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AND HOW TO USE IT IN SETUP

June 9, 2015 Rodrigo de Oliveira Santos

CTV News

Lets say that you are a race engineer and your driver is having trouble to go around the

slowest corners on the circuit. In a brief feedback after the first outing (a set of laps in a

session) of the free practice session, the driver complains about excessive oversteer in

these parts of the circuit. What would you do, in order to solve the problem?

Well, a thousand changes to the car could be applied. The fact that the problem occurs

in the slowest bits of the circuit might rule out the possibility of aerodynamic changes as

a solution. Then, most of the solutions available will be related to the subject of this post:

lateral load transfer.

Lateral load transfer or lateral weight transfer, is the amount of change on the vertical

loads of the tyres due to the lateral acceleration imposed on the centre of gravity (CG) of

the car. In other words, it is the amount

outer tyres and reduced from the inner tyres when the car is cornering.

The total lateral load transfer on the car can be calculated from its free body diagram,

as shown in figure 1. In the image, the car is looked from the rear in a right hand turn.

Here,

height,

is the track width and

and

is the CG

tyres, respectively.

Taking the moment equilibrium about the point O, of the tyre, we can see that:

This is the total lateral load transfer on the car. One important thing to notice is that its

difficult to change total lateral load transfer by setup. Some setup changes might apply,

for example, CG might be lowered by reducing ride height, and track width might be

increased by changing wheel offsets properly or using wheel hub spacers. However, these

approaches are limited, ride height being affected by the possibility of bottoming out and

track width by regulations that place a cap on vehicle width.

But if total lateral load transfer is difficult to change once the car has been designed and

built, then how can it be used to improve handling? The secret to answer this question is

to focus not on total lateral weight transfer on the car, but instead, on how it is distributed

between front and rear tracks. Before I explain this, let me talk about a good thing to

understand the subject the steady-state analysis of a pair of tyres.

Formula 1 Dictionary

In the previous post about understeer and oversteer, we have addressed the vehicle as

the bicycle model, with its tracks compressed to a single tyre. Let us expand that analysis

by looking at the pair of tyres. This analysis may even be used to prepare tyre data, in

order to make the bicycle model more realistic.

In a pair analysis, steady-state lateral force is obtained for the tyres on a track (front or

rear pair), through data from a single tyre. It may be a more practical way to assess

increase the lateral force on either the front or rear track.

Also, the only direct link between the front and rear tracks is the chassis (all-wheel drive

cars are an exception), and vehicle behaviour can be evaluated by looking at the relative

performance of front and rear tracks.

For the analysis procedure, one can adapt the load transfer equation obtained above,

using

, and

Now consider

, the height of

. This will give:

, the vertical

load on the inner tyre. We define the Fraction Load Transfer, FLT, as the ratio between

the difference

The parameter

ground. In cases where the performance of a pair of tyres is being analysed without

regards to a particular vehicle, the parameter

The actual wheel loads are calculated for a series of FLT, which can go from 0 to

1.0, for the given track load. Then, a series of steer angles in the range of interest

is selected. A reference steer angle, which is the average of steer angles of both

wheels on the axle, is specified (but the individual slip angles are used when

entering the data).

For a more comprehensive analysis, the effects from suspension geometry such

as steer and camber variations due to ride, roll, braking, accelerating, lateral force

compliance or aligning torque compliance, can be introduced before entering tyre

data.

At this point, tyre data is entered and lateral force for each tyre in the axle is

calculated taking into account the effects described above (if the case demands

it).

The lateral force of the track is the sum of lateral forces obtained from each tyre.

This is multiplied by the cosine of the reference steer angle, to obtain a lateral

force in the direction of the turning centre. This force is then divided by the weight

on the axle

, to give the lateral acceleration in the direction of interest.

This lateral acceleration is plotted against FLT, with reference steer angle as a

parameter. This graph is called the potential diagram, and it reflects the potential

of a pair of tyres arranged on a track to generate lateral axle force. This is the

basic output of a pair analysis. Figure 2 shows the plot.

