You are on page 1of 46




A Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the
Of Diploma in Early Childhood Education Development
Foundation Institute of Africa


I declare that this research project is my original work and has not been presented for an award in
any other institution.
Ndirangu Zacharia Kahari
Index No:
This research project has been submitted for examination with our approval as Foundation
institute of Africa college Supervisors.
David Maina Kamau
Foundation institute of Africa
David Kuria Ng’ang’a
Foundation Institute of Africa


This research project is dedicated to my dear wife and my family members for their support and
inspiration during my studies.


I wish to extend my gratitude to my college supervisors who have worked hard to see me
succeed in carrying out this project. Special thanks to the college administration for their effort in
creating a good learning atmosphere during my studies. To all my college mates who together we
encouraged each other throughout the study.


6 Causes of single parenthood 5 .1 Gender Figure 4.3 Relationship between family separation and children learning Table 4.4 How children from separated families socialize with other children Figure 4.3 Relationships between family separation and children’s academic performance Figure 4.6: causes of single parenthood LIST OF TABLES Table 4.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.2.1: children from separated families Figure 4.4 How children from separated families socialize with others Table 4.2 Gender of children from separated families Table 4.2.1 Presence of children from separated families Table 4.5 Investigating children attendance of children from separated families Table 4.5 Investigating school attendances of children from separated families Figure 4.0 Gender of children from separated families Figure 4.

it becomes the model for future transitions. 6 . Parents should not only focus on teaching children manners but also should spare some time to assist them in their formal education. Mang’u division. Parents guide their children live according to expectations.ABSTRACT This research is on the effects of family separation on learning in ECDE children aged 4 to 5 years. perform their roles. If the transition is successful. A preschool is the first formal academic education setting and the experience the child goes through determines their learning in later stages. the researcher will use questionnaire for teachers and parents and interviews schedules for the children. Gatundu North District of Kiambu County. Findings elsewhere suggest that children from troubled families perform poorly in school. the children develop a healthy sense of identity within the community in the short and long term. If the transition to preschool is positive. In a society. The transition process could also be cultural rite of passage. To collect the required information. The most important step in the life of children is graduating from kindergarten and primary school. The main ones are the presence of book. Extra by parents held children successfully navigate changes that occur in the first few years of the life of a child. and achieve education target. The researcher intends to find out whether academic performance of children from separated families is poor as compared to that of children from cooperative families. This research paper discusses some of the factors that hinder the transition process. television. a child is expected to behave in a certain manner and perform certain roles other than undergoing formal education. and assistance by the parent. Entering preschool is a major step in the learning journey of a child. Successful transition is dependent of a number of factors. The area of study will be in Githobokoni zone.

C.P.E: Ministry of Education 7 .1.E: Kenya Certificate of Primary Education ECDE: Early Childhood Development Education ECD: Early Childhood Development M.11 Abbreviations and Acronyms K.O.

8 .

The ministry of education. and limitation of study and operational terms used in this project work. the statement of the problem. is committed to increase to quality ECDE services (ministry education. access to ECDE services is low at 50%. or spiritually. the research objectives. 1.1 Background of the Study According to estimates. scope. significance of the study. emotionally. purpose of the study. The national target is to raise access to 80% by year 2015.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The chapter focuses on background of the study. The ministry says that there are parents who neglect their children physically. working together with partners. 2007). The 9 .

Conducive home environment where the father and mother live in harmony provides the initial learning of the child. Effects of family separation on Early Childhood Development Education can be devastating in their performance.neglecting parent fails to meet the child’s needs or have control of his or her children. therefore sets out to find out these effects.624 pupils. In this regard. Gatundu North District. This is because. • Interference by the in-laws • Unfaithfulness by any of the two parents • Death of a parent • Desire for independence especially with the modern class-working ladies 10 . The performance of pupils is good as many schools are able to attain 250 marks mean score in all classes on exams prepared locally and in the KCPE. Counseling psychologists advice that a child who is exposed to an abusive family environment is likely to grow up to be an abuser. Gachege Sub-location. home is a learning environment and children’s altitude to and about life stems from what they see their parents doings. It has 44 schools. The area of study is also affected by many separations. Kiambu County. The researcher in Githobokoni zone. Many of these separations are caused by: • Excessive use of illicit brew • Poverty -where the man is unable to provide for the family hence the wife runs away. 19 public schools and 25 private schools with enrollment of 22. but that is what is happening where children fail to achieve their full academic potentiality. where children are left with single parent or left under the care of their grandparents. Mangu Division. the researcher intends to carry out research on the effect of family separation on ECDE. No nation can afford to waste its national resources or education of its people.

