung's (1972) equations.THE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT 59 IN R I V E R S Z 0 10.000 PER SECOND 13. Based on these data. and river size.sXS.

Dgr is defined as Dgr = [ g ( p / p . Z~ 9 z~ A .1)/u211/3d... Einstein (1950). Bishop et al. Bagnold (1966). A total of 1093 sets of flume data and 154 sets of river data were available to the author.. A comprehensive test of the accuracy of Yang's (1973) equation is shown in Table I. They used two dimensionless parameters for comparison purpose. (1975) indicate that the Ackers and White's (1973) equation is the most accurate one. Ps and P are the density of sediment and water. u is the kinematic viscosity of water. respectively. (27) where g is the gravitational acceleration. The discrepancy ratio is defined as the ratio between calculated and measured sediment loads. Toffaleti (1969). and Meyer-Peter and Miiller's (1948) equations.. o~ 9 o 9 Lx i00 o 17 o I 9. and d is the particle diameter. Section Power Equation Section FA2} Modified Section Einstein / / d 0 I-- ~ 0 U -/ 1 /I / 9 Section Sectio~?} I IIII1 t I I IIIII 10 I Laursen I I IIIII 100 MEASURED BED MATERIAL DISCHARGE. followed by the Engelund and Hansen (1967).000 I 1 I I IIIItl I I I I IIIII I l illtt po O I000 F_ k.60 CHIH TED YANG z 0 i0. Comparisonbetweenmeasuredbed materialdischargeof the Rio Grande River near Bernalillo. Rottner (1959). the dimensionless particle size Dgr and the discrepancy ratio.000 IN KILOGRAMS PER SECOND Fig. 14.8 were excluded by them. All these data have particle size in the sand range with flow in both subcritical and . (1965). qBM' -- 1000 I I I [III 10.o7 / ~'~ Z EXPLANATION o : Section ~2} Unit St.B J 9 B Q 9149 '~.New Mexicoand computedresultsof various equations. Comparisons made by White et al. Froude numbers greater than 0.

001' 0. 15+ Comparison between measured sediment discharge at six river stations and computed total sediment discharge of Yang's equation. Yang's equation is much more accurate when it is applied to natural rivers. Results in Table I are summarized in Table II and plotted on Figure 16 to show the average deviation of calculated results by Yang's equation from the measurements for both laboratory and river data. A detailed analysis of the accuracy of Shen and Hung's equation indicates that their .000 = I IIIIIII MOVEMENT i l llllll OF SEDIMENT I l llllll 61 IN RIVERS I IIIIIII c~ z o (o 1000 cY klJ I1 ~- < 100 O -_ -. Table II also indicates that 91% of the observations have a discrepancy ratio between 0. i 1 0 COMPUTED SEDIMENT DISCHARGE I I llllll i0 I I IIIlll I00 IN KILOGRAMS I000 1 ] I ttlH 10. Shen and Hung's equation and Yang's equation can both provide accurate estimation of the total sediment concentration in laboratory flumes.01 I I t I illlll I I Illtll }11111 O. 9 9 9 O..0. o~O ~/%~176 ~ o') o. The average discrepancies of Shen and Hung's equation are also shown in Table II.5 and 2.75. super-critical conditions. and 94% between 0. For the 1247 sets of data used.THE 10. Most of these data were also used by White et al.~. However. the mean discrepancy ratio is 1.0 N -5 I-'- _ Z UA _ u-I ?+!<: lO- tao (.25 and 1._9 rY m 2- ~<~b~.000 PER SECOND Fig.I z Z 1. (1975) in their comparison. On the average. computed results from Yang's equation are only 3% higher than the measurements.03.001 EXPLANATION Niobrara River Middle Loup River Mountaih Creek Rio Grande Sec A2 Rio Grande Sec F Mississippi River =_ .o 0./! IIIII 0.. ~ ~ " v .