The actual load transfer depends on the track width and the rolling moment

produced by the lateral acceleration acting on the fictitious CG height. The lateral

load transfer parameter

might be represented through various diagonal lines

in the potential diagram.

accelerations with the lateral load transfer parameter lines, against the reference

steer angle. Figure 3 shows the plot. This curve is called the cornering coefficient

curve for the track,

, and it shows the effect of load

transfer, geometry and other factors in modifying the characteristics of a single

tyre. It is a measure of how well the vehicle track configuration uses lateral force.

Figure 2. Potential Diagram. (MILLIKEN & MILLIKEN, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics)

Figure 3. Cornering coefficient curve for a track. (MILLIKEN & MILLIKEN, Race Car

Vehicle Dynamics)

pair of tyres. Bear in mind that the lateral acceleration obtained from a specific fraction

load transfer value will not necessarily cause the correspondent load transfer on the axle.

The inputs are essentially the loads and orientations of the tyres, and the outputs are

given per unit weight on the axle, allowing for a vehicle-independent analysis. The

diagonal lines represent lateral force potential for constant

curved lines show values obtained for a constant reference steer angle.

In the post about lateral force from the tyres, we discussed tyre load sensitivity, the

property that makes lateral force from a tyre to grow at a smaller rate with increasing

vertical load. This will have a net effect of decreasing the lateral force generated by an

axle when the load transfer on it increases. This characteristic is also observed here. If

you analyse figure 2, you will see that an increasing fraction load transfer will come

together with a decreasing lateral force potential for the axle.

In figure 3 the effect is repeated, but from a different perspective. Here, the load transfer

is increased by means of the lateral load transfer parameter, instead of the FLT. Notice

the smaller cornering potential for higher values of the lateral load transfer parameter.

Speedsport Magazine

As stated before, it is very difficult to change the total lateral load transfer of a car without

increasing the track width or reducing either the weight or the CG height. However, the

suspension of a car will allow lateral load transfer to present itself in different ways and

to be distributed between the axles in a controlled manner.

In this analysis, we will be interested in lateral load transfer in a single axle, and I will

discuss the three mechanisms by which that happens, namely, roll resistance moment

from springs and antiroll bars, direct lateral force load transfer and lateral load transfer

from unsprung mass.

All these mechanisms generate a moment about the car that will translate into a vertical

load difference between the inside and the outside tyres. Before we discuss how these

moments are quantified, its interesting to derive a relation between a generic

moment

. Refer again to figure 1. The moment equilibrium analysis will be the same here, but we

will substitute the moment from the inertial force about the CG,

moment,

, by a generic

Now we know that the load transfer caused by a generic moment about a track will be

the moment divided by the track width, and we can use that to analyse the effect of each

component of load transfer. Referring back to the total load transfer equation, we see

that the total weight transfer will be caused by inertial forces acting upon the entire mass

of the car. We can split the inertial force into sprung and unsprung components and we

will have the following relation:

Where

unsprung mass. A more in-depth discussion on how each of these moments are generated

will now be presented. After that, we will see how the components of load transfer can

be manipulated to tune the balance of the car.

Avian Photography

The simplest component of load transfer is the one related to unsprung mass. If unsprung

mass is isolated, its possible to find its own CG. When the car corners, lateral acceleration

is applied at this CG, generating a centrifugal force. This force will result in a moment,

whose arm is the unsprung CG height,

Where

This component of lateral load transfer is the least useful as a setup tool. Changing the

moment generated by this component requires changes in either the unsprung mass or

its CG height. Both of these changes will involve adding, removing or repositioning mass

(and therefore parts) within the unsprung part of the car. This could affect wheel hop

(the ride mode that characterises oscillation of the unsprung mass between the road

surface and the sprung mass) frequency and amplitude, reducing the contact of the tyres

with the ground and hence, reducing grip. This component will, however, be altered by

changes in other components (e.g. replacement of brake cooling ducts for a

lighter/heavier version).

