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B r i t i s h

A i r w a y s

E n g i n e e r i n g

T r a i n i n g

Human Factors in Aircraft
Maintenance

HUMAN FACTORS
MAY 06- ISSUE 2

ETBN0494

PART- 66
MODULE 9

B r i t i s h

HUMAN FACTORS
MAY 06- ISSUE 2

A i r w a y s

E n g i n e e r i n g

T r a i n i n g

PART- 66
MODULE 9

B r i t i s h

A i r w a y s

E n g i n e e r i n g

T r a i n i n g

Human Factors

Contents
Introduction
Incident statistics
Aloha airlines 1988
Incident statistics
Maintenance errors
The regulators
Trends in airline accident statistics
The dirty dozen
Human limitations
Situational awareness
Motivation/ de-motivation
Peer pressure and conformity
Culture of an organisation
Team working
Situational leadership
Being assertive
Factors affecting performance
Physical environment
Communication
Effective communication?
Transactional analysis
Effective presentations
Error types
Investigation / disciplinary considerations
Feedback from incidents
Hazards in the workplace

Warning signs

HUMAN FACTORS
MAY 06- ISSUE 2

PART- 66
MODULE 9

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Your Notes These notes have been prepared by British Airways Engineering Training to provide a source of reference during your period of training. TIM WRIGHT TRAINING QUALITY STANDARDS MANAGER HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. They will be useful to you during your training. The information presented is as correct as possible at the time of printing and is not subject to amendment action.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 PART. but I must emphasise that the appropriate Approved Technical Publications must always be used when you are actually working on the aircraft.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance Module 9 Part 66 Welcome to Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance Agenda • • • • • Health and Safety issues Introductions Agreements Course objectives Schedule HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 1 PART.66 MODULE 9 .

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Introduction • In Pairs participants to spend 5 minutes total interviewing each other to gain the following information: • Name • Previous jobs or positions held • Hobbies and interest • Career aspirations • Expectations from course Course Objectives By the end of the course you will be able to: • Demonstrate an understanding of H. • Help reduce human errors in aircraft maintenance. concepts related to Part 66 Module 9. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 . • Apply human factor techniques to working environment.F.ISSUE 2 2 PART.

ISSUE 2 3 PART.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Incident Statistics ICARUS 1st Aviation accident! Development History • • • • • BEA Trident crash 1972 Aloha Airlines 737 1988 BAC 1-11 1990 Airbus A320 1993 Boeing 737 1995 Incident Statistics ALOHA AIRLINES 1988 HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

(millions) WORLDWIDE 15 10 U.ISSUE 2 1996 INDUSTRY GOAL: 50% REDUCTION IN ACCIDENT RATE STANDARD DEVIATION 2000 YEAR 2000 2005 2010 2015 4 PART. 25 0 1959 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 YEAR Worldwide Hull Loss Projection ACTUALS PROJECTED 50 IF CURRENT ACCIDENT RATE HOLDS 49 41.6 21 21 14 20.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Annual departures 1959-2015 (projected) 35 ACTUAL PROJECTED 30 25 20 DEPARTURES.2 HULL LOSS PROJECTION AT CURRENT ACCIDENT RATE 40 ANNUAL HULL LOSSES 30 37 26 25 12 10 0 21 20 20 14 23.6 11 1985 1990 HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.6 17.S.66 MODULE 9 .

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Incident Statistics Hull loss causes (Boeing) Other Last 12yrs Airport/ATC 19591995 Weather Maintenance Aircraft Crew related 0 20 40 60 80 Incidents Statistics Human Factors in Aviation Accidents Human causes 80% Machine causes 20% 1903 Today Incident Statistics Human error is a causal factor in 80% of aviation accidents and incidents Designers ACT controllers Designers Dispatchers Flight crews Cabin crews HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 Ground handlers * Maintenance staff 5 PART.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Maintenance Errors contribute to: • About 15%of all major airline accidents • 20-305 of in flight engine shutdowns at $500.) HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. ground damage .00 per shutdown • 50% of all flight delays at $10.etc. spillage. Maintenance Errors(The eight most common errors) • • • • • • • • 1.000 each • Errors also cost millions of dollars in rework. Lack of lubrication 6. etc.000 per hour • 50% of all flight cancellations at $50.. u/s on fit. Wrong part installed 3. or cowlings not secured 7.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 6 PART. fairings. Landing gear pins not removed Ground Found Occurrence Report TREND Documentation 282 20% System Failure 212 15% Incorrect Assy. lost time . panels. transit damage. Wiring discrepancies 4. 195 14% Damage 182 13% Deterioration 137 Other 9% 29% (Incorrect part . Fuel or oil caps not secured 8. missing parts. Loose objects left in aircraft 5. Parts installed incorrectly 2.

5% 6% 4% 7 PART. Engine installed with parts missing • 4.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Incident Statistics HF Occurrences .Improper installation 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Top four reasons for in flight engine shutdowns: • 1. inspection . Engine improperly installed Top seven causes of I.F.66 MODULE 9 .test Equipment not activated / deactivated HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.Engine damage during installation • 3.ISSUE 2 34% 14.5% 11% 11% 6.S.Ds (Boeing data) • • • • • • • Incomplete installation Damage on installation Improper installation Items not installed /missing Foreign object damage Bad fault isolation.Engine installation procedure not completed • 2.

