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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

COOhY
ON

TAJVIIb

AS UNDERSTOOD BY LABOURERS

TEA and RUBBER ESTATES.

SPECIALLY ARRANGED FOR PLANTERS AND

PLANTING STUDENTS.

By

W.

G. B.

WELLS.

Colombo:
'Ceylon Obsbkvkk
1915.
'

PftBSS

INTRODUCTION.

VJ%% c

Judging by my own experience, it seems to me a little knowledge of how Tamil words are inflected and how tenses and sentences are formed will enable the planter to overcome many of the difficulties he meets with when learning cooly Tamil orally. I have ventured, therefore, to adopt a system rather different to that given in previous Tamil Handbooks published for the planter's use, my sole aim being to place in the hands of the "creeper" a book that will assist him to learn the "ungrammatical" language of the cooly, and help him to understand, and make himself
understood, after comparatively short study.

In doing this I have adopted a simple method of spelling, in which every letter must be pronounced so that words are kept as short us possible and the use of long words, difficult to remember,
,

is

obviated.

Then again, by repeating the values of the vowels on each page, committing them to memory becomes almost mechanical, and accurate pronunciation should soon be acquired.
In some words the difference in sound between
tt
is

'd,'

't'

and

often difficult to distinguish, so in order to obviate having various words spelt exactly alike and causing confusion I have sometimes interchanged the use of these letters; (and kept 'th' Also, there are instances always hard as in English 'the'). where words would be precisely similar if the exact sound were reproduced, such as in yen my, and ye why; the latter really being also yen (it often has a slight nasal sound of yeng).

Further, I have tried to keep the ending vowel, or syllable, the same in words of the same 'Part of Speech' in order to assist recognition in reading, even at the expense of slight variation from the real pronunciation, which would be hardly noticeable.
I should have employed a 'long' e (S) and »v 'long' i (I) in addition to the vowel Bounds given, but I have omitted these The former in order to limit the number of vowels to be learnt.
is represented by ordinary e and i together, sounded slightly apart, while the latter is only indicated, as 'ee' in been, shewn against important words in the Vocabulary, as the lengthening of i, in the few words where it occurs, will quickly be acquired by

practice.

I

may

point out that the discrepancies

in

pronunciation

among

coolies themselves is often considerable, according to what part. of India they come from. There may be some exceptions to the

1367135

il

INTRODUCTION.

rules for formation of Tenses traceable, but not sufficiently important for special mention.

The grammar section is short and simple, and if once read through, however' roughly, a general idea of the language will be obtained, and, what is probably more important, the fear that the idea of grammar usually produces will be dispelled
!

The Vocabularies (English-Tamil and Tamil-English) contain
a large collection of every-day words for estate use, I have actually heard in use.
all of

which

In the Sentences I have given reference numbers to paragraphs, so that words can be referred to where they are In the same way in the Vocabularie& dealt with in detail. numbers refer to the Sentences where the word has been used. This should be useful to the beginner.
Postscript and Appendix contain some useful common speech, omitted for the sake of simplicity from the body of the book, but they should be understood as they can be used

The

form.-, of

with advantage.
I should

be glad
in

to

consider suggestion

for

improvements

and corrections

a

new

edition, through the Publishers.

W.
Ratnaptjra.

G. B.

WELLS.

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

Grammar
Sentences

..

...

...

...
...
...

I

...
...

...
...
... ...

...
... ...
...

-47-70

Muster
Plucking Tipping Pruning Manuring Draining Planting

47

...
...
...
...

...

50 52
57 59

...
...
... ...
...

...
... ... ...
...

...
...
... ... ... ...

...

60
61

...

Weeding
Filling

.„
...

...
...
...

62
63

... ...

Rubber Tapping
Recruiting
Coolies'
...

64
66
71

...
...
...

...

...
...

Words Alike yet Dissimilar

..,

Names

...

...
...
..

...
...
...

74

Contractions and Colloquialisms

77
78-88

Verbs:
List of

...

...
...
...

Rules for forming Tensos

...

...

78

Verbs
of

...

...
...
... ...

...
...
...

79
84 S8

Conjugation of the Verb

Do

the Auxiliary Veil)
...

English-Tamil Vocabulary Tamil-English Vocabulary
Postscript
...
...

...
...

89
131
ltJ8

...
... ...

...
...

...

Appendix

...

...

172

COOliV
A.

TflMIli.

PRONUNCIATION.
Consonants
ch
is

are

pronounced as
:

following restrictions

in English with the

pronounced as in chin'. is always as in 'go'. q T, rr should be rolled with the tip of the tongue, as in Hhia'. S

i

th
y
ei

as in as in

l

the',
'yes'.

NOT as in
e-i

'both'.

as in 'weight', with
as in
'aisle',

slightly separated.

ai

with

a-i

slightly separated.

DOUBLE CONSONANTS have been avoided. Where they occur it is necessary to pronounce each with its own vowel and 'tt' of the Past Participle (with the exception of 'kk' mul-lu (mullu fork), mu-lu and its derivatives). Thus
;
:

(mulu— whole).
*

Compare English words
'g'

'coolly'

and

'cooly'.

n' before
jIs

and

'k' is

of course

sounded as in Hong'.

a

is

COOLY TAMIL.

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.
which Tamil Words

The following

is

a simple rule for finding the
(as spelt in this

way
" -

in

book) should be divided

into Syllables, for accurate pronunciation without a tonic accent such as exists in the English words "present' and

''present" etc.
rules

Copy down a number and examples below.

of

words and mark them
little
is,

After very

easy to read correctly aj; sight. to be afraid of long words.

There

off as per practice it will be therefore, no need

Rule
off

1

Start by looki»g at the end of the word.

Rule 2.

If the word ends in a vowel; (a) mark the vowel with the consonant before it. Contimie to do this through the word until you (b) come to two consonants, then take the r.ext three letters; after that continue mirking off two letters and so on.

two vowels together as one vowel. When come together isolate the last and treat the remaining two as one. 'ch' and 'th' = one consonant. If the word ends in a consonant, mark off the first Rule 3. three letters, then continue a* in Rule 2.

B.— Treat

three vowels

1

N. B.

— Treat the first pair

of three

consonants together

as one consonant.''

Treat words coupled by an apostrophe as two words, imagining the dropped vowel only in the absence of
one.'

Examples to Rule 2.— Pak/ka/ti/le,
]

ma/ra/tuk/kn,
2

i/ruk/

ru/thu, et/ta/ne, a/va/ne, a/thu, vett/nu/thu, vett/nu'," va/thuk/ku, ton/ga/li/run/tu, then/dit/tu, a/ma, am/ma, • poi/chi, lai/a/ti/li/run/tu, kai/i/le, ku/du/ka/na/ta/the.

Examples to Rule 3.— El/lam,
:

ne/ram, ve/num, ku/du/kat/tum, e/du/ka/ma/ten, a/pu/ram, vftit/t'e/du/ka/the 3 (absence of vowel), e/duk/r«'ko/lun/tu 3 (vowel not absent). Therefore do not say mara£ti£ku, irukruthu, tota^'le, kuduka,maten, etc., but gently merge the syllables together without accent.

EXERCISE. Taken from A
gal, nin/gal,

3. Nan i/ruk/ren, ni i/rnk/ru/thu, nan/ a/van/gal, ye/nuk/ku, u/nuk/kn, a/van/ga/luk/ku

(words not divided here are of course of one syllable).
e/duk/ka

C 1 .— Nan ma/lik/ki va/ren. Ni ko/lun/tu Sur/ru/ka ner/re pu/di. po. Kan/ga/ni, anth'al sur/ru/ka vei/lik/ki a/nu/pu. Anro/ti/le nik/ru/thu, par, Nan/gal is/to/ th'a/lcide ka/cle a/va/luk/ku ku/duk/ru/thu. ruk/ku po/ren, Kan/ga/nik/ki a/van pes/ruth'il/le. Ni lai/a/Taken from

COOLY TAMIL.
tuk/ku po/ru/tha. Ai/ya, an/tha po/diau el/lam nal/la sak pQ/thu ka/duk/ka kon/du po/ru/thu. Se/ri ^a/thu u/nuk/ku ea/aa. In/tha ma/lik/ki sak il/lea. Taken from H 1 Nan ip/po po e/la/ma. Il/le ni po e/Na/tna pei/chi mu/dint/tu ni pa'e/lam. Ver vet/ta/la/the. — pujdin[athe kai/i/le pudink'o/nura (imagine dropped vowel
.

!

:

V

k[a)o/ntim.

)

To/pal e/le vait/t'e/du/ka/the (imagine dropped voiuel'u' = In/tha ma/ram e/dn/k'o/nu/ma {imagine vdit/tu'e/du/ka/the.) i a = eldulk{a)ojnumu. ) dropped vowel I/thi ven/diu/th'il/le [imagine dropped vowel 'u' = venldiu/th(u)il/le.)
,

Accent-

There is no 'tonic' accent* every syllable having the same value. Only the long ( — ) mark gives value to vowels but not to syllables. EVERY LETTER, BE PRONOUNCED, there being no mutes {but see ch\ 'tA' and 'n' above) 'ai' a' d 'ei' are not quite dipthongs.
l ;

MUST

A. 1.

There

is

no Gender

to

be

learnt

at

Plural forms

sonal pronouns, can be ignored, as it necessary to use them, anyway at first, except in polite forms of speech. (See Appendix A).

of all parts of speech,

except'

ad. The some peris seldom

Inflexion.
(a)

The only

inflexions of the
:

tion of suffixps) are

noun

(apart from addi>
into
'

Nouns ending
a suffix or a

in

'

m

'

(b)

beginning with a vowel, the former usually drops
final vowel.
(c)

word beginning with a vowel. word ending in a vowel precedes one When^a
its

change

it

t

'

before

To form the objective case (also of pronouns) 'e* is added to the end of the word, or substitutes a final
vowel, (but this
ts

not important).
all

2- Pronouns. The plural forms can for polite speech inthe singular.
A.
I

be uied

nangal, nam (y)engale
niiigal

uugale
avangal, avargal
(polite)

av&lgal avangale, avargalo (polite) avalgale

Ivan, ival, ithu, etc a r e used when the pronoun refers to a person or thing near by. .(Soo Noto to C).
:

Note.

L— The

above can

all be

omitted before the verb

if

the

meaning

is clear.

4

COOLY TAMIL.
A. 3. Auxiliary.

and <TO
the

HAVE — Irukka-

There

is

only one verb for 'TO BE' The Present Tense (Ap.

pt-ndix B.) is formed from the Imperative, Iru, be, by adding '-kren' for the first person singular and kruthu for 'all
rest.

I

am
are

... ...

Nan irukren
Ni irukruthu
Avan. aval, athu irukruthu Nanga', ningal, avangal irukruthu

You

He, she, it is -We, you, they
(See

...

are...

Appendix
is

B. for

grammatical form of
;

plural.)

Yes,
the verb.

translated by

See

B

Ama No, Not,

by

Ille

placed after

2 (Note 2).

(po?sess) is always translated by emwith the dative form of the pronouo. Thus There is to me, it is to him, etc. This form of the pronoun is made by addirg -ukku.* (A 2 ; A 4.)

The verb 'to have'

ploying
:

"Irukka'

*

Don't pronounce
...
... ...

this as in the

'

English

Cuckoo,' hut ufc-ku.f

To me To you To him
lite)

yenukku unukku avanukku
avarukku yecgalukku

I

have
has
has

.„
...
...

You have

yenukku irukruthu unukku irukruthu
avanukku irukruthu
avarukku irukruthu yengalukku irukruthu or namukku
[irukruthu

He
tie

Tohim(po...

(po... ...

To us
To you

...

(or

We have
lite)

lite)

namukku)
...

ungalukku

You have (po...

To

them... avangalukku

ungalukku irukruthu They have ... avaogalukku irukru[thu

Note. 1.— THE SUBJECT OF THE VERB IS PLACED BEFORE THE OBJECT AND THE PRINCIPLE VERB COMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.

N.B.

(a)

When

'Irukka' means

'to have',

a dative
(b)

suffix -ukku, this
'to be'

toith a noun ending in noun precedes the object.

When Irukka means

the above

may

be reversed

without altering the sense.
(c)

All other verbs follow the rule.

Every
fi

letter

must be pronounced.
ei

us
,,

'u'

in

Rule.
!

as

'ei' 'ai'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

fu

'n'

Put (as 'e in Hundred when final).

ai

COOLY TAMIL
Except
»
(rf)

5

Ij stress

is

required on the subject of the verb then the
the subject.
the

object
e ( )

may precede
loill

If iac subject of the verb be a

(/)

pronoun understood, appear first. When asking a question the subject may be put at end of the sentence.
object

the

These r ules are not quite regularly adhered to, but the student should employ them to start with. They are easy
to learn.

EXAMPLES OB ABOVE.
(a)

— Avangalukku oru kude irukruthu They have a basket. Puth'alukku oru peria katti irukruthu The new cooJy has a big knife.

(b)

Oru mamati avanude kaiile irukruthu, kaiile oru mamati irukruthu There

or,
is

avauude

a

mamoti

in his hand.

Palia

sakum puthu kattium bangalaukku irukruthu bangalaukku palia sakum puthu kattium irukruthu — The old sacks and new knives are at tho
or,

bungalow.
(c)

Muttusftini

Ramas&mi

adittuthu— Muttusamy

hit

Nan
(d)

Ramasamy.
avale aditten

—I

hit her.

(e)

vathu nan tan vettnen I cut the branch myself. Nan vathu vettnen I cut the branch (no stress) Koluntu kondu vara sollu (i.e. Ni koluntu kondu vara sollu) Tell (them) to bring the leaf.
or,

Vathu nan vettneu,

Ottu-pal rubber.
(f)

visi

podathe— Don't throw away the scrap
al ?
?

Enge nikruthu,
are the coolies

or, al

enge nikruthur'

— Where

Enna sonuthu, kangini ? or, kangani enna sonuthu What did the kangany say ?

Don't be afraid of rules, they are quite easy make up a few sentences by them and speak them out in the field, after which the construction will come naturally.

The

objective case of

nouns

is

2ironouns (aee

A

1.

a

&

rightly formedjty adding

'o'

as

c),

but this can usually be ignored.

Every
a a
an
,t

letter

must be pronounced.
e
aa

'i>>
a.

in
.,

Fun.

COOLY TAMIL.

EXAMPLES TO
I

A. 3.
inge irukr. n.
ie.

am here— Nan
is
is
I

She

He
Yes

am here— Ama nan inge You are not — Ni irukruth'ille

(there) irukruthu. not there — Avail anje (there) irukrutlri

there— Aval ange

irukren.
i*

(The final vowel of the verh

be omitted) has not a knife— Avanukku katti It is not here— Athu inge ille. Master is not here Dore inge ille. That is mine Athu yenukku.

They have a hasket— Avangalukku oru kude irukruthu. She has no basket— Avalubku kude ille. ('to be', and 'to have', when not auxiliary, may

here dropped.)

He

ille.

Note.— 'Inge' can

be,

pronounced with hard

or soft

'g'.

better to say 'nikruthu' instead of Hrukruthu' when referring to persons. This is the verb 'nikka', to stand, to be 'Irukruthu' is used here as an present. of the verb

NOTE.— It is

example

Tea
Sack

Tei ele

Sak
Pillu
(flush)

Leaf, a

Weed
Leaf
Field

Work

Ele Veile

Hand
Road

Koluntu Kai Male Rotu

Row, line Muster

Now

Quickly Siowly

Drain

Kan

Nerre Peratu Surukka Mulla Ippo
'oru or' for ''the'
'

Note 2.— 'The' is not translated. A. an. is and may be omitted. 'Antha' is sometimes used

euphonical ly.

A «4 From, to, of, etc: are sumxes REPOSITIONS.others see to the noun. For Vocabu'ary.
-

These

From
*To, for, at

...
...

-iliruntu -ukku, -ikki
..

In,

on

...

-He
.

Of

...

u de

With

By, with (in company with)

-odu. (Ps. 10\

...

Kuda (not

suffix).

Ps. = 'Postscript', at end of the Book.

NOTE

l.—Thc
;

final

vowel

l

e',

of the

word

before the above

-ikki is

used only for words ending in

is often

'e'

omitted or T.

Every letter must be pronounced.
u
as
in

Rule.

ei

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

Patj(as >' in Hundred when final).
'Exceptions.

ai

<ai'

Ingutu, to here

;

Angutu, to there

;

Engutu, to where.

COOLY TAMIL.

7

EXAMPLES
A
A
A woman A cooly (person)
boy
...

••
...

A name
girl

...
...

oru oru oru oru oru

podiao

pumbale
al (or'al)

per kutti

In the hand To the road To a woman
In the basket

...
... ... ...

kai/ile

rot/ubku oru pumbale/ikki
kude/ile male/iliruntu
('iruntu' is also

From the held From there From here
For master

... ... ...
...

ange/iruntu inge/iruntu doreikki

[correct

To the bungalow
Of him, Of me
(his)

...

...
...

bangalaukku avanude yenude (yen, my)

To you

unukku

To

us

...

By

the road With the row (4o with him To me, mine

..
...
... ...

(un, your) yengalukku, or, namukku (our, lotodu [yengalude) nerreodu avan kuda po
;

yenukku
not, no.

Note U.— CARE

NOUNCE
Note

MOST BE TAKEN NOT TO PRO'ille',

-ile with a double T, like

N- B.

To follow the translation of example sentences, look words up in the Vocabulary at the end of book.
...—

ude.

Eng

ish)
(a)

thus:

of, "is

used

for the possessive

(i.e.

the

's

in

The

cooly'*

basket=(the)

basket of (the)
;

master's knife=knife of master

(c)

line— To

To the Kangany's

cooly; (6)

(the) line of (the)
is

Kangani.
:

But
(a J

the order

inverted in Tamil

(of

alude kude=(of cooly basket) (6) Dorelude katti= master knifj) (c) kanganiude laiatukku=of kan; ;

gany

to (the) line.

Dent learn above, but
Of
Note

the same

from the litteral English as shown consider •ude' an exact rendering English 'S then the order of words will appear
this
;

in

Tamil as in English.

As an alternative tothis 4. as: al-kude, d<r -katti, ftc.
Every letter mast
a
;i

metlud

11

2.

can

l>e

used

i><-

pronounced.
e
i

as

'a'
'a'

in
,.