In a single parent family. focusing on the impact of fathers in a household. which may take a longer time than anticipated. Attles (1997) focus on different variables that may affect student academic achievement. only one income is being gathered. With all the above stated adversaries. The National Center for Education Statistics (1997) reported that children from grades 6 through 12 earned A’s if their parents were involved in school activities Lam (1997). Their research stated two different viewpoints. Marjoribanks (2002) also goes on to mention the factor of parental support as an affect of student academic achievement. This limits families with the resources and support that children need at home and in school. but in school as well. 11 . Marjoribanks (2002) researched the “Family-School Research Project” which is designed to determine any patterns that are evident between the life of a child at home and their successes in school.Many of these separations makes the children to be moved from their schools to others areas they are not used to. socioeconomic status. Anguiano & California (2008) developed a cross-cultural study where he found that socioeconomic backgrounds are another issue that affects academic achievement of children. Parental involvement is one of the major issues that affect academic achievement. Sometimes they are not enrolled to any school. hence children missing classes. The researcher therefore wants to find out the effects of family separation on ECDE children performance. the lives of the children will be affected. and family type. they are kept at homes waiting for the parents to resolve their disputes. In some instances. the performance of the said group of children may be affected in one way or another. If parents are not capable of providing time for their children. Parents should not only be involved at home. Such factors include gender.

Marjoribanks (2002) mentions a few different issues that need to be considered when discussing single parent families. This is a common statement amongst many different researchers.2 Statement of the Problem The researcher intends to carry out a research on the effects of family separation on learning in ECDE children aged 4 – 5 years in Githobokoni zone. Kiambu County. There may be hatred and anger towards the “new” parent coming from the children. Gatundu North District. The main part of their research is that parental expectations of their children were the predictor of how their children performed academically. The article also mentions discipline issues. Michael (2005) takes another approach where remarriage and reconstructed families are considered. parents were separated/divorced and the parents remarried someone else. An article found in One Parent Families Michael (2005) states that it is “less desirable for children to be brought up by one parent than two parents”. Parental support and economic hardship are amongst the several factors of academic achievement. 12 . so expectations cannot be set in the household. This may not benefit all children even though there is now a two-parent household. Marzano & Marzano (2004) focus on how family structure affects achievement. then they would perform well in school. If no expectations were set.The research finding may help to find out solutions to the problems effecting academic performance in ECDE children. The article focuses most importantly on why single parent families affect academic achievement. If parents established high expectations for their children. 1. Single parents are not able to set ground rules for their children. In a reconstructed family. students performed poorly and became stressed.

ECDE children and other caregivers may use the research finding 13 . Gatundu North District. 1. Mangu Division. The researcher intends to resolve the issues of numerous causes of separation reported in various schools in Githobokoni zone. 1. Research findings may also be used by department of guidance and counseling to conduct seminars to minimize family separation in the areas covered in the research.3 Purpose of the Study The researcher intends to carry out research in order to come out with the probable solutions to the problem. Gatundu North District. Gachege Sub-location. Mangu Division. Gatundu North • District.6 Significance of the Study Research outcome may be used by teachers to help children from separated families overcome their emotions. Kiambu County and establish whether those separation cases have any effect on ECDE children's performance. To find out the level of children's performance aged 4-5 years in Githobokoni zone.5 Research Questions The researcher will be guided by the following questions: i. Kiambu County. ii. Gachege Sub-location. Gachege Sub-location. What causes family separations? What are the characteristics of children from separated families? What is the relationship between the children from separated families and their learning? 1. • Gachege Sub-location. To identify the effects of family separation in ECDE centers in Githobokoni zone. Mangu Division. Provincial Administration may also use the research outcome to advice family in retaining their relationship for the sake of ECDE children. Kiambu County.4 Research Objectives • To establish whether there are ECDE children aged 4-5 years from separated families in Githobokoni zone. Gatundu North District. Mangu Division. iii. Kiambu County.1.