299 hours out of service • $16.5 million on parts and labour • 955 attributable to procedural error. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Of 122 Maintenance Errors 1989-91 • • • • Omissions Incorrect installation Wrong parts Other 56% 30% 8% 6% Incident Statistics What gets omitted? • • • • • • • • Fastenings undone Items left locked /pins left in Caps loose or missing Items left loose /disconnected Items missing Tools /fastenings not removed Lack of lubrication panels left off 22% 13% 11% 10% 10% 10% 7% 3% Economic impact on one airline 1988-91 • 203 Maintenance Errors resulting in aircraft damage • 13.ISSUE 2 8 PART.

Lack of Teamwork 11. Lack of awareness 6. would halt or prevent a sequence of events from becoming an error. Pressure 3. Stress 5. Lack of resources 2. if removed .66 MODULE 9 . Complacency 8.ISSUE 2 9 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Incident Statistics PROBLEM OF OMISSION Only 1 way to dismantle How many ways to assemble? Maintenance Errors • Rarely do maintenance errors have a single “cause” Errors are usually the result of multiple contributing factors. • What is a contributing factor ? • A contributing factor is a condition that. Norms or habits HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. Job distraction 10. Lack of assertiveness 4. The Dirty Dozen 1. Lack of knowledge 9. Fatigue 12.Poor Communication 7.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Incidents Statistics INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS DO NOT RESPECT LENGTH OF SERVICE.ISSUE 2 10 PART. EXPERIENCE OR STATUS Incident Statistics ‘OF COURSE I LEARN FROM MY MISTAKES.66 MODULE 9 . I CAN REPEAT THEM EXACTLY’ Incident Statistics 1 IN 250 FLIGHTS CARRY A MAINTENANCE INDUCED DEFECT Source AAIB HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

applicable Nov 98 • UKFSC Maintenance Steering group work • UK HF Combined action group work The Regulators CAA Business Plan • 33% reduction in fatal accident rate for large transport aircraft over the next 10 years. • 50% reduction would demonstrate modest safety improvement. will maintain current frequency of accidents.ISSUE 2 11 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors The Regulators • Industry to provide CAA with HF Training plans • ICAO Annexe 6 part 1 changed to include requirements for HF training.66 MODULE 9 . JAR 145 Review Team Report Over 30 recommendations to CAA and JAA • More effective monitoring and auditing by QA • Reporting of staff resource issues • Industry should ensure well qualified workforce • Performance of agency staff • improve information exchange between aircrew and engineers • Improve shift handover HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. and should be target for 2000-2010. • 100% confidence in maintenance standards has to be restored.

• Murphy's Law .if it can happen . but “it will never happen to me” belief that many people hold.000 flight hours) WHY HAS THE ACCIDENT RATE LEVELLED OFF? 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Industry Conclusion Murphy's law • The belief that an accident will never happen to “me” or “my company” can be a major problem when attempting to convince individuals or organisations of the need to look at human factor issues. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 12 PART.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Trends in Airline Accident Statistics TRENDS IN AIRLINE ACCIDENT STATISTICS (accidents per 100. it will.

Job distraction 10.ISSUE 2 13 PART. Stress 5. vision • A reasonable standard of eyesight is needed for an aircraft engineer to perform his / her duties to an acceptable degree • Use of glasses or contact lenses to correct vision • Colour blindness limitations The Human Eye CILIARY MUSCLE RETINA LENS BLIND SPOT CORNEA PUPIL OPTIC NERVE IRIS CILIARY MUSCLE HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. Complacency 8. Lack of resources 2. Lack of knowledge 9. Fatigue 12.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors The Dirty Dozen 1. Lack of awareness 6.Poor Communication 7. Norms or habits Human performance and Limitations. Lack of Teamwork 11. Lack of assertiveness 4.66 MODULE 9 . Pressure 3.

g. This is adversely affected by age and fatigue.Vision Vision Vision and desirable levels of visual acuity (i. to allow the focal point to hit the retina.ISSUE 2 14 PART. Even in monocular vision. a ‘blind spot’ occurs. This section is written primarily to address vision in the general context of maintenance engineering. collecting light rays from an object. a light flashing). In cases where a person is short sighted or long sighted causing the focal point to occur in front of or behind the retina. In order to understand vision.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Performance and Limitations . The ability of the eye to change its focus is known as accommodation. are covered. The eye acts as a form of camera. the lens becomes so inflexible that spectacles need to be worn.66 MODULE 9 . Images are focused by altering the shape of the lens slightly by contracting or relaxing the ciliary muscle. it is useful to know a little about the anatomy of the eye. sharpness of vision at various distances) and colour discrimination. that monocular vision is likely to be a slight disadvantage. although slightly different search strategies. focusing those rays via the lens. Such situations may be important when flying. usually in the mid 40s.e. This can normally be resolved by wearing glasses. For something like close visual inspection or crack detection. which might take longer. monocular vision may not necessarily be a hindrance. may need to be adopted so that areas do not get missed. since it is not possible for the image of an object to fall on the blind spots of both eyes at the same time. As a person grows older. contacts lenses or surgery. Illumination and Visual Inspection are covered separately in other sections. At the point at which the optic nerve joins the back of the eye. onto the retina. the blind spot is not generally a problem in maintenance engineering. This is not evident with normal binocular vision. in that normal movement of the point of focus of the eye several times a second means that a person with monocular vision is likely to see as much as a person with binocular vision (if their visual acuity is similar). coinciding with the blind spot (which will be in peripheral vision). where cracks are always present. but are considered unlikely to be a problem in maintenance engineering. The image is converted into electrical signals and sent via the optic nerve to the brain. It is only if a signal is likely to appear momentarily (e. CILIARY MUSCLE RETINA The Human Ear LENS MIDDLE EAR INNER EAR BLIND SPOT AUDITORY NERVE CORNEA COCHLEA PUPIL OPTIC NERVE EAR DRUM IRIS BASILAR MEMBRANE WITH SOUND SENSITIVE CELLS CILIARY MUSCLE HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. Similar arguments apply to engineers with independently sighted eyes.