Fun.
Father.

as

'e'

in
,,

Pen.
Pin.

T

o

us

'o'

in More.

8

COOLY TAMIL.

B.

Most adjectives generally end in V, Bometiraes in 'ana' ara formed from the Past Tense, or Past Participle of verbs 1, Note 2.) They precede the nour>. (See B2;

ADJECTIVES —Big,

Small.

Old,

etc.

These
:

D

EXAMPLES.
Palakam Palakamana
Poi Poiana Peria kal Sinna kude
Palia sak
...
...

...
...
... ...

experience experienced a lie
false

...
...

big stone small lasket old sack

Seriana veile Mutt'ele

proper work

...

hard

leaf

The new cooly has a
irukruthu.

large knife

— Puth'alukku

peria katti

There

is a man on the nikrutha.

new road

— Ange

or'ftl

puthu

rotile

In the small basket there is no koluntu iiukruth'ille.

leaf(flush)

— Sinna

kudeile

(In this type of sentence the auxiliary

is

usually omitted.)

They have not any good
There
is

leaf in

the sacks

— Avangalukku

peria sakile nalla koluntu

ille.

only hard leaf

The pluckers The

— Mutt'ele matiram irukrutho. are in the field — Kolunt'al maleile nikruthu
leaf people).

(kolunt'al,

old knives and the new sacks are at the bungalow Palia kattium puthu sakum bangalaukku irukruthu.
is

('And'

word, not sentence,

translated by sutiix it joins in English,

um
is

repeated after each but is often omitted.)

SeeD.

NOTE

1.

— Remember the

final

'u'

always short, as

i

e'

in

'hundred,' unless indicated by a long

(-)mark

to be otherwise.

Every letter must be pronounced,
in
>.

Rule.

ei in ai

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

V u 'l

j.

Put(aa'e'

'ai'

"Hundred wh«n

final).

COOLY TAMIL.

9

B. 1. Infinitive of Verbs.— These are formed by — adding— kka to the Imperative, or " a to the stem of it. They precede the principle verb (See Verbs.")
It is best to learn the iufinitive by heart and make up other tenses from it as per rule (See " Verbs") and not trouble about the formation of it.

10

COOLY TAMIL.
B
2.

fixing

them to another n nn
it

Nouns can be used as Adjectives —
:

:

by preai.

Manure Manure basket.
Leafsacks

ram.
kiide.

Pluckers

.

.

kolunt'

Oram
kasi.

Manur.

rs

...

urat'al(See

koluntu sak.
kai kasi
(i.e.

A

1

(a.)

Cash

Ready cash
Cart Cart road

... kavat'al Prunera Factory coolies ... istor'al

cash.) karrete.

hand

(Istoru, store, factory) .

karreterotu.
vowel of the first word is usually dropped. in this way to an unlimited extent.

NOTE.— The final
Adjectives

may be farmed

Note 1. As the plural forms of nouns and pronouns are not always used as plurals the word ellam = all, may be a !ded to show a plural, for instance
:

You

(plur

:)

Those These Everyone

Ni ellam (all of you) Athu ellam (all of it,
Ith'ellam (this all) Al ellam (person all)

it all)

The knives

Katti ellam (knife
'
'

all)

more

' ' yes a-e 2- In reply to a question, no correctly implied by a repetition cf the verb instead of plain 'die' or 'ami,' thus

Note

and

:

Are you going ?— Ni porutha ? Yes— Poren (I am going). Did you give the letter ?- Kaitham kudututha ? Yes Kuduthen (I gave). Will he see to it ?—Athukku paputha ? G. No— Papamatathe (he will not see). Did he say that?— Avan athe sonutha? No— Avan son'illo (he said not). (See Conjugation of

Verb, page 86, Negative Past Tense.)

Form

of

Every letter must be pronounced.
in
'u'

Rule,

ei

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

in Put (as Hundred when final).

V

ai

'ar

COOLY TAMIL.

11

This (sing: and plur

C- This, That. ADJECTIVES: Th it, Antha Which, Yentlw :), Intha
;

;

NOl'E.— Initial
and Interrogation

'V,

'a', 'o'

and

'y',

dc/tofe

proximitf, distance

respectively.
...

Thiswoik That dog This row

Intha

.„.
...

... ..,
...

Antha

veile. nai.

This line c~o!y dwelling) In this line ...

...
...

Which

co. ly

... ...

Intha nerre. Intha laiam. Intha laiatie— see Yenth' at.?
Anth'al ange.
to

A 1(a).

That one there

...

Tell those coolies to

come

surruka peratukku vara to muster to come tell)

scllu, (lit

muster quickly— Anth'al those people quickly
:

Why is that
I

girl

not at muster?—Ye antha kutti peratuk-

ku nikruth'ille?*
do not know, sir— Yenukku teriathe, aiya, That woman and those boys are not plucking— Antha pum* bale, anlha podian edukruth'ilb (plural not employed).
No, master, they are
(irukruthu). (See S
Tell

hzy— 'lie,
2).

dore, avan(gal)

somara tan
poa

them

boIIu. (lit

to go to the lines— Avaugale laiatukku t them to lines to go tell).
:

C 1 Present Tense of ALL verbs is formed from the 1MPERA TIVE as shown in the verb to be' (A 3) by adding for person singular; and -kruthu -Icren for the first i» its all the rest, EXCEPT when the infinitive has no 'k' termination; then the tense endings will be -ren and -ruthu, i.e. also no 'k' (Soe page 79, List of Verbs).

'

Every letter must be pronounced.
a a

as

'u'

in

Fun.
Father.
o
i

as

'e'

in

Pen.
Pin.

V
'to be'

V

as

'o'

in
'

More.
to

*

The Verb
by

wheD meaning
this

be present' should be trans-

lated

'nikka,' to stand, to

be present.

|

In rapid speech

word

often sounds like HaitukkiC.

12

COOLY TAMIL.
INFINITIVE.

IMPERATIVE. Kudu

PRESENT TENSE

COOLY TAMIL.
End

13

14

COOLY TAMIL.

gone, to the teamaker having spoken, to the field having gone I weighed up the leaf. (See Examples page 15.)
It will
last,

This is used a of conjunction 'and'. Thus :->(See Postscript 6'.) Tell him to go to the bungalow and fetch a book this would be rendered 1 totally him to the bungalow logo having told a book to fetch tell. Again: I went to the factory and spoke to the teamaker and then went to the field and weighed up the leaf Literally: I to the factory havit g
D.

great deal
:

Having. -PAST PARTICIPLE. in Tamil instead
:

Any number of Past Participles can be
(SeeP2.)

be noticed that the principle verb

is

kept to the

strung together.

D. 1.— The past participle is used with the Imperative often when giving orders (i.e. Imperative mood). Go on plucking (taking leaf)— Eduttu po. Lit: this

means, having taken

(leaf

from one

tree)

Come on pluck— Eduttu vs. Go on breaking the level — Mattam odittu po. Come along cut — Vetti va. Come run along — Odi va. (Appendix D.) Don't stand idle and stare — Suma nintu mulikatte.

go (to the next).

NOTE
be borne in

2.— This is very important and should always mind as it is used more often than the simple Imperative.

THE FOLLOWING MUST BE NOTED TOGETHER WITH THOSE ON PAGE 79 (LIST OF VERBS).
Having been
,, ,,
,,

...ir

untu

taken asked heird
cut

,,


,,

spoken
said, told.

,,

come
g» ne

COOLY TAMIL.
NOTE
etc., is

lo
'doin*',
*&_. 'saying

2.— PRESENT

PARTICIPLE,
l

the same as 3rd person singular Present tense, but ofien It is used as an drops the final syllable '-uthu' or -thu\ adjective i the' place of a subordinate sentence beginning with 'who', 'which' etc (see (i \l and Postscript 8.) Subordinate sentences in the Past apply the Past Tense in the same way. They always precede the noun like an adjective.
'
:

Examples on Page

23.

EXAMPLES
He went

to D.
and
is

to the factor/

coming back— Avau istorukku

poittu varuthu. He sp ike to the kangani and is now going quickly on the road Kangflnikki pesi avan ippo surruka rotodu poruthu 1 blame the cooly and am sending her to the lines Nan 81 yesi (having blamed) avale la'atukku anupren.

I

He

hira

kondu vantu, kanganikki kuduttu avane totukku satne poa solruthu. Go to the pruners, ask the kangani for a knife and come back here with it in your hand— Kavat'alukku poittu, un kaile kangani kitta (near,* ou katti keittu, athe
kaitbam

b oushb a letter, gave to go to M
(letter)

it

to the kangani and is telling estate at once —Avan oru

M

pudittu, inge tirumbi (back) va.
va.

Go and come back -Poittu
return.)

(Lit

:

having gone come,

Jungle

16

OOLY TAMIL.
O. 2.

Past Tense.— This
its final

is

Participle (minus

rowel) by adding
for all
'[',

formed from the Past -en for the first
rest, except when the the tense endings will

person sirgnlar_and

-uthu

the
then

Past participle be -nen and nuthu

ends in

PAST PARTICIPLE.
Having been
..

PAST TENSE.
I

Iruntju

was
it

..

Nan

irunten

He, she,
,,

was

...Avan, aval,

athu

iruntuthu.

cnt

...Vetf/i

I

cut
she,
it,

...NSn vettnen cut
...Avan, aval, athu

He
,,

vettnuthu.

heard

...Keitt/u

I

heard
she,
it,

He,
,

keiten heard.. Avan, aval, athu keittutau.
..

Nan

fpoken

..

Pes/i

I spoke ...Nan pesnm He, she, it spoke. ..Avan, aval, at! u

pesnuthu.
,,

come

...Vant/u

f

came
it

...Nan vanten

He, she,
,,

came. ..Avan, aval, athu vantuthu
...Nanponen, can
poitten

gone

...Po/i,2'oitt/u

I

went
it

He, she,

went. ..Avan, aval, athu ponuthu, poituthu.

EXAMPLES.
I

He He

cut the branch ave it to me did not give it
f.

He was pruoir g y es terday Neitu avan kavatu vettnuthu Did he prune yesterday ? — Neitu avail kavatu vettnutha ? He took a mamoty to the held and has not brought it back — Oru mamati malikki kondu poittu avan kondu
vantuth'ille.
I

— Nan vathu vettnen. —Avan athe yenukku kudutthu. tome — Avan athe yenukku kudututh'ille

saw Famasamy speaking to the kangani Pamasanii kanganikki pesruthu kanden. That man gave me tbis money— Anth'al intha kasi yenukku kudututhu. Did that man give you the money Anth' amble al kasi

unukku kudututha? Did that cooly come?—Anth'al vaututha?
Every letter must be pronounced.
Q
as
,,

'u'

in

Itule.

ei

as
,,

'ci'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

u

'u'

Put

(as

*e'

in

ai

'ai'

Hundred when

final).

COOLY TAMIL.
No,
sir,

17

he has not come

— Me, aiya,

avan

var'ill*, or,

avan

varuv'ille.

Have you

rice store

told those coolie^ to go and carry rice from the Arisi istor'iliruntu anth'al ari i tukka (to ?

Bonutba? carry) poa No, the kangani told
sonuthu.

them — Hie, avangalukku kangani

NOTE. /.—DO
Chest, box

NOT

added to the Infinitive-

(Tmperative) is translated by (See also Postscript 8.)

athe

18

COOKS TAMIL.

E.

Who? Which?
Which— ethu ? To which— ethukku ? From which eth'(il)iruntu?

Who— yftr ? Whom— yftre ?

To whom — yarukku? Of whom, whose— yarude?

|

Now — ippo.

Then— appo.
Note
:

When —yeppo
C
2.

?

See

EXAMPLES.
Who are you— Ni yar ? Who is there — Yar ange

Whom
To

Who saw you ? — Une yar kantuthu ? Whose is this — Ithi yarukku ? Whose is this basket— Ithi yarude kude
yarukku?

did you see ? Ni yare kantuthu ? whom did you give it ?— Athe yarukku kuclututhu.

nikkruthu

?

?

or, ii.tha kiide

Which is yours — Eth'unukku ? Which did you tell him to take— Avanukku ethu edukka
sonuthu
I told
?

him to take that from there now— Athe angeilicuntu ippo edukka sonen. To which are you going ? — Ethukku (ni) poruthu? To this— Ithukku tan.
Tell

me who

is

Yar ange nikruthu yenukku
*

standing there and then go to the tipping solli ni mattam odikka po.*

In the vresent sentence the person is Note 1. (See 1). being told to go to do the work, therefore the Infinitive is used ; in 1. the person is doing the work and is being told to go on with it, hence the past participle,

D

D

Ev«ry
u u
as „
'u*

letter

must be pronounced.
ei

in
,,

Rule.

as

'ei'
'a,i'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

'u'

Put (as 'e' in Hundred when final).

at

COOLY TAMIL.

19

F.
the

PAST INDEFINITE.
of the

(Compound).— This

b/ the use

Past Participle present tense of the auxiliary
I

is formed w.th the addition of 'to be.' See Page 83.

havfl t >ld

... ...
...

Nan

soll'irukren

has gone She has told* He has come I have put J have broken He has held He has broken I have drunk He has drunk

He

Avan poi'irukruthu
Aval soll'irukruthu

...
...

Avan vant'irukruthu

...
... ...

Nan Nan

pott'irukren oditt'irukren

Avan puditt'irukruthu Avan orlitt'irukruthu

...
...

Nan kuditt'irukren Avan kuditt'irukruthu

and

double 't' of the Past Participle endings, the Past Tense, is pronounced like eh (see Page 79.); those which are an exception to this rule are marked with an asterisk in that list (see Postscript 1.)
often,

NOTE 1.— The

F« 1. That Much. That much— avalo
This much

This Much.

— ivalo

How much— yevalo How many— ettane ?

(See Note to C).

EXAMPLES.
How much

Ni yevalo koluntu leaf have you picked ? edututhu ? Iva'o edutt'irukren, I have plucked this much How many pounds of leaf are there? Ettane ratal koluntu irukruthu ? Ten pounds— Pattu ratal. Why did you make so much noise ? Ye ni avalo 6attam

(noise) pott'irukruthu?

At the time he was pruning he cut

his

hand

— Kavatu

vetruthu nertilw (at time) avanfide kai vettnuthu.

Every
a
as
,,

letter

must he pronounced.
e
i

'u'
'a'

In

Fun.
Father.
o aa
'o'

as
.,

V
V

in

Pen.
Pin.

a

in

More.
Ps. 9.

* She was told— avalnkku soH'iniknithu.
llo was

drunk— avnn

kuditt'iruutulhu.

F

2.

02

COOLY TAMIL.
has cleaned out the drain and all stones taken out — (all) kal eduttu avan kan valeitt'irukrut^ u. Is that field finished ?— Antba male mudintt'irukrutha? Yea, sir, it is finisbe 1— Am'aiya, inudintt'irukruthu. (He) has told bim to take the tools to the factory— Istorukku aitham kondu poa avanukku soll'irukruthu.

He

Ellara

Pound

OOOLY TAMIL.

21

EXAMPLES.
Sir,

Kanakapulle, histtiabwo k been finished?— Kanakapulle, antha veile raudintt'acha ? Has the leaf been weighed up ?-Koluntu niruti'acha? — Yes, master, it is weighed Ama dore, nirut.'achi.* Give the money a'together — Kasi ellam seitu kudu. All go together Ellam seindu po. Dont go without the kangani— Kangani illame poathe. Those pruners are standing withoutf doing anything Antha kavat'al Qnnum (anything) sei'ame nikrutbu. He has gone without taking the book— Avan postikum eduk'ame ponuthu. Pluck without taking buds— Arumbu eduk'ame edu. Why do you stop behind without working, come in front quickly— Ye veile illame pindi niktutbu ? surruka min-

t^at field has been finished before you came— Aiya, ningal (polit ) vantuthu mindi rual<* mudintt'achi.

Stand in front of me— Yenukku minnu Dillu. Those rows were plucked before— Antha norre mindi
edutt'achi.
* The word 'it' is not translated here. It may be noticed that similarly other pronouns have been omitted elsewhere.

nukku

va.

t See

T

{Note 2.)

Every letter must be pronounced.
a
;i
1

as

'u'

in
1

Fun.
Father.
o
aa

e
i

as

'oi'
'i'

in

Pen.
Pin.

V

in

„ More.

22

COOLY TAMIL.

G. Will.-. FUTURE

TENSE— Tbis
for
:

is

the 1st person sin?, and -piithll for all the rest Except when the Infinitive has no then the tense endings will be -ven and 'li* in its ending vuthu (Imperatives ending in '-ku' drop '-/.it' before

-pen

to

formed by adding

tlie

Imperative
;

'-peri,

-puthu.)

NOTE l- Exceptions.
VS - come.
Ta —give.

Varuven — I

will come. Tar liven— I will give

PRESENT. IMPERATIVE. Marakren— I forget Mara— forget
Marakruthu

FUTURE.
Marapen— I

Manni— forgive
"Vulu— fall
Sfi(r)

forget —he etc. M a r a p u t hwill be etc. u— will forget forgets Mannikren — forgive Mannipen -I will forgive Mannikrut hu —he Manmputhu — he will
I

forgives

Vuluren

—I

fall

— die

Vuluruthu— he falls Saren— I die Saruthu— he dies

Vulu vuthu — he will Saven I will die

Vuluven— I

forgive

will fall
fall

Savuthu— he

will die

G. 1.
adding

The Negative, WILL NOT,

for the 3rd person, and first, to the Infinitive. (See list of verbs, page 79.)

-matathe

maten

informed by
for the

EXAMPLES.
not forget —Nan marakka/maten. not forget — Avan marakka/matathe, She will not go -Aval poa/matathe. It will not hold so much— Athu avalo pudikka/matathe. I will tell him to come quickly Nan avane surruka vara
I will

He will

[saruthu. — Aiya, laiatile or'al All right, I will come at once— Seri, nan satne varuven. I will tell him to come tomorrow — Avane naliki vara
Sir,

solluven.

a cooly

is

dying in the

lines

solluven.

think he will forget— Avan maraputhu nineikreo. Come close, I will speak to you— Kitta va, unukku pesuven. Who wi'l go to work on Sunday for cash ? Naitu kilame kai kasikki yar veilikki povuthu,
I

Every letter must be pronounced.

u
u

as
J,

'u'

in

Rule.
'e'

ei

ae
,,

(

ei'

in

V

Weight.
Aisle.

