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# ANalysis Of VAriance

Amit K Biswas
Indian Statistical Institute
at
Program for undergraduate students, Kozhikode

December 16, 2013

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

1 / 33

ANalysis Of VAriance
Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations.

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

2 / 33

ANalysis Of VAriance
Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations.
However, this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances.

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

2 / 33

However. this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances.ANalysis Of VAriance Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations. So the original intended test is the following : Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 2 / 33 .

2013 2 / 33 . So the original intended test is the following : H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = · · · = µk H1 : µi 6= µj for i 6= j Amit (ISI. this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances.ANalysis Of VAriance Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. However.

So the original intended test is the following : H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = · · · = µk H1 : µi 6= µj for i 6= j But the actual test carried out in ANOVA is : Amit (ISI. 2013 2 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. However.ANalysis Of VAriance Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations. this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances.

2013 2 / 33 .ANalysis Of VAriance Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations. However. this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. So the original intended test is the following : H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = · · · = µk H1 : µi 6= µj for i 6= j But the actual test carried out in ANOVA is : H0 : σ1 = σ2 H1 : σi 6= σj for i 6= j Amit (ISI.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. So the original intended test is the following : H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = · · · = µk H1 : µi 6= µj for i 6= j But the actual test carried out in ANOVA is : H0 : σ1 = σ2 H1 : σi 6= σj for i 6= j HOW is this ? Amit (ISI. However. 2013 2 / 33 . this is achieved through a test of equality of two variances.ANalysis Of VAriance Is a tool to test equality of mean values of several populations.

TOH : a look back. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : Amit (ISI.. 2013 3 / 33 .

.. 2013 3 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test Amit (ISI.TOH : a look back.

. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 3 / 33 . Amit (ISI.TOH : a look back..

2013 3 / 33 .TOH : a look back... the student’s t-test. Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known.

To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.TOH : a look back. 2013 3 / 33 . when variances are unknown. Amit (ISI.. the student’s t-test..

TOH : a look back.. 2013 3 / 33 . H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 6= µ2 Amit (ISI. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known. the student’s t-test. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. when variances are unknown..

TOH : a look back. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known. H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 6= µ2 H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI.. the student’s t-test. when variances are unknown. 2013 3 / 33 ..

To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known.. the student’s t-test. H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 6= µ2 H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal. when variances are unknown. 2013 3 / 33 .TOH : a look back. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.. The test statistics being : ¯ ¯ rX1 −X2 σ2 1 n1 σ2 + n2 2 Amit (ISI.

. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. the student’s t-test. To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known.TOH : a look back.. 2013 3 / 33 . H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 6= µ2 H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal. The test statistics being : ¯ ¯ rX1 −X2 σ2 1 n1 σ2 + n2 2 which follows a normal distribution with mean zero and standard deviation 1 Amit (ISI. when variances are unknown.

TOH : a look back.. when variances are unknown. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 3 / 33 . To test equality of two mean values we have several tests : The Z −Test When variances are known. H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 6= µ2 H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal. 1) + n2 2 Amit (ISI. The test statistics being : ¯ ¯ rX1 −X2 σ2 1 n1 σ2 + n2 2 which follows a normal distribution with mean zero and standard deviation 1 ¯ ¯ rX1 −X2 σ2 1 n1 σ2 ∼ N(0.. the student’s t-test.

. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. and how do we test equality of two variances? Amit (ISI.TOH : a look back. 2013 4 / 33 ..

.TOH : a look back.. and how do we test equality of two variances? H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 6= σ22 Amit (ISI. 2013 4 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

TOH : a look back. and how do we test equality of two variances? H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 6= σ22 Here too. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI.. 2013 4 / 33 . H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal..

The test statistics. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal... 2013 4 / 33 . 2 s 2 Amit (ISI. s12 which follows Fisher’s F distribution.. and how do we test equality of two variances? H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 6= σ22 Here too.TOH : a look back..

2 s 2 Lets have a look at the TOH scenario in the tables next.TOH : a look back. Amit (ISI.. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. and how do we test equality of two variances? H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 6= σ22 Here too. 2013 4 / 33 .. H1 could also have > or < instead of not equal.. s12 which follows Fisher’s F distribution.. The test statistics.

Chennai) Test Statistic t0 = Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2.n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n ANOVA December 16.Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 Amit (ISI. 2013 5 / 33 .

Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 Test Statistic t0 = Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2. 2013 5 / 33 .n−1 H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ > µ0 Amit (ISI.n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n t0 < −tα. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 H0 H1 H0 H1 : : : : Amit (ISI.n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n t0 < −tα.n−1 µ = µ0 µ > µ0 µ1 = µ2 µ1 6= µ2 t0 > tα. Chennai) Test Statistic t0 = Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2.n−1 ANOVA December 16. 2013 5 / 33 .

n−1 µ = µ0 µ > µ0 µ1 = µ2 µ1 6= µ2 H0 : µ1 = µ2 Amit (ISI.n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n t0 < −tα. 2013 5 / 33 .n−1 |t0 | > tα/2.ν t0 = y¯ −¯ y2 r1 1 + 1 Sp n1 n2 ν = n1 + n2 − 2 ANOVA December 16. Chennai) Test Statistic t0 > tα.Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 H0 H1 H0 H1 : : : : t0 = H1 : µ1 < µ2 Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2.