1. The researcher understands the language of the catchment area hence there will be no  misunderstanding.8 Delimitation of the Study   The researcher may reduce the area to be covered. The leaders in the zone are familiar with the researcher hence he will not be denied the  chance to conduct the research and collect data in the schools.9 Basic Assumptions    Family separation affects the children in their learning. • Some teachers may fail to fill the questionnaires in good time. 14 . 1. • The researcher might face some challenges such as people thinking that the research is to be carried out and later be used to borrow money from donors and other non-governmental organizations for individual gains. this may force the researcher to visit school more than anticipated. Some also may have negative attitude towards the research. • Some teachers may be hesitant in giving the correct data of children from separated families. The interviewees will give the correct information.7 limitations of the study The researcher may face the following limitations. The researcher has the knowledge and is familiar with the geographical site of the area. The data to be collected will be enough for the study. know of the existence of such children and develop positive attitudes towards children from separated families.

Gatundu North District. Gachege Sublocation.0 Introduction The chapter focuses on literature review how one parent raises the children. problem children faces because of separation. 15 . Kiambu County. Illicit: Illegal Partner: Those working with Ministry of Education for achieving the desired objectives of education CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.10 Definition of the Key Terms Broken Families: Families where parents have separated Child: Any person aged between 4-5 years in Githobokoni zone. why children area affected by separation. Divorce: Ending a marriage relationship either formally or informally Donor: Well wisher willing to assist with finance for a certain course Effects: Problem that may hinder achieves the best in academic performance.1. Mang’u Division.

teach their daughters how to regard themselves. 2008) Parenting and Family. They provide examples of how to be individual. Raising children on your own by Dorothy Kweyu) leaving their wives to struggle with raising the children. Single parent homes earn less and parental contact with children is minimal. There are also men raising their children alone but in many cases are widowers. Consequently. She is also able to avoid pitfalls such as early marriage and teenage pregnancy. There are more men walking out of marriage than ever before (Daily Nation June 23 2009. mothers serve as role models for their daughters. This project proposes to study the phenomenon in Githobokoni zone. communicative. It is thought that the situation in Githobokoni is not any different.1 Raising a Child on Your Own Raising children as a result of separation is more associated with women than with men. Fathers however. Children from single parent home generally perform poorly compared to their counterparts from two parents’ homes.2. Single parents raising children alone face myriads of difficulties. what to look for in a partner. a mother. 16 . The little girl who has a comfortable. their children do not perform well in school. How one end up taking care of the children tends to determine the way he/she relates to them? According to John Muturi (Saturday Standard 22. what kind of relationship is healthy. and a wife. Nancy Van says that girl's relationships with her father profoundly affects her life more often than her relationship with her mother. In her book Training up a Child. and supportive relation with her father as she grows up is at an advantage when it comes to academic achievement in areas related to Technology Science and Mathematics. and what to expect of men in co-parenting relationships.

This affects their academic performance. 17 . pets. not just that mother or dad will not be around they may lose contact with the extended family on one side or the other. children have a realistic fear that if they lose one parent. routines may change. It is a state of upheaval. Losing attachment: children who have a natural attachment for their parents also fear losing other secure relationship friends. they may lose the other. The following are some perspectives on the view of children in a divorcing family:Fear of Change: many things changes. Therefore. and siblings’ neighbors and so on. mealtime and after school. Sometimes children are simply attached to their surrounding and moving into new surrounding can cause an understandable negative reaction. children lack basic needs. Coping with parental tension: parents who try to turn their children against the other spouse create an impossible situation for that child Children from single parent homes suffer from economic hardships. Fear of being abandoned: when both mum and dad are at odds and are separated or considering it. A single parent is sometimes unable to raise enough resources to cater for the needs of the children.2. their bedtime. friends. and others. extended families. some fathers and mothers see divorce as "issue we just can't get along anymore" The marital relationship has far-reaching effects on children.2 How Children are affected by Separation According to Wayne Parker. The concept of being alone in the world is a very frightening thing for a child.

the child loses focus in his or her academic work. the presence of a father in a family instill a sense a significance in children.After separation. According to school safety manual.3 Problems faced by Children of Separated Families. Without a father. a single parent lacks time for children to monitor their performance. warmth and praise they are likely to face problems like: Chronic lack of self-esteem and low self-confidence: society considers single parent homes as incomplete. A single parent is unable to discipline their children effectively. This translates into poor performance. Ministry of Education in conjunction with Church World Service (2008) when children are denied basic needs like love. as most single families do not 18 . Indiscipline affects academic performance. This is largely due to declined involvement or monitoring of the children. 2. Without involvement in their academic performance or work. security. This perception may create low self-worthy in children.

