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KS3 Revision

8J Magnets and
Electromagnets
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Contents

8J Magnets and Electromagnets
Magnetic materials
Magnetic fields
Electromagnets
Summary activities
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Magnetic materials
Which of the metals below are magnetic metals?

silver (Ag)

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Ag 4 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . Only iron (Fe).Magnetic materials A magnetic material is attracted to a magnet. nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are magnetic.

Magnetic or non-magnetic? 5 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Contents 8J Magnets and Electromagnets Magnetic materials Magnetic fields Electromagnets Summary activities 6 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Forces between magnets – experiment 7 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

S N The iron filings feel the effect of the magnetic field and show the direction of the forces in this region. 8 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .What is a magnetic field? The region around a magnet where it has a magnetic effect is called its magnetic field. When a magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field it will experience a force.

Shape of a magnetic field What is the shape and direction of the lines of force in the magnetic field around a bar magnet? strongest field N S strongest field at poles at poles weakest field further away from poles Where is the magnetic field strongest? 9 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Viewing magnetic fields: N poles together Bring the north poles of two bar magnets together. S N N S What happens to the magnets? Next. Draw the pattern created by the iron filings. 10 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . bring the two north poles as close to each other as possible and place a piece of paper on top of the magnets. Carefully scatter iron filings onto the paper.

Magnetic field pattern: N poles together What do you notice about the pattern of the lines of force in the region between the two north poles? S 11 of 29 N © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

S N S N What happens to the magnets? Next. without letting them touch. Draw the pattern created by the iron filings. put the north and south poles close to each other. 12 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . and place a piece of paper on top. Carefully scatter iron filings onto the paper.Viewing magnetic fields: N and S poles together Bring the north and south poles of two bar magnets together.

Magnetic field pattern: N and S poles together What do you notice about the pattern of the lines of force in the region between the north and south poles? S N S N How does this pattern compare with the pattern between the two north poles? 13 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

they repel each other. When two like poles (e.g. two north poles or two south poles) are put together. 14 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . a north and a south pole) are put together. 3.Magnetic fields – summary 1.g. Scattering iron filings around a bar magnet makes it possible to see the lines of force of the magnetic field. When two unlike poles (e. they attract each other. 2.

a paper clip. repeat the movement. The more times this is done.  Hold a nail in a magnetic field and hit it with a hammer.  Put a magnetic material in a strong magnetic field. There are three methods that can be used to make a magnet:  Stroke a magnet along the paperclip from one end to the other and then starting from the same place. the more magnetic the clip becomes. e.g.Making a magnet A magnet can be made by magnetizing a material which is attracted to a magnet. 15 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Contents 8J Magnets and Electromagnets Magnetic materials Magnetic fields Electromagnets Summary activities 16 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

the magnetic field gets stronger.Making an electromagnet When electricity is passed through a coil of wire. If the coil of wire is wrapped around a piece of iron. the coil has a magnetic field around it. 17 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . This is called an electromagnet. such as an iron nail.

Investigate how the size of the current affects the number of paper clips attracted to an electromagnet – keep the number of coils the same in this experiment. Investigate how the number of coils affects the number of paper clips attracted to an electromagnet – keep the current the same in this experiment.Investigating an electromagnet An iron core at the centre of a coil of wire increases the strength of an electromagnet. Two experiments can be carried out to investigate the other factors that can affect the strength of an electromagnet: 1. 18 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . 2.

Investigating an electromagnet – results 1 Number of coils Number of paper clips attracted 0 0 20 40 60 8 18 80 31 Remember – keep the current the same throughout this experiment! 19 of 29 46 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Investigating an electromagnet – results 2 0 Number of paper clips attracted 0 1 12 2 23 3 38 4 49 5 60 Current (A) Remember – keep the number of coils the same throughout this experiment! 20 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 number of coils 21 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .Investigating an electromagnet – graph 1 number of clips attracted Graph to show how the number of coils affects the strength of an electromagnet.

number of clips attracted

Investigating an electromagnet – graph 2
Graph to show how the current affects the
strength of an electromagnet

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

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1

2

3

4
current (A)

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Using electromagnets – scrap yards
A large electromagnet is used in a scrap yard to pick up
and move heavy pieces of scrap metal.
Which metals would the
electromagnet attract?
What advantages does
an electromagnet have
over a permanent
magnet?

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Using electromagnets – door bells
The circuit for a door bell includes an electromagnet.