ν H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 < µ2 t0 = y¯ −¯ y2 r1 1 + 1 Sp n1 n2 t0 < −tα. Chennai) ν= !2 S12 S22 + n1 n2 (S 2 /n1 )2 (S 2 /n2 )2 1 + 2 n1 +1 n2 +1 ANOVA −2 December 16.n−1 µ = µ0 µ > µ0 µ1 = µ2 µ1 6= µ2 t0 > tα.Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 Test Statistic H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 H0 H1 H0 H1 : : : : t0 = Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2.ν ν = n1 + n2 − 2 if σ1 = σ2 H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 > µ2 Amit (ISI. 2013 5 / 33 .n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n t0 < −tα.n−1 |t0 | > tα/2.

ν ν = n1 + n2 − 2 if σ1 = σ2 H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 > µ2 ν= !2 S12 S22 + n1 n2 (S 2 /n1 )2 (S 2 /n2 )2 1 + 2 n1 +1 n2 +1 −2 t0 > tα.ν if σ1 6= σ2 Amit (ISI.n−1 µ = µ0 µ > µ0 µ1 = µ2 µ1 6= µ2 t0 > tα. 2013 5 / 33 .Tests of Means Tests for means with variance Unknown Hypothesis H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ 6= µ0 Test Statistic H0 : µ = µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 H0 H1 H0 H1 : : : : t0 = Criteria for rejection |t0 | > tα/2.n−1 y¯ −µ0 √ s/ n t0 < −tα.ν H0 : µ1 = µ2 H1 : µ1 < µ2 t0 = y¯ −¯ y2 r1 1 + 1 Sp n1 n2 t0 < −tα.n−1 |t0 | > tα/2. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

n−1 or December 16.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 Amit (ISI. Chennai) Test Statistic ANOVA Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2. 2013 6 / 33 .

2013 6 / 33 . Chennai) Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2.n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 Amit (ISI.n−1 (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 ANOVA December 16.

n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2.n−1 χ20 < χ21−α.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 > σ02 Amit (ISI.n−1 December 16. Chennai) (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 ANOVA Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2. 2013 6 / 33 .

n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2. 2013 6 / 33 .n−1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 6= σ22 Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2. Chennai) χ20 < χ21−α.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 > σ02 (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 F0 = Amit (ISI.n−1 χ20 > χ2α.n−1 S12 S2 2 ANOVA December 16.

n2 −1 F0 < F1−α/2.n1 −1.n1 −1.n−1 S22 S2 1 ANOVA December 16.n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2.n−1 χ20 > χ2α. 2013 6 / 33 .n−1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 < σ22 Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 > σ02 (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 F0 = H1 : σ12 6= σ22 S12 S2 2 F0 > Fα/2. Chennai) χ20 < χ21−α.n2 −1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 F0 = Amit (ISI.

n−1 χ20 > χ2α.n2 −1 F0 < F1−α/2.n2 −1.n−1 S12 S2 2 ANOVA December 16.n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2.n1 −1.n1 −1. 2013 6 / 33 .Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 > σ02 (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 F0 = H1 : σ12 6= σ22 S12 S2 2 F0 > Fα/2.n1 −1 F0 = Amit (ISI. Chennai) χ20 < χ21−α.n−1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 > σ22 Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2.n2 −1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 F0 = H1 : σ12 < σ22 H0 : σ12 = σ22 S22 S2 1 F0 > Fα.

n2 −1 F0 < F1−α/2.n−1 χ20 > χ2α.n1 −1 F0 = Amit (ISI.n2 −1.n−1 S12 S2 2 F0 > Fα.n−1 or χ20 < χ21−α/2.n−1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 H1 : σ12 > σ22 Criteria for rejection χ20 > χ2α/2. 2013 6 / 33 .n2 −1 H0 : σ12 = σ22 F0 = H1 : σ12 < σ22 H0 : σ12 = σ22 S22 S2 1 F0 > Fα.n2 −1 ANOVA December 16.n1 −1.Tests on variances of Normal Distributions Hypothesis H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 6= σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 Test Statistic χ2 = H1 : σ 2 < σ02 H0 : σ 2 = σ02 H1 : σ 2 > σ02 (n−1)S 2 σ2 0 F0 = H1 : σ12 6= σ22 S12 S2 2 F0 > Fα/2.n1 −1.n1 −1. Chennai) χ20 < χ21−α.

5. 2013 7 / 33 .A ‘kutty’ example Let a set of observations be 5.3.1.0. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 5.2. understandably the sd is low! Amit (ISI. 5.

8.2.3. 10.9. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 10. understandably the sd is low! Similar is the sd in another data set. 5.1.6. Amit (ISI.A ‘kutty’ example Let a set of observations be 5. 5. 10.0.7. like 10. 5. 2013 7 / 33 .

7. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 5. 10.3. 10.2. 5.1. 2013 7 / 33 . 10.8.6.9. So an average sd for the two sets of data taken together is also going to be low! Amit (ISI. 5.A ‘kutty’ example Let a set of observations be 5. understandably the sd is low! Similar is the sd in another data set.0. like 10.

8.A ‘kutty’ example Let a set of observations be 5. So an average sd for the two sets of data taken together is also going to be low! So how do we do this averaging ? Amit (ISI. 10. 5. 5. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.7.9.1. 2013 7 / 33 .2. understandably the sd is low! Similar is the sd in another data set.0. like 10. 10. 10.3.6. 5.

So an average sd for the two sets of data taken together is also going to be low! So how do we do this averaging ? Do you know the p averaging problem ? Amit (ISI. 2013 7 / 33 . 5. 10.0.6. understandably the sd is low! Similar is the sd in another data set.8.A ‘kutty’ example Let a set of observations be 5.2. 5. 10. 5.9. like 10.1. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 10.3.7.

in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.do and don’t So. Amit (ISI. 2013 8 / 33 .

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective.do and don’t So. 2013 8 / 33 . and only one was produced in the next batch and Amit (ISI.

in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective.do and don’t So. 2013 8 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. and only one was produced in the next batch and the piece unfortunately was bad! Amit (ISI.

2013 8 / 33 . in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective.do and don’t So. and only one was produced in the next batch and the piece unfortunately was bad! So the data was as follows : Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

2013 8 / 33 . produced 100 1 average of no. and only one was produced in the next batch and the piece unfortunately was bad! So the data was as follows : No.5 Can you believe that?? Amit (ISI. defective 0 1 two ps Proportion 0 1 0. in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective.do and don’t So. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

do and don’t So. 2013 8 / 33 . produced 100 1 average of no. and only one was produced in the next batch and the piece unfortunately was bad! So the data was as follows : No. Chennai) 1 101 ANOVA December 16. ratio of total def & tot produced Amit (ISI. in one batch of production out of 100 there were no defective.5 Can you believe that?? However. the following is what you SHOULD do. defective 0 1 two ps Proportion 0 1 0.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 9 / 33 .Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. Amit (ISI. And that’s going to be large.

2 However the average of the two sd’s calculated for each set separately is going to small.Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. Amit (ISI. 2013 9 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. And that’s going to be large.

The two above would be very different and a comparison for equality will fail. And that’s going to be large. Amit (ISI.Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. 2 However the average of the two sd’s calculated for each set separately is going to small. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 9 / 33 .

And that’s going to be large. 2 However the average of the two sd’s calculated for each set separately is going to small. Why is this? Amit (ISI.Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. 2013 9 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. The two above would be very different and a comparison for equality will fail.

2013 9 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Why is this? Because the two sets are different! Amit (ISI.Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. And that’s going to be large. The two above would be very different and a comparison for equality will fail. 2 However the average of the two sd’s calculated for each set separately is going to small.

Why is this? Because the two sets are different! But different in what? Amit (ISI.Averaging SD’s 1 So we could find a sd taking all the eight observations from the two sets. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2 However the average of the two sd’s calculated for each set separately is going to small. The two above would be very different and a comparison for equality will fail. And that’s going to be large. 2013 9 / 33 .

Amit (ISI. 2013 10 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.different : In the average level of course.

different : In the average level of course.
This is why ANOVA works.

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

10 / 33

different : In the average level of course.
This is why ANOVA works.
ANOVA can be used to to test such hypothesis of equality of means due
to several factors simultaneously.

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

10 / 33

different : In the average level of course.
This is why ANOVA works.
ANOVA can be used to to test such hypothesis of equality of means due
to several factors simultaneously.
Typically used to analyze data in a Design of Experiment (DOE) scenario.

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

10 / 33

different : In the average level of course. Though the method assumes normality of the underlying characteristics and equality of variances of the populations are study. Amit (ISI. it is a very robust method. This is why ANOVA works. ANOVA can be used to to test such hypothesis of equality of means due to several factors simultaneously. Typically used to analyze data in a Design of Experiment (DOE) scenario. 2013 10 / 33 . in the sense that minor deviations from the assumption do not influence the conclusions adversely. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

..Lets look at an Example now..

. Chennai) ANOVA December 16..Lets look at an Example now. Amit (ISI. The tensile strength of synthetic fibre used to make cloth for mens shirt is of interest to a manufacturer. 2013 11 / 33 . It is suspected that the strength is affected by the % of cotton in the fibre.

. Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. It is suspected that the strength is affected by the % of cotton in the fibre. 30 and 35. 2013 11 / 33 .. 20.Lets look at an Example now. 25. The tensile strength of synthetic fibre used to make cloth for mens shirt is of interest to a manufacturer. Five levels of cotton % are of interest – 15.