786 0.24 0.49 1.41 0.506 0.78 42.16 0.62 0.21 0.36 11.25 (7) 0.30 0.14 1.98 0.45 0.68 0.77 0.27 0.24 0.43 0.99 1.51 0.63 7. 6 6 0.44 2.60 1.96 1.40 0.02 0.26 8t% 79 56 67 61 59 60 68 67 59 63 36 26 35 33 43 (b) Nomicos' data (1956) 1.32 2.152 0.27 0.44 2.50 43% (d) Kennedy's data (196 l) 1 .40 1.10 1.62 CH1H TED YANG TABLE I Comparisons between measured and computed results from Yang's Equation Discrepancy ratio Particle size (ram) (1) Channel width (m) (2) Dimensionless grain size Max (3) (4) 0.786 1.68 0.40 0.27 4.30 0.66 0.41 0.88 0.61 0.44 51 63 91 91 35 1.51 0.'sdata(1966) 2.375 0.45 0.22 10.45 1.751.44 2.66 12.506 0. 2 5 0.96 0.38 9.64 0.28 0.42 33% (c) Vanoni and Brooks' data (I957) 6.38 9.60 0.90 0.44 0.786 0.74 0.01 1.22 1.30 7.65 1/.85 0.305 0.89 1.61 8.20 0.14 2.53 3.61 1.30 0.05 52% 61 70 41 50 56 31 42 0.10 3. of data (11) 100% 100 88 100 82 89 93 94 98 98 100 81 81 85 100 64 100% 100 98 100 94 96 100 100 100 98 100 100 100 100 100 96 100% 100 100 100 98 96 93 98 100 100 100 81 81 85 100 71 21 33 50 42 51 44 15 63 61 46 49 36 53 26 12 28 83% 100% 92% 12 57% 71% 72% 14 86% 93 85 86% 100 92 93% 100 92 14 14 13 100% 100% 100% 42 86% 89 85 74 88 88 69 50 86% 89 88 97 94 94 86 75 86% 89 91 80 98 97 93 83 29 18 33 34 50 32 29 22 (a) Gilbert'sdata(1914) 1.44 2.03 8.76 1.75 (9) 0.375 0.52 0.506 0.74 1.137 0.40 0.61 4.13 1 .69 0.09 1.22 .91 1.66 12.27 29.27 0.20 0.305 0.73 57% 86 62 (e) Stein's data (1965) (f) 0.38 0.66 19.19 0.251.38 9.99 1.506 0.40 0.60 0.45 0.38 12.20 0.33 (Graded) 0.26 3.67 86% Guyetal.32 2.52 0.19 1.63 0.29 4.71 0.55 0.41 0.36 1.93 0.54 0.56 1.68 1.02 1.29 0.63 9.00 1.375 0.21 1.25 1.23 12.22 6.87 0.53 0.81 0.55 1.68 1.52.66 12.49 0.64 0.44 2.08 0.51.66 42.07 1.71 1.97 6.78 0.0 (10 No.62 1.39 8.44 14.91 0.19 2.20 0.48 1.375 0.33 (Uniform) 0.506 0.60 0.549 0.22 Mean Min (5) (6) 0.76 0.47 0.66 19.61 0.13 0.233 0.81 1.40 1.39 43 64 93 79 14 0.32 0.52 0.81 0.50 (8) 0.61 0.60 0.02 2.61 15.43 0.85 3.19 1.66 12.66 19.233 0.85 6.98 1.81 1.59 6.