children become neurotic and exhibit aggression and immature behavior. 2. failure to make friends or sustain friendships: the children refuse to socialize with others and withdraw. and neurotic behavior: this behavior is directly related to psychological difficulties that accompany being brought up in a single parent home.have a father. Withdrawn behavior. Fear of new tasks not wanting to experiment or join in development and learning delays: this happens because the child negatively affected psychologically and has low self-esteem. emotionally and spiritually. The following roles of fathers and mothers may not be fulfilled in their lives of children from broken families. Immature emotional response. they do not work hard enough or engage in destructive behavior such as drug use or early sex. Divorce represents the loss of many things to children. Consequently. regression. The effects are common on children of all races.4 The Effects Of Divorce on children According to Mutie & Ndambuki (1999). children develop low self-esteem. and inappropriate behavior towards non-parental adults: this behavior is to poor self-image and mental health. To compensate for the sense of worthlessness. Demanding behavior. guidance for schools and colleges divorce is not often the great relief couples hope for the children who are caught in the crossfire are the most hurt physically. attention seeking. Roles of a father        Protecting the family Providing for the family Providing guidance Offering companionship Training children on life skills Providing leadership Providing spiritual guidance 19 .

complications with digestions. Possible effects on unborn children and infants include: Premature births: children often born underweight. • Bed wetting. neighborhood and religious groups Financial stability when one parent is the sole breadwinner. • They experience isolation and withdrawal. 20 . nail biting stealing etc. children at different ages is affected by divorce in different ways. which are often symptoms of a sense of insecurity. and interference with breastfeeding and submitting a child to diseases. is common. excessive crying. schools. which may later affect the performance of the child in school Children of ages of 4-5 years • At this stage children get upset by circumstance to take on responsibilities of adults looking after younger siblings and households task • They blame themselves for separation of parents. • Deviate behavior to win the sympathy of the parents is sometimes displayed. inability to sleep. they also face the following difficulties: • • • • Brothers or sisters who are often separated A familiar and secure living situation A sense of togetherness with friends.Roles of a mother        Caring for the family Protecting the family Nurturing children Carrying out household chores Listening to children’s problems and offering them guidance Bringing balance to the family. mentally and emotionally (love) Motivating children to be better in future In addition to the loss of support children get from one parent during their upbringing.

• Their school performance could drop drastically. • They may lose faith in God who is seen as having allowed the breakdown. • They could also develop a negative self-image.• They may feel embarrassed and disappointed. 21 .

study sampling procedures. Mangu Division.1 Research Design The researcher will use descriptive survey and aims at investigating the effects of family separation on ECDE children's performance. Survey design is the best because effects of family separation in ECDE children performance are studied after occurrence and the effects are already experienced. target of study. which will involve numbers and categorizing of data. The study will use qualitative and quantitative methods. 22 . location of the study.2 Location of the Study The researcher intends to conduct research in seven public schools in Githobokoni zone. Gachege Sub-location. Mangu Division. Kiambu County. Gatundu North District. location of study. The procedures to be used in the study are discussed.0 Introduction The study will investigate the effect of family separation in ECDE children aged 4-5 years in ECDE centers in Githobokoni zone. 3. research instruments and data collection.CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter will describe the research design. The study will describes research design. Kiambu County. Gatundu North District. target population sample method. 3. data analysis and techniques. 3. Gachege Sub-location.

The researcher focused on getting data by handling ECDE children aged 4-5 years. bar graphs. 3. Seven schools in the zone will be selected for data collection. CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION. explain to the teachers. The researcher will analyze the data collected from the study using frequency distribution tables. 3. filled questionnaires. These schools are Kajabi. as the researcher may not get ample time to visit all the 19 public primary schools. Ndiko.5 Research Instruments The researcher will develop questionnaire. ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 4. 3. Kamunyaka Central. Mangu Division. and St.7 Data Analysis Methods Quantitative method of analyzing data will be used. Gatundu North District. Munyaka. Gatundu North District. and pie charts.1 Introduction 23 . Kaibere.3 Target population The researcher intends to conduct the study in the 19 public primary schools in Githobokoni zone. and parents. and finally issue them with questionnaires. Gachege Sub-location.3.4 Sampling Techniques and Sample Proceidures The researcher will use non-probability sampling to get the sample size. 3. The researcher will give the teachers filling the questionnaires two days and revisit the schools to collect the distributed. Gabriel Kahata. Kiambu County. Mangu Division.6 Data Collection Procedures The researcher will visit the sampled schools. which will be filled by teachers handling ECDE children aged 4-5 years in Githobokoni zone. Gachege Sub-location. Kiambu County. Convenience sampling will be involved.