...Lets look at an Example now.

and the 25 observations are run in random order.Lets look at an Example now... Amit (ISI. 25. The tensile strength of synthetic fibre used to make cloth for mens shirt is of interest to a manufacturer. Five observations are taken at each level of cotton %. 30 and 35. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 20. The following table gives the values of Tensile Strength of Synthetic Fibre (lb/in2 ). Five levels of cotton % are of interest – 15. It is suspected that the strength is affected by the % of cotton in the fibre. 2013 11 / 33 .

. 2013 12 / 33 . Chennai) 1 7 12 14 19 7 Observations 2 3 4 7 15 11 17 12 18 18 18 19 25 22 19 10 11 15 ANOVA 5 9 18 19 23 11 December 16.. The data on Tensile strength of five repeat samples of yarn with different cotton percentages are as in the table below.Example 1 continued. % of cotton 15 20 25 30 35 Amit (ISI.

Some more initial computation of the data in the last table. 2013 13 / 33 .Example 1 continued. Amit (ISI.... Chennai) ANOVA December 16..

Example 1 continued. 49 77 88 108 54 376 December 16. % of cotton : Factor Level(i) Value 1 15 2 20 3 25 4 30 5 35 Total – (G Amit (ISI. Chennai) Observations(j) : yij 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 15 11 9 12 17 12 18 18 14 18 18 19 19 19 25 22 19 23 7P P 10 11 15 11 = i j yij ) ANOVA Total yi. 2013 13 / 33 .... Some more initial computation of the data in the last table..

Amit (ISI..Example 1 continued. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 14 / 33 .. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. In the following.

we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols.. 2013 14 / 33 . Amit (ISI. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %..Example 1 continued.. In the following. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Example 1 continued... = Total of the observations of i th level. In the following. 2013 14 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. yi. Amit (ISI. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %.

Amit (ISI.Example 1 continued.. 2013 14 / 33 . = Total of all observations. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %. yi.. In the following.. y.. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. = Total of the observations of i th level.

= Total of the observations of i th level. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %. Chennai) ANOVA December 16... In the following. yi. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. 2013 14 / 33 . = Total of all observations..Example 1 continued.. n = Number of observations per level Amit (ISI. y.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. yi.Example 1 continued.. Amit (ISI. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %. n = Number of observations per level k = The number of levels we are comparing. = Total of all observations.. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. = Total of the observations of i th level. y. 2013 14 / 33 . In the following...

N = the total number of observations. = Total of the observations of i th level. we put the numbers in the table into the following symbols. In the following. yi.. y. = Total of all observations. 2013 14 / 33 .Example 1 continued. n = Number of observations per level k = The number of levels we are comparing.. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. yij = j th observation(Tensile Strength) on i th level of cotton %. Amit (ISI...

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. the means of which are equal.The ANOVA model In a One Way Analysis of Variance the hypothesis to be tested is that the items in the various classes come from universes. 2013 15 / 33 .

The ANOVA model In a One Way Analysis of Variance the hypothesis to be tested is that the items in the various classes come from universes. 2013 15 / 33 . the τi s are the class differentials and ij is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. More precisely. Amit (ISI. the mathematical model for the analysis is yij = µ + τi + ij where µ is a constant. the means of which are equal. these being the same for all classes.

these being the same for all classes.The ANOVA model In a One Way Analysis of Variance the hypothesis to be tested is that the items in the various classes come from universes. the mathematical model for the analysis is yij = µ + τi + ij where µ is a constant. More precisely. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. The hypothesis to be tested is that the τi s are zero for all j. 2013 15 / 33 . the means of which are equal. the τi s are the class differentials and ij is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 .

The ANOVA model In a One Way Analysis of Variance the hypothesis to be tested is that the items in the various classes come from universes. the τi s are the class differentials and ij is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 . these being the same for all classes. the means of which are equal. 2013 15 / 33 . Amit (ISI. With reference to the tensile strength example the null hypothesis means : the mean tensile strength of yarns with different cotton percentages are all equal. The hypothesis to be tested is that the τi s are zero for all j. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. More precisely. the mathematical model for the analysis is yij = µ + τi + ij where µ is a constant.

σy¯2 = Amit (ISI.The computations for a one way ANOVA One important result we need to know is that : means of samples of size n from a single population tends to have a variance that equals the variance of the universe divided by n. Chennai) σy2 n ANOVA December 16. 2013 16 / 33 .

σy¯2 = σy2 n Lets look at the formula for the standard deviation : Amit (ISI. 2013 16 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.The computations for a one way ANOVA One important result we need to know is that : means of samples of size n from a single population tends to have a variance that equals the variance of the universe divided by n.

The computations for a one way ANOVA One important result we need to know is that : means of samples of size n from a single population tends to have a variance that equals the variance of the universe divided by n. 2013 16 / 33 . . σy¯2 = σy2 n Lets look at the formula for the standard deviation : The observations are : x1 . . xn σx2 " n # Pn X [ i=1 xi ]2 1 2 = xi − n−1 n i=1 Amit (ISI. x2 . . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. .

