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Taste

Taste and
and Sensation
Sensation
(gustation)

Anatomy of Taste

papillae are not taste buds

near back of tongue Foliate - on side of tongue Fungiform - larger. ‘mushroom’ shaped “buds” Filiform - cover majority of tongue and does not contain taste buds used for mechanical grinding .Anatomy of Taste Four primary types of papillae: • • • • Vallate (or Circumvallate) - large.

Anatomy of Taste .

150 taste receptor cells .Anatomy of Taste papillae (plural) papilla (singular) taste buds (3) Taste buds are located within the papillae Fungiform papillae each have ~ 1-5 taste buds each Others can contain many more .up to 100 each Each taste bud consists of 50 .

Anatomy of Taste neurons .

Anatomy of Taste .

Umami From the Japanese word ‘umami’ which means delicious citric acid .lactic. acetic and citric acid Bitter Probably developed as defense mechanism Sweet and.5 basic qualities of taste (gustatory stimulation) Salt Na+Cl- Sour Acidity ...

Sweet and Umami HO HO O HO O OH OH O nutritive sweetener O OH Umami: HO O O-Na+ HO NH2 monosodium glutamate OH Sucrose (glucose & fructose) non-nutritive sweeteners O O Saccharin (Sweet-N-Low) (300-500 x) NH S O2 HO Cl Cl O HO Cl O O OH HO OH Sucralose (Splenda) (600 x) H2N O OMe N H Aspartame (NutraSweet/Equal) (180-200 x) HO2C H N HO2C O O N H OMe Neotame (7000-13000) .

.Bitter needs more work.. O N+ Denatonium N H Sour citric acid .

Salty Na+ ions opens voltage dependent Ca2+ channel flows into ion channels causes polarization/ depolarization within cell and… increase in Ca2+ causes generation of ATP (neurotransmitter) .

Sour H+ ions opens voltage dependent Ca2+ channel flows into ion channels H+ blocks a K+ channel H+ flow causes polarization/ depolarization within cell and… increase in Ca2+ causes generation of ATP (neurotransmitter) .

Sweet G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) cAMP transduction cascade Blocks K+ channel causes polarization/ depolarization within cell and… opens voltage dependent Ca2+ channel increase in Ca2+ causes generation of ATP (neurotransmitter) .

Bitter G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) cAMP transduction cascade CAN Block K+ channel polarization/ depolarization within cell and… opens voltage dependent Ca2+ channel increase in Ca2+ causes generation of ATP (neurotransmitter) .

mouthfeel. 9th and 10th Cranial Nerves (Gustatory System) 5 basic qualities of taste 5th Cranial (Trigeminal) Nerve (Somatosensory System) hot/cold texture..Facial nerve Trigeminal nerve of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Glossopharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve 7th.. astringency tingle/prickling .

. 9th and 10th Cranial Nerves (Gustatory System) 5 basic qualities of taste 5th Cranial (Trigeminal) Nerve (Somatosensory System) hot/cold texture. astringency tingle/prickling . Glossopharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve 7th. mouthfeel..Facial nerve Trigeminal nerve of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

responsible for chemical sensibility of the skin and mucus membranes. warming and sweetness refreshing or cleansing OH . Somatosensory system. cooling.made up of MANY nerves • • • coolness of menthol warming of chili peppers tingle of carbonation Tingle compounds O O N H N H enhances carbonation and alcoholic effect.Somesthetic senses .

hydroxy alpha sanshool The sanshool chemicals. such as alpha-hydroxy-sanshool from the Japanese Sanchoo pepper and other Asian peppers. are particularly interesting because they not only give a hot sensation in the mouth cavity but also a tingling effect on the tongue .

Tingle compounds conjugated amide O O N H OH { { N H hydrophobic tail (lipid solubility) hydrophilic head (binding to receptor/nerve ending) hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance required for trigeminal stimulation Synthetic Compounds O O N H N H O O .

chewing gum. mints OH (+) menthol • • • OH (-) isopulegol hydrogen-bonding group compact hydrocarbon skeleton must have correct hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance Synthetic Compounds O O O O O OH O HN N O O OH . shampoo. body wash.Cooling compounds Mouthwash.

Warming and Hot Irritants pepper. ginger.irritate tactile receptors Tannins . mustard.Pungent. Wasabe act on thermal receptors O O O N H O N O HO Piperine (black pepper) capsaicin (chili pepper) O O O OH N O HO zingerone (ginger) HO 6-gingerone (ginger) S allyl isothiocyanate (mustard/horseradish/Wasabe) Astringency .polyphenols C . horseradish. chili pepper.

Menthol OH mintiness . cool/hot .gustatory stimulation All these add up to our perception of FLAVOR .somatosensory stimulation bitterness .olfactory stimulation irritation.