34 44% 77% (j) Colby and Hembree's data from Niobrara River (1955) 0.7196.25 (7) 0.78 464.33 0.05 1.25 (4) 0.38 1 .40 2.25 0.2 0.251.57 0.0 (10 No.75 (9) 0.52 40% 80% (n) Jordan's data from Mississippi River (1965) 0.5-46.52.61 1.19 1.43 1.6 7.00 3.98 0.35 2.2 8.51.1-83. 2 5 0.03 0.751.23-0.79 1.05 1.02 0.92 2.50 (8) 0.51 0.71 2.09 0.22-0.08 1.25 45% (i) Einstein's data from Mountain Creek (1944) 1.52.65 1.6 6.87 0.5532.44 6. of data (11) (g) Williams' data (1967) 1.17 1. (3) 0.283 21.251.18 26. of Data (8) Sand in laboratory Yang flumes Shen and Hung 2.38-5.25 2.0 (7) No.75 ~ 1.THE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT 1N RIVERS 63 Table I (continued) Discrepancy ratio Particle size (ram) (1) Channel width (m) (2) Dimensionless grain size Max (3) (4) Mean Min (5) (6) 0.81 0.47 0.19 30% 49% 84% 70% 37 81% 94% 84% 31 95% 97% 61 100% 25 80% 87% 15 100% 100% 15 87% 100% 15 96% 65% 23 (h) Schneider's data (1971) 2.46 54% 44 83% 78 94% 91 91% 85 1247 .58 47% 80% (1) Nordin's data from Rio Grande River Sec A2 (1964) 0.85 1. 1 5 0.21-0.93 0.31 44% 61% TABLE I1 Summary of average discrepancies of Yang's Equation and Shen and Hung's Equation Discrepancy ratio Max.78 1 .45 106.24 37.56 80% 96% 100% (k) Hubbell and Matejka'sdata from Middle Loup River (1959) 4.30 33.35 0.56 0.42 1.50 2.5 (5) 0. (1) Mean (2) Min.03 1.75 (6) 0.16 0.61 53% 38 80% 60 93% 72 92% 77 154 All data Yang Shen and Hung 2.51.39 81.54 0.0-21.16-0.41 0.30 0.94 0.44 54% 45 84% 81 94% 95 91% 86 1093 Sand in rivers Yang Shen and Hung 1.50 60% 87% (m) Nordin's data from Rio Grande River Sec F (1964) 7.9 0.

I / 1. It provides poor estimations of the bed-material discharge in large rivers.0 2.5 3.5 DISCREPANCY Fig. A. o 0. OF F L U M E D A T A = 1093 26 NO. __ .5 5a. these two tables are combined together in Table III to show the accuracies of different equations.RIVER DATA NO. 2. 16.0 RATIO D i s t r i b u t i o n of d i s c r e p a n c y ratio of Y a n g ' s e q u a t i o n .0 1. (1975) are comparable. such as the Rio Grande River and the Mississippi River. It is apparent that Yang's unit stream power equation is the most accurate one. O F R I V E R D A T A = 154 24 22 ~ 20 18 g - - 10 8 6 4 2 -_ ! 3 \l .64 CHIH TED Y A N ~ 34 I --I I -7 I 32 3O : 28 FLUME DATA -----. . Since both the amount and source of data used in Table II of this paper and Table 5 of White et al. equation can provide good estimation of the bed-material discharge in very small rivers.