. 2013 17 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.The computations 1 The correction factor : CF = y.2 /N P P 2 2 [ i j yij ] = 376 N 25 = Amit (ISI.

.The computations 1 2 The correction factor : CF = y.96 y i j ij Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.2 /N P P 2 2 [ i j yij ] = 376 N 25 = Total of square SSTotal = P P sum 2 − CF = (7)2 + (7)2 + (15)2 + · · · + (15)2 − CF = 636. 2013 17 / 33 .

96 y i j ij 3 Sum of squares due to cotton percentage SScotton = P 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 i [yi.2 /N P P 2 2 [ i j yij ] = 376 N 25 = 2 Total of square SSTotal = P P sum 2 − CF = (7)2 + (7)2 + (15)2 + · · · + (15)2 − CF = 636.The computations 1 The correction factor : CF = y. Chennai) ANOVA December 16..76 Amit (ISI. 2013 17 / 33 . ]/n] − CF = 5 [(49) + (77) + (88) + (108) + (54) ] − CF = 475.

The computations 1 The correction factor : CF = y.96 y i j ij 3 Sum of squares due to cotton percentage SScotton = P 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 i [yi. 2013 17 / 33 . ]/n] − CF = 5 [(49) + (77) + (88) + (108) + (54) ] − CF = 475..76 4 Sum of squares due to error SSError = SStotal − SSCotton Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.2 /N P P 2 2 [ i j yij ] = 376 N 25 = 2 Total of square SSTotal = P P sum 2 − CF = (7)2 + (7)2 + (15)2 + · · · + (15)2 − CF = 636.

.76 4 Sum of squares due to error SSError = SStotal − SSCotton 5 The above SSError can also be calculated independently. 2013 17 / 33 .2 /N P P 2 2 [ i j yij ] = 376 N 25 = 2 Total of square SSTotal = P P sum 2 − CF = (7)2 + (7)2 + (15)2 + · · · + (15)2 − CF = 636. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.The computations 1 The correction factor : CF = y.96 y i j ij 3 Sum of squares due to cotton percentage SScotton = P 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 i [yi. ]/n] − CF = 5 [(49) + (77) + (88) + (108) + (54) ] − CF = 475. Amit (ISI.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 18 / 33 .Degree of Freedom Degrees of freedom is the number of observations that are free to vary! Amit (ISI.

its not easy. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Degree of Freedom Degrees of freedom is the number of observations that are free to vary! Well. 2013 18 / 33 . unfortunately to understand degree of freedom as a concept in it’s entirety with little experience! Amit (ISI.

com/computer/sas/df. its not easy.creative-wisdom. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.html Amit (ISI.Degree of Freedom Degrees of freedom is the number of observations that are free to vary! Well. unfortunately to understand degree of freedom as a concept in it’s entirety with little experience! Do have a look at http://www. 2013 18 / 33 .

Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. 2013 19 / 33 . not easy to get in a single go.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. here is an analogy! Amit (ISI.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. not easy to get in a single go. However. 2013 19 / 33 .

here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept. Amit (ISI. 2013 19 / 33 . However.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. not easy to get in a single go. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Amit (ISI. This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces. 2013 19 / 33 .Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. However. not easy to get in a single go. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept.

not easy to get in a single go. 2013 19 / 33 . This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. However. here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept. For my friend! Amit (ISI.

This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 19 / 33 . However. here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. not easy to get in a single go. For my friend! A big piece for myself! Amit (ISI.

here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept. For my friend! A big piece for myself! Do I have a choice for the last? Amit (ISI. 2013 19 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. not easy to get in a single go. This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces. However.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept.

2013 19 / 33 . However. not easy to get in a single go. For my friend! A big piece for myself! Do I have a choice for the last? Amit (ISI.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept. This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

2013 19 / 33 . here is an analogy! an analogy only not the whole concept. not easy to get in a single go. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. This is a piece of chocolate I want to divide in three pieces. However.Degree of Freedom This is a deep and wide concept. For my friend! A big piece for myself! Do I have a choice for the last? The degree of freedom to make three pieces out of the chocolate is only 2. Amit (ISI.

SS : Sum of squares. MS : Mean square. DF : Degree of freedom.94 8.06 F −ratio 14. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.96 MS 118.76 161.76∗ SV : Source of variation. 2013 20 / 33 . Amit (ISI.20 636.The ANOVA table SV Cotton Error Total DF 4(= 5 − 1) 20[= 5 ∗ (5 − 1)] 24(= 5 ∗ 5 − 1) SS 475.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Hypothesis Testing H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5 H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j Amit (ISI. 2013 21 / 33 .

2013 21 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI.Hypothesis Testing H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5 H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j Conclusion 1 : H0 rejected.