Put (as „ Hundred when

in

ai

f

ai'

final;.

COOLY TAMIL

23

I will go, Sir— N9n poven, aija. Cut the branch carefully or you will cut your finger— Vatbu patirama vettu illate, or, ni un viral vettuvuthu. Co slowly or you will fall— Mulla po illate ni vuluvuthu. He will cut above the road — Rotukku mele avan vettuvuthu. A 3 (Note Id) Cut the upper branch— Me \athu vettu. ('Mele'— above,

is

an adverb

'Me'
ver

is

the adjective).

24

COOLY TAMIL.
note.— When used
:

with prepositions as to of whom, by which etc., the above rule does not apply- The H.i glish must be t ansposed thus: I sent the man to whom you gave money (a) becomes, You gave money to a man, him I sent.

whom,

:

(b)

Or'alukku ni kasi kudututhu, a vane anupunen. I showed the man of (about) you spoke becomes, You spoke of a man. to him I showed. Or'al pati (about) ni pesnuthu, avanukku tan nan kambiten.

whom

:

Coolies often transpose this negative interrogatively without requiring a reply : Did you not give a man money ? him I sent. («)
Or'alukku
(b)

ni

kasi
of a

kudututh'iilea

?

avane

tan

anupunen. S. Did you not speak
Or'al
pati
ni

man?

to
?

pesnuth'illea

him I showed it. avanukku tan athe

kambiten.

H.
vowel.

Oont, Must, Can,-- -These and
to the

the following are
final

suffixes

Infinitive which usually drops the
...

Must,

Must
Hi
1

not,

Want Want
...

venum
vendam

(iwlg.
(viilg.

onum.)
vanda*.)
elathe,

not

...

Can

-elam,t kudam.

Cannot
-athe.

...

kudathe

not Not necessary, not required

Do

...

...

vendiuth'ille (not suffix).

EXAMPLES.
He must come
var'onum).

today

— Avan

innikki vara

venum

(vulg.

NOTE 1. 'Venum' will be written usually 'onum', but it is at times pronounced 'venum', especially when used alone and meaning 'to want'.
You must send a cooly quickly— Ni or'al surruka anup' You should rot do thit — Ni attie seia vanda. [onum.
It
is

not necessary to do that

—Athi seia vendiuth'ille
ei
_

Every

letter

must be pronounced.
as „
77.
'ei'
'ai'

u
u

as

'a'

in

Rule.

in
,,

Weight,
Aisle.

'u'

Pot
*

(aa

'e'

in

ai

Hundred when

final).

See 'Contractions' page

f Sometimes pronounced elam,

COOLY TAMIL.
What do you want? — Unukku enna venum? Do you want it now ? — A the ippo venuraa? What else do you want ?— Vere ecna venum ?
seia kud'al.

25

You cannot do that — Athe seia kudathe. Can you do it? — Athe seia kudama ? Those who can work well — Nalla veile
Ps. 8
;

(See

G2).

You need not go-Ni poa vendiuth'ille. Don't do that Athi seiathe. Don't talk Pesathe. He must m t go to work today as he is not well— Inniki avan veileikki poa vanda yenendal (hecause) avanukku

sogam
I
f

ille.

You can come
aid he

presently Ni poragu var'elam. must not touch the tar as it is not dry enough Avan kil toda vanda sonen yenendal athi kaia (dry)

Can

When When
Do

1 go cow ?— Nan ippo po'elama? No you cannot go yet — Ille, ni innam

pattathe.

(yet) po'elathe-

can I go?— Yeppo (nao) po'elam?
I

have finished
(Lit.

— talking Nama
— —

peichi

mudinttu

ni

po'elaro.

not cut the roots, you must pull them Ver vett''athe, kaiile (in the hand) pudink'onum. Don't strip Motte pudinkathe. (Lit. bald don't pidl). Don't pluck leaving a fish leaf Topal ele vaitt'edukathe.

My talk having finished).

up—

having left don't take). Must we pluck these bushes ? Intha maram eduk'onuma ? No, leave (them), they are too small Ille vudu (leave) athu remba sinnisi irukruthu. (athu = it, used for 'they'). Can you finish that field today ? Inniki antha male

(Lit. Fish leaf

— —

mudi'elama ? This i9 not wanted— Ithi vendiuth'ille. If you cannot go— Ni po'elathe ponal. Don't go Poathe. Don't forget Marakathe. Don't bp, won't be Irukatho.

(L3).

Every letter must be pronounced.
as
'a'
'a'

in
i,

Fun
Father.
iu
I)

e
i

as

'e'
'i'

in

Pen
Pin.

„ Moie.

26

COOLY TAMIL.

J. Will have, Be... FUTURE PERFECT.— This is formed by adding the Future Tense of the Auxiliary to the
Past Participle
{See List of Verbs.)
...

Marantu
Pottu

...

Vantu

...

Having forgotten. Having put. Having come
have forgotten.

Nan marant'irupen— I

Avan marant'iruputhu — He will have forgotten. Athu pott'iruputhu It will be put.
Nftn vant'irupen I will have come. Avan vant'iruputhu He will have come

will

— —

J.I. Another Form. WILL HAVE, BEEN* .—Can
be translated impersonally by the addition of 'iruklim' to
the

Past Participle)

which drops

its final

vowel.

EXAMPLES.
have gone Athu po'irukum. have been finished Male mudint'irukum, You do not want to call the cooly, he will have come Ni al kQpida vanda, avan vant'iruputhu. The line sweeper will have gone Vasal kati poi'irukum. That does not matter, he wfil have come- Athu kariamille (no matter), avan vant'irukum. That will have been all right— Athi seria irunt'irukum.
It will

The

field will

J. 2.
to the stem

Another Impersonal— is
of the
(c).

Infinitive (with
final
'ka'.)

termination replaces the

the addition of -urn Infinitives in -kka the See List of Verb*, and

Compare Pi
It It It It It

... will finish ... will come will get finished ... ... will be all right ... will go all rightly will get all right (wel ) It will become all right... ... It will take ... It will hold

Mudium. Varum. Mudinttupoum (havingfinished
Serin ukura.
Seria
[will go).

He

1

poum. Avanukku s< gam ahum.
Athuseri'ahura(ahato become).

Edukum.
Pudikum.

u

V

Every letter must
in

lie

pronounced.
in
,,

Rule.

Weight.
Ais'e.

COOLY TAMIL.
J. 3. Each, Some, Each ... Ovoru.

27
B.)

Other,— (See

Some

...

... Another Another (different ).., Pathi, sila. A little, few, any ... Konjam,

Iuoru. Vere.

EXAMPLES.
Each cooly must take a basket — Ovor'alukku o u kude eduk'onum Some coolies have po'es, some have r> pes that is not right, eaoh cooly must have rop<i and a po'e— Pathi
;

kambu irukruthu, pathi alukku kavuru athi seri ovor'alukku kavuru iruk'onura oru kambu iruk'onuoa. Some of it will get finished Pathi mu^inttu poum Some will not get finished— Pathi mudinttu poathe. You must take some, aud 1 ave some Ni pathi c-duk'o'ium pathi vaik'onum. This cooly had a knife, the other had not Inth'alukku katti iruntuthu matt'alukku i'le. Tell another boy to come lnoru podian vSrasollu. Don't bring another (n ft" rent) basket Vere kude k mhIu
ftlukku
ille,
;

varathe.

Bring all the other sacks Matta sak ellam kondu vft. (Matta other). Ell 'amble ill ku'i v tta All the men must go to cut holes po'onum. Only givo a little— Konjam matiram kudu. You must take all tbe lime tut of the sack Sakiliruntu ollam sunambu eduk'onum. Don't puck another bud or I wi'l put you 'sick' lnoru arumbu edukathe illate, or, une tiku poduven ('put sick' here means that the cooly' s day's pay will be stopped). She did goo i work, the other cooly bad work and she was put sick Aval nallaveile seintuthu, matt'al agathe veilo,

avale siku pott'iruntuthu. Did you give him any ?— Avanukku

konjam

kudututhft'r

Every letter must he pronounced.
r
as
*u'

in

Pun.
Father.

e
i

as

'«'
'i'

in

Pea.
Piu.

a

V

o

as

V

in

More.

28

COOLY TAMIL.

This

K. Way. Should, Ought. ..SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.is formed by adding -attum to the Infinit V6 which usually drops the final vowel and consonant.

EXAMPLES.
He may take— Avan edukattum. Some of the coolies can go and pluck
Sil'al (short for sila)

in Govinden's held Govinden maleile koluntu edukka
?

May

poattum. I go now

?

— Nan ippo poattuma
master,

Yes, you

You may
I

may go— Ami, poattum.
ill,

plant that plant in that nerreile nadattum.
feeling
ille,

row — Antha kandu antha

am

sogam

dore,

nan vudukku poattuma

may

I

go to

my house? — Yenukku
r

I send for the Dispenser?— Ramasami avanude kal (avan) rtmba vettnuthu, Daktar vara sollattuma? Ye?, tell him to bring some medicine and a piece of rag Ama, konjam marant-um oru tuni-tundum (rag) kond' ara (short for kondu vara) sollu. May I buy a new kambli?— Nan oru puthu kambli vangattuma ? No, the kambli you have got is good Ille, unukku irukru kambli nalla irukruthu, or, unukku irukru'kambli nalla

Ramasamy has

cut his foot badly,

may

tan.

(S 2.)

Corner (of an
object)

Dead
mule
Dirt

leaves

sette

Corner

(of a

road)

modaku
avilkka katta kotta

Scales

To untie

tie

Crooked

Leech
Wall
Single

press

empty down

...

ammakka
mithikka pothikka odikka

ute terasu konal atte sevar otte
paiain votal ittu

trample bury ,, break Afterwards Rest (adjective)... Hole (in an object)
String

Fear
Bottle

Hotten

apuram socham
pottal

Rock

pare
virru a

Empty Young
Useless

sadambu

yellan totta

Every
a a
as
in

letter

must be pronounced.
ei

Rule.

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

V

[Hundred when

Put

(as

'e'

in

ai

'ai'

final).

COOLY TAMIL.
to the

29

L> Having Been. ..This is formed by adding kuttu* Past Participle* It is pronounced with very short 'it's.

Having given

30

COOLY TAMIL.
me a larger knife— Yenukku athikum
largest;

EXAMPLES.
Give
peria k itti kudu.

-Athium peria katti edu. Call that tall man — Antha valant'al kupidu. No, not him, the tallest — Ille, avail ille, athium valant'al. Tell him I do not want the thin pig, bring the fattest — Elichi pandi jenukku vanda avanukku solli, athium kolutu pandi kondu vara tollu. Cut and bring me a smaller stick — Athikum einna kuchi vetti yenukku kudu.
Take the
knife
'Ithikum' and 'ithium can be used when speaking 1. The superlative is often rendered, of things dose to the speaker. atitiikum kuda pensi, (i.iggest), or, ellfitukkum pai isi, (bigger than There seems to be no rule for the simple formation of comall).
parisons.

NOTE

1

Do

not take a larger leaf — Ath kutn peria e'e edukathe. You must go faster than this- Ithikum surukka po'onum.

TLis is easy, that work is easier Ithi leisi, antha veile ithium leisi itukruthu. That work, Sir, is the most difficult -Antha veile, aiya,

athium vanatum irukruthu.

NOTE 2— When
•this'

the

noun

in the sentence

and

'that'

are used with 'than',

is understood or some adjectives add -isi

(or, -athu).

In the latter case the construction is literally, Thus: this bigger', 'to this that is older', etc.

'to

that

This
1

Athukku ithi perisi. is bigg< r thao that have taken the smallest— Athium siunisi eduten. That is older than this Ithukku athi palisi. Tbis is better than that Athukku ithi nallathu.

— —

L. 2.

before the verb but not necessarily next to

Very, Always, Never," etc
it).

:

(always placed

Very Always Never

Micham, remba

Yeppothum Yeppothum

Anybody Nobody
Nothing

Yarum (seri) Ortrum ille

ille

Unnum

ille

Every letter must be pronounced.
Q
a
as
,,

'a'

iu

Kule
e'

ei

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aiale.

Pat (as Hundred when

in

ai

•ar

fiDal).

Adverbs usually precede the word they qualify.

HOOLY TAMIL
EXAMPLES.
This load
renaba
is

31

very heavy, no one can carry it— Infcha siime

param irukruthu ortrum tuk'elathe. You must always send two coolies when the load is too heavy for one — Or'alukku surae remba param iruntal (if is) jeppothum rend'al (two paopli) anup'onum. — Aiya, Sir, I nevtr carry sacks L am not strong enough nan jeppothum eak tukruth'ille yenukku pellam pa' at he,

I to send to carry master's clothes box? — 'fui'eude udupu petti tukka yare anupren ? Anyone will do — Yarum seri irukum. Kangany, look at those boys they are doing nothing —

Who am

Kangani, antha pod'an par, avan^al unnum seiruth'ille. What do you want?— Unukku enna venum ? Nothing — Unnum ille. Then why do you always stand there? — Appo ye ni jep-

pothum ange nikruthu? loafing— Nan suma nikren. Nobody need go— Ortrum poa vendiuth'ille.
I

am

NOTE
or remark.

l.—Thc word 'suma' indicates any aimless

action

Suma adikruthu — Hitting for no reason. Suma pesruthu— Talking rot. Suma kelkruthu — Asking for no particular

reason, etc.

L
nation

3.
'

If.

This

is

translated

by changing the termiall

en'

of the

Past Tense

into *-al' for

persons

Bingular end plural,

Note.— The

T

of

'41' is

often

unpronounced
in

in

common

speech

Another Form

ia

-aka
<s

added

the same way.

NOTE

2.

'

Iff

Not'

Infinitive folloived by the both singular and plural.

translated by -ate added to the word 'ponal'** These apply to

Every letter must be pronounced.
a
8

as

V V

in
,.

Fun.
Father.
o

e
i

as

'e'
'i'

in

Pen.
Pin.

as

'<>

in
i

More.
'poofil'
ia
'

and

Vuttal (from 'vfida', to leave can also l»e used instead of Ponaka better Tamil, (often pronounced vittal"). beard 'edukate ponaka' etc.
is
:

*

also

32

COOLY TAMIL.

EXAMPLES.
If I

blame
take

{

If I

||» (Nan

(Nau edutaka
ponal

^
edutal
,

If I
Tt I If t
rr If T I

do not blame
a„ ^^4- take do not
4i

{
f

^

yesate

Nanedukate
pQnal

(

Nan ponaka
(Past (Nan Part: 'poi')
T( no 3 It .„^come ,
If
I

Avan vantal < A (Avan vantaka
f
,

If

| po he does not CAvan varate [come I ponal

do not go
-,

,

fNanpoate

^

am
have

Nan (Nan
f

iruntal

If I

am

nob

[Nan
(.

irukate
ponal
(il-

iruntaka
irun-

(Illatej

If I

tal

[taka
irun'illate'.

irukate

Yenukku (Yenukku
Note.

late) (Yenukku ponal

— Irukate is changed into

'Op' can be translated by

illate (see

Sentence No. 167

)

js

L. 4- For the Past and other tenses the auxiliary used for the negative with 'ponal'. (See Page 88 and Ps, 12
.

If I
If I

took

...

Nan

edutt'iruntal
pofij'iiaintal

went

...

Nan

did not take If I did not
If I

(

Nan

edutt'illate

(

ponal

go
If I

came
was

...

Nan
Nan

vanL'iruntal
irant'iruntal
irunl'

If I did r.ot

[Nan po'illate [ ponal (Nan van filiate
{

coma
If
I
...

por.al

If I

was not
iiad

("Nan irunt'illate
(

If I

had

...

Yenukku

If

1

not

Yenukku
illate

ponal

[iruntal

irunt ponal

:

EXAMPLES.
take this leaf the kangani says it is bad w-ork Intha nan edutal at hi agathe veile kangani sollruthu. Call the Kangany, I will show him- Kangani kupidu, avanukku katuven. If you do not take these leaves I say it is not good work Ni inth'ele edukate onal athi nalla veile ille sollren.
If I ele

\

Master, If I go now I cannot be back quickly Dore, nan ippo ponaka sunka var'elathe. All right, if you do not come back in time it does not matter Seri, ni neitodu varate ponal kaiiam ille. [A 1 (a) ; A 4.]

Every
u u
as

'u'

letter

must be pronounced,
ei

in
,,

Rule.

as

'ei'
'ai'

in
,,

Weight.
Aisle.

'u'

Put (as 'e' in Hundred when final).

ai

DOOLY TAMIL
If

33

he had come at once I would have given him the money — Avan satne vant'iruntal avanukku kasi kudutt'irupen. If I do not come to the bungalow do not wait— Nftn ban-

galaukku varate ponal nikathe. you cannot finish the kanak (amount, task) the Conduct t gave I wi 1 not put you a name— Kondak unukku ku)utu(thu) kanak mudi'elate ponal unukku per podamaten. If Ramasamy had come at the timo I called him the work would have been finished now Nan kupidu'neram Ramasami vant'iruntal veile ippo mudintt'irukum. If he did not come why did yoit wait ? Avan vant'illate ponal ni ye nintuthu? Peria If the head kangany lad been there yesterday kangani neitu ange iruntaka. That is all right, if I tell him to stop he must stop Athi seri, nan avane nikka sonal avan nikka tan venum (the
If

— —

'tan' inserted here emphasises the 'must'). she takes this leaf will it be all right ? Aval intha ele edutaka seri irukuraa? Nan If you do a3 I tell you the work will get finished unukku sonna'maderi ni seithal veile mudinttu poura. If you had done as I told you Nan unukku sonna'maderi

word

If

ni seith'iruntal.

M

COOLY TAMIL.

M.

Cardinal Numbers,
'e'

i

Remember the

ri>

al 'a' is

pronounced short as

in Hundred.)
lines

NOTE

1

— Dividing

are here inserted to show the con-

struction of the figures, they will be written as one

word afterwards.

1

COOLY TAMILi
NOTE
1,900
'2,000 2,Oi<2
...
...

$5
into

3.