Based on the majority of published data. The following procedures are r e c o m m e n d e d based on the author's experience and his understanding of the assumptions and limits of data used in obtaining different sediment transport equations. the coefficients in the equation have to be determined by comparing the mathematical model with measured data. money. Thus. etc. but also on the range of data used in the determination of the coefficients in the equation. the applicability of an equation depends not only on the assumptions and theories used in its derivation. to r e c o m m e n d one equation for engineers and geologists to use in the field under all circumstances. and m a n . water temperature. Even if perfect assumptions could be found and used in the derivation of an equation. Selection of Equations Although there is no perfect assumption which can be used to derive a sediment transport equation.T H E M O V E M E N T O F S E D I M E N T IN R I V E R S 65 TABLE III Summaryof accuraciesof different equations Equations Date Data with discrepancy ratio between i and 2 Yang Shen and Hunga Ackers and White Engelund and Hansen Rottner Einstein Bishop et al. Because of the tremendous uncertainties involved in estimating sediment discharge at different flow and sediment conditions under different hydrologic. Toffaleti Bagnold Meyer-Peter and Miiller 1973 1972 1973 1967 1959 1950 1965 1969 1966 1948 91% 85 68 63 56 46 39 37 22 10 aShould not be applied to large rivers. Determine the kind of field data available or measurable within the time. variation of hydrological circle. but also on the gradation and shape factor of sediment. there are differences in the generalities of these assumptions. it is extremely difficult. channel pattern and bed configuration. and climatic constraints.p o w e r limits. rate of supply of fine material or wash load. geologic. 6. percentage of bed surface covered by coarse material. Sediment discharge in natural rivers depends not only on those independent variables mentioned in previous sections. if not impossible. . it appears that the rate of sediment transport or total sediment concentration is dominated by unit stream power more than any other variable. 1. strength of turbulence.

4. Select an equation according to its degree of accuracy shown in Table III. Use Shen and Hung's (1971) formula for laboratory flumes and very small rivers. f. e. our understanding of sediment movement in rivers is still very primitive compared to our understanding of open channel flow with rigid boundary. slope. b. Use Einstein's (1950) procedure when bedload is a significant portion of the total load. calculate the rate of sediment transport by these formulas. use the existing data collected from a river station and plot sediment load or concentration against water discharge. and compare the results. Use Yang's (1973) formula for sand bed laboratory flumes and natural rivers with total sediment concentration (wash load excluded) greater than 20 ppm by weight. Examine all the formulas and select those ones with measured values of independent variables determined from step 1. g. Due to this basic weakness and the complex nature of natural rivers. Use Toffaleti's (1960) formula for large sand-bed rivers. A regime equation can be applied to a river only if the flow and sediment conditions are similar to that of the river from where the regime equation was derived. In the absence of measured sediment load for comparison. Summary and Conclusions Basic concepts and approaches used in the study of incipient motion and sediment transport were reviewed and summarized. none of these assumptions is perfect in the sense that there should always be a one-to-one correlation between dependent and independent variables. Although some of the assumptions used in the derivation of sediment transport equations are more realistic and general than others. d. velocity. Use Ackers and White's (1973). Compare the field situation and the limitations of formulas selected in step 2. Decide which formulas can best agree with the measured sediment load and use these formulas to estimate the rate of sediment transport at those flow conditions when actual measurements are not possible. The least scattered curve without systematic deviation from a one-to-one correlation between dependent and independent variables should be selected as the sediment rating curve for the particular station. The validity and applicability of an equation . Use Meyer-Peter's (1934) formula when the bed material is coarser than 5 mm. or Engelund and Hansen's (1967) equation for subcritical flow condition in the lower flow regime. 5. i. h. c. 7. I n c a s e none of the existing sediment transport equation can give satisfactory results. 3. 6. shear stress. If more than one formula can be used. the following formulas are recommended for consideration: a. depth. Use Colby's (1964) formula for rivers with depth less than 10 feet. and unit stream power.66 CHIH TED YANG 2. stream power.