Hypothesis Testing
H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5
H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j
Conclusion 1 : H0 rejected.
Further Analysis

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Hypothesis Testing
H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5
H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j
Conclusion 1 : H0 rejected.
Further Analysis
Level
Avg.Response

1
9.8

2
15.4

3
17.6

4
21.6

5
10.8

Conclusion 2

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Hypothesis Testing
H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5
H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j
Conclusion 1 : H0 rejected.
Further Analysis
Level
Avg.Response

1
9.8

2
15.4

3
17.6

4
21.6

5
10.8

Conclusion 2
1

µ1 = µ5 < µ2 = µ3 < µ4 and

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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8 Conclusion 2 1 µ1 = µ5 < µ2 = µ3 < µ4 and 2 95% confidence interval for µ4 is 18.Hypothesis Testing H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ4 = µ5 H1 : µi 6= µj for some i 6= j Conclusion 1 : H0 rejected.6 4 21.Response 1 9. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Further Analysis Level Avg.6 5 10.8 2 15.4 3 17.25 Amit (ISI.95 ≤ µ4 ≤ 24. 2013 21 / 33 .

2013 22 / 33 .Terminologies 1 Factor Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level Amit (ISI. 2013 22 / 33 .

Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response Amit (ISI. 2013 22 / 33 .

Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response 4 Main effect Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 22 / 33 .

Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response 4 Main effect 5 Interaction effect Amit (ISI. 2013 22 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

2013 22 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response 4 Main effect 5 Interaction effect 6 One way ANOVA Amit (ISI.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 22 / 33 .Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response 4 Main effect 5 Interaction effect 6 One way ANOVA 7 Two way ANOVA Amit (ISI.

2013 22 / 33 .Terminologies 1 Factor 2 Level 3 Response 4 Main effect 5 Interaction effect 6 One way ANOVA 7 Two way ANOVA 8 The ANOVA model Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Example : Two-way The maximum output voltage of a particular type of storage battery is thought to be influenced by the material used in the plates and the temperature in the location at which the battery is installed. 2013 23 / 33 .

Four replicates of a factorial experiment are run in the laboratory for three types of material and three temperatures. and the results are presented as follows. Amit (ISI.Example : Two-way The maximum output voltage of a particular type of storage battery is thought to be influenced by the material used in the plates and the temperature in the location at which the battery is installed. 2013 23 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

2013 23 / 33 . and the results are presented as follows. Four replicates of a factorial experiment are run in the laboratory for three types of material and three temperatures. Chennai) Temperature(o F ) 50 65 80 130 155 34 40 20 70 74 180 80 75 82 58 150 188 136 122 25 70 159 126 106 115 58 45 138 110 174 120 96 104 168 160 150 139 82 60 ANOVA December 16. Material Type 1 2 3 Amit (ISI.Example : Two-way The maximum output voltage of a particular type of storage battery is thought to be influenced by the material used in the plates and the temperature in the location at which the battery is installed.

The two-way Model yijk = µ + τi + θj + ijk Amit (ISI. 2013 24 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

these being the same for all the classes. Amit (ISI. θj are the class differentials corresponding to the column factor(temperature) and ijk is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 .The two-way Model yijk = µ + τi + θj + ijk where µ is a constant. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. the τi s are the class differentials corresponding to the row factor (in this example material type). 2013 24 / 33 .

2013 24 / 33 . these being the same for all the classes. the τi s are the class differentials corresponding to the row factor (in this example material type). The hypotheses to be tested are that the τi s are zero for all i. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. θj are the class differentials corresponding to the column factor(temperature) and ijk is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 . θj s are zero for all j. Amit (ISI.The two-way Model yijk = µ + τi + θj + ijk where µ is a constant.

The two-way Model yijk = µ + τi + θj + ijk where µ is a constant. the τi s are the class differentials corresponding to the row factor (in this example material type). The hypotheses to be tested are that the τi s are zero for all i. θj s are zero for all j. θj are the class differentials corresponding to the column factor(temperature) and ijk is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 . With reference to the output voltage example the null hypothesis means : the mean mean output voltage of batteries with different material type are all equal and also the mean output voltages for all material types are same. these being the same for all the classes. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. 2013 24 / 33 .

· · · . θj are the class differentials corresponding to the column factor(temperature) and ijk is random normal deviate with mean zero and variance σ 2 . · · · . With reference to the output voltage example the null hypothesis means : the mean mean output voltage of batteries with different material type are all equal and also the mean output voltages for all material types are same.The two-way Model yijk = µ + τi + θj + ijk where µ is a constant. 3. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. 4. 2013 24 / 33 . The hypotheses to be tested are that the τi s are zero for all i. i = 1. j = 1. the τi s are the class differentials corresponding to the row factor (in this example material type). these being the same for all the classes. · · · . θj s are zero for all j. k = 1. 3.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Interaction Effect In an experiment with more than one factor there is another effect that we are concerned with. Amit (ISI. 2013 25 / 33 . known as the interaction effect.

2013 25 / 33 .Interaction Effect In an experiment with more than one factor there is another effect that we are concerned with. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Tests of hypothesis under ANOVA are also carried out for this effect. Amit (ISI. known as the interaction effect.