—Nuruj

100,

always changes
1000, into airati.

nutti before

another number,

and Airam,

Airati/tol/airaTO.

|

Rend/airam.

|

...
... ...

Rend /airati/rendu
Miin/airam
Patt/aiiam.
...

|

3,000 10,000

20,000 100,000 200,000 1,912

...
...

Iruwath/airam.

Lecbam.

...
...

Rendu lecbam.
Airati t lairati

[pannirendu.

9,999

Ompath'airati'tolai>ati'tonnut'om< athu.

.VOTE
drop

4.

— Before words beginning with a vowel the foregoing
...

their final vowel.

Oce by one Two by two
Three by three Evey other one Every other I wo

Un

...

...

unnu, or, ov'oru. Rendu-rendu, or, revendu. Mn-mflnu.

...

Unnu

vut'unnu.

Rendu vutu rendu

EXAMPLES.
Take up rowj one by one — Nerre un-unnn pudi. Tak<? by two's— Kev'endu pudi. Se id two coolies t) clean out drains — Kan
rend'al anupu.

valoikka
?

Ho* many plucktrs have gone t oUovindei's

He'd

— Grovin

den maleiklci tttane ftl.ponuthu ? five women Sir, I have sent forty and three kanpa ies with babies will go later— Napath'alum, rafuiu kanoftuium anupunen'anga (sir), anji pulle-kari (i.e. babyfemales) poragu ptruthu. Forty coo'ies is not enough kangany, when the Conductor comes to this field tell him to Fend ten more Napath al pattathe, Kangani, komlak intha maleikki vantu neam inoru patt'ai anupa sollu. To each Kangany put fifteen coolies 'Jvuru kangauikki
; ;

pattinanji al podu Give to each of twenty-two coolies one marnoty and one alavauga Iruwatirend'al ovor'fdukku oru mftmati oru alaviinga kudu. (Note 'oru' is used before a noun for 'one instead of 'unnu).

Every lHt»*r must he pronounced.
a
a
as
'u'

in

Fun.
Father.

e
1

aa

e'
'i'

in

Pen.
Pin.

V

o

as

'o'

in

Uo.c

38
If

COOLY TAMIL.
you bring new coolies I will give you Rs. 120 on advance tccotmt, and Ks. 10 on Check Koll account— Ni puth'al kondn vantal ac vans kanakile nutti iruwathu rua taruven, Chek Rol kanakile pattu rua taruven. Your Check Roll pay is Kb. 41-25— Un Chek Rol samialam (pay) napati'oru rua iiuwatanji sadam irokruthu. Master, tell me my account separately Dore, yen kanak

veveie soll'anga.

AH

your head money is Rs. 19'69, your 'pence' money your name pay Ks. 9'25,y. ur weeding contract Rs 6*28, total Rs. 41*25— Seri, un peri \ pensur atrompathu rua aruwat'ompathu sadam irukruthu, un pensu kasi am rua munu sadam, mi per sampalam ompathu rua iruwatanji sadam, un pillu vetta contrap aru rua jeluwatettu sadam, mottam (total) nftpatti'oru rua iruwatanji sadam. Give him two knives and three bill hooks — Avanukku rendu katti, munu vettn-katti kudu We have p'anted 1,052 plants Nangal airati ampattirendu
right,
is hs. 6 '03,

kandu natt'irukruthu. — Id nam (more, 2,500 plants more are needed airati annum kandu vendiuth'irukruthu.

stills

rend'

M.
the

1

.

Ordinal Numbers,— These
by adding

are formed from
'the
first').

CARDINALS
1st

am (except in

The

cardinal drops its final vowel.

COOLY TAMIL.

37

EXAMPLES.
What
This
date
is

It is the first
is

— Ithu mothal teidi.
I

it?— Ithu enna teidi?
have told

the third time

you— Ithi munam

nerarn

*unukku sonen. The fifth tree from hero— Ingeiliruntu arijflm maram. Give him only one-eighth bushel of rice— Avanukku arekal pusal arisi matiram kudu. Why master, this is a 2/8 week, I worked six days Ye, dore, ithi kal pusal kilame, nan aru nal veile seinten. No, in my pocket Check Roll thert* are only four days' name — Ille, namma kai Check Rolile nalu nal per matiram irukruthu, Kondakude I will see the Conductor's pocket Check Roll kai Chek Rolile {i.e. hand Check Roll) papen. Last week she had two-eighths so this week I issued one-

eighth Ponu kilame avalukku kal pusal iruntuthu, appo intha kilame are-kal pathintt'irukren. (Pathia - to
issue).
Sir,

Tomorrow is the 26th — Naliki
The new
Give
coolies

the asking kangany — Aiya, peria kangani nnn'are pusal kelkruthu.
is

head

for

one and a half bush*
teidi.

Is

iruwatiaram

me half— Yenukku are-vasi kudu. You see those sacks, don't you? give me half of them — Antha sak kankruth'illea? yenukku are-vasi kudu
is a bushel of rice at the rice store, give the Kanakapulle three-quarters of it Arisi istorile oru pusal arisi irukruthu, Ranakapulleikki mu-kalvasi kudu. [thu. There are forty-four coolies waiting Napattinal'al nikruSend half to carry firewood, the other half to pluck Arevasi veragu tukka anupu, matt'are-vSsi koluntukku.

came from the coast on the 19th simeiliruntu pattompatham teidi vantuthu.

—Puthal

There

Every letter must be pronounced.
a

as

'u'
'a'

in
,,

Fun.
Father.
o
as
'o'

u
i

as
.,

'ei'
'i'

in

Peu.
Pin.

a

in

More.
ono.

*

Unukku— to

you.

Unnukku-to

(Seo A.)

38

OOOLY TAMIL.

N.

Much, Too much. Many
...

Much Many
Lees

...
...

Micham. Micham, niichuda
Korre.

Too much Remba. More Kuda, innam. ... With* Kuda, kuditi.
.. ...

The

rest (etcottra)

...

Socham, mithi.

EXAMPLES.
a lot of noise -Micham sattam irukruthu. much noise Rtmba sattam irukruthu Call ten coolies, the rest may remain there —Patt'al kupidu, soch'al ange nikattam. I told you it was Rs. 5, Rs. 6, Rs. 9, etc. Anji rua, Aru

There There

is

is

too

rua,

ompathu

did you give too mujta — Ni ye reaiba kudututhu. tifteen children to weed, the rest can pluck— Pattinanii pulle pillu vetta anupu, socham koluntukku po elam. Give a little more Konjam kuda kudu.

Where
Send

rua, socham iruntuthu ivukku tonen are the rest of the coolies— Mith'al enge nikruthu.

Why

more Innam edu. Don't take more than th s — Ithikura kuda edukathe. I will not take less than Rs 8 — Yettu tuaukku korre nan
Take
still
;

edukkamaten. This amount is less than that
kotre (irukruthu).

— lntha
or,

kanakukku athikum

Go with him — Avan kuda po, Come with me — Vene kuda va.

avan kuditi po.

N.I.
formed

Present Tense
must be
learnt,

by

In Order to. For Doing.! adding -ukku to the third
t

The gerund

is

This

is

very

common form

person

of the

of speech ana

EXAMPLES.
For doing For cutting
...
...

Seiruthukku. Vettruthukku,

ete.

What do you want

For cutting firewood— Ennatukku unukku katti venum ? Veragu vettruthukku.
knives for?

Every
a u
aB
,,

letter

must be pronounced
ei
ai

.

V
'a*

in

Rulo.

as

'ei'

in

Weight.
Aisle.

Put (as 'e' iu Hundred when final).

also heard.

'ai'

* For without see T.

t -nkkaha

is

Seiruthukkaha, vetlruthukktha,

etc.

f

OOLY TAMIL.

39

What do you want money for? To give to Mm for paying off a debt — Enn&tukku unukku kasi venura? Avanukku

Why
I

kudukka oru kadan katruthukku. do you buy potatoes ? For eating

— Ni

ye kelangu

vftnkruthu? Tinkruthukko.

advanced him money in order to retain him Avane nipatruthukku tan nan advans kasi kuduten. Have you come to work or to play?— Ni veilikki vantutha, velei-adruthukku vantutha ?

N. 2.

Days of the Week.—
...
...

Sunday

Naitu kilame.
Tinkal kilame. Seva kilame.

Monday
Tuesday

...

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday Satu day

...

Puthan kilame.
Vieala, Viyala kilame. Velli kilame.

...
... ...

S&ini kilame.

A day
A week

...
... ...

Awtekday
Night Morning
Ccek crow

Oru nal. Oru kilame. Oru kilame nal
Ratiri, rftval.

... ...

Kalambre, kalame.
Koli kupidu,

...

EXAMPLES.
If

Come on Monday — Naitu kilame
you had come on
better

ra.
it

— Ponu Seva kilame
at cock

last

Tuesday

would have been
tevelea (irunf

ni vant'iruntfil

He must go
He worked
I

iruputhu).

crow

— Koli

knpidu (neram) avan

po'onum.
for one week only— Oru kilame matlram avan veile seintuthu (often pronounced 'einjuthu'). will speak to you in the evening— Saintaratile [see

A
I

1. (a) ] unukku pesuven. heard much noise in the night— Havile micham sattam

keitten.

Come

in

the

morning— Kalambre

va.

Every letter must be pronounced.
a
a
us

V
'a'

in
,.

Fun.
Father.

e
i

as

V
T

in

Pen.
Fin.

o

as

'o'

in More.

40 Yesterday

COOLY TAMIL.
.

Neitu.

Day

before yesterday.

M tin dam
Naliki.

nal (third day),
nal.

or,

mundam
[neiu.

Four days ago

Ithukku mindi nalu
.

Tomorrow

Day after tomorrow Next week Last week
The week before
last

Nalandiki

[ing week).
or,

Adatu kilame,

.

Munam

varu kilame {comPonu kilame (gone week), or, mudinttu kilame (finished week),
kilame.

EXAMPLES.
him to come three weeks ago— Ithukku mindi munu kilame avaue varasonen. If I come back tomorrow I will tell him to go next day Naliki nan va-ital avane ada'u nal poa folluven. The week before last you only worked four days— Mill am (or, mundam) kilame ni nalu nal matiram veile seintuthu So next week you must come to work six days without fail (massing)— Appo varu kilame aru nal tappame ni veileikki var'onum.
1 told

N. 3.

Months of the Year.—
January

COOLY TAMIL

U

Ps

Time*—
... ... ...

An hour
Ago
...

In (during) an hoar's time
.„
...

...
...

Oru uiani ueram. Oru mani nertile. Ithukku raindi.
PidpSdu, pinne.
(takes dative before
it)
.

After, Since

EXAMPLES.
What time
It has
16 it

It is three o'clock

?— Ettane mani (irukruthu ?) — Munu milni.
3.)

gone four o'clock— Nalu mani achi.* (See F Ten past six— Am mani pattu nimasum (minute). Half past ten— Patt'are mani.
It is past twelve o'clock— Pannirendu mani achi. quarter to one Pannirendu mu-kal mani.

A

or,

oru

manikki pattinanji nimasum. One o'clock Oru mani. At one o'clock— Oru manikki. Twenty five past two Rendu mani iruwatanji. Quarter past nine Ompathu kal mani.

— — late— Neram achi. It It was very late — Micham neram achi iruntuthu. It is too late — Remba neram achi. Three hours ago— Ithukku mindi munu mani neram. Two hours after this — Ithukku pidpadu rendu mani neram.
is
*

Note that arhi' can

i

be used alone.

Ps. IS.

P« 1. While. There are several ways translating these words aud their equivalent phrases.
(a).

When,

of

Yeppo ? — Wbenr

(b).

Neram,
pothu

(interrogative). nertile Time, at the time. required tense of the verb.

Used with the
(J 2.)

(c).

suffixed to the impersonal future.

EXAMPLES-

When are you going ? — Ni yeppo poruthu? When did you finish that ?— Ni atho yeppo mudintuthu. When I am going to work don't come to the bungalow- to speak to me — Nan veileikki poruthu nertile bangalaukku
yene kitta varathe.
(Note to

D

I.)

Ever] letter must be pronounced.
a
I

as
,,

*u"

in

Fun.
Father.
as
'o'

e
i

as

V

V
V

in

Pen.
l'i u .

in

M-ie.

42

QOOLY TAMIL.
I was talking to him the head kangany came — Avanukku nan pesru(thu) neram peria kangani vantuthu. While he was going a'ong the road — Avan nedna (along)

While

Wjile

rotodu poruthu neram. I am go ng to the bunga'ow I will stop at the lines and call a cooly Nan bangalaukku ponm-pothu laiata kitta nintu o.'al kupiduven. When 1 w as coming from the coast— Nan simei-iliruntu varum-pothu (this method of saying 'when', 'while,' is in

very

common

use).

P. 2.
in

To

Pill.

PODA. — This verb can
after

the

Past Participle
its
this

always be used anothir verb without

greatly altering
Take

meaning :—
him— lthi
(8ee D.)

He

and go— Ithi tduttu pottu po, — sp ke to him ike that and then went away Avanukku
ts

Break this stone — Intha kal cdittu podu.

Thswai

appadi pesi pottu ponuthu.

washing

tell

kalu'onum avanukku [solli podu.

The verb 'kolla,'
used in a like manner
Pesi konden
Nftn eduttu
;

to take to onself, obtain,

may

te

and as a reflexive verb.
...
...
,...

I

spoke myself.
(myself; took.

konden
This
is

I

Kondu
P. 3.
after the

po, etc.

Having obtained go

Until.

translated by

-varikum

placed

and after

Impersonal Future the Past Participle

(see J 2.) forjthe Present, for the Past Tense.

EXAMPLES.
Wait there until I come— Nan v&ium-varikum ange nillu. Wait until he goes— Avan poum-varikum nillu. L ave the books hire until I come back Nan tirumbi varuru-varikum postakum i'ge v&i. Go to work leaving the knives here until the other coolies return— Matt'ai tirumbi virum-varikum katti inje vaitlu

Hold the rope

until I tell you to let go Nan vuda sollumvarikum kavuru pudi. [ninten, I wait' d until master came — Dore vantu-varikum nan until you 6poke to the kangany ? — Did Amuratham wait Kanganikki ni pesi varikum Amuratham nintutha ? Don't cut those small branches until the pluckers have taken the flush Kolunt'al koluntu eduttu'varikum autha sinna v&thu vettathe.

veileikki po.

Every
as
*u'

letter

must be pronounced.
ei
a>

in

Rule.

as

c

ei'

in
,,

Weight.
Aisle.

U

,,

'a'

Put (as 'e' in Hundred when final).

'ai'

COOLY TAMIL.

43

R. As Soon bv the addition of

as/ Same-udane to
is

'As soon

as',

is

translated

the
'

<Same%

'kind',

'?ort\

translated

Past _ Participle. oru maderi '. This

word can also be used as an indication of inefficiency when, pronounced with a very prolonged 'a', as in sentences marked (*).

EXAMPLES.
As soon

As soon as he spoke like that I sent him to the lines — Avan appa li pes'fidane avane laiatukku anupanen. As soon as I come back this field must be finished— Nan
tirurabi vaut'iidane intha male mudintt'iruk'onum. Everyone must do the same sort of work— Ell'al oru maderi veile sei'onum. The baskets are all the same Ellara kude oru mftderi

as I teU you to go you must go Nan une poa soll'udane ni poa tan venura. ^See 12th example, L 4.)

tan.
Is

(S

2.)

that cooly well yet Y- Antba'alukku inuam sogain irukrutha ? *No, he is not quite well— Ule, avan oru maderi irukruthu What did the kangany say ? Kang&Qi etna sonuthu ? *He prevaricated Avan oru maderi pesnuthu. *The new coolies are not up to much — Piith'al oru maderi

irukruthu.

"This work is fair (neither good nor bad) maderi irukruthu.
If

— Intha voile

oru

you do this sort of work I will put you all sick maderi voile soithal uno ollam siku poduvou.

—Intha

a

aa

Every Idler must Fun. in

lie

V

pronounced.
e
i

as

'e'
'i'

iu

Peu.
Pin.

a

'a'


o

Father.
as
'o'

in
suffix

Udaue' when not uacd as a

More. means

'at once',

'immediately'
tanni

Udane va -Gome Go'and tell him

at once.
to
*t<>\i

tlie

water

at

onpe—Poittu,

udane nipata

sollu.

U

COOLY TAMIL.

8.

Self,
himself

Own, Just.— Tan,

Sanda, Tan.

went— Avan tan ponuthu. myself— Atbi nan tan sonen, She herself told me so— Aval tan yenukku sonuthu. Who took that row ?— Yar antha nerre pudituthu? I myself— Nan tan (I did.) Tnis is his own knife (belongs to him)- Ithi avan sunda
I said that
kitti.

He

Sevetiamraa is one of his own coolies— Sevetiarnma avanude sund'al tan. It Is master's own estate— Doreude sunda totum. sei'onum (You) must do (it) just like that— Appadi tan
(A.

2

Note
just

1

)

I

am

just going
is

— Nan ippo tan poren.
I

That

what
all
it

said— Athu tan sonen.
tan.

Quite right,
That's just

— Athu tan,

right— Seri

Whose

is

Avauukku

this mamoti? (only) tan.

his— Ithi jarude maniati?

She just must do as she is told— Avalukku sonu'maderi aval seia tan venum. (See 1st Example to K.)
the plural of 'tan', self, S. 1 ific form of speech for the Singular.

.Tangal,

is

a

honor-

Tangal sonar— He (master) said. (See Appendix.) Tangal kelk'onum— Master should ask.

auxiliaries,

8. 2.— 'Tan' can be said to take the place of the 'to have' and 'to be', thus:
Is this his
?

Yes,

it is

his

— Ithi avauukku tana ? —Ami athi avauukku
alwo

tan.

Ramalingam kangany is nium (lJ s, 2) ange tan.

there— Ramalingam kaogS-

Every
a us
'u'

letter

must be pronounced,
ei

in

Rule.

as

'ei*
'fti'

in

Weight,
Aisle.

u

'u'

Put (as 'e' in Hundred when final).

ai

COOLY TAMIL.
Has he

45

We

a knife '?— Avanukku katti tana? have plenty of scrap rubber— Yecgalukku
:

michara

ottu-pSl tan.