'Sediment Transport: New Approach and Analysis. 'Le Rhone et les Rivieres a Lit affouillable. 'Sediment Transportation Mechanics: H. B. A Monograph on Sediment Transport in Alluvial Streams. A. it is extremely difficult to recommend a universal equation which can be used to estimate the rate of sediment transport in rivers under different flow and sediment conditions. DuBoys. 3. Geological Survey Profession Paper 422-J. Among all the assumptions used in the derivation of different sediment transport equations. equations. and Hembree. R. (Budapest) 62.: 1879. Bogardi. P. T.. Colby. Danish Technical Press. 1.: 1929. and Hansen. R. Hydraulics Div. H.' The Universily of Alberta Press. A S C E 91. F. 'An Approach to the Sediment Transport Problem from General Physics. A. B. C. J. can be determined by unit stream power is the most general and realistic one.' U. 'The Bedload Function for Sediment Transport in Open Channel Flows. Copenhagen. Bagnold. Because of the basic theoretical weakness and the complex nature of natural rivers. Edmonton.. 175. Pont et Chausses. ASCE Task Committee on Sedimentation: 1971. H.' U.' J.: 1950. 27. 2. Denmark. Niobrara River near Cody.' J. In spite of some basic theoretical weakness in Shields' analysis.' U. 4. 'Incipient Sediment Motion in Terms of Critical Mean Velocity. A S C E 99. Canada. E.. and White. Colby. Due to its sound theoretical approach and agreement with measured data. 'Mobile-Bed Fluviology-A Regime Theory Treatment of Canals and Rivers for Engineers and Hydrologist... 'Bed-Load Transportation in Mountain Creek. 'Practical Computations of Bed Material Discharge. A.' J. Einstein.' Wasserwirtchafi. and Hubbell. A S C E 97.' J. W. H. Hydraulics Div. V. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1357. A.' U. of Agric. Blench. Einstein. Colby. B. Soil Conservation Service. J. Based on more than 1000 sets of laboratory data and some field data collected from six river stations. Bishop. EngeIund.: 1944. R. E.' U. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service SCS-TP-55.S. P. Shields' diagram is still the most widely used criterion for incipient motion. Dec. Ser. Nebraska.TIlE MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT IN RIVERS 67 is judged from the generality of assumptions used in the derivation and the agreements between the calculated and measured results.' Mem.: 1966. R. 'Computation of Total Sediment Discharge. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1593. References Ackers.: 1973. Ann. Recommendations are made to help engineers and geologists to make a reasonable choice among published sediment transport equations. 5 17.: 1969. 'Total Bed-Material Transport. R. 1026.: 1964. 'Simplified Method for Computing Total Sediment Discharge with the Modified Einstein Procedure. W. Hydraulics Div.' Acta Tech.S. Revised edition 1972. Hydraulics Div.. Dept. No. Sediment Discharge Formulas. . and Richardson.S.S.: 1965. Simons. 26.: 1961. Alberta.: 1968. Yang's (1973) criteria for incipient motion warrant further consideration and verification. A S C E 90. 2041.: 1955. 523.: 1967. Yang's unit stream power equation is more accurate than other sediment transport. the assumption that the rate of sediment transport. or total sediment concentration with wash load excluded. D. Technical Report No. This study has reached the following conclusions: 1. B.S. 217. D. A. @ber Sohlangriff und Geschiebetrieb. Donat.