2013 25 / 33 . known as the interaction effect. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI. Tests of hypothesis under ANOVA are also carried out for this effect.Interaction Effect In an experiment with more than one factor there is another effect that we are concerned with. Interaction effect between two factors is said to exist when the behavior of a factor changes from one level to another of the other factor.

Let the responses be as follows : Amit (ISI. 2013 26 / 33 . both at two levels 1 and 2.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : Amit (ISI. 2013 26 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. both at two levels 1 and 2.

2013 26 / 33 .Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. both at two levels 1 and 2.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : B1 B2 Amit (ISI. both at two levels 1 and 2.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. 2013 26 / 33 .

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a a B1 B2 Amit (ISI.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. both at two levels 1 and 2. 2013 26 / 33 .

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a a " B1 " " " B2 Amit (ISI. 2013 26 / 33 . both at two levels 1 and 2.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B.

both at two levels 1 and 2. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a " " A1" a " B1 B2 Amit (ISI.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 26 / 33 .

both at two levels 1 and 2. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a a " " a A" a 1 " B1 B2 Amit (ISI.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 26 / 33 .

Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a @ @ @"a " @a A" a 1 " B1 B2 Amit (ISI. 2013 26 / 33 . both at two levels 1 and 2. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B.

Interaction demonstrated Consider two factors A and B. both at two levels 1 and 2. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Let the responses be as follows : A1 A2 B1 12 50 B2 30 20 Pictorially the above scenario is as follows : a A @ @2 @"a " @a A" a 1 " B1 B2 Amit (ISI. 2013 26 / 33 .

Interaction demonstrated
Consider two factors A and B, both at two levels 1 and 2. Let the
responses be as follows :

A1
A2

B1
12
50

B2
30
20

Pictorially the above scenario is as follows :
a
A
@
@2
@"a
"
@a
A"
a 1
"
B1

B2

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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The Voltage Example
Correction Factor (CF ) =

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

(3799)2
36

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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The Voltage Example
Correction Factor (CF ) =

(3799)2
36

Total Sum of Squares
(SSTotal ) = (130)2 + (155)2 + (74)2 + · · · + (82)2 + (60)2 − CF = 77, 646.96

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Chennai) ANOVA December 16.The Voltage Example Correction Factor (CF ) = (3799)2 36 Total Sum of Squares (SSTotal ) = (130)2 + (155)2 + (74)2 + · · · + (82)2 + (60)2 − CF = 77.96 Sum of Squares due to Material 1 [(998)2 + (1300)2 + (1501)2 ] − CF = 10. 2013 27 / 33 . 683. 646.72 (SSM ) = 3x4 Amit (ISI.

646. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.72 (SSM ) = 3x4 Sum of Squares due to Temperature 1 (SST ) = 3x4 [(1738)2 + (1291)2 + (770)2 ] − CF = 39. 2013 27 / 33 .72 Amit (ISI. 118.96 Sum of Squares due to Material 1 [(998)2 + (1300)2 + (1501)2 ] − CF = 10. 683.The Voltage Example Correction Factor (CF ) = (3799)2 36 Total Sum of Squares (SSTotal ) = (130)2 + (155)2 + (74)2 + · · · + (82)2 + (60)2 − CF = 77.

77 Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 118. 646.72 (SSM ) = 3x4 Sum of Squares due to Temperature 1 (SST ) = 3x4 [(1738)2 + (1291)2 + (770)2 ] − CF = 39.96 Sum of Squares due to Material 1 [(998)2 + (1300)2 + (1501)2 ] − CF = 10. 2013 27 / 33 . 613.The Voltage Example Correction Factor (CF ) = (3799)2 36 Total Sum of Squares (SSTotal ) = (130)2 + (155)2 + (74)2 + · · · + (82)2 + (60)2 − CF = 77.72 Sum of Squares due to Interaction of Material and Temperature SSMxT = 41 [(539)2 + (229)2 + · · · + (342)2 ] − CF − SSM − SST = 9. 683.

230.72 Sum of Squares due to Interaction of Material and Temperature SSMxT = 41 [(539)2 + (229)2 + · · · + (342)2 ] − CF − SSM − SST = 9.72 (SSM ) = 3x4 Sum of Squares due to Temperature 1 (SST ) = 3x4 [(1738)2 + (1291)2 + (770)2 ] − CF = 39. 646. 683.The Voltage Example Correction Factor (CF ) = (3799)2 36 Total Sum of Squares (SSTotal ) = (130)2 + (155)2 + (74)2 + · · · + (82)2 + (60)2 − CF = 77. Amit (ISI.96 − 10. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.72 − 39. 646.72 − 9.77 = 18. 613. 2013 27 / 33 .75.77 Sum of Squares due to Error SSError = SSTotal − SSM − SST − SSMxT = 77. 613. 118. 118. 683.96 Sum of Squares due to Material 1 [(998)2 + (1300)2 + (1501)2 ] − CF = 10.