making and review of noise assessments (reg 4) keeping of records of noise assessments and reviews thereof (reg 5) reduction of risk of damage to the hearing of their employees from exposure to noise (reg 6) reduction of exposure to noise of their employees (reg 7) provision to their employees of personal ear protectors (reg 8) marking of. designers. etc. ear protection zones (reg 9) use and maintenance of equipment provided by employers pursuant to the provisions of the regulations (reg 10). are modified to include a duty to provide certain information relating to noise generation (reg 12). The UK CAA recommends that maintenance engineers have reasonable hearing “The ability to hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room at a distance of 2 metres (6 feet) from the examiner is recommended as a routine test. 4.The Human Ear Duties under section 6 of the Health and Safety at Work Act on the part of manufacturers. and entry of their employees into. The UK ‘Noise at Work’ regulations (1989) impose requirements upon employers with respect to the: 1. 2.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Performance and Limitations . a hearing aid may be worn but consideration should be given to the practicalities of wearing the aid during routine tasks demanded of the individual”. Note: similar requirements relating to use and maintenance of the equipment apply to employees also in this case provision of information.ISSUE 2 15 PART. 6. instruction and training to such of their employees as are likely to be exposed to specified noise levels (reg 11) MIDDLE EAR INNER EAR AUDITORY NERVE The Human Eye COCHLEA EAR DRUM BASILAR MEMBRANE WITH SOUND SENSITIVE CELLS HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 . Failure of this test would require an audiogram to be carried out to provide an objective assessment. 3. 5. 7. 8. If necessary.

66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Hearing The CAA recommendations • The ability to hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room at a distance of 2 meters from the examiner is recommended as a routine test • Noise at work regulations • Hearing protection Human performance and Limitations • Claustrophobia • Physical Access • Fear of Heights A functional model of human information processing Long term Memory Perception Central Actions Decision Maker Receptors Working and sensory Attention Memory Stores Motor programmes HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 16 PART.

ISSUE 2 17 PART. perception and memory Paris in the the spring HUMAN LIMITATIONS ‘Finished files are the result of years of scientific study of effective organisations’ HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Human Perceptions Information processing.66 MODULE 9 .

even though we think that we understood. perceived or recalled something correctly. perception and memory • It is important to appreciate that these processes are limited and the need to be constantly supported by reference to manuals and other data or by crosschecking.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 18 PART. Human performance • Attention • Judgment and decision making • Situation Awareness HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Memory • Short Memory • Working Memory • Long term Memory ClipArt Information processing .

66 MODULE 9 . based on risk assessment. Situational Awareness • The perception of important elements. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. future effects on safety. seeing loose parts. e. schedule and airworthiness.g.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Attention • Selective attention • Divided attention • Focused attention Judgement • Judgement is the selection of one or more options. Why is like this ? Is this how it should be? • The protection of their status in the future. • Decision making is the selection of one of several options.ISSUE 2 19 PART. • The comprehension of their meaning. e. hearing information passed verbally.g. • Good judgement is (generally) based on knowledge and experience.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Situation Awareness • The status of the system the engineer is working on • The relationship between the reported defect and the intended rectification • The inter-relationship with other systems • The effect of the system disturbance • The safety precautions in operation Social Psychology Responsibility: individual and group • Part 145 . or working under supervision of a competent person. Responsibility • Individual responsibility • Group or team responsibility HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 20 PART.An approved organisation must demonstrate and prove competence of every person.66 MODULE 9 . whether involved in maintenance or not. • Everyone working on aircraft should be competent.

sex. the elements. balance. curiosity. e. Safety Needs Protection from potentially dangerous objects or situations. form. "fear of the unknown"). oxygen.symmetry. friends. Aesthetic Needs Beauty . the threat is both physical and psychological (e. Love and Belongingness Receiving and giving love.g. affection. Esteem Needs The esteem and respect of others and self esteem and self respect. rest. need for meaning and predictability. Importance of routine and familiarity. Physiological Needs Food. enthusiasm and determination • Cooperation in overcoming problems • Willingness to accept responsibility • Willingness to accommodate change HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 21 PART. elimination. temperature regulation. Highly motivated people tend to show the following characteristics • High performance and results being consistently achieved • The energy. A sense of competence. exploration. being part of a group (family. activity.66 MODULE 9 .in art and nature . order.g. trust and acceptance. physical illness. work). drink.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Motivation/ de-motivation • What factors lead you to experience extreme dissatisfaction with your work • What facts lead you to experience extreme satisfaction with your work Motivation and de-motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self Actualisation Realising your full potential "becoming everything one is capable of becoming". Affiliating. Cognitive Needs Knowledge and understanding.