#2 Load Transfer from Direct Lateral Force (or Kinematic Load Transfer

Component)

F1 Technical

The Roll Centre of an axle is the point on the transversal vertical plane passing

through the wheel centres of an axle, where a lateral force is applied to the sprung

mass without producing any roll. Its also the point through which the lateral force

applied to the sprung mass is transferred to the unsprung mass, i.e. the roll centre

is the force coupling point between sprung and unsprung mass.

The Neutral Roll Axis, or just roll axis, is the line that connects the roll centres from

front and rear suspensions.

Load transfer from direct force is one of the two components related to the lateral force

acting upon the sprung mass. It arises from the force coupling effect that roll centres

have, directly linking forces on sprung mass to the unsprung mass. Its also called

the kinematic load transfer component, because the roll centres are defined by the

suspension kinematics. Here, the lateral force acting on the sprung mass (

) will

generate a moment on the tyres through the roll centre height that will also contribute

to lateral load transfer. This is given by:

Here,

is the

roll centre height for the track. Sprung weight distribution is calculated as the ratio

between the distance from the sprung weight CG to the axle opposite to the one being

analysed,

Because the force coupling nature of roll centres is not as widely known as the definition

of the term roll centre itself, some people are unaware of this component. This leads

some to think that increasing roll centre heights will actually decrease weight transfer

because it reduces roll. The thing is, roll is only one part of the equation, and as the

discussion on this post will show, increasing roll centre height might either increase or

decrease the lateral load transfer, depending on other parameters.

#3 Load Transfer Due to Roll Angle (or Elastic Load Transfer Component)

Racin Today

When the vehicle is cornering, the centrifugal force from inertia generates a moment that

makes thesprung mass roll to the outside of the corner. When this happens, the outside

spring of the suspension is compressed and the inside spring is extended.

Since springs are devices that generate forces upon displacements, a force on each

spring arises, and these forces generate a moment that tends to resist the rotation of the

body. The forces upon the springs are reacted by the tyres, and that contributes to lateral

load transfer. Because of this interaction with the springs, this component is also referred

as the elastic weight transfer component. Also, when the chassis rolls, the CG of the

sprung mass will be shifted sideward, and that will give rise to another moment that will

add to lateral load transfer.

When cornering, the sprung mass of the car will roll by an amount

is reacted by the roll stiffness (or roll rate),

resistance moment generated per unit of roll angle of the sprung mass, and it has SI

units of Nm/rad. On independent suspension vehicles, roll stiffness is a function of the

vertical stiffness of the suspension (ride rate, which includes tyre stiffness) and track

width.

Antiroll bars are generally added to the car to make it stiffer in roll without altering the

ride characteristics. The roll stiffness of the car is the sum of roll stiffnesses of front and

rear axles:

One important thing to notice is that the chassis is assumed a rigid body, and hence, the

roll angle is the same for front and rear suspensions. Thus, the roll resistance moment is

given by:

Vehicle CG and roll centres are located on the centreline of the car;

and

For this analysis, lets consider the sprung mass in isolation. Figure 4 shows the forces

and moments acting on the sprung CG. The views are along the roll axis.

Lets analyse the moment involved in roll. The inertial force acting on the vehicle CG will

generate a moment about the roll axis. This moment is called roll moment or roll

couple,

, because it is responsible for body roll. The splitting of the roll moment

between front and rear axles is useful in analysing lateral load transfer and this is called

roll moment distribution between front and rear axles.