SS : Sum of squares.91∗ 28.230.72 9. DF : Degree of freedom.683.96 MS 5.403.21 F −ratio 7.613.86 19.118.72 39.The ANOVA table SV Material Temperature Interaction Error Total DF 2 2 4 27 35 SS 10.77 18. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.55836 2. 2013 28 / 33 .646. Amit (ISI.341.56∗ SV : Source of variation.75 77.97∗ 3. MS : Mean square.44 675.

Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16.An Exercise The effective life of a cutting tool installed in a numerically controlled machine is thought to be affected by the cutting speed and the tool angle. 2013 29 / 33 .

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. and a factorial experiment with two replicates is performed. 2013 29 / 33 . Three speeds and three angles are selected.An Exercise The effective life of a cutting tool installed in a numerically controlled machine is thought to be affected by the cutting speed and the tool angle. Amit (ISI.

2013 29 / 33 . The coded data are shown in the following table. and a factorial experiment with two replicates is performed. Chennai) Cutting Speed 125 150 175 -1 -3 2 -1 0 3 0 1 4 2 3 6 -1 5 0 0 6 -1 ANOVA December 16.An Exercise The effective life of a cutting tool installed in a numerically controlled machine is thought to be affected by the cutting speed and the tool angle. Three speeds and three angles are selected. Tool Angle (degree) 15 20 25 Amit (ISI.

% Carbonation (A) 10 12 14 Amit (ISI. Chennai) Operating Pressure (B) 30 psi 25 psi Line Speed (C ) 200 250 200 250 -3 -1 -1 1 -1 0 0 1 0 2 2 6 1 1 3 5 5 7 7 10 4 6 9 11 ANOVA December 16. and a factorial experiment with two replicates is conducted. 2013 30 / 33 . Three levels of A. operating pressure in the filler (B).Another example A soft drink bottler is studying the effect of % carbonation (A). two levels of B & C are selected. The coded data that result from this experiment are shown as follows. and line speed (C ) on the volume of carbonated beverage packaged in each bottle.

Some questions...

How many factors?

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Some questions...

How many factors?
How many levels in which factor?

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Some questions...

How many factors?
How many levels in which factor?
Are there replications?

Amit (ISI, Chennai)

ANOVA

December 16, 2013

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Some questions. 2013 31 / 33 . How many factors? How many levels in which factor? Are there replications? So what are all the sources of variations? Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16...

.Some questions. 2013 31 / 33 .. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. How many factors? How many levels in which factor? Are there replications? So what are all the sources of variations? Do we know all the degrees of freedoms? Amit (ISI.

2013 31 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. How many factors? How many levels in which factor? Are there replications? So what are all the sources of variations? Do we know all the degrees of freedoms? Can we write down the ANOVA Table? Amit (ISI...Some questions.

.Some questions. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. 2013 31 / 33 .. How many factors? How many levels in which factor? Are there replications? So what are all the sources of variations? Do we know all the degrees of freedoms? Can we write down the ANOVA Table? Do we now know what the model should be? Amit (ISI.

How many factors? How many levels in which factor? Are there replications? So what are all the sources of variations? Do we know all the degrees of freedoms? Can we write down the ANOVA Table? Do we now know what the model should be? Finally do we know what to compute and how? Amit (ISI. 2013 31 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16...Some questions.

2013 32 / 33 . . . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.Some questions . What is p value? Amit (ISI.

Chennai) ANOVA December 16. . 2013 32 / 33 . What is p value? What are Type 1 and Type 2 errors. .Some questions . Amit (ISI.

What is p value? What are Type 1 and Type 2 errors. 2013 32 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. .Some questions . . Level of significance? Amit (ISI.

Some questions . Level of significance? α? Amit (ISI. . 2013 32 / 33 . What is p value? What are Type 1 and Type 2 errors. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. .

Level of significance? α? What are the purposes of Randomization. 2013 32 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. . . What is p value? What are Type 1 and Type 2 errors. Replication and Local control ? Amit (ISI.Some questions .

2013 33 / 33 .A case Growth of a particular infection ia being studied on several different medically important substrates. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI.

A case Growth of a particular infection ia being studied on several different medically important substrates. Several drugs are also being studied for their efficacy against the growth. 2013 33 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16. Amit (ISI.

2013 33 / 33 .A case Growth of a particular infection ia being studied on several different medically important substrates. Amit (ISI. Chennai) ANOVA December 16. It is desired to investigate if the substrates behave differently with reference to the growth. Several drugs are also being studied for their efficacy against the growth.

Amit (ISI. Several drugs are also being studied for their efficacy against the growth. Also if some drugs are more effective than the other with reference to the treatment. It is desired to investigate if the substrates behave differently with reference to the growth.A case Growth of a particular infection ia being studied on several different medically important substrates. 2013 33 / 33 . Chennai) ANOVA December 16.

Also if some drugs are more effective than the other with reference to the treatment. Chennai) ANOVA Click Here December 16. Several drugs are also being studied for their efficacy against the growth.A case Growth of a particular infection ia being studied on several different medically important substrates. Lets look at a typical output of ANOVA from MINITAB. It is desired to investigate if the substrates behave differently with reference to the growth. Amit (ISI. 2013 33 / 33 .