Tan is not used ivith a negative They have not enough latex— Avangalukku pal pattathe. (See Example to A 3.) She has no weeding-mamati Avalukku kottu-mamati illo.

NOTE

1.— Tan

is

also used
:

for the sake of

or meaning 'in fact'? thus
:

euphony

Did you give the money ?— Ni kasi kudututhu tana? Did you in fact give the money ? ) (Lit. Are you going ?— Ni poruthu taua ? (Are you in fact going ?)
.

The above are very common expressions.

Every letter must be pronounced.

46

COOLY TAMIL.

For, For That Reascn. of adding -aha to the dative form
T.

Tlr's

is

Iranelat.d by

the noun

For that For this
It

...
...

Athukkaha.
Ithukkaha.

was

fur that (reason)

that I gave

mon

y— Athukkaha nan

kasi tanten.
It

was for this reason nan eiku poten.

I

put her 'sick '—Ithukkaha ava'e

NOTE

1.

Without—
:

;

s

translate

l

-illame

ame

added to the Infinitive (which drops its final vowel), or to any other word You must stand without talking— Ni pes'anie nik'onurn. Why do you stand there doing nothing ?— Ye ni unnum sei'ame nikruthu ange ? Do those coolies always come to must.r without baskets? Anth'al kude-illame yeppothum peratukku varuthai' 1 am I am not well— Nan sogam illame (irukren) (lit
:

without health.)
Don't go without

him— Avan'illame

poathe.

T. 1 this
is

.—The plural form of titles should be employed

;

formed by adding

-mar
...

to the singular

:

Gentlemen Kanganies

Doremar
Kanganimar. Doremarubku. KangSnimarukku,
etc

... ... ...

To the masters To the kanganies

He
If

rotile

saw three gentlemen on the bungalow road— Bangala avan munu doremar kanduthu.
is

the work

not good

I

will

put the kanganies sick

Veile nalla illate ponal

kanganimar siku poduven.

Every letter must be pronounced.
Q u
as

V
'u'

in

Rule.

ei
'e'

as
,,

'ei'

in

Weight,
Aisle.

Hundred when
correctly illamal,

Put

(as

iu

ai

'ai'

final).

*nwre

which

is

sometimes heard.

COOLY TAMIL.

47

SENTENCES.
The following
lations, so
'fres'

sentences,

are

not

'word

for

word'
the

trans-

any

difficulty

in understanding words, on

account of

tranlation, can

be

overcome
at the end.

by

looking up

Tamil

words in the Vocabulary

The following
The references
words
in italics
:

sentences,

pages, are such as are used every

and those appearing day on estates.

in

previous

are to Paragraphs in the have been dealt with.

Grammar where

the

NOTE. — (a) P

bracketed stands
it

for

'pronounced.'

When

a

word or words have had the pronunciation shown two
or three times
(b)

will cease to be indicated.

that long 'a' at the end of a a question, and often takes the place of vowel of that word.

Remember

word asks
the
final

(c)

nil

(e)

Words ending in a vowel usually drop it before another vowel and an apostrophe substituted. 'una' suffixed with a hyphen means and', but it will generally be omitted. Remember the pronoun may be omitted before the
verl».

(f)

Instead of using the simple Imperative the cooly very frequently employs the Past Participle of the principle verb followed by a verb in the Cmperatiye. (See Sentences Nos. 31, 102, 120, 139, 145, 172. 207. and Dl and P2.) 246, 270, 297, etc
:

The English

nearly always completely transposed when Tins is usually caused by translating into Tamil. being obliged to use adjectival phrases instead of relative clauses, and in order to get the principle \ei li at the end of the sentence.
is

1.

Beat the tom-tom

— Tappu

MISTER.
adi.

2.
:!.

Peat the tom-tom again— Tappu lirwmb adi. Al(l>) Tell Parason to beat the tom-tom Parason tappu

adikka

sollu.
4. 5. 6.

A3tNote

1.)

Hurry up, run Be quick, it is
It is six

— Surruk'odu. Al(b). late — Surruka. neram

achi.

F3.
sentence.)

o'clock— Aru mani achi.

A3 (7th

18

COOLY TAMIL,

al 7. Kangani, shout for the coolies to come Kangani, varathuhku sattam podu. Nl. 8. Turasainy, go and call the coolies from Kamasamy'a lines— Tiirasami, poittu, Bamasamiude laiatiliruntu Til kupidu. Al(a); A4(Note 1.) 9. Have all the coolies come?— Ell'al vantutha? CI

(Note

1.)

10.

Yes,

sir,

that

is

all

—Am'aiya.avalo
sir?—Nan

tan.

A3; Al(b);
<V

S.

I think there should be nineikren. LI.
11.
12.

more— Athikum
pattu

iruk'onum

Shall I go

aud

see,

^oatingala.

D;

Appendix
13.

D.
Yes, go and see— Ami,, pox par.

D; Dl(Note

1).

14. Kangani, the coolies must come to muster earlier— Kanvar' onum. gani, al innam vellana peratukku 15. Master, I stood by the bridge and called for half an hour Dore, nan are mani neram pdlata kitta nintu kupitcn. Al (a)

exception.

Thafs all right but tomorrow those who should come late 16. will be put sick Athi seri, nalikki pindi vanVal siku pott'm<fcttm.

G2;

Jl.
17.

Tell

all

the coolies

that— Athe elValnkku

sollu.

Stand properly there Seria nillu ange. B(Note 1.) 19. Kanakapulle, tell all the good pluckers to stand nalla kolunfal vevere nikku separately Kanakapulle, ellaru B2. sollu. 20. Stand two by two Rendu-reudu nillu. M.
18.

B(Note

1).

Are these all tippers"? How many boys art- there? Seven. Ivangal ellam mattaVald ? Ettane podian nikruthu ? Yelu. Al(a) and (b) CI (Note 1.) 22. They can all go to one field, can't they? Ellam oru malikki po'elam Med'! A4 Bl HI. Count and tell me how many there are. Thirty. Al enni 23. D. pattu ettane nikruthu yenukku sollu. Mupathu. 24. Look, here are 40 coolies, take them to No. 3 field Antha ndpath'al munam maleikki kondu po. M(Note 4.)
21.
;

;

;

25. Shall I go the upper road or the lower road rotu ki'rotu po'onutna ? Cl(Note 1) ; H.

Go and take up rows 26. rotiliruntu nerre podikka po.
27.

from

the

middle

— Nan me road — Nadu

Stop talking there
Q'here
is

28. 29.
al avalo

too

Why
Come

are

much noise Remba sattam irukruthu. N. those men talking so much Ye ahth'amble

— Pesathe —

ange.

Hi.

pesruthu? El.
here,

30.

Selvam.

Yon go and stand
n|lln.

over there

Inge va, Selvam.

Ni ange poi

D.

COOLY TAMIL.
31.

49

Pick out
That's

all

those

who pan
;

pluck well

— Nalla

edukka

teriuthTil piruttu podu.
32.

G2

P2.

(or,

terintt'iil).

tract

—Appadi,
1.)

eonit, now those can go and weed in Pal an 's ippo anth'al Palan kontrapile pillu vetra poattuin.

The others must go and pluck in Govinden's field 33. Matfal Govinden maleile koluntukku po'onum. A4(Note 2);

HI (Note
34.

If that

no

name— Antha
;

the kauganies get field is not finished today malei inniki mudiate ponal kanganimarukku per

ille.

35.

L3; Tl A3(7th sentence.) Take them to work quickly
If I

— Surruka

veileikki

kondu

po.

give 25 coolies for pruning will that be enough? Kavatukku nan iruwatanji 51 kudutal pothum irukumCr.' M.
36.

L3;

Jl.
37.
Sir, if there were 30 the field can be finished today mupath'al iruntal inniki male mudi'elam. L3.

Aiyii,

you are, give — Seri, intha,right, ellatukku puthu katti kudu. A3(Note 2); 39. No. you cannot. Don't talk so much and do a — Avalo pesathe-iim konjam veile elathe.
Ille,
sei.

38.

All

here

them

all

the

new knives
B.
little

work

40. Give to these 15 coolies mamoties and alavangas— Intha pattinanji alukku mamatiwrn alavangiTm kudu. See Note (d). to "Sentences." 41.

350
(i.e.,

feet

of drain 3);

name

a

day's pay)

— Perukku

valeik'onum.
42.
Aiyii,

M(Note
is

must be cleaned by each cooly for a ovor'al munutti ampath'adi Bl(Note 1).

Sir, there

micharn

mannu
!

a lot of earth, we cannot finish so irukruthu avalo mudi'elathe. N.
!

much—
unukku
pumbale

43.

soil' irukruthu

Shut up and do what you are told— Pesathe maderi sei. F; E.

44.
alii
!

Are you a

man

or

a

woman — Ni ambale

ala,

A3 (7th example). You can easily 45.
sei'elam.
46.

do

350 feet— Ni

munutti

ampath'adi
ni

leisi

A2.
tools,

Take your
pail.

you lazy fellow— Un aitham edu,

somara

Al.

47. Kangani. drive those coolies to work at once, look, they are standing on the road idle Kangani, anth'al satne veileikki verriru, antha par, avangal rotile Suma nikruthu. A2 A3(Note

;

2.)

L2(Note 1). 48. Give 20 leaf sacks and 20 (wire shoot) runners, don't stand and stare - Iriiwathu koluntu Sak, iruwathu Brule kudu
;

nintu miilikathe.
49.

B2

;

Dl.

Don't crowd round the tool kutama nikathe. B2.
50.

shed— Aitham kamara

kitta

Put a little oil on the runners and hum away to work enne uruleikki pottu surruka veilikki po, BKNote li; D; Cl(Example).

—Konjam

50
51.

COOLY TAMIL.
I have no

mamoty, Sir -Yenukku mamati i/fanga. A3 Appendix C. 52. Why? Get one— Ye? Unnu vartgu. 53. There are no more Ange innam ille. N. 54. All right I will see— Seri, pa pen. G. 55. Kangani, give this man an alavanga if there are no mamoties Kangani mamati Mate ponal inth'alukku oru alavanga kudu. L3(Note 1). 56. Now you have given 21 alavangas in all, have you not? —Ippo mottam ni iruwati'oru alavanga kudututh'iUea? D2. 57. If these coolies do not hurry and go to work they will have half name (i.e., half-a-day's pay)—Anth'al surruku veilikki poate ponal avangalukku are per irukum. A2 L3; Ml. 58. Sir, I want some money. Aiya, yenukku kasi venum.
(7th

Example);

;

A3.
59. No, I cannot listen to that now, I am going to the field —Ille, athukku nan ippo kelk'-elathe nan maleikki poren. HI CI. bO. Come at four o'clock with the head kangani Nalu

;

manikki peria kangani kuda va. N. 61. Without the head kangani I can do nothing
gani illame nan
62. 63.

—Peria

kan-

unnum

sei'elarhe.

L2; T.

The kangani will not come Kangani varaikatathe. Gl. Tell him that master says he is to come— Dore avane
Al(c); CI.

vara soUruthu sollu
64.

Then I may go?
2);

Yes,

go— Appo nan poattumu?

(Ama,)

po.

B2(Note

K; CI (Note

1).

PLUCKING.
Come here, kangani—Inge va, kangani (or) ingatu va. 66.— Where did you take up lines from this morning— Kala me engeiliruntu nerre pudituthu (P pudichuthu). A4 D2. 67. From the lower road Ki rotiliruntu, (or) pania rotili65.
:

;

ruutu.

B.

68.

Then
1).

this is to-day's

S; CI (Note
69.

work— Appo

ithi inniki veile /(7n<7

Ama,

Yes, where master is standing this morning's work dore nikruthu lekile intha kalame veile tan. DKNote 2) ''
S2.
ille,

A4(Note 2);
70.

This
(7th

B; A3
71.

is not good work, look— Ithi nalla veile Example). Whose is this row?— Intha nerre yarukku'?

oar
ithi

yarude nerre? 72.— This
73.

E;

(or)

A4.

is Sellai's

row— Ithi
kupidu.

Sellai nerre.

A4(Note

4).

Call

her— Avale
called
is

Al(c).

Avale kiipitutha? D2; CI (Note 1). she coming; tell her to come quickly— Aval yeppo varuthu; avale surruka vara sollu. A2; A3(Note 1).
75.

74.

Have you

her—

When

COOLY TAMIL.
7G.

51

I cannot wait here always

— Nan

yeppothum inge

nikk'-

elathe.
77. 78.

L2; HI.
Sec, there she
is

Which

is

your

coming Antha par, aval varuthu. row ?—EtJtU un nerre ? E; A3(7th

Example). 79. Don't look ahout, like that, all the rows are straight Appadi sutti pukathe, ellam nerre neire irukruthu. HI. 80. When we finished the row s up to that drain we moved up one Antha kanukku nerre mudinttu. nangal nduttu puditen (P aduchu pudichen). D2; E(Note 1); Postscript 6. 81. Then which is your row above that drain? Appo onthn kanukku mele ethu un nerre. E.

T

:

82. 83. Seri, ni

This
All

is

mine

—Ithi yennkku.
<

may go, call the cooly next poattum, unukku adat'al kupidu. K; Bl(Note This is your row is it i t? Ithi un nerre illea ? 84.
right,

you

to
1).

\

;u

85.

80. 87.

Yes, above the drain— A.ma, kanukku mele. Come and look at this tea Vantu, intha tei'ele par.

Is this good

work?

—Ithi

D.

nalla veiled'?

88.

You have plucked
:

viiiX'edututhu (P

leaving Vaich'edututhu).

89. Look here, kangani, all fish B2. ga ni, ellam topal ele veile. 90. You are an old cooly, why do you pluck like this Ni oru B; S. paft'al tun, ye ippadi edukruthu? Just playing the fool, go to the lines Suma vele ad91. ruthu, laiattukku po. L2(Note 1).

Cl(Note 1). a fish Seat" Ni topal ele A3(Note 1); F(Note 1). leaf work Inge par, kan-

92.

Why
How

can't you look after the work, kangani?

— Ni,

ye

veile pak'elathe,

kangani?

93. many coolies are there? 35. Tell them to count Ettane al nikruthu? Miipattanji. Cnnu (one, two, to say tell)


;

rendu solla
94.

sollu.

Al

M.

Munu
(Note
96.

There are 3 kanganies, the work ought to be faultless kangani nikruthu veile kuttam illame iruk'onum. H;
Gf> on plucking there


T

1.)

— Eduttu

po ange.

Dl.

96. 97.
98.

Pluck quickly— Surmk'edu. Al(b). Don't pluck leaving a fish leaf Topal clc vaitt'edukathe. Don't pluck leaving two leaves Bend'ele vaitt'edukathe.

— —

99.

100.

Take

Don't take hard leaves—Mutt 'ele edukathe. off the stalks— Kumbu kalittu podu (P: kalichu). Don't take four leafed Btalks together
.ViT/'elc

Dl; P2.
101.
seitu

kambtl

edukathe.

A 1(b).
:

Break off the stalks while you are plucking Koluntu 102. edukru' ncram kainbu odittu poda (V odichu). PI; A2(Note 1.)

52
103.

COOLY TAMIL.
If I find four leafed stalks I will put half

name— Nal'ele

kambu kandal nan

are per poduven.

L3 G.
;

104. Don't stop behind there, all go together— Pindi nikatke ange, ellam sendu po. F8; T(Note 1). Some behind, some in front, how can one look after the 105. work properly Pathi al pindi, pathi al mifldi vikruthu veile yeppadi seria pak'elam. F3 CI.

;

Pluck slowly then you can take a large amount of leaf Mulla edu, appo peria ratal kanak eduk 'elam H. 107. Pick carefully Patiram edu. Kavanama edu.
106.
!

!

108. 109. 110. par.

Don't strip Motte pudinkathe. TJruathe. Don't touch side branches Pakka vathu todathe.

B.
nalla.

Look well

in the centre of the

tree— Nadu maratile
'bangi'

Al(a).

111.

Pluck clean

the

two

leafed

—Kend'ele

vanji

tupara edu.
112. If there is three leafed 'bangi' break and throw away one, leaving one on the tree, having taken one Mun'ele vanji iruntal or'ele eduttu, or'ele visi pottu, or'ele maratile vai. L3 ; A3 (Note 2) P2.
;

Pick thoroughly— Narusa edu. 114. Don't miss the leaf Koluntu tappathe. A3(Note 1 (e).) Don't press the leaf down too much in the basket 115. Kudeile koluntu remba ammakathe. A4(Note 2.)
113.

116.

How many

rows taken by each cooly
:

pudich'irukruthu). P. 117. One by one until those short rows are finished M; P3. utrnu, antha korre nerre mudiuin-uari/cuj/i.

nerre puditt 'irukruthu (P

— Or'alukku ettane — VnAl.

118. 119.

Are these
Yes,
;

all

short rows

— Ithi

ellam korre nerred.

two again
kudupen.
120.

—Am'aiya, antha D M G.
;

sir,

when we

get to the ridge I will give two and modukukku vatitu tirumbi rev'endu

antha

Conductor those 20 coolies must go to tipping Kondaktu mattam odikha iruwath'al mattatukku po'onum (or)

po'onum.

E(Note

1).

TIPPING.
Break to a level Mattatukku odi. Al (a). 121. Break leaving two leaves above the fish leaf Topal 122. eleikki mele rend'ele vaitt'odi. 123. Don't break leaving one leaf— Or'ele vaitt'odikatke. Leave the tea properly level— Tei ele seria mattatukku 124.

vai.

go up — Suxruka Hurry maratukku po, adatu

125.

and

to the

next tree, it is enough for this ithukku pothum.

COOLY TAMIL.
126.

53

Look
leaf

for the top

above

fish

— Me

branch tben break the stalk two leaves vathu pattu apuraia topal cleikki mele

rend*ele vaitt'odi.
127.
level

Dl.

That's right, now break all the branches (stalks) to that Athi seri, ippo antha niattatukku ellam vathu odittu podu.

P2.
128.

That

is

all,

don't touch

it

any more

— Avalo

tan innam

todathe.

F1;N.