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is used to allow a small current in one circuit to control a large current in another circuit. which includes an electromagnet. A relay.Using electromagnets – relay Lifts. cars and other large electrical machines use high currents. 25 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Label the diagram – electric bell 26 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Label the diagram .relay 27 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

When electricity is passed through a coil of wire. 28 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . 3. An electromagnet can be easily turned on and off. There are three ways to make an electromagnet stronger:  wrap the coil of wire around an iron core.  increase the size of the current.Electromagnets – summary 1. 2.  increase the number of coils. This is why electromagnets can be used in scrapyards and as switches in electrical devices. the coil behaves like a magnet and has a magnetic field around it – this is an electromagnet.

Contents 8J Magnets and Electromagnets Magnetic materials Magnetic fields Electromagnets Summary activities 29 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

e. iron. e. like – poles two magnets.g.  magnet – An object that has a magnetic field and can attract magnetic materials.  magnetic materials – Materials that are attracted to a magnet.  poles – The parts of a magnet where its magnetic field is 30 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . e.  electromagnet – A magnet made by passing electricity through a coil of wire. magnetism The of non-contact force of a magnetic field.  other. cobalt and nickel.  magnetic field – The area around a magnet where its magnetic force can be felt.g.Glossary  attraction – The force that pulls things together. which often has a core inside. opposite poles of two magnets.g.

Anagrams 31 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Magnetism – true or false? 32 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Multiple-choice quiz 33 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

KS4 34 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

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Electromagnetism and movement What is the link between movement. magnetism and electric current? 36 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Wire in a magnetic field 37 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

38 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .Changing the direction of the force The direction of the force acting on a wire in an electromagnetic field can be reversed by:  reversing the current  reversing the magnetic field The direction of the force is therefore relative to both the direction of the magnetic field and the current.

thuMb = Motion First finger = magnetic Field seCond finger = Current 39 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . Fleming’s left-hand rule is used to do this.Fleming’s left-hand rule It is possible to predict the direction of the force acting on a wire – its motion – if the direction of the current or the magnetic field are known.

Increasing the size of the force 40 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Coil in a magnetic field 41 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

The motor effect: true or false? 42 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

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44 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . These motors use electromagnets rather than permanent magnets.What are electric motors? How many items do you own that contain an electric motor? An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to produce a turning effect. Most motors are powered using direct current (DC). which is produced by cells and batteries. Motors powered by mains electricity use alternating current (AC).

How does an electric motor work? 45 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

DC electric motor simulation 46 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

How do we increase motor strength? Would the same strength motor be used in both of these? How can the strength of an electric motor be increased?  increase the current flowing through the coil  increase the strength of the magnet  increase the number of turns on the coil 47 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

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Inducing current in a wire 49 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

thuMb = Motion First finger = magnetic Field seCond finger = Current 50 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .Fleming’s right-hand rule It is possible to predict the direction of the induced current produced by a generator if the direction of the force (or motion) or the magnetic field are known. Fleming’s righthand rule is used to do this.

What is electromagnetic induction? When current flows through a wire held in a magnetic field. a force is created that moves the wire. a current is produced. no current is induced. 51 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . the wire and magnetic field move perpendicular to each other. If they move parallel to each other. This is called electromagnetic induction. The opposite is also possible: if a wire is moved across a magnetic field. Induction also occurs if a magnet is moved in a coil of wire. or if a coil of wire rotates in a magnetic field. In all these methods of inducing a current.

Inducing current in a coil 52 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

gas and nuclear power stations  wind – in wind turbines  falling water – in hydroelectric power stations 53 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . Power stations use generators to produce electricity on a large scale.What are generators? A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. oil. It is the opposite of an electric motor. Mechanical energy is provided by rotating turbines that can be powered by:  high-pressure steam – in coal.

How do AC generators work? 54 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

AC generator simulation 55 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

56 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . an electromagnet is often used as this can provide a stronger magnetic field than is possible with a permanent magnet.Increasing the size of the induced current How can the size of an induced current be increased?  increase the speed at which the coil rotates  increase the strength of the magnetic field  increase the number of turns in the coil  increase the total area of the coil. In a power station generator.

Factors affecting induced current 57 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Induction: true or false? 58 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

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or by moving a magnet inside a coil. generator – A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. 60 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 . commutator – The part of a motor that enables the coil to rotate using direct current. It is produced by most electrical generators. slip rings – The parts of a generator that enable the rotating coil to produce alternating current. It is produced by cells and batteries. direct current – A current that always flows in the same direction. motor – A device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. induction – Generating a current in a wire by moving the wire in a magnetic field.Glossary  alternating current – A current that constantly changes       direction.

Anagrams 61 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .

Multiple-choice quiz 62 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 .