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Taylor’s and Power Series Method
for Solving ODE

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Department of Basic and Applied Science

Smart Village Campus

Mathematics (5)

BA 323

Chapter (1)

Taylors and Power Series Method

for Solving ODE

Prepared by :

Dr. Eng. Adel Mohamed Elrefaey

1 | Page

BA323 Lec.No(1)

Dr Adel Elrefaey

The solution of ODE is classified into two groups:

a. Exact Solution when we can find an analytic function satisfies the

differential equation

b. Approximated Solution when we failed to find the exact solution we use

numerical methods to find a closed solution to the exact one

Power series solution of ODE is approximated method so we used it mainly

with ODE that we cannot find its exact solution such as ODE with variable

parameters.

If f ( x) is defined in some interval a x b and if x0 is a point in this

interval and if all derivatives of f ( x) are exist at x0 , then Taylors series of

f ( x) is

nth derivative

f ( x)

n 0

f ( x) f ( x0 )

f ( n ) ( x0 )

( x x0 ) n

n!

f ( x0 )

f ( x0 )

f ( x0 )

( x x0 )

( x x0 ) 2

( x x0 )3

1!

2!

3!

the series a Maclaurin Series ,

f ( x) f (0)

f (0)

f (0) 2 f (0) 3

( x)

( x)

( x)

1!

2!

3!

2 | Page

BA323 Lec.No(1)

Dr Adel Elrefaey

We assume that the function y ( x) is a solution of the initial value ordinary

differential equation, the target is how to find the derivatives

Steps of solution:

1. Separate the highest derivative of the ODE in the left hand side (note : the

lowest derivatives should be given as initial conditions)

2. Differentiate till reach the required number of non-zero terms

3. Substitute in Taylors series

y ( x) y ( x0 )

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

( x x0 )

( x x0 ) 2

( x x0 )3

1!

2!

3!

Example(1) Find the first four non-zero terms in a power series solution for the

2

2

differential equation y x y , when x 1 , y 1

Solution:

y(1) 1

y x 2 y 2

y (1) 12 12 0

y 2 x 2 yy

y(1) 2(1) 0 2

y 2 2( yy y 2 )

y(1) 2

y (iv ) 2(3 y y yy )

y (iv ) (1) 4

Then the first four non-zero terms of the power series solution is

3 | Page

BA323 Lec.No(1)

Dr Adel Elrefaey

y ( x) y ( x0 )

y ( x) y (1)

y ( x) 1

Or

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

( x x0 )

( x x0 ) 2

( x x0 )3

1!

2!

3!

y(1)

y(1)

y(1)

y(1)

( x 1)

( x 1)2

( x 1)3

( x 1) 4

1!

2!

3!

4!

2

2

4

( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1) 4

2!

3!

4!

1

1

y ( x) 1 ( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1) 4

3

6

Example(2) Find the first four non-zero terms in a power series solution for the

differential equation y xy yy , when x 0 , y 0 , y 1, y 2 ,

Solution:

y(0) 0

y(0) 1

y(0) 2

y xy yy

y(0) 0

y (iv ) y xy y 2 yy

y (iv ) (0) 1

y ( v ) 2 y xy 3 yy yy

y ( v ) (0) 8

Then the first four non-zero terms of the power series solution is

y ( x) y ( x0 )

y ( x)

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

y( x0 )

( x x0 )

( x x0 ) 2

( x x0 )3

1!

2!

3!

1

2

1

8

x x 2 x 4 x5

1!

2!

4!

5!

4 | Page

BA323 Lec.No(1)

Dr Adel Elrefaey

Or

y ( x) x x 2

1 4 1 5

x x

24

15

Exercise 1

Obtain the first four non-zero terms of the power solution for each of the following

initial value problems:

1. y x y 1 ,

y 1,

19

Ans:

y ( x) 1 2( x 1) 3( x 1) 2 ( x 1)3

3

2

y sin( xy ) x ,

x 0, y 3,

when

3

1

3

Ans:

y ( x) 3 x 2 x3 x 4

2

3

4

2

2

y x y ,

x 0 , y 1,

y 0 ,

when

1

1

7 6

Ans:

y ( x) 1 x 2 x 4

x

2

6

360

x 0, y 0,

y 1,

y xy yy , when

1

1

Ans:

y ( x) x x 2 x 4 x5

24

15

y 3 3 x y 2 x y 0 , when

x 0 , y 1,

1

5

Ans:

y ( x) 1 x x 2 x3 .

2

18

2

3

3y y y x , when

x 0 , y 1,

1

Ans:

y ( x)

81 27 x 9 x 2 5 x3

81

2 2

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

when

x 1,

5 | Page

y 2 .

BA323 Lec.No(1)

Dr Adel Elrefaey

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