The analysis begins by taking the moment equilibrium about the roll axis:

Where

term

to the side when the chassis rolls. Applying the small angle assumption, we have:

Substituting the definition of the roll resistance moment in the equation above, we have:

Solving for

and dividing by

the car, i.e. the amount of body roll per unit of lateral acceleration:

If we isolate the roll angle from the equation above, we can use it to calculate the

moments from roll resistance moment and sprung CG side shift for a single axle. In a

single axle, the roll resistance moment will be the roll angle multiplied by the roll stiffness

of the axle analysed,

Note that this component resists only roll angle, and the entire sprung mass is used here,

as this is how we obtained the expression for roll angle. The same will not be true for the

weight shift component, because the axle will only support the fraction of the sprung

weight distributed to it. The weight shift component for a single axle will be:

The total moment from roll angle on a single axle will then be:

The lateral load transfer from this moment is obtained by dividing this by the axle track

width, t:

UK2 Group

The three components of lateral load transfer should be added in order to obtain the total

lateral load transfer on an axle:

The expression above can be utilized to calculate the load transfer on each axle, which

can then be used to improve handling. Now that we have quantified lateral load transfer

on an axle, we can start to analyse how the individual components interact.

Before we start, its worth to give a note on units. For you to get meaningful results from

the equation above, you need to use consistent units. For the SI system, the weights

should be in N, the angular stiffnesses in Nm/rad, the lengths in m, and the acceleration

is nondimensional (because we are dividing lateral acceleration by the acceleration of

gravity).

You already know from steady-state pair analysis and from the discussion on tyre load

sensitivity that lateral load transfer will decrease the lateral force capability of the axle.

On limit conditions, this will translate in one of the axles breaking loose and skidding

before the other. If that is the case in the front axle, the car will understeer, if it is in the

rear axle, it will oversteer.

We have established that playing with the unsprung weight component is not the

smartest thing to do, so lets focus on the sprung weight components, i.e. the kinematic

and elastic components.

The first one to analyse is the kinematic or direct lateral force load transfer component.

From the general lateral load transfer equation, we know that this component is changed

by modifications to either the weight distribution of the car, or the roll centres height.

Weight distribution can be controlled through positioning of ballast in the car. Changing

weight distribution will obviously alter CG longitudinal location, and that might have

undesirable effects on many other aspects of the car. For example, if the weight is shifted

forward, the front tyres may be overloaded under heavy braking, while the rear tyres

may lose most of their vertical load, reducing the brake capability of the car.

The second option to alter load transfer from direct lateral force component is to change

roll centre heights. This is a complex measure because it requires changes in suspension

geometry, and it has influence on all geometry-related parameters, such as camber and

toe gain, anti-pitch features and so on. This is altered by moving the suspension pickups

so

that

suspension

arms

will

be

at

different

position

and/or

orientation.

In some categories, the rear suspension is mounted on the gearbox, for example, Formula

3, shown in figure 5. Here the pickup points are highlighted for better comprehension.

Figure 6 shows the CAD design of a similar gearbox, highlighting the different options for

installing pickup points. As we move up to higher categories, the engineering gets more

complex. Figure 7 shows the gearbox from Mercedes W05, 2014 Formula One champion.

Here the gearbox has a removable carbon fibre structural outer sleeve, allowing changes

in the design of the rear suspension without having to re-test the rear of the car for

crashworthiness.

Figure 7. Mercedes W05 Carbon Fibre Gearbox Sleeve for Mounting Suspension Points

(F1 Technical).

Its not possible to conclude directly what influence increasing roll centre heights will

have. A quick look at the lateral load transfer equation might lead you to think that lateral

load transfer will increase with increasing roll centre heights because of the direct relation

in the equation.

The fact is, by increasing the roll centre height in one axle, you are increasing lateral load

transfer from the direct lateral force component, while at the same time you are

decreasing lateral load transfer from roll angle component. Bear in mind that the roll

moment arm

the roll axis. Figure 8 clarifies. The overall effect will depend upon roll centre heights and

roll

stiffnesses,

and

definitive

conclusion

will

require

deeper

analysis.

One thing we can tell without any deep analysis is that increasing the roll centre height

in one axle decreases the lateral weight transfer on that axle, everything else kept

constant. This happens because raising the roll centre will approximate the roll axis to

the sprung weight CG. This will decrease roll angle component, but since the roll centre

height of the opposite axle will not be raised, the direct lateral force component will not

increase and the overall effect will be a reduction in weight transfer.