129. Don't touch a single (any) side branch oru vathu todathe.
130.
If the side

— Pakka

vathu

branches are

left

matter— Pakka vathu konjani osaram
131.

a little high it does not vaitt'iruntal kariam ille. L4.

wards
(P
:

—Ni

If

you break too low you cannot put the tree right afterrernba panitt 'odittal maram apuram serikatt'elathe.
L3.
it

panichu odichal).
132.
If
is
is

high it can be broken to a level next coming) Konjam osaram iruntal cartt'kilame niattatukku odik'elam. G2.
a little

week (week which

Next week it will be easy 133. mattam pakka leisi irukum. Jl.
134.
odi.

to see the level

—Varu kilame

135. nintal seria kank'elathe.

— Maratukku kile nintu If you stand above you cannot see properly — Me pakkam
Stand below the
tree to

break

it

Before breaking take 136. koluntu edu. Dl(Note 2).
137.

the

flush

off

— Odikru'
tiri-i7m

mindi

edu.

Only take a A3(Nute 2); B.

leaf

and a bud

— Or'ele-um

matiram

138. If I find big leaves in the basket I will punish you— Kudeile peri'ele kandai une nan tandipen. Al(b); AI(c); B. 139. Don't break the middle branches too low Nadu vathu remba panittu odikathe. (P panichu). Dl.

:

— Maram
141.

140.

As soon

as the tree is finished it should be like a table mudintt'iit/ane niese maderi tan iruk'onum. mu(P
:

dinch'udane).
katte kile
142.
to a stalk

R; S2(Note

1.)

— Maratukku
On
the

unnum On the

Don't touch anything below the pruned todathe. L2.

stump— Kaviitu

lower side of the tree several leaves may be left pania pakkatile micham ele oru kambukku

v&itt'irukattum.
113.

K; N.
upper side
only
all

two-

-Me

pakkatile

rendu

matiram.
144.
sutti

Don't leave two leaves rend 'ele raik'athe.

round the tree

— Maratukku
odittu

145. Go on there, break the level odii;hu po). po, surruka (P
:

quickly—Mattaro
kiii

146.

Put two hands

to

it— Athukku rendu

podu.

54
147.
148.

COOLY TAMIL.
Leave The tea
the small trees
tei ele
is

— Sinna

maram

viittu

po
left

Dl.
alone
1.)

— Seria molikathe 149. If the tree —Maram rend'adi
it

that has not sprouted properly must be

suma vaik'onum.

G2

;

L'2(Note

150.

not two feet wide you don't want to break agalam Mate pondl ni odikka vanda. L3. H. The small trees can be left to grow tall Sinna maram

valantu valara vaikattum. K. Later on they can be 151.

cut across

level

with

a

knife

Poragu katti pottu mattatukku vett'el&m. A4. Bl. The small trees must be left to spread Sinna maram 152.

virrikka vara vaik'onum.
153.
is

not enough
Grl.

Kangani, I will not weigh the leaf this morning, there Kangani, kalambre nan nirukkamafo? koluutu

,

pattathe. 154.

maram
155.

Look at this tree, Sinnama, is that a good level? par, Sinnama, athi nalla nattamii?
Don't talk nonsense, don't you know the work

— Intha — Suma
1).

pesathe, veile
156. 157.
158.
Call,

unukku

teriatha?
is

L2(Note

1);

H; CI (Note

Annama, what

the mistake in this tree

—Annama

kupidu, intha maratile enna kuttam irukruthu?

Show me, don't you know Kambi, unukku teriatha? Put that tree right Antha maram serikattu.

159.
160.

Yes, that's

it,

unukku nalla

teriuthu.

you know quite well Ami, CI Note 2 on page 79.
;

athi

tan,

Why

could you not do

it

like that before

—Ye

mindi ni

appadi sei'elathe?

161. Work well, then I will not blame you Nalla veile, sei appo une nan yesamaten Al(c); Gl. 162. All right, go to your row and work carefully Seri, un nereikki poi patirama veile sei. 163. Hurry up you lazy donkeys Surruka ni somara kaluthe.

164. 165.

You

are all old coolies
is

This sort of work

E.

166.

Al(b). I will not give

—Intha maderi veile vaU'iHe. a name for this — Ithukku nan per kudukno good

—Ni

ellam pali'al tan.

S2.

kamaten.
167. You must hurry or you will not finish the task Ni surruka po'onum Mate kanak mudt'amatathe.. L3(Note) Bl.
;

168.

If

you finished the kanak I

will give

you

full

name—

Kanak mudintt 'iruntal unukku nan mulu per kudupen. F(Note 1.) 1'09. Kangani, tell (them) to bring the leaf to the road— Kangani, koluntu rotukku kondara sollu. A3 (Note 1.) I will weigh up now Ippo nan koluntu nirupen. 170. G
oru pakkatile nillu. out the sacking— Intha, podian, ... padangu virrittu ppdu (P. virrxohu podu.)
171. 172.

All stand on one side

— —Ellam

Here,

boy,

spread

COOLY TAMIL
173.

55
which) I
eduttu

No,

pull

standing
174.

[lie,

it to where (i.e. nan nikruthu lekile

to

the place on

am
visi

ilhi.

G2.

Throw
P2.

that

rubbish

off

it

— Antha
the

kuppe

podu.
175.

Move
Look

those dead leaves
in the baskets for

off

road—Eotiliruntu antha

sette tallu.

176. par.
lines

hard leaf

— Mutt'eleikki

kudeile

Al.
177.

— Inth'al
1).

178.
179.

keep talking I will send them to the innam pes'irunttil laiatukku anupuven. L3. Where are the sacks? Sak enge (irnkruthu)?
If these coolies

Come

and

weigh one by one

E(Note
180. 181.

how can I weigh without space iddam illame nan yeppadi nirukren. F3. • 182. There is not enough room here, move up a bit Inge iddam pattathe, konjam talli nillu. Dl. 183. Boys come and weigh first— Podian motha nirukka va. 184. Don't talk— Pesathe. Pesame nillu. F3; TlfNote 1).

—Eeinba

Don't come crowding Don't come too close,

— TJn-unnu nirukka — together Kutama varathe

va.

kitta varathe,

185.

Who

is

that laughing

—Athi yar sirikruthu.
it

E.
alii

180. Collect the leaf sakile podu. Bl(Note 1).

and put

in the

sacks—Koluntu

187.

Those

coolies are not picking over their leaf

—Anth'al

koluntu porrukrurh'ille.

Look well in your baskets, there is hard leaf coming kudeile nulla par.mutt'ele varuthu. Bl Al(b). 189. Four pounds is not enough, have you been sleeping Niilu ratal pattathe, ni tunknutha. D2. 190. Where have you been, you have done no work Ni
188.

in—tin

;

enge ponuthu, ni veile seintuth'ille.
191.
192.

What

is

your name?

— Un
;

(P

:

sinjuth'ille).

D2.

per enna?

Aiyakannan kangany's people Savariam ah— Aiyakannan kangani-al Bavariama. A4(Note 4) B2. What is your head kangany's name?—Un peria kanL93. gani per enna?
194.

niku

Don't speak so fast, pesathe, nan velunk'elathe.

I.

cannot understand

— Avalo

sur-

195.

Say your name slowly— Un per mulla

sollu.

gang of people (in the book) Adputhain— Yen per motha perat'al, Adputham. 197. Sir, Muttan's gang is at the end (of the book)— Ai\fi

196.

My name

is

in the first

Muttan peratu kadesile irukruthu". 198. How many pounds did I Bay?—Bttane ratal torment A2(Note 1) D2. 199. Fourteen. Give your basket with (in) two hands— Pattindlu. Un kiide rendu kdiile kudu. M(Note 1); A4(Note 2).
;

56

COOLY TAMIL.

I take off four pounds for (the weight of) the basket— 200. Kudeikki nalu ratal kalikren. 01. When there is rain six must be taken off (must take 201. Malci irukru neram aru ratal kalik'onum.. PI. off) Those who have weighed must go to the rows Nirul'al 202. G2. nerreikki po'onum.

Don't stand on the road— Eotile nikathe. Each cooly must go to the row just left (each cooly Anth'anth'al nerreikki po'onum. to own row must go) 205. My row is finished, where shall I go?— Yen nerre mudintuthu, nan enge poveti? P(Note 1); G.
203.
204.

206.

Go

to

the

end and take up rows— Tongalukku

poi

nerre

up the leaf— Koluntu uthari podu. Dl. Press the leaf into the corners (of the sacks) Muleikammachi podu). ki koluntu ammattu podu (P Put only 50 lbs. to a sack— Oru sakukku ampathu 209.
208.

pudi. Shake 207.

:

ratal

matiram podu.
carry

Do you want women to 210. pu inhale al venuma? HI (Note 1).
211.

sacks?

Yes, there are only 8 boys to 10

— Sak sacks— ima,
:

tukka
pattu

sakukku yettu podian matiram nikruthu. Then call two women who did not carry yesterday— 212. G2 Postscript 8. Appo neitu tukath'al rendu pumbale kupidu. Be careful, don't pluck buds— Patiram, arumbu eduk213.
athe.

214. Only take the well-opened shoots— Nalla virruttu koluntu matiram edu. G2. Don't take a leaf below the old level— Palia mattatukku 215. kile or'ele edukathe. Pick to the old level— Palia mattatukku edu. 216.

Pluck without 217. tod'ame edu. F3 Bl.
;

touching

low

brandies

218.

You may

pick leaving a big fish

— Pania vathu leaf — Peria topal ele
D
;

vaitt'edukattum.

— tfchi

You can pick to a small fish leaf on the bigh branches 219. Bl H. vathile sinna topal ele vaitt'eduk'elam. ; Then the trees will not grow high Appo maram osaram 220.

valaTamatathe.
221.

Gl.
properly
coolies

You must break
it

cannot reach
222.

— TJchi

the high branches, if it is hiph you vathu odik'orium, osaram iruntal
1).

ni seria yett'elathe.

HI (Note

These

are not breaking

properly— Inth'al

seria

odikruth'ifte.

01.

223. There is too much stripping here, kangani Tnge remba motto pudinkruthu, kangani. 224. Where are the primers?— Kavat'al enge nikruthu. B2.

COOLY TAMIL.
PEUNING.
225. They have taken up lines from the top road P. iruntu nerre pudittu' irukruthu,
22P).

57

— Me

rotil-

You have

not done enough work

—Veile

pattathe.

A3

(7th

Example).

Om227. It is nine thirty, and only this much finished path'aie muni achi, ivalo matirarn mudintt'irukruthu. P; F3. These trees are very big there are many knots Intha 228. inaram micham perisi (irukruthu) remba mudichi irukruthu.
; ;

— —

Give me a knife I will try and see Yenukku oru katti 229. kudu nan thendittu papen (P thendichu). Take all the knots out clean Ellam mudichi tupara 230.
:

edu.
231.

232.

Don't leave a half knot Are mudichi vaikathe. Ml. Cut to a level properly Seria mattatukku vettu.

— —

233. Look here, Eaiappan, this tree is not level Inge par, Raiappan, intha maratukku mattam ille. 234. Shorten that branch a little Antha vathu konjam Dl. korreittu vettu (P korreichu).

:

235.

— Cut

out

all

the

stumps

—Ellam

palia katte kallittn

podu.

P2.

230. 237.

Don't leave any twigs— Asambu vaikathe. Cut the upper side of the tree first Maratukku me

pakkam motha vettu. Then you can 238.
239.

tell

240.

Don't cut too low Remba panittu vetathe. N. Cut two inches above the old cut Palia vettukku mele

the level

—Appo —

mattam

teri'elam.

rendu inchi vaittu vettu.
241.

F(Note

1).

Cut the high branch

first

—Me

vathu motha vettu.
level

242.

Then cut

all

the other* branches to that

matta vathu ellam antha mattatukku vettu.

— Appo

243. On the lower side of the tree it does not matter how high the branches are above the old cut Maratukku pannia pakkatile vettukku mele vathu yevalo osaram irukruthu kuriam ille. palia 244. Don't shorten the side branches Pakka vathu panni-

kathe.

(pannikka, to lower).

245. kathe.
246. 217.

Don't clear out the new

— branches — Puthu

vathu

kali-

panda.
248.

Thin out all twigs— Asambu ellam kalittu vettu. You do not want to pull off the leaves Ele pudinkka H.

Un

Don't cut down to the main stem Adi vettathe. Yon do not want in prune below last year's cut Ponu vaieu vettukku kile ni vetta vanda. H. 250. Prune carefully. Sharpen your knife— Patiram vettu.
249.

katti titu.

58
251.

COOLY TAMIL.

His knife has got blunt AvanwJe katti mallingu poicbi A4; F3. Put a slope on the cut branch Fe/fn« 'v.iithukku islopu 252. podu. G2(Note 1). 253. Don't cut out the strong branches— Pellamana vathu
(po'achi).

kalikathe.
254. vettu.

B.

Prune round the

tree

(4

sides)

255. You kalik'elam.
256.

may

thin out the centre

—Nalu pakkam branches — Nadu vathu
vettu.
let it
;

sutti

ni

257.

Cut below that knot Antha inudichi kile Hold the branch while you prune, don't

shake

Kavatu vettru'neram vathu pudi, aseia vudathe. G2 PI. You do not want to go so fast, look what you are doing 258. Avalo vehama poa vanda, ni seiruthu padi par. H; CI. Don't slash at it— Visi vettathe. Dl. 259. 260. You must do 250 trees each Ovor'al irunUtti ampathu inaram sei'onum. J3 M(Note 3). That tree is too high, I said before cut two inches 261. below the old cut Antha maram remba osaram 'rukrmhu, mindi nan sonnen palia vettukku kile rend'inchi vettu.

;

Shorten the branches near you 262. koreittu podu. Al(c).
263.
vetti po.

— line

kitta irukru'vathu

That's better,

now hurry up— Athi

tevelea, ippo surruka

264.

Take out

all cross

branches— Ellam pinal vathu eduttu

podu.
;

If there are two branches cut out the smallest 265. Rendu vathu kitta iruntal athium sinna vathu vetti edu. L3 LI B. Don't leave forked (or two and two) branches Kavatu 266. (or, rendu-rendu) vathu vaikathe. 267. This tree has twenty levels on it, what are you doing, you fool Intha maratukku iruwathu mattam irukruthu, ni enna

;

seiruthu, 268.

mada

pail.

Kangani, what is that man doing far away over there? Kangani, anth'al enna seiruthu ange turam? He is pruning from that end Antha tongal'iruntu 259.

cut)

—Ye? Why? vetta vudathe (P madachu vetta). F(Note madattu 271. One cooly here, one there, how am I to look at the work — Inge or'al, ange or'al, nan yeppadi veile pakren. CI. 272. Don't want to leave the knives in the sun, the handles will spoil — Katti vaikka vanda kai-pudi ketta poum nellalile vai. A4(Note 2); J2. 273. Come along, prune away— Vetti va. 274. Where are the manuring coolies do you know? Don't — Ural enge nikruthu unukku teriuma Unukku you know
don't let
(lit:

vettruthu. 270.

them work both ends
:

don't fold
1).

veiilile

?

'al

?

teriatha ?

Al(a);

Note on page

79.

COOLY TAMIL.

59

275. They are at the other Bide of that corner Antha modaku antha pakkain nikruthu. 276. Must I go round the corner? Modakukku angatu nan po 'onumd? Footnote page 5; H.

277.

Are the

coolies

near the
1(f).

stump?

—Antha

kutta-katte

kitta nikruthu SJ?

A3(Note

MANURING.
278. vantuthu't

How many
D2.

bags did you bring?— Ni ettane mute kondu
sack

279. Twenty bags, each cooly carried one J3. sak, ovor'al oru sak tuknuthu.

—Iruwathu
1).

280.

— Sunduile urani — Sundu 282. Fill the tins with manure and knock the top nereittu pottu tale tattu; nereichu pottu). vudu) (P Put one tin to every four trees — Nalu maratukku oru 283. 6undu podu. nerre unnu vut'iinnu. 284. No, every other row — 286. Give me the tin I will show — Sundu yenukku kudu, nan katuven. G. 286. Having put the manure like that — TJram appadi pottu 287. fork well on the four sides — nalu pakkatile nalla kutu. Don't leave any space without forking— Iddam inullu 288. hut'ame vaikathe. F3; T(Note 289. Go on forking, there—Kuti po, ange. —Ippo elliitukku kambitt290. Now I have shown to F. 'irukren. know the work — Ellarukum veile teriuthu 291. They (ellarum everybody). 293. Fork to the depth of the fork — Mullu alam kutu,
281. Don't pile kiimittu vaikathe.

—Have

you the tins?
the

Sundu manure up

irukrutha'?
in
tins

Cl(Note

off

(or

tatti

:

Ille,

1).

all

all

:

(or),

inullu alatukku kutu.

293. Dig a hole above each tree kuli vettu.

— Ovoni —

ninhihlkkU mele oru

294. All holes must be 1J feet long and six inches wide—= Ml M. Kuli un'are adi nilam, dru inchi agalarn iruk'onuni. This hole is not deep enough Intha kuli alam pattathe. 295.
;

ni

How are you going to bury the. manure in that Athile 296. Gram yeppadi pothikruthu? C2; CI; A4. Mix the manure up with the earth Mann-Hiii aiKtaiim 297.

kalantu podu.
298.
(or)

B.

Dig deeper «nd wirier Athium alam, agalam vettu. alam, agalam kuda vetta. LI; N. Then put dead leaves in together Apurain sette seitu 299.

podu.

60

COOLY TAMIL.
and stamp
it

Fill in with earth 300. miidi pottu nalla mithu.

down well— Mannu

301.
302.

Don't upset the manure Uram sintathe. Look, the manure is flying away in the wind
katile poruthu.

—Antba

par,

uram

303. Stoop down and spread it carefully Kunincku nintu patiram virru. 304. Go on forking, the ground is not hard Kiiti po, mannu varratum ille. A3(7th Example). 30-5. You can easily fork here, it rained in the night Inge leisi kut'elam ravile malei peintuthu (P peinchuthu). D2.

:

3(Jb\

full

name
307.

—Mudintu
If

If there is not

veile pattathe ponal
is

enough work finished you will not have unukku mulu per irukabetter,

matathe.
kangani.
308.