B r i t i s h

A i r w a y s

E n g i n e e r i n g

T r a i n i n g

Human Factors

De- motivation - People who
lack motivation demonstrate
the following characteristics
• Apathy and indifference to the job
• Poor time keeping and high
absenteeism
• An exaggeration of the effects/
difficulties
problems, disputes and grievances
• Lack of cooperation
• Resistance to change

Peer pressure and conformity
• Conformity is “the tendency to allow
one’s opinions, attitudes, actions and
even perceptions to be affected by
prevailing opinions, attitudes, actions
and perceptions”

Conformity or peer pressure
factors





Culture
Gender
Self -esteem
Familiarity
Expertise
Relationship

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B r i t i s h

A i r w a y s

E n g i n e e r i n g

T r a i n i n g

Human Factors

Culture
of an organisation
The way we do things
• Safety culture
• Professional culture
• Business culture

What sort of culture should we
be aiming for?



A Reporting culture
A just culture
A flexible culture
A leaning culture

Which all interact to create a informed culture
and should , in turn , result in a safety culture.

Team working
• CRM (crew resource management)
• MRM ( maintenance resource
management)
What are the main differences between
CRM and MRM ?

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T r a i n i n g

Human Factors

Team performance
• What is a team ?

Teamwork
Together
Everyone
Achieves
More

Maintenance Engineer
Characteristics
Dependable
Integrity
Modest
Distrust of words
Self sufficient
Willing

HUMAN FACTORS
MAY 06- ISSUE 2

Dislikes sharing thoughts
Prefers to think for oneself
Tends to be a loner
Dislikes asking for help

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that is “Synergy” The performance of a team working in synergy is higher than the sum of its member’s individual performance.66 MODULE 9 . they work in “SYNERGY” Team Performance • The best teams does not necessarily include the best players.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Team Performance • Unqualified personnel will never make a good team! • But even highly qualified personnel may do a poor job as a team ! • When teams do a good job together. In this case we can say that 1+ 1 is more than 2. Conditions for Synergy • • • • • Shared goal Structure Task allocation Leadership Team sprit HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 25 PART. Sometimes more is needed.

66 MODULE 9 .but Sidetracking HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Teamwork Positive contribution • • • • Initiating ideas Building on Ideas Seeking clarification Building morale Teamwork Neutral contribution • • • • Team members unprepared discussion allowed to wander Discussion lacks structure and clarity Inputs from members are long winded Teamwork • Negative contribution • • • • • • • • Speechmaking Interrupting Disagreeing Polarising opinion Making issues personal Withdrawing Yes.ISSUE 2 26 PART.

sensitive and interested in people and communication.able to analyse problems and evaluate ideas.66 MODULE 9 .strong sense of objective. Indecisive in a crisis Team roles • The monitor evaluator .sociable. suggest new ideas and strategy • The resource investigator. Average intellect and creativity Team Roles • The shaper.painstaking. identifies with organisational goals • Team worker. conscientious. lacks inspiration.ISSUE 2 27 PART.self -disciplined. generates trust.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Team roles (Belbin) • The plant -creative thinker. takes pride in standards.can pickup and develop other peoples ideas inquisitive. Follows jobs through . can exploit external resources • The chair-person.High need to achieve with good communication and leadership skills. Prone to irritation and impatience • The company worker . practical and tolerant. orderly and conscientious.calm . unable to motivate others • The complete finisher. perfectionist worries about small detail HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

Leader provides explanation and clarification.66 MODULE 9 . when . concentrating on task. boundaries. Keen to perform well. May become disinterested in maintaining harmony.sense of purpose shared values.interpersonal conflicts.self motivated.Leader tells staff what to do. opinions expressed.discovering ground rules. Need motivating Team Development • Norming. Takes decision and sells it to staff HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. One way communication. task and relationship. Dependency • Storming. rebellion against the leader. where and How • Selling . getting the job done. Leader becomes one of the crowd • Performing.ISSUE 2 28 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Team development • Forming. what. Leader provides guidance and helps with task Situational Leadership • Telling.

In return . • Delegating. motivate the team members and praise for a job well-done.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Situational Leadership • Involving. The leader must manage workload.ISSUE 2 29 PART. “wearing the same jersey” is called team spirit HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. manage time. the sense of belonging to the same team.66 MODULE 9 .Leader provides minimal direction and support. Provides options but allows staff to make decision. Staff left to make their own decisions The leaders role • • • • • • Define the task Build the team Set the tone Make decisions Allocate task Motivate team members Leaders Role • A good team needs a good leader and good followers. team members must be willing to work together and follow the leader .leader encourage suggestions from staff.

ISSUE 2 30 PART. but not “blindly” • Ask questions • Check understanding Teamwork Summary • Individuals within a team . working for the same goal • A friendly and professional atmosphere • Motivation to work together. should work together to achieve the goals of the team • Teams should cooperate with each other to achieve the goals of the organisation • • • • • • Human characteristics Parent Ego state Scolds Points finger Lectures others on rights and wrongs Always correcting Caring Nurturing HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Team Spirit • Wearing the same jersey. • Motivation to follow the leader.