To further expand our analysis, lets put the theory into practice. Figure 9 shows a contour

plot of lateral weight transfer sensitivity (lateral weight transfer divided by lateral

acceleration) on both axles of an open wheel single-seater. To obtain these, I created a

MATLAB routine to calculate the total lateral weight transfer from our previous discussion,

keeping the front and rear roll stiffnesses equal and constant while varying front and rear

roll centre heights. The input data were based on the manuals from the manufacturer of

an important formula category.

By analysing Figure 9 you can see that lateral load transfer is very sensitive to changes

in roll centre height. For example, if you investigate what would happen to the weight

transfer in both axles if you held rear roll centre height constant at 30 mm while increasing

the front roll centre height, you would see opposite effects happening on front and rear

tracks (weight transfer would decrease in the rear axle while increasing in the front).

Try this exercise: pick whatever value you want for rear roll centre height, and imagine

an horizontal line passing through the point correspondent to that value in both graphs,

and observe how weight transfer changes along this line in both graphs (remember each

graph represents an axle). Now do the same, but picking a front roll centre height and

imagining a vertical line instead. What happened?

As you see, when we increase front roll centre height, the lateral weight transfer

decreases on the rear axle while increasing on the front. Conversely, if you increase rear

roll centre height, lateral load transfer increases on the rear axle and decreases on the

front axle. Can you see the trend?

When you increase roll centre height in one axle you increase the overall lateral load

transfer on that axle, while decreasing it on the opposite axle. This leads as to believe

that the roll centre height gain is higher than the decrease in the roll moment arm

The change in this arm with roll centre heights will depend on the wheelbase and weight

distribution.

The calculations presented here were based on a vehicle with a 3125 mm wheelbase and

54% weight distribution on the rear axle, which are reasonable values for most race cars.

For this case, roll moment arm decrease with roll centre heights was smaller than the

increase in roll centre heights themselves. In my time in Baja, I have done calculations

of the type for vehicles that had roughly the same weight distribution and wheelbases of

approximately 1500 mm. The results were the same. I make no claim that this would

hold true for every car in the world, but if thats the case for vehicles with wheelbases as

different as the ones Ive tried, than I wouldnt be surprised if it was for other cars.

This component is the easier to control. Lets repeat the weight transfer equation here to

make things easier:

By looking at the equation, you can see that the weight transfer component from roll

angle can be altered by changes in front or rear roll stiffnesses, roll moment arm or

weight distribution. Now lets stop for a moment to analyse the influence of the gravity

term

As we discussed, we should input consistent units into the equation to obtain meaningful

results. The manual of the vehicle used here specified a roll stiffness values ranging from

350,000 Nm/rad to 5,600,000 Nm/rad. The sprung mass used was 675 kg, which gives a

weight of 6621.75 N. With a CG height of 254 mm and the minimum roll centres specified

in 3 mm, which is very low, the moment arm will be 251 mm. With those values, the

gravity term will be 1662.1 Nm. Do you see how small it is compared to the roll stiffness

of the car?

You might not be convinced of the insignificance of this term by arguing that those values

were obtained for a very light car with a very low CG. So lets try it with a 1200 kg vehicle

with CG height varying from 100 mm to 1 m (which is ridiculously high even for a road

car). Figure 10 shows the plot of the roll angle component versus gravity term.

Figure 10. Gravity Term Influence on Roll Angle Weight Transfer Component.

Varying the gravity term from 800 Nm to 11395 Nm resulted in a difference of only 0.0148

(from 0.5011 to 0.5159) or 2.96 %. Bear in mind that these values were obtained for a

fairly heavy race car with an unreasonably high CG, and this is only one of three weight

transfer components.