L3; Gl. That work

kangani

—Antha
;

veile

tevelea,

yeppothum
sei

you always do like this all will be well Ippadi ui irukum. L2 L3 Jl. 309. Do as I say and don't give trouble Nan sollru maderi karachal panname. G2 B.
seithal seri
;

;

310. drainers

after the —Kangani, veile

Look

work
nalla

well, kangani, I

am

going to the
kitta*

par,

nan kan

valeik'al

poren.

G2; Gl.

DKAINING.
311.

These drains want deepening

—Intha

kan alama vetf

0)ium.
312.

H.

Have you no alavangas?
there are

313. Yes, Sir, pendix C.

for — Inge

here, you, what is this Btone left in the drain va, ni, ennatukku intha kal kanile vaiW irukruthu. P. 316. Get the stone taken out Kal eduttu podu. 317. Don't talk rot, call the coolies who did this drain— Sutna pesathe, intha kan-al kupidu. L2(Note 1); B2. 318. Dig the earth round the stone first with a mamoty Mamoti eduttu kal sutti mannu motha vettu. 319. Like that, now put the alavanga Appadi tan, ippo

314. 315.

—Unukku alavanga illea? —Am'anga, irukruthu. ApThen why do you not use them—Appo ye pavikruth'ille.
some

Come

alavanga podu.

S.

320. Put a small stone under the alavanga Alavanga kile oru sakku vai. 321. Press the alavanga down. Press Alavanga kile am!

maku.

Ammaku

I

322. There you see, the stone aseiruthu. 323. With a little work put to
veile
*

is

moving
it

—Antha

par, kal

it

will

come out

— Konjam

athukku pottu

vellia

varum.
:

J2.
place.

Mispronunciation of itham

COOLY TAMIL.
324.

61
(or),ni

You do

not try

—Ni

thendikruth'ille,

thendittu

pakruth'ille.

325. Come here, put a small stone and lift the alavanga Inge cantu, oru sakku pottu, alavanga tfiku. D. 326. Lift that's it, now push it to one side -Tfiku appadi,
I

!

ippo oru pakkatukku tallu. 327. If the drain is not deep enough don't leave it, dig it deeper all along— Kan alam pattathe ponal athe sfima vaikathe,
• nedua alam vettu. L3. 328. Go on cleaning out the drains well

— Nalla

valeittu po

(P
ele

:

valeichu.)

320. Don't put the prunings on the top of the tea— Mar teimele podathe. 330. Take away the prunings and rubbish from above the drain Kanukku mele-iliruntu mar-fim kuppe-um eduttu podu.

331.
kile tallu.

Push Ml.

it

all

below the

second row

332.

rotile vaikathe.

Don't leave the dug earth on the G2.

— Rendam nerreikki road — Vettuu' mannu

333.

Al(o).
334. vaikathe.
335.

—Pallatile matiram podu. Don't leave earth on the edge—Kan oratile mannu Al(a). Take out the stones in the road— Rotile irukru'kal
Only put
it

in

the hollows

eduttu podu.

PLANTING.

— Palaniandi
337. 338.

330.

I told Palaniandy to go to the nursery, has he gone? tavaranikki poa sonnen, a van po'irukrutha. F.

Shall I go by this road Intha rotodu nan poattuma? Don't take the crooked plants Konal kannu edukathe.

Cut the plants all to one size 339. kukku vettu.

— —Ellam —
;

kandu oru kana-

310. You do not want to cut 60ine long and some sbort Pathi nitam, pdthi korre vetta vanda. J3 H. You may take off the side root Pakka ver ni vettu t341. tum. K.

342.
343.

Prod the ground deeply

— Mannu

root will come J2. ver odik'nne varum. F3;
344.
'()">.

Then the

alama kfitu. up without breaking

— Appo

Wrap thcrn up in some leaves — Konjnm ole sutti kattu. Hun v up and take them away — Athe surruka kondu po.
The
They
coolies

846.
al

are

doing nothing up there

— Ango

mele

annum
347.

seiruth'ille.

CI.

ore

waiting for

more— Kandu varum

varikum

tin nikruthu.

P3.

62
348. kathe. 349.

COOLY UAMIL.
Don't pull up the very small plants

— Poili kandu
kannu

pudin-

edu.

LI
350. 351.
352.

;

Take the biggest Ml.

first

—Athium

peria

motha

Make a wide hole Kuli ahuna vettu. Put the plant in straight Kandu nimatu podu. Put (plant) it in to the nursery level— Tavarani matta-

tukku podu.
353. Look, do you see this earth on the plant, that nursery level Intha par, kannile intha mannu kankrutha tan tavarani mattam.

is

the
athi

?

354.

355. 356.

Don't plant it lower than that Athukku kile nadathe. Put the alavanga well in Alavanga nalla podu. Put your foot close to the plant Un kal kandu kitta

podu.
357.
illu.

Now
You

pull the alavanga to

it

—Ippo

alavanga athukku

—Athi rendu pak359. down well with your heel— Un kuthin kal Tramp pottu nalla mithu. D. 360. Don't leave a hollow near the plant— Kandu kitta pallam vaikathe. 361. Put in a peg— Oru kuni podu. 362. Put in slanting, then stones falling down will not do harm to the plant —Kuni sainttu podu appo kal vutuntaka kandukku mosam seiamatathe. L3; Gl (P. sainchu.) 363. If there a rock move to one side and try — Pare irun358.

only want to do that on two sides
seia
it

katile

matiram

venum.

it

;

is

tal

oru pakkatukku
364.

talli

Don't forget

to

thendittu par. L3. put the peg in Kuni poila niarakathe.

Bl.
355. Kangani, don't let them go on without treading the earth well round Kangani, mannu sutti nalla mithikame avangale poa vudathe. A2; Al; Bl.

366.
aiya.

I have told them, sir— Avangalukku

nan

soll'irukren,

367. All right, then see that they do it— Seri, athe avangal seirathu tan par. Al(c).

WEEDING.
368.
All those

weeds must be collected

— Antha

pitta

ellam

porrtikka

369. into sacks and Sakile pottu rotukku kondu va.

venum. Put them

bring them to the road

•370. Don't pile the weeds up in the kumittu vaikathe.

rows— Nerreile

pillu

COOLY TAMIL.

63

— Nfdiki
372.

371.

If you bring matches tomorrow you can burn the weeds L3; Bl. nerapu-kuchi kondu vantal pillu rdi'elam. Tomorrow weeds will have got dry Naliki pillu kanji

po'irukum (poi-irukum.) Jl. 373. Don't scrape so much earth— Avalo
374.

Pull up th» big weeds by

hand

— Peria

mannu

surantathe.
pillu
kaiile

pudinku.
375.
tan.

These scrapers are too old
I will
get.

—Intha

karandi reinba

palm

LI.
37(5.

some new scrapers

Whose contract is this? Ithi yarude kontrap? E. Katan's contract. Then stop his rice he does not weed Katan kontrap. Appo avan arisi nipatu, avan pillu vetruth'ille.
377.

— Piithu

[G. karandi cnngarcn.

378.

379.
380.

There

is

too

much

seed in the ground
po.

—Pumile

remba

vethe irukruthu.

381.

Go on weeding— Pillu vetti Weeds should be pulled up
pillu

before the flower comes

Pu varuthu mindi

pudink'onum. G2. If the contract cooly weeds a little each day it will 382. be easy to keep the field clean— Ovoru naliki kontrap al konjam B2 .13: L3 Jl. vettnal, malei tiipara vaikka leisi irukum. In this contract the work has all got behind hand, 383. now how difficult it will be. to clean it Intha kontrapile veile fllam pindi poichi, ippo athe tupara panna yevalo varratum Bl. irukum. F3 How many acres is this contract? Intha kontrap 384. ettane ekru. Fl.
; :

;

385.
'ekru.

Ten

acres.

Where
it is

Vandris maiani enge

386.

Be

quick,

marks? Patt(u) (irukruthu)? going to rain Smruka. malei varuthu.
are the boundary

FILLING.
387. Those hole-filling coolies are not B2 Al(6). kali mfid'al remba seiruth'ille.
;

doing

much — Antha

is this, why do you leave a hollow Tntha ye pallam vaikruthu. E; CI. 889. Fifty times I have said yon are ro pile the earth up Ampathu neram manmi kumittu vaikka sonuen. D. 390. This woman will not work properly, send her to the lines— Intha pumbale nalla veile seiamatathe, avale laiatukku

388. nerrc al

Whose, row

y~ir,

anupu.

391. She is a new cooly and does not know the work Aval 8.; Note on page 79. puth'al tan, nvalukku veile teriathe. 392. Well, teach her then (to learn give) Appo avalukku

pad it hi Kudu.
393.
ni veile
It is four o'clock,

you may stop work- -Naln mSni achi,

vudattum.

F8; K.

64

COOLY TAMIL.

Shout to those coolies to stop work Artth'a.1 veile vada 394. sattam podu. C Bl CI Are they all coming ?—Avangal ellam varutha^ 3<)5.
;

(Note

1).

Don't forget what I maderi marakathe. R.
396. 397.

told

you— Unukku
It is very

nan

sonna'

padik'onum.

You must learn Athi micham

all

this.

easy— Ithi ellam

leisi tan.

C2; L2.

398. *You must not go without this illdme ni poa vendam. E3 H.
;

book— Intha postikum
tan tei'ele tongal.
poittu va.
S.

399.
400.

This

is

the end of the

tea— Ithi

Good-bye, (come back again)

— Salam,

Dl.

RUBBER TAPPING.
five o'clock Tappers must come and get their buckets at in the morning Pal-al anji manikki kalambre vali edukka var'

401.

onum.

P.

Those who come after that must go without work 402. Athukku pidpadu vant'al veile illame po'onum. P. Each cooly must have a number— Ovor' a lukku oru 403. nambar irukka venum. 404. Each cooly must take his own knife and bucket Anth'anth'&l antha kattium Valium edukk'onum. (For 'Antha'

see Vocabulary). Do not allow the coolies to take the buckets to the 405. manikki vali laiatukku kondu poa lines at four o'clock

—Nam

vudathe.

Each cooly must bring his own bucket to the tool shed— 406. Anth'anth'al avanude vali aitham-kamaraMfcfcu kondu var onum. A4. 407. Tap carefully and do not take the bark off thickly Patiram vettu, patte kannam edukathe.

Don't press the corner of the kuife into the bark— Katri 408. mule patte ulukku ammakathe. 409. If no latex comes it does not matter Pal vnrate ponal kariam ille. L3. 410. You do not want to cut deep until a lot of latex comes Micham pal varum'varikwm alama vetta vanda. J2 P3.

;

Cut well so that the trunk of the tree does 'not show under the cut bark Vettnu' patteikki kile adi maram teriame
411.

padikki nalla vettu.
412.

Dl(Note 2); Postscript 5. Cut until you see (know) the white latex bark, then go no deeper Veile pal-patte terium yariknm vettn. apuram athikum Olam poathe.

413.

Do

not shave the inside white bark

— Dlukku

irukru'

veile patte sivathe,

Dl(Note

2).

COOLY TAMIL.
414. If one can see cut the bark that is a

Bn

the

stem

wound

— Patte
L3;

of

the tree after you have vettnuthu pidpadu adi
P.

maram
415.

terinttal, athe tun

kaiam.

Don't make wounds on the tree

— Mara/ile

kaiam panna

kvdathe.
416. 417.

Al; HI. Look how I

aeiriithu padi par,

am doing it, then you can learn Kan appo ni padik'elam. Don't put the knife slanting, and keep the edge of

Katti sainttu podathe, katti-orani to the tree Al. marate kitta vai. (P sainchu). Before you tap remove the scrap rubber Ni vettrutlm 418. mindi ottu-pal eduttu poda. P2. (ottu past. parr, of otta to
:

the knife close

stick.)

419. Don't roll scrap urutathe. A4.

up

in your

hands

— Ottu-pa]
let it

kaiile

— Ottu

420.

Put scrap in your

little

basket and do not

upset

— Ute edukka 422. Put the coconut shell upright on the wire — Serrete Lambikki nimatu podu. into the buckets — Pal 423. Collect the latex and put D. podu. Postscript 6 on the bucket— Valikki 424. Keep the pottu vai. When you have emptied the shell put 425. upside down on the peg — Pal kotti pottu serrate kfichikki mele kuppara podu. 426. Now coolies may go to the factory and weigh the latex — Ippo pal niruhruthaha algal (plur.) istorukku poattum.
it

pal kottu-kudeiile pottu kile smtu vudathe. 421. Tap the coconut shell to get the dirt out serrete tattu.

D.

alii

viilile

;

lid

uriidi
it

all

ii|>

NKF/ootnote); Don't try to take the scrap off the side cuts until 427. it coagulates Pal oriruthu mindi ottu pal marapu kanilirunfu thendittu edukathe. (Oria to coagulate.)

K.

'down channel' is not clean cut it a little with the knife— Nettn kan tupara illate ponal katti pottu konjarn vettu, If there is an old wound, cut (leaving a) ledge of bark 429. -Palia kaiam iruntal patte othuku vettu, (or, othuki vettu). (See
428.
If the

vocabulary for "othuku"). If you do not shield wounds I will ouly give you half 430. your number of ounces Ni kaiam othuki vettafe ponal nan onukku Ml. are auna kanak matiram taren.

f am paying g of a cent per ounce for No. 431. (field) Motlial nanibarukku nan are-are-kal sadani or'aunsukku kudukren.
I

432.
183.

For No.
[f yrju

'-\,

A

a

cent

— Munani

come

money Ningal kalarnbre vellena rantu nalln veile mioham k&si poleik'elam. From today, kangani, there need not be any muster 434. Iunikki vaiclu, kaugaui, pcratu vaikka vtmdiutk'ille. N3; ill
u a lot of
Bcithal
I

earlj

in the

jianiharukku are Badam. morning and work well you can

66

COOLY TAMIL.

fields their to All tappers ma\ each go 435. respective PCil-ol anth'anth'al anth'antha nialeikki ulraight Prom the linos B2. laiatilirunfu nedua poattum.

430. Every Saturday send all the tapping knives to the carpenter— Saini kilaine Saini kilame* ellam rabar-katci odavi Mtta anupu. N2. Page 15 (Footnote). The carpenter will sharpen them for uexr week's work 437. and return tkein Adatu kilame veileikki odavi katti titi anupuvan.

BECBUITING.
What is this? Enare you running after me? natukku yene kitta odi varuthu? Irh'enna? -•' 439. This is a tundu for 20 coolies, please I want master to Take them on Ithu uruwath'alukku oru 'tundu/ dore taivu seiihu
'438.

Why

:

edukka venum. How can I take these coolies on, this is a Federated 440. pstate— Nan inth'al yeppadi edukren ithi segapu tundu totum. How much debt per head is master going to give Ovnr 441. 'alukku dore yevalo kadan kudukrar? Appendix B. is a red tundu like this T will not give more than 442. If K40 per head Tntha maderi segapu tundu irunta] ovor'alukku napathu ruaukku mele kudulckamaten. fil. If T 443. bring a white tundu will master give B100 per head'?— Nan velle tundu kondu vantal dore nuru rua or'alukku Appendix B; CI (Note 1). liudupqral No, you have too much deht already llle, ippo unukku 444.. remba kadan irukruthu. 445. Then master must settle my account give me. my tundu and I put these new coolies on another estate Appo dore yen kanak tirunttu, tundu kuduttu, nan intha puth'al vere totatukku eduttu vaikren. Al D. 446. Why do you not try and get coolies from the coast, their Simeiilitravelling expenses will be charged to estate account runtu al ye thendittu edukruth'ille? vali-selavu totum kanakile
(please)

it

.


;

;

pott'irukum.
447.
If

Jl.

master gives me R50 I will go and fetch some Dore yenukku ampathu rua kudutal nan poittu al kondu varuven. 448. No, I cannot give so much. I will give ten rupees here then you can get BIO at the Trichinopoly (Labour Commission) Agency for each cooly you take and issue there Nan avalo kuduk' elathe. • Inge pattu rua taren appo ni Tipaukku kondu vantu G2. pathintfal ovor'alukku ni pattu rua yang'elam.

A repetition often indicates the idea of a repeated action, time, thought, etc. Compare:
Masam-masam
Alukk'-alukku Vara-vara
;; :
:

*

month by month
to

:

everyone gradually

COOLY TAMIL.
at

67

All right, Sir. Here, this is the form to take and show 449. Intha, intha odru the Trichinopoli Agency Nallath'anga. (adru) Trichinopoli Tipaukku kondu^oi kambikk'onum. Appdx.C. 45U. Look here, here are ten tickets I have written down

the numbers Intha eluthi vaitt'irukren.

par,

pattu

tagaram

irukruthu

Nambar

How long will you be away? Ni poittu yevalo kalam 451. niputku? (from 'nikka,' to stop). 452. I will be away for one month and then return, sirNan oru inasam poittu varen'anga. How many coolies can you bring, you musr tell me 453. before you go Ni ettane 51 kondu viiruvuthu'? Ni poruthu mindi yenukku soUa tan venum. L4(12th Example).

454.
(yjett'al

I will bring eight
Tipaiiile

coolies

through

the

Agency— Nan

pathinttu kondu viiruven. 455. You should always try and get your relations as other Un tai-pulle-al yeppothum pattu eduk' coolies perhaps will bolt onuin, ver'al sila vuele odi povuthu. What will be your address at the 'Coast' (i.e. India; 456. Simeiile unukku enna rneil-vilasam irukum? Jl. p 457. (district)— Pala'(taluk), T (village) T

maneiri (uru) Tirukadupille (taluk) Tanjur (silla). 458. My name is P..., son of S... Yen per Palaniandipulle,

Sinivasagam magan.

All right, now put your signature to this paper Seri, 459. Al(a). ippo intha kaithatukku un kai-oppam vai. Don't you know how to write? Yes, sir Unukku eluta 460. Terium. B2(Note 2). teriatha?

I have written on that paper that you will return in eight coolies as you said Ni sonuthu padi, oru masam kalittu yett'al kondu viiruthu, antha kaithatile elut" irukren. Kalichu). (P
461.

a

month and bring
:

you do not do as you have said I will send you to L3 gaol Ni Bonn 'padi sriate ponal vine mareilukku anupuven. All right, sir; Good-bvc (the equivalent trhru ledtie 463.

462.

If

talcing)-

Nallath'anga;
''all

165.
;n

the.