The general summary is arranged according to the order of objectives of the study. Interpretation and analysis of data is given.The data is presented through tables and descriptive statistics. Mang’u Division. Gatundu North District of Kiambu County. 4.2 Teacher’s Response The questionnaire was investigating the presence of children from separate families in Githobokoni Zone. 24 .

Table 4.1: Presence of children from separated families Schoo Gacheg Kajab l e i Yes No Tota 2 4 e 2 2 4 2 Kaiber Kamunyaka Percentag Ndik Munyak Kahat Frequenc 1 o 7 a 2 a 2 y 20 100 1 7 2 2 20 100 central e l 25 .

Mang’u Division. 26 . the researcher observed the presence of children aged 4-5 years attending ECDE classes from separated families in Githobokoni Zone. Gatundu North District of Kiambu County. 4.1 figure showing children from separated families Children from separated families 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Children from separated families During observation period.Fig.

27 . Gabriel Frequenc Percentag l e i e Central o a Kahata y e Girls 2 1 1 0 5 1 1 11 55% Boy 0 3 1 1 2 1 1 9 45% s Tota 2 4 2 1 7 2 2 20 100% l From the table.2 Gender of children from separated families Schoo Gacheg Kajab Kaiber Kamunyaka Ndik Munyak St.Table. 4. the researcher found out that family separation affects girls at 55% compared to boys’ 45%.

4.2.0 figure showing gender of children from separated families 28 .Fig.

of girls from separated families 0 29 .6 5 4 3 2 No of boys from separated families 1 No.

Fig 4.2.1Pie Chart showing gender of children from separated families Gender Boys (45%) Girls (55%) 30 .

Frequenc Percentag e i e Central o a Gabriel y e Kahata V.3 Relationship between family separation and children’s academic performance School Gacheg Kajab Kaiber Kamunyaka Ndik Munyak St.Table 4. 31 . family separations affect the performance of ECDE children aged 4 to 5 years. Good Good Average Below 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 8 11 0 5 40 55 average Total 2 4 2 1 7 2 3 21 100 From the observations made by the researcher. This is shown by having an occurrence of 55 per cent of children being below average and only 5 per cent who are termed to be good.

Fig 4.3 Pie Chart showing Relationship between family separation and children’s academic performance 32 .

Relationship between family separation and children’s academic performance V. Good (0%) Good (5%) Avarage (40%) Below Avarage (55%) The questions were investigating how children from separated families socialize with other children 33 .

the researcher was able to observe that some children from separated families are able to socialize well with others having an occurrence of 15 percent while the majority with an occurrence of 50 percent fairly socializes with other children. 34 .Table 4. 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 Good Good 1 1 1 0 3 0 1 7 35 Fair 0 3 1 1 4 1 0 10 50 Total 2 4 2 1 7 2 2 20 100 From the table above.4 table showing how children from separated families socialize with other children School Gacheg Kajab Kaiber Kamunyaka Ndik Munyak St. Frequenc Percentag e i e central o a Gabriel y e 3 15 kahata V.

Fig 4. Good (15%) Good (35%) Fair (50%) 35 .4 Pie Chart showing how children from separated families socialize with other children How children from separated families socialize with other children V.

Frequenc Percentag e i e Central o a Gabriel y e Regular Irregula 0 4 0 3 0 1 0 6 0 2 2 1 0 1 2 18 10 90 r Total 4 3 1 6 2 3 1 20 100 Kahata The table reveals that children from separated families are irregular in school attendance with prevalence of 90 per cent.5 Table showing the Investigation of School Attendance of Children from School Gacheg Kajab Kaiber Kamunyaka Ndik Munyak St. 36 .Table 4.

5 Pie Chart showing the Investigation of School Attendance of Children from Separated families Investigating school attendance of children from separated families Regular (10%) Irregular (90%) The question was investigating the main cause of these children being under the care of one parent. 37 .Fig 4.

38 .6 Table showing the causes of single parenthood School Gacheg Kajab e i Divorce Death Never 2 0 1 3 1 0 married Total 3 4 Kaibere Kamunyaka Ndik Munyak St. Frequenc Percentag Central o a Gabriel y e 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 10 6 4 50 30 20 2 0 6 2 3 20 100 Kahata The table reveals that the main cause of separation was divorce.Table 4. Half of children from separated families come from parents who have divorced.

6 Figure showing the causes of single parenthood Cause of single Parenthood Divorce (50%) Death (30%) Never Married (20%) 39 .Fig 4.