At this moment, you should be convinced of the irrelevance of the gravity term on roll

angle weight transfer component. This basically rules out weight distribution as a way of

controlling roll angle component. We now have roll moment arm and roll stiffnesses to

play with. From our previous discussion on direct force weight transfer component, you

know that to change roll moment arm you need to play with roll centre heights, which

will ultimately affect that weight transfer component in the opposite way you want.

Another reason to rule out changes in roll moment arm is that, because it directly

multiplies the proportion of roll stiffnesses, it will have the same effect on both axles

whether is to increase or decrease lateral load transfer. For setup, we look into changing

the lateral load transfer in one axle relative to the other, to affect balance. This makes

changes in roll moment arm to control roll angle component useless. Lets now analyse

roll stiffnesses.

Roll stiffness can be altered by either changing ride stiffness of the suspension (vertical

stiffness) or by changing the stiffness of the antiroll bars. Ride stiffness can be altered by

either changing springs or tyre pressures (tyre pressure affects tyre stiffness, which

contributes to the overall ride stiffness). This is generally not the first option to take

because of the effect that it has on other aspects of the car.

For the sake of example, ride stiffness controls ride height, which has strong effects on

aerodynamics of ground effect cars (almost every race car with relevant aerodynamics

design). Another example would be the effect of ride stiffness on wheel hop frequency.

Hence, springs and tyre pressures should only be changed when other aspects need

modification, but not only roll stiffness itself (unless the vehicle has no antiroll bar).

The most reasonable option would be changes on antiroll bar stiffness. This can be done

in multiple ways. The hardest one would be to change the bar itself, though there are

some antiroll bars that have adjustable stiffnesses, eliminating the need to replace bars.

These adjustable bars generally have blade lever arms, as the one shown in figure 11.

By rotating the lever arms, its area moment of inertia in bending is changed, hence

altering its stiffness. Figure 12 shows a finite element stress analysis, with colours closer

to yellow and green indicating higher stresses. Some race cars have push-pull cables

connected to the bars that allow the driver to change roll stiffnesses from inside the car.

Figure 12. FEA stress analysis of a blade antiroll bar (Proven Wicked).

Now that we know the best ways to change roll stiffness, lets see how it affects lateral

load transfer. Figure 13 shows the contour plots of lateral weight transfer sensitivity as a

function of front and rear roll stiffnesses. These data were obtained for the same open

wheel car analysed in figure 9, but this time front and rear roll centres heights were held

constant and equal, while roll stiffnesses varied. The stiffnesses are shown in

kgfm/degree, that have clearer meaning, but the data were input in Nm/rad.

If you compare figures 13 and 8, you will see that, while lateral weight transfer changes

with roll centre heights along contours defined by lines that have the same inclination,

the effect is different with respect to roll stiffnesses, as the lines that limit the contours

have different inclinations.

If you represent the rear roll stiffness as proportion of front roll stiffness in a line plot,

the result will be a straight line, with an inclination equal to the proportion between the

roll stiffnesses. If you represent multiple proportions, you will have multiple lines with

different inclinations. Do you see where this heading? Lateral load transfer in one axle

will change with the proportion of the roll stiffnesses on that axle, not the roll stiffnesses

themselves.

This can be confirmed by adopting the conclusions from the analysis of figure 10, where

we agreed that the gravity term is negligible for roll angle lateral weight transfer

component. If we use

If we keep the roll moment arm constant, then roll angle lateral load transfer component

in one track will obviously be a function of the ratio between the roll stiffness on that

track and the total roll stiffness of the car. The term between brackets in the equation

above is the roll rate distribution or roll stiffness distribution for a given axle, and it will

ultimately control the elastic lateral load transfer component.

So far, we have discussed the influence of each component in lateral load transfer in

isolation. Lets now see how these components affect each other and how they affect

load transfer together. For this analysis, only the rear axle was considered. The front and

rear roll centres heights were kept equal, but varied from 3 mm to the CG height (254

mm). The weight distribution on the rear axle was 54 %. Roll stiffnesses were input in

the form of roll rate distribution, varying from 0 to 1. Figure 14 shows the contour plot.