: 1970.: 1934. 'Geschiebetrieb und die Geschiebefracht'. C. 59. Hydraulics Div. 559. A S C E 96. White.. 1530. Shen.. E.: 1967. Sedimentation Symposium. . T. 'A Role of Sediment Transport in Alluvial Channels. Guy. 'Applicability of Unit Stream Power Equation. T.. 322. 'Lecture Notes of Sediment Transport and Channel Stability. H. Vanoni.' J. and Hung.: 1934.' J.S. California. T. W. Part 2.: 1936. Jr. J.' J. Hydraulics Div. Anthony Falls Hydraulics Lab.. A S C E 95. T..: 1972. England. Neill. C. P.: 1940.: 1973. Berkeley. W. Yang. Yang. 4.' Schweizerische Bauzeitung 103. ASCE 84. Hydraulics Div. 11. Hydraulics Div.' J. C. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1476.: 1953. 'Fluvial Sediment of the Mississippi River at St. Rio Grande near Bernalillo. A S C E 89. S. 'Stability of Coarse Bed-Material in Open Channel Flow.. Amer. Jr.. California Institute of Technology. W. Laursen. Middle Loup River at Dunning. Shields. Hydraulics Div. T. Meyer-Peter.' U. Yang. Geological Survey Professional Paper 252. C.: 1976. N. A S C E 102. 12. 919. Jordan. Edmonton. Jr. H. 14. Yang.: 1959. Waterways Harbors Div. L.. 'Incipient Motion and Sediment Transport. E. V.' U. Proceedings.' U. S. Civil Engineers. 'An Expression for Bedload Transportation. 'Experimental Study of Channel Patterns. Jr. Favre. Hydraulics Div.' Research Council of Alberta.' University of Minnesota. Brooks.68 CHIH TED YANG Gessler.: 1972. H.: 1948. R. 407. Wasserkraft Wasserwirtsch. and Kennedy. A S C E 97. B. F.. N. International Association of Hydraulic Research 2nd Meeting. K.: 1976. California.: 1966. and Mfiller. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1498-H. 'Formula for Bedload Transport'. Shen (ed.. 'Definitive Computations of Sand Discharge in Rivers. 'Equations for Resistance to Flow and Sediment Transport in Alluvial Channels'. Hydraulics Div.' in H. 1956-1961. S. p. D. C. Sediment Series No. F. C. Royal Soc. Pasadena. 'Self-Stabilizing Tendencies of Alluvial Channels. J.: 1972.S.. 'The Beginning of Bedload Movement of Mixtures Investigated as Natural Armoring in Channels. 'A Formula for Bed Material Transport. Maddock. Bull. Stockholm. B. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1802.: 1954. Water Resources Res. D.' U. B.: 1969. W. Soc. 265.. H. Gilbert. Louis. A. Pasadena.: 1963. White.' J. 'Summary of Alluvial Channel Data from Flume Experiment. Schumm. C. Milli. Missouri. Straub.: 1971.' transl. Geological Survey Professional Paper 462-I. London. 39. T.' J.' Geol..' Report KH-RI.' U. Q. p. 'The Hydraulic Geometry of Stream Channels and some Physiographic Implications.' Proc. T. into English by W. J.' Proc. J. 'Aspects of Flow Resistance and Sediment Transport. 235. Inst. D. R. F. A S C E 102. 'Neuere Versuchsresultate fiber den Geschiebetrieb. Nebraska.' U.S. H. 'The Transportation of Debris by Running Waters. B. R. D. Hubble.. and Sayre. Keck Hydraulics and Water Resources Laboratory. M. Toffaleti..).: 1959. C. E. 'An Engineering Approach to Total Bed Material Load by Regression Analysis. G. E. New Mexico. C. T.: 1965.S. 1805. Meyer-Peter. Schoklitsch.' J. Canada. Simons. 'The Equilibrium of Grains on the Bed of an Alluvial Channel.. Hydraulics Div. American Geophysical Union.' J. Series A 174.' W. Maddock. V. A S C E 99. 'Application of Similarity Principles and Turbulence Research to Bedload Movement. R.: 1958. A. 221. Van Uchelen at California Institute of Technology. 'Unit Stream Power and Sediment Transport.. Gessler. W. England. No. Ott and J. California. 39. A. 83. A. A.: 1914.: 1973. 1915.: 1960.: 1975. 'Minimum Unit Stream and Fluvial Hydraulics. C. 'The Total Sediment Load of Streams. Geological Survey Professional Paper 86. Rottner. M. H.S. 'Terminal Report on Transportation Characteristics-Missouri River Sediment. A.. L. and Maddock.' Houille Blanche 4. Nordin. 'Investigations of Sediment Transport. G. Leopold. and Matejka...' J.' Journal of the Hydraulics Division. 'Sediment Transport Theories: A Review. and Einstein. M. R.: 1965. P. London. Yalin. P. 'Stochastic Model for Sand Dispersion. J.: 1976. A S C E 99. 225. 1679. Yang. California Institute of Technology.: 1964. A S C E 98. Pasadena. St. and Crabbe. W. and Khan.S. and Stall. and Richardson. June.