66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Adult Ego State • • • • • Factual and rational Makes decisions Listens Analyses Suggests alternatives Child Ego State • • • • • Emotional Wines sulks and throws tantrums Expresses Joy Imaginative Creative Ego State P P A A C C HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 31 PART.

ISSUE 2 Risk being Submissive Excitable. Pedantic Domineering. Efficient Human Behaviour Social Styles • Amiable • Expressive • Analyst • Driver HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.Harsh 32 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Ego state P P P P A A A A C C C C Human Behaviour Social style Strengths • Amiable • Expressive • Analyst Dependable. Amusing Serious.66 MODULE 9 . Persistent • Driver Decisive.Respectful Enthusiastic. Dull.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Human Behaviour • Dominant Driver • Involving Expressive • Steady Analyst • Compliant Amiable Human Behaviour • We need to understand ourselves before we can begin to understand others. Human Behaviour • Aggressive I win -you lose • Assertive We both win • Submissive I lose you win HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 33 PART.66 MODULE 9 .

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Being Assertive • • • • • • • • • Prepare the message Speak calmly and precisely ( Adult ego state) Keep to the issues .66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 34 PART. be silent Don’t expect the person to be happy Be prepared for a defensive reply Listen. if necessary repeat the message Factors affecting performance Humans do things better than machines! • • • • • Flexible Exercise judgement Deal with novelty Physically adaptable Pattern matching Human Limitations Humans introduce weakness in systems • • • • • Physical stress Emotional stress physical sensory limits Errors Mental calculations HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. don’t attack the person Keep it short and to the point Body language must match the message After delivery .

66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 35 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Machine Capabilities Machines do things better than humans! • • • • • • Little physical stress No emotional stress Can apply great physical force Uniform Good complex calculations Very fast and slow Humans and Systems Humans can affect system performance • • • • Cause vibration Introduce errors Defeat safeguards Cause complete failure Norms or habits Dirty Dozen Duplicates. functional Bad decision Systems and Humans Systems can affect human performance • • • • Complexity Time pressures Physical and emotional stress Demands support HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

50 imposes a requirement that “Certifying staff must not exercise the privileges of their certification authorisation if they know or suspect that their physical or mental condition renders them unfit” Fitness and Health Airworthiness Notice No 47 • • • • • Duty of care Legal requirement Team work supervision Management support HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Factors affecting performance Fitness and Health • The ICAO requirements are enforced through the provision of article 13 (7) of the Air Navigation order (ANO) This states: • The holder of an aircraft maintenance engineers license shall not exercise the privilege of such a license if he knows or suspects that his physical or mental condition renders him unfit to exercise such privileges Fitness and Health • Part 66.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 36 PART.

• Any force. or worries about possible ill. physical. humidity. causes some significant modification of its form • State of psychological tension produced by kinds of forces or pressure Stress • Stress can often be stimulating and beneficial but prolonged exposure to chronic stress ( high levels or differing stress factors) can produce strain and cause performance to suffer allowing mistakes to be made Stress Factors • Factors can be varied. cold.domestic and work related • Stress is defined as.g. vibration can be due to ill health.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Stress.g.ISSUE 2 37 PART. • Heat.health from problems outside of the workplace e. noise. • Bereavements. domestic upsets.66 MODULE 9 . financial or legal difficulties HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.e. that when applied to a system.

loss of confidence. problems sleeping etc HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. exhaustion. tiredness. increased smoking or drinking.66 MODULE 9 . appetite changes. eczema. inability to relax . weight changes). suspicion. loss of sense of humour. restlessness.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Stress signs A stress problem can manifest itself by signs of : • Irritability • Forgetfulness • Sickness absence • Mistakes • Alcohol or drug abuse Symptoms of stress • • • • • • Lack of patience irritability aggression depression tension moodiness Physical symptoms • (Headaches. difficulty in making decisions.ISSUE 2 38 PART. diarrhoea.Putting things off.

ISSUE 2 39 PART. house moves.66 MODULE 9 . conflicts at work. etc Coping with stress • Mechanisms for helping individuals to cope with stress • Diet and exercise • Relaxation techniques • Self control • adequate sleep and healthy lifestyle • Reduce levels of smoking and alcohol HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.Irritable /frustrated /angry Negative verbal messages Poor eye contact closed posture Modern stressors • Modern stressors include frustration. lack of control work overload. traffic problems.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Identifying chronic stress in self or others • • • • • • • • Change of personality Change in productivity Increased absenteeism or lateness Problems communicating Fatigue . marital problems. commercial pressure.

delegate • Communicate assertively . • Time pressure is considered by many to be the most important factor affecting performance of engineers Pressure Where does it come from ? • Management • Peers • Self HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 40 PART. actively listen • Be prepared for the unexpected • Self awareness and discipline • be assertive . whether actual or perceived. ask for help • Use good judgement and decisions with all facts • Relaxation exercise Time pressures and deadlines • One of the potential stressors in maintenance engineering is time pressure.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Managing Stress • Get organised manage and prioritise your time • Make use of your team.66 MODULE 9 .