Nan varcn. salani. Head Kangaui. Look here, kangani,
Benj a letter from his village

RamalirJ

Kan^anj

Iihh

Peria

kangani
oru

Tutha, kauyani, Ramalingam kangani Lupidu. kaitfaam anup'jfttfcran. A4; Appendix B.

urilirintu

enna

logether six coolies, but (lie Agency- Athile eluth'imkran, they Bay they will nut come to Qruile ar'al mttu-kuttu avaugal Tipaukku varamatom entu oikrnlhu. L Postscript 7. until (heir village debts are pnid by 468. They will not
;

466. Read it and tell me whnl he eluthi Bollran yenukkn sollu. In it he says that ho has got 467.

says— Athe

vasittu aran

K...—

.1.

;iui

hum

vararnatathe.

kangani P3,

avangalude

Sru-kadan

ksttaffi

van-

68
469.
(Note).

OOOLY TAMIL,
How much
is

the

debt, does

he

(write and) say.'

Kadan yevalo

irukruthu,

avan

elut 'trufcrano?

Appendix B; CI

470 Yes, sir, he says he wants Es. 60 sent to him Am'anga, avanukku aruwathu rua anupa venum entu sollrfui. Postscript 7. 471. Enna, ni sollru What, I can't hear what you say padi nan kelk'ille. 172. I say that it is necessary to send Bs. 60 Aruwathu rua to say). HI. anupa vendiuthu, enkren (from, Eua
-

.'

:

I cannot send 473. trust him Kanganikki

namb'elathe.

H.

money to the kangani because I cannot nan kasi anup'daMe, yenendal avane

I will write and ask the Labour Commissioner to send 474. a peon to Bamalingam's village to find him, and, on showing the new coolies, the peon will pay the money and all go together t: the Agency -Ramalingain kangani teidi pakka padikki avauude iirukku oru pian anup'elama Tipati Ejent doreikki <ru kaith&m fduthi kelkren. Kangani puth'al kambittu'udane, pian kasi ku-

duttu, ellarum
475.

Tipaukku seindu varuvuthu.

Postscript 5; G.

There is a bolted cooly at the coast, whom I want to catch Nan pudikka vendiuthu odi pon'al or'al virile nikrdn. Postscript 8; Appendix B. 476. All right, I will try and get you a warrant if you think he can be caught Avane pudik'elam nineittdl unukku oru varantu L3. vanga pakren.

477. Here you are, keep this paper carefully, show it when you get to the coast and I will send another like it to Kadpadi Intha, intha kadatasi patiram vaittu, simeikki poittu kambi antha maderi inoru kadatasi Kadpadi Tipaukku anupren.

;

a man and a woman, are coming from the telegram Mareiliruntu inniki rend'al, oru ambale, oru pumbale, varuthu, ithi tan tandi. S.
478.
coolies,

Two

Ragama
479.

to-day, here

is

come by the night mail— Saintaram ni

should go to the station this evening they will rail istesanukku po'onum, avangal raval kochile eri varuvuthu. Postscript 6.
480. I want master to give me some money for their rice Avangal sortuklcu dore yenukku salli kuduk-onum. Page 15

You

(Footnote). 481. Come to the office at two o'clock and I will give you

rua taren.

rendu manikki apisukku vantu nan oru rua kudupen. two new coolies have arrived, please issue them and cash Puth'al vantuth'anga, avangalukku arisiww rice kasiSw Upd'anga. B. 483. For their new pots and pans I will give Rs. 3 to each cool j— Avanukku puthu sattiitm paniwm ovor'alukku nan munu
Re. 1
482.
Sir, the

—Ni

B.

484. No, I will not give the money to the kangani, call the coolies and I will put it into their own hands Die, kanganikki Oan kasi kudukkamaten, al kiipittu avanude kaile tan podren. 8.

COOLY TAMIL-

09

485. Sir, with the money given to N kangani yesterday he bought and drank arrack, then kicked up a row in the lines last kudutu kasile (avan) saraneitu N kanganikki night Aiya, iaui vangi kfidittu, intha raval hliatile sande pottdn. Appendix B. In furure I m ill not give coolies cash who come from 486. the coast, I will cause their pots and pans to he bought for them Inimel simeiiliruntu vant'alukku nan kasi kudnkkamfiten, avanude sattiuin panium vdnga padren. Posrscript 9.

487. You low caste drunken fellow, why cannot you obej the Ni siuna sathi sense I am always telling you about, drinking? sollru kfidituthu pail, ni kudikru pati unukku nan yeppothuro Dl(Note 2). putti ye kelk'elathe.

488. If you cannot remain on my estate without boozing you had better go to the coast and stay there— Tennam kudikame yen
totatile nik'elathe vuttul ni

iirukkn poi nintdl tevelea.

Page 31

(Footnote)
1

;

L3.

IS .). You can cant uothiug if you do this sort of thing as all \i inyour coolies will bolt, then who is going to nay your debts tha mlideri seithal fmnum poleik'elatlie. unude al ellam odi povuthu, appo un kadan yar kattruthu?

If master had that toddy tavern taken away coolies 490. would not drink so much Dore antha kallu tavarn edukka pattal

kuli-al avalo kfidikkamatathe.

Postscript 9.

and kanganies have said that they do not want the tavern Micham ilium kanyanimaTiim tavarn vendiuth' ille solViTukTUTkal*. B Tl Appendix P. and B. 192. Master, I have been Head Kangani on this estate for 20 yeur* and it is on account of these new taverns close to tho estate that so many of my coolies have bolted or are now always having rows— Dore, nan iruwathu vaisu achi intha totatile peria kangani, totum kitta intha piithu tavarninale nam'al avalo al odi ponuthu, yenukku teriuin illate sande podruthu. Postscript 10. You must teach him (master) Tamil Anarukku Tamil 493. A2. padittn kudukk'onum. How do you say this in Tamil? Tamil peichile ithc 494.
491.

Many

coolies

;

;

yeppadi sollruthu?
495.
lie

take?

— Avar M

He

wants

to go to

estate, which road should totatukku poa vendiuthu, yentha rotodu

M

po'onum?
496. Master should go as far as the Post Office and take th Mail Coach there Dore, taval kanthorukku poitru nnge'iruntu kuUn-re -kochi ed'anga. Appendix C. I'M. Where do I change coaches?—Nan enge kochi mat

"'•lam?
['AH.

_

Send a cooly to the shition, tell him to give this letter t<> the Btationmaster and gel him to send me a hackery to the end 1' must be 'here ("have coin'' (here) of lh" cart-road by 6 o'clock a.m. Oral istesannkku amipi, intha kaitham isfpsan-masterukku kudukku solli, urn inadu-kariere karret'rotu tongalukku anupa Bollu. Anji manikki kalaine ange vant'iruk'onum.
*

Sometimes pronounced irukraha.

70

OOOLY TAMIL

I want four eo^lies to carry a lady in a (carrying) 499. estate. chair to They must be experienced coolies at totatukku tukka nal'al the work Doresiine na-kalile venum. Antha veileikki palakaman a\ (irukka) venum. B.

M —

M —

,

500.

Here

at 25 cents each.

ovor'alukku
aiya.

a present for you. Divide it amongst yourselves Thank you, sir—Intha, unukku oru santosum, Nallathu, salam irmoat'anji sadam pirittu kudu.
is

M;

Dl.

COOLY TAMIL.

71

WORDS

IYIUCH

ALIKE YET DISSIMILAR.

Tl

L'OOLY

TAMIL.

Kilam

COOLY TAMIL.
Tallu
!

73

74

COOLY TAMIL.
COOLIES'

NAMES.
Kolundaveil

'See iKey to Pronunciation, Page 2.)

Anandai

(/) (/)

Annamma
Amasi

Kovindan

Kovindamma
(J)

(/)

Amakannan
Arumugan
Alagan

Koval
Kullan

Aroikiam (/,w)

Alagamma
Arulappan Aiasami

(/)

Kullamma (/) Kumaran Kumarai (/) Kumrandi Kuppan
Kuppachi (/) Kuppasarai

Aiamma
Andi
Andichi
Arsai

(/)

Aiakannan

Amuratham
(/)

(f,m)

Kuppamuttu Kuppai (f)

Kuppamma
Kengan

(/)

Andiappan
(/)

Kengamma
Kariappan

(/)

Anamali Arunasalam Alamel (/) Adikan Appavu Angamuttu Xiappan
Antoni

Lechemenan Lechemi (/)

Mangalam
Madati
(/)

(/)

Madasami

Madan
Malean
(/)

Antoniamma
Arasan Arian
Arianachi
(f)
(f)

Maleatta

(/)

Mangan Manga Manikam
i

Arakani
Irulai
(/)

Ma-ran

Marimuttu

Innasi

(/)

Mariamma
Maria-i
(/)
i

(/)

Kadarai (/) Katai (/)
Kali (0

Ma sil am an
(/)

Kaliamma
Kalimuttu

Mikel Minachi

(/) (/)

Kanniamma
Kamachi
Kanctan
(/)

(f)

Minniamma Mukan
Mukai (J) Munnian

Kandasami
Txatan

Munniamma
Miiniandi

laruppan
Karuppai (f) Karuppaia
Kadiraveil

Murrugan
Murrugai
(f)

Muttu
Muttunachi

Kitnan Kistnan

Muttan

Muttamma
(I) (/)

Kitinamma
Koluntai

Muttea Muttukaruppan

COOLY TAMIL.
Mutbusami Muttuviran
Parvathi

75

Marathamuttu
Marathaviran

Parasuraman Parasan
Pattai
(/)

Marappan Mariappan Marathan
Marathai
(/)

Pechi (/) Pechai (f) Periakka (/)

Periamma

(/)

Manuel Magalingam
Mallan
Malli (/) Muttukali
(/)

Periannan Periakaruppan Periasami
Periatai
(/)

Periatambi

Nagan

Nagamma

(/)

Nagappan Nagalingam Nagamuttu
Naraianan Naraianasami Nachi (J,m)

Perumal Perumai (/) Pernmakka
Pettan
Peltai
(/)

(/)

Pichamuttu
Picliakaran Pichi

Nachamma
Nachamuttu
Nallan
Nalli
(/)

(/)

Ponan

Ponnamma
Potiappan Ponachi (/)

(7)

Nallamma
Nallappan Nallamnttu

(J)

Ponusami Ponalagu
Pfichi (/,»«)

Nadeaan Nathan Nianamuttu
Nallathanga Nallatambi Nilandan (7)
(.0

Puchan
Piivai
(/)
(/)

Pungavanan

Raman
Ramai (/) Ramasami Ramalingam Ra manathan
Rasalingam

Pakiam

(/)

Pakianathan Pacha muttu

Paehiamma
Palan

(/)

Easamma
Rasu
Rasatti
if)

(/)

Palani (f,m) Palaniai (f,m)

Palaniamma
Palaniandi

(f)

Rakai (/) Raiappan

Rengan

Palanimuttu Palanisami
Palanipulle rruiibean
Pfipai
(/)

Rengamma Kmgasami
Raveil

(/)

Ragel
CO

(/)

Sari can

Papamma
PapSti (f) Papi (Pi Para tea n

Badechi
s

(/)

Bandanam
miappan Baminathan
B

(f.m)

Pavai

niai

(/)

76
Sangili

COOLYQTAMIL.
Suppaia Supraian

Sangapulle Sanasi

Supramanian
Siiranam
(/)

Sapani

Saithamma (/) Savariamma (/)
Savariappan Savarimuttu Sevan Sevanai (/) Sevatian

Tanam (/) Tangam (f) Tangamma
Tangamuttu
Taia
(/)

(/)

Taiamma
(/)

(/)

Sevatiamma Sevadappan Sevakan
Segapai
(/)

Tailamma (/) Tamalingan
Tandaraian Tevani (/)

Tirumakka
Tirumale Topalan Totan

(/)

Sevanan Selvam (/)
Selernbram
Sellan
Sellai
(/)

Totamma
Tolasi
(/) (/)

(/)

Sellamma

Vadamale
Valli
(/)
(/)

Selembai (/) Sellamuttu
Sengi
(/)

Valliamma
Vaiti

Sengamma
Sennen

(/)

Vaitilingam Vaiavari

Sidambram
Sikkan

Vaiapuri
Vadiveil
(/)

)

\

Sikkamma
Sikkai
(/)

Veilan
Veilai
(/) (/)

Sinivasagam Sinnakannan Sinnakanni (/)
Sinnakutti
(/)

Veilamma
Veilakanni Veilaithan
Vellacbi (0 Vellasami

(/)

Sinnan
Sinnai (/) Sinnaia

Velleamma
Yellean

(/)

Sinnappan

Veneattan
(/)

Sinnamma
Sinnasami
Sinnatai
(/)

Vengadaraman Vengadasami Vengadasalam
Vengattan

Firangan Sinnamuttu Sivanadian Bolan
Solacbi
(.0

•Vengattamma
Virai
(/)

(f)

Viramma

(/)

Solamuttu Solamale Bonacbi (/) Sokalingam
Suiidrara
(/)

Viramale Viramuttu Virappan Viraputram Virasami Yellamrna (/)
Telli
(/) {f)

Suppan Stippamma

Yesu

COOLY TAMIL.

77

CONTRACTIONS AND COLLOQUIALISMS.
The following
heard
:

are a few colloquialisms very

frequently

A-nuru etc. An-nuru etc.

for

Aru-nnru 600 Anji nuru— 500

Avan

(etc.) var'ille

Avan

vantuth'ille

— He has not come

Ednkru'kohiutu
Edut'aututhu Edut'anten

u

Iruku
lruka ? Iru-nuru Iruntu
etc.

Leaf which being taken (Present Part.) Eduthu vantuthu He fetched E'iuttu vanten — I fetched Irukruthu (not frequent) It is Irukrutha? (not frequent)— Is it? Rendu nuru 200

Edukruthu koluntu

is

-iliruntu (suffix)

K&na Konda
Kondara
Kond'anten
etc.

Kondu va— Bring

Kanathe,

—From Kanan— Don't

see, lost

Kudichuthu

Nan Nan

Mudinchu poa
eduk'ille kan'ille

51

Kondu Kondu vanten — 1 brought Kildittuthu— Drank, Drunk Mudinttu poa— To get finished Nan edutev'ille — I did not take

(Imperative) vara— To" bring

Teinchu poa

Onum

Pattuttu

Nankantev'ille— I did not see Teinttu poa— To get worn out Venum Must, want Pattu vuttu— Having looked, left, ("vuttu'') is often used with many

Pannendu
like

I

verbs for euphony instead of their simple Past Participle form) 'anuirendu —Twelve

Past Participles ending in double "t" are often sounded "ch" (see above and List of Verbs).
Past

Tense— The

"t" often sounded as ch" (see above).
is

Present Participle— The tense ending
(«ee above).

usually dropped

Solittu

Vuut'muii Vanturchi
Vi.ral

it

Vant'al Vftnda

•»

vuttu— (see pattuttu" abovo) ant irukuin — Will have come Han come (see ¥ 3.) Vant'achi Yaruth'al People who are coming VantatL'al —People who came Vendam — Do not want
Solli
\
'

Venum
Ever]

Vendum— Want,
letter must
in-

must.

pronounced.

78

VERBS.
For the Verbs not appearing in this list the Vocabularies should be consulted.

NOTE —If

the Imperative, Infinitive and Past Participle be learnt all the other tenses can easily be acquired by

applying the fo'lowing simple ru'es.

PRESENT TENSE.— Thii
perative hv adding -kren

is

formed
the
first

from the
pers. n

Im-

for

singular

and -kruthu for a'l the others; EXCEPT when the Infinitive has no *k' in its Tense ending, then it will be -ren and ruthll (i. e. also without 'k').
-

FUTURE TENSE.— This
tive by adding -pen
for

is

firmed from the
first

Impera-

the

-puthu has no
-VUthU-

for all

the others;
its

EXCEPT

person singular and when the Infinitive

*k' in
(G.

Tense ending, then ifc will be -ven and Note 1.) Imperatives ending in 'ku' drop 'ku*

before -pen, -puthu.

PAST TENSE,— This is

formed from the

Past Partifor
all

ciple. minus its final Vowel, by adding -en person singular and plural, and -uthu for EXCEPT when the Past Participle ends
it will

the

first

the rest'

in

T,

then

be

-nen and -nuthu.

INFINITIVE— This always ends in -kka or -a, double 'k' being us id so as to dibtinguifh in writing the Infinitive from other words.

Compound Tenses as A.
NOTE. — Verbs marked
dative,
i.

4. 5. 6. 9.

page 84 are formed

by these same rules app'ied to Irukka
|
e.,

after a past participle

— Av&mtkku katti kondu va. ukku kasi kudututhu. Send Raman a letter — Rsmanw/iA:*' kaThe double ttu' of the Past Participle ending^ ithaiii anuppu nnd the Past Tense 't' which is formed from it, is usually pro.
:
'

ending in -ukku.

take the indirect object in the Biing him a knife He gave me money Avan yen-

Examples

Every

letter

must

l>c

pronounced.

COOLY TAMIL.
nounced
't'
;

79

Those which keep their legitimate like 'chu' or 'chi sound are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following
.

list of

verbs.

For Note on Imperative

see

D

1.

so

COOLY TAMIL.

COOLY TAMIL.

81

S2

COOLY TAMIL.

COOLY TAMIL.
Past
E.NGLI8H.

83

Impeeative.
Do.

Infinitive.

Participle.

Tod.).
Pulia

Having done.
Piilittu

Squeeze

Puli

Stamp
Stare
Stir

up

Mitbu Mu'u Kinlu
Nillu

Mithikka Mulikka

Stop
Stop (trans.). Swell

Kinda Nikka
Nipata

Mithittu Mulittu Kindi

Nintu
Nipati

Nipatu Vinku
Kvvtu

Sweep
Swindle

Yeiku

Vinkka Kuta Yeikka

Vinki
Kiiti

Yeittu

Take Take away Take care
Tear

.

Edu Kondu po
Kilu

Edukka Kondu poa
Kavanakka
Kilikka Tovea Nineikka Yosikka Visa Katta

Eduttu*

Kondu
Kilittu

poittu*

Kavanittu

Temper
Think Think

(steel)

Tove
Ninei

Toventu
Nineittu Yosittu
Visi Katti

Yosu
Visu Kattu

Throw
Tie

Touch Tread
Trust