Gatundu North District of Kiambu County.1 Summary The main reason the researcher decided to carry out study on this problem was to find out the effects of family separation of ECDE children in relation to performance in Githobokoni Zone. 5. Gachege Sub-Location.0 Introduction In Summery Form This chapter consists of a brief summary of the whole research study. research methodology. which relates to research problem. and major contributions. results. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. The researcher found out that all ECDE centres involved in the course of the study have 100% occurrence of children from separated families. Majority of the children were boys with 55 per 40 . Mang’u Division.CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY.

They should avoid questioning children about other spouse’s affairs. or youth leader to play the   role of the missing parent Caregivers should inculcate trust in God in those children Caregivers should help children build their self esteem References Anguiano. Santa Barbara. Parent involvement and academic achievement among language minority students in elementary school using structural equation modeling. relatives. D.: University of California. Sunday school teachers. (2008). which are not theirs such as taking case of the siblings. the following precautions should be taken to help the children. 5. 5. B. Children from separated families are affected physically. It is a part a healing They should be assured that they are not to blame for the divorce Assign trustworthy adults.2 Conclusions Separated families should avoid conflicts over their children visit to either of parent. Children from separated families are sometimes forced to do tasks. Most of the school visited for research purpose had a positive response of having more than one case of such children in their classes and some having up to seven cases. They should try not to lie to children about their differences and involving children in their personal relationships.. spiritually and socially. S. Santa Barbara. 41 . Calif. emotionally. & California.cent and girls with 45 per cent. B.     Prepare children psychologically before any divorce Show love and concern for the children Let the children talk about the divorce Parents should be active listeners to children’s views on divorce and they should be    patient Children should be allowed to express their emotions through crying.3 Recommendations The best solution would be for parents to resolve their differences and if this does not happen.

Michael. Guideline and Counseling for school and colleges: Nairobi: Oxford publishers Ministry of Education. P. K. K. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. J. How the family influences children's academic achievement. Building background knowledge for academic achievement: research on what works in schools. Promising practices for family involvement in schooling across the continents.: Information Age Pub. school safety manual Nancy. Nairobi: KIE Ministry of Education and Church World Services. (2008).. Mutie. K. S. Rising on your own Lam. New York: Garland Pub. Family and school capital: towards a context theory of students' school outcomes. (2002). Dorothy. (Daily Nation June 3. J. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. New York: Prentice Hall APPENDIX I QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION A: BIO DATA Questionnaire to the teacher Tick where possible. Wayne. Impact of divorce on children. S. Conn. The effects of homelessness on the academic achievement of children. H. Marjoribanks. Training up a child. (1997). Alexandria. New York: Garland Publishing. Marzano. (2012). (2008). R. & Marzano.Attles. 2009). Community Support grant management hand book. R.. 1.. D. B. V. (1997). (2004). (2010). Name (optional) 42 . Greenwich. F. (2005). Nairobi: Oxford. (2011).

How is their academic performance? Very good Good Fair 5. What is the main cause of them having one parent? Separation Divorce Death of a spouse 43 .Gender Male Female 2. how many are they? Boys Girls Indicate the numbers 4.books etc Yes No 7. How do they relate with other children socially? Very good Good Fair 6. Are there children from separated families in your class? Yes No 3. If yes. Are they sometimes out of school due to lack of necessary instructional items such as pencils .

Name (optional)…………………… 2. information given is purposely for study only and will be treated confidential.Thank you for your co-operation. Gender Male Female 3. If single. information given is purposely for study only and will be treated in confidence. Questionnaire to the parents Tick where applicable 1. 44 . Marital status Married Single 4. what is the cause of singlehood? Separation Divorce Death of a spouse Thank you for your cooperation.

00 .00 50 10 days @ 30 5 days @ 50 45 500.00 Total 8. rubber & scribbling book) 500.00 2 Lunch 5 days @ 100 500.00 300.500.APPENDIX II WORK PLAN ACTIVITY FROM Selection of the study topic January18th 2014 Proposal writing January 2014 Supervisor proof of reading February 2014 Data collection TO February 2014 March 2014 April 2014 Data analysis April 2014 May 2014 Report writing June 2014 July 2014 Supervisor proof reading July 2014 typing the final copy July 2014 Submission of the final report August 2014 APPENDIX III BUDGET NO ACTIVITY UNIT AMOUNT SH 1 Transport 5 trips @ 300 1.00 6 Newspaper 7 Internet 8 Library 9 Miscellaneous 650.00 4 Photocopying and typesetting 3 Stationery (pen.00 5 Printing 2.750. pencil.00 500.

46 .