66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Time pressures and deadlines • Examples where time pressures and deadlines have contributed to maintenance errors and accidents • BAC 1-11 • Aloha Pressure P E R F O R M A N C E Simple task Low AROUSAL High Pressure P E R F O R M A N C E Simple task Complicated task Low AROUSAL High IndEx HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 II 41 PART.

averages calculated over long period Shift working Circadian rhythms • • • • • Body temperature Urine output Heart rate Blood pressure Hormone production ( insulin. health fatigue and time or deadline pressures EC Working Hours Directive • Min daily rest period of 11 consecutive hrs/day • Rest break where working day exceeds 6 hrs • Minimum rest period 1day a week • Maximum working week of 48 hrs average Including O/T • 4 weeks annual paid holiday • Night workers must not work more than 8 hrs in 24 on average • Some flexibility allowed .66 MODULE 9 . fitness.ISSUE 2 42 PART. melatonin) • Digestive acids HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Workload -overload and under load • Physical Workload • Mental workload • Workload is is affected by other factors such as stress levels .

stay awake • Protein to stay awake ( fish. beans) • Carbohydrates for sleep (pasta.ISSUE 2 43 PART. salad. meat. cakes. fruit. cheese. eggs. sweets) • Caffeine • Physical activity • Power naps HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.Beat the clock • Use dark-light cycles to sleep.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Shift working Synchronised Circadian Rhythm MAX BODY TEMPERATURE WORK MIN 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 TIME OF DAY Shift working De-synchronised Circadian Rhythm MAX BODY TEMPERATURE MIN WORK 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 TIME OF DAY Shift working.66 MODULE 9 .

Fatigue Effects • Greater stimulus • Reduced attention and performance • Memory is diminished • Withdrawn and irritable mood • Attitude becomes negative Symptoms of fatigue • • • • • • A lack of awareness Diminished motor skills Diminished vision Slow reactions Short term memory problems Channelled concentration HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 44 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Shift working.Fatigue Causes : • Long working hours • Lack of sleep • Stress • Large temperature variations • Noise • Vibration • Strong Lighting ClipArt Shift working.

no decision at all Abnormal moods.ISSUE 2 45 PART.66 MODULE 9 . periodically elated and energetic • Diminished standards Fatigue AWN 47 Fatigue : Tiredness and fatigue can adversely affect performance . concentration and decision making have not deteriorated • Try to avoid “safety critical ” jobs when your Circadian Rhythm is at a low HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. can lead to problems. depressed . Individuals should be fully aware of the dangers of impaired performance due to these factors and there personal responsibilities Shift working Summary • When eager to “press on” be sure that your powers of alertness.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Symptoms of fatigue • • • • Increased mistakes Poor judgement Poor decision .erratic changes in mood . Excessive hours of duty and shift working particularly with multiple shift periods or additional overtime .

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Shift handover Definition A shift changeover which includes: • Preparation by out going staff • Communication between outgoing and incoming staff to exchange task relevant information ( the handover ) • Cross check of information by incoming staff Alcohol. medication. drug abuse and diet • AWN 47 Drug and alcohol : Drinking problems or the use of illicit or non prescribed drugs are unacceptable where aircraft maintenance safety is concerned and identified will lead to suspension of the license or company authorisation and possibly further licensing action being carried out Alcohol One unit of Alcohol is approximately : • Half a pint of beer or one standard glass of wine = 1unit per hour HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 46 PART.66 MODULE 9 .

and particularly if being taken for the first time. may have serious consequences in the aviation maintenance environment unless three basic questions can be answered Medication • Must I take the medication at all ? • Have I given this particular medication a personal trial for at least 24 hours before going on duty. to ensure that it will not have effects on my ability to work and make sound judgments? • Do I really feel fit to work? Diet • General advice is to eat sensibly avoid large meals as this can cause a sluggish feeling HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. whether prescribed by a doctor or purchased over the counter.66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 47 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Medication • Any form of medication.

66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 48 PART. Unless other wise dictated by the particular task environment. Where it is impractical to control the noise source. such personnel should be issued with the necessary personal equipment to stop excessive noise causing distraction during inspection task Noise • Noise intensity is measured in decibels (dB) • Noise frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.25 • The working environment must be appropriate for the task carried out and in particular special requirements observed. the working environment must be such that the effectiveness of personnel is not impaired Noise levels • Noise levels should not be permitted to raise to the point of distracting personnel from carrying out inspection task.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Physical environment Part 145.

and to request improvements HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Fumes and confined spaces Any one entering a confined space should: • Receive appropriate training in entering and using safety equipment • Secure a written entry permit before entering the space if it contains any hazards that could cause death or serious physical harm Fumes and confined spaces • Test the space for sufficient oxygen and for dangerous gases and vapours • Ventilate the space before and during entry • Lock out any connecting lines • Have the appropriate safety equipment and trained assistance present during entry Illumination • It is the responsibility of the organisation to ensure that the workplace lighting is adequate.ISSUE 2 49 PART.66 MODULE 9 . but the individual engineers should not hesitate to draw inadequate lighting to the attention of the management.

ISSUE 2 50 PART. can also affect an individuals performance Working environment Work environment guide lines – Guard rails – Toe boards – Fixed ladders – Peoples needs – provide a working platform HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Climate and temperature Human performance at various temperatures Temp (F) /(C) Performance Effect 90 32 Upper limit for performance 80 28 Maximum acceptable upper limit 75 25 Optimum with minimal clothing 70 21 Optimum for tropical clothing 60 15 Hand and finger dexterity begins to deteriorate 55 12 Hand dexterity reduced by 50% Motion and vibration • Motion may be a factor which cause distraction under certain circumstances • Mobile platforms • Cherry pickers • Scissor platforms • Vibration too.