Figure 14. Lateral weight transfer sensitivity to roll rate distribution and roll centre

heights.

Figure 14 can lead us to very interesting conclusions. First notice that there are two

particular regions in the plot, where any changes to one of the components will produce

no sensitive effect on weight transfer. This is characterised by the green region in the

graph. If you hold rear roll rate distribution constant at 54 % and increase roll centre

height, lateral load transfer will have no significant change. Conversely, if you hold roll

centre heights at about 254 mm and vary rear roll rate distribution, lateral load

distribution wont suffer relevant differences. What happened here?

If we

define

and

the

distribution

lateral load transfer equation for that axle can be rewritten to give:

First, lets analyse what happens when we hold roll rate distribution equal to the weight

distribution on that axle. Substituting the values on the terms inside the brackets, we

have:

But if we assume that front and rear roll rates are equal, then the moment arm will be

given by:

This shows that when weight distribution and roll rate distribution are equal, for a

horizontal roll axis, the sprung weight load transfer component will be independent of roll

centres heights. Notice that this conclusion doesnt necessarily hold true for different roll

axis inclinations.

Now lets analyse what happens when roll centre heights get close to the CG height.

If

in

.

This will tell us that lateral load transfer on a track will become less dependent on the roll

rate distribution on that track as the roll axis gets close to the CG of the sprung mass.

This conclusion is somehow trivial, as we know that roll moment arm decreases as roll

axis gets closer to the sprung mass CG and roll rate distribution only affects the roll angle

lateral load transfer component.

Now lets use the knowledge discussed here applied in the example presented of the

beginning of this article, with a little more detail in it. Lets say the car is rear wheel drive

with a rear weight distribution and large, lightly loaded tyres. If your driver complies

about oversteer in the slowest corners, it means that the front axle is generating higher

lateral force than the rear. By the methods presented here, the simplest solution would

be shifting roll rate distribution to the front, by either stiffening the front antiroll bar or

softening the rear. In order words, the goal would be to reduce lateral load transfer in

the rear axle in comparison to the front axle.

If that solution doesnt work, you could have roll centre heights that would give a roll axis

too close to the sprung CG, as discussed before. If that was the case, you should work

on the roll centres heights instead, and then adjust suspension parameters accordingly.

Again, if that doesnt work, then lateral load transfer will not be the right parameter to

change.

Bear in mind that lateral load transfer affects the balance through tyre load sensitivity

(the tendency of the tyres to generate higher lateral forces at a decreasing rate with

higher vertical loads). If the tyres of the car are lightly loaded, there might not be enough

load sensitivity in the tyres, so that even if one end of the car takes all the lateral load

transfer, the lateral force performance isnt degraded significantly.

In that case, changing roll rate distribution or roll centre heights will have little effect in

the balance, and other alternatives must be looked at, such as adjusting tyre pressures,

tyre size and/or width or moving CG location (so that the inertial forces will be different

in each axle). Notice that this is just one possibility and other parameters might be

investigated as well.

Zimbio

We used steady-state pair analysis to show once again that lateral load transfer in

one end of the car decreases the capability of that end to generate lateral force.

We derived the equations of lateral load transfer in one axle of the car, showing

that its composed of three components:

effect that it has on ride, specifically wheel hop mode.

especially when roll axis is close to the sprung CG, and the influence of roll

component is reduced.

as a setup tool, since it is the easiest to change when antiroll devices are

present. It has increased importance when roll rate distribution in one track

gets close to the weight distribution on that axle, as direct force component

has its importance reduced (assuming horizontal roll axis).

If changes to lateral load transfer have not significant effects on the balance of

the car, this might be an indication that the tyres are lightly loaded, and load

sensitivity is small.

Bear in mind that all the analysis done here was for steady-state lateral load transfer,

which is why dampers were not mentioned at all. Transient lateral load transfer is an

important aspect of vehicle setup, but lets leave the discussion on that for another day.

I hope this article was useful to you, and that you have enjoyed reading it.

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