66 MODULE 9 . a signal. lighting Feeling of safety and comfort Equipment. coin Communication “ The transmission of something from one location to another. heating .g.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Physical work • Repetitive tasks • Visual inspection and NDI • Complex systems Workplace factors which may affect inspection reliability • • • • • • Access to the aircraft Access to the task (e. In order to have communication both the transmitter and receiver must share a common code..ISSUE 2 51 PART.g. fuel tanks) Cleanliness of inspection area Noise . penknife. etc. so that the meaning or information contained in the message may be interpreted without error” HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. e. a meaning. torch. The ‘thing’ that is transmitted may be a message. mirror. hand lens..

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Communication The Problem ‘ I have to tell you that what you heard and what I said are two different things.facial and body language HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 7% 38% 55% 52 PART.expression. and what you think I said is definitely not what I meant ‘ Communication We have: • 2 Ears • 2 Eyes • 1 Mouth We should use them in that order and proportion! Communication • Methods • Verbal. tone • Visual.the words we use • Vocal.66 MODULE 9 .

66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 53 PART.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Body language • • • • • • Eye contact Facial expression Touch Hand and head movements Physical separation Body orientation Communication Barriers • Misinterpretation/ misunderstanding information • Selective perception (do I respect this person)? • Selective attention ( things I agree with) • Selection ( things I’m not interested in) Introduction review • • • • • • • Interpreting the information Remembering the information Repeating the information Rehearsing the introduction listening to other introductions Initial perceptions Noise distractions HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

3 & 4 engines lack normal seepage.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Effective communication ? • n: Left inner main tyre almost needs replacing • M: Almost replaced left inner main tyre.ISSUE 2 54 PART. Effective communication ? • C: Something loose in flight deck • M: Something tightened in flight deck • C: evidence of hydraulic leak on right main landing gear • M: evidence removed HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 . Effective Communication ? • : “No 2 engine is seeping oil” • a: “Oil seepage normal” • a: No’s 1.

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Effective communication? • : “ Friction locks cause thrust levers to stick” • M: “ That’s what they are there for” Communication information processing • IBM PC 1MIPS • Cray Super.ISSUE 2 55 PART.computer 400 MIPS • Human brain 20 million MIPS Communication Memory Rehearsal Information Short-term Long-term memory memory Lost information HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 .

Capt : Haven’t you finished the nose wheel change yet? Don’t blame me.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Communication Long term Memory Perception Central Actions Decision Maker Receptors Working and sensory Attention Memory Stores Motor programmes FEEDBACK Transactional Analysis Capt : is the nose wheel change complete ? Eng : Not yet. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 . The pressure needs checking. the aircraft arrived late ! Capt : is the nose wheel change complete? Eng : Give us a chance .ISSUE 2 56 PART. I’m doing my best Lack of proper communication can cause undesired consequences • Quality of work and performance may be reduced • Time and money may be lost as errors occur because important information is not communicated or messages are misinterpreted • improper communication may cause frustration and high levels of stress.

ISSUE 2 57 PART. prepare and rehearse Check the setting and equipment Make eye contact with audience Greet the audience as a whole Use vocal and body language Avoid distracting behaviour Be natural HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.66 MODULE 9 . prepare.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Active listening • • • • • Concentrate Use eye contact and body language Ask questions for clarification Give feedback Check understanding Approved data • Aircraft Maintenance Manuals • Job Cards • Worksheets What are the barriers preventing their use? How can the barriers be overcome? How should the information be updated? Effective Presentation • • • • • • • • Know your audience Prepare.

ISSUE 2 58 PART.66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Effective presentations • Tell them what you are going to tell them • Tell them • Tell them what you just told them Summary • Engineers tend to believe that they communicate well in the workplace • Analysis of incidents shows that lack of effective communication often features Human Error The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company recently analysed 220 documented accidents and found the top three to be : • Flight crews not adhering to procedures 70/220 • Maintenance and inspection errors 34/220 • Design defects 33/220 HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

errors.ISSUE 2 9 8 7 6 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 8 7 6 5 59 PART.errors -When a good item is incorrectly identified as faulty • Type 2.occurs when a faulty item is missed.66 MODULE 9 . MANAGING ERROR KERUNCH!! Misjudgement by engineer THE GAPS Flt. J.Reason Mode Error models and theories Variable vs.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Human error • There are two types of error which are referred to particularly in the context of visual inspection • Type 1.Deck checks incomplete Preparation incomplete Systems unserviceable Time constraints Training Effective procedures Operational pressures Teamwork Good planning DEFENCES Good management Prof. Constant Error 5 6 7 8 9 10 HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.

66 MODULE 9 .ISSUE 2 60 PART.scheme run according to plan” HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Error types WAS THERE A PRIOR INTENTION TO ACT? NO WAS THERE INTENTION IN ACTION? YES YES DID THE ACTIONS PROCEED AS PLANNED? NO INVOLUNTARY OR NON-INTENTIONAL ACTION SPONTANEOUS OR SUBSIDIARY ACTION UNINTENTIONAL ACTION (SLIP OR LAPSE) YES DID THE ACTIONS ACHIEVE THEIR DESIRED END? NO INTENTIONAL BUT MISTAKEN ACTION YES SUCCESSFUL ACTION Error types “Slips and lapses are errors which result from some failure in execution and /or storage of an action sequence . regardless of whether or not the plan which guided them was adequate to achieve its objective” Error types “ Mistakes may be identified as deficiencies or failures in the judgemental and /or inferential processes involved in the selection of an objective or in the specification of means to achieve it. irrespective of whether or not the actions directed by this decision .

B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Error types • “If the intention is not appropriate. this is a slip” • Slips occur at the execution stage • Lapses at storage (memory) stage • Mistakes at the planning stage Managing error Safety Nets Communication • Use logbooks. to remove doubt. worksheets etc. this is a mistake.66 MODULE 9 . • Never sign for something you didn’t do. • Discuss work to be done and what has been completed with the team. If the action is not what you intended . Managing error Safety nets Complacency • Train yourself to expect to find a fault. • Be alert to the consequences of your decisions and actions HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. • Check your understanding. ask questions • Never assume anything.ISSUE 2 61 PART.

go back 3 stages. • Use only up-to-date manuals. worksheets. how and when jobs are to be done. • Mark the incomplete work. • Be sure that everyone fully understands and agrees.ISSUE 2 62 PART. • Use a detailed checklist. • When returning to an incomplete job. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. Managing error Safety nets Lack of teamwork • Brief team on who.what.66 MODULE 9 . • Ask someone who knows.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Managing error Safety nets Lack of knowledge • Get refresher training on type. Managing error Safety nets Distraction • Complete one job at a time when possible. • Get someone to check your work.

Managing error Safety nets Lack of resources • Don’t be afraid to ask for help. • Get others to check your work.ISSUE 2 63 PART. Communicate your concerns.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Managing error Safety nets Fatigue • Be aware of the symptoms. • Be assertive. Just say no. Ask for extra help or time. • Ensure that you do everything possible to obtain the necessary resources. • Sleep and exercise regularly. Managing error Safety nets Pressure • • • • Be sure the pressure is not self-induced. look for them in yourself and in others. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. • Plan to avoid complex or safety critical tasks when your circadian rhythm is low. with a reasoned explanation.66 MODULE 9 .

Managing stress Safety nets Lack of awareness • Remind yourself of the consequences of your actions. • Only sign for that which is serviceable.ISSUE 2 64 PART. • Consider the overall effect of your work on the system or the aircraft as a whole. HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06. • Determine a rational course of action and follow it through. • Stop and look rationally at the problem.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Managing error Safety nets Lack of assertiveness • Refuse to compromise your standards. Managing error Safety nets Stress • Be aware of how stress can affect your work. • Ask others if they can see any problems with the work done. • Take a short break.66 MODULE 9 . • Discuss it with someone. • Ask someone to monitor your work.

• Be aware that ‘Norms’ don’t make it right.ISSUE 2 65 PART. or have them changed. Investigation / Disciplinary considerations JUDGEMENTAL NON-JUDGEMENTAL Additional Information Event / incident Supporting action? MERIT Interview Level of blame Y Disciplinary procedure N No further action Disciplinary Considerations Levels of blame • Intent The person intended for the undesirable outcome to occur • Knowledge The person acted knowing that the undesirable outcome would occur HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Managing error Safety nets Norms or habits • Always work to the instructions or procedures.66 MODULE 9 .

service canx Service canx Feedback from incidents Multiple problems • Aircraft pressurisation failed in flight. aircraft door seals 1L. • Work history • Previous involvement in an incident • Voluntarily reporting a known error • Peer or Supervisor pressure which encourages risky behaviour • Inadequate procedures • Inadequate lighting Feedback from incidents • Poor work recording • Incomplete assembly • Press.ISSUE 2 66 PART.66 MODULE 9 .emergency descent • Cabin rate increased up from 700 ft per min.air return.pack locked out • ADD incorrectly MEL’d 3 days of service Pax injured. O2 deployed. service canx Emerg. • Several pax with nosebleeds • ADD for outflow valve defect • In addition. 2R and 4R leaking • R/h engine bleed defect (px not controlling correctly) • L and R packs not delivering correct volumes HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.descent.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Disciplinary considerations Related circumstances Are conditions that increase or decrease the level of blame.

in the upper panel indicates a hazard of a lesser magnitude HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 67 PART. often for years Warning signs Danger :.denotes that the hazard is immediate and could cause grave.66 MODULE 9 . staff should be made aware of that they exist and how to avoid them Warning signs • • • • Attract a person’s attention Visible in available light Legible. understandable to be effective Durable enough to remain effective . irreversible damage or injury • Caution :.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Hazards in the Workplace Recognising and avoiding hazards • If hazards cannot be removed from the workplace.

66 MODULE 9 .B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Warning signs • Clearly identify the hazard (s) • Describe the possible consequences • Inform the person what to do or not to do Warning signs • Danger :.ISSUE 2 68 PART. black and white to convey the message • Caution :.signs generally a mix of yellow and black in the two primary panels HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.signs should be a mixture of red .

signs generally a mix of yellow and black in the two primary panels HUMAN FACTORS MAY 06.ISSUE 2 68 PART.66 MODULE 9 . black and white to convey the message • Caution :.B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g T r a i n i n g Human Factors Warning signs • Clearly identify the hazard (s) • Describe the possible consequences • Inform the person what to do or not to do Warning signs • Danger :.signs should be a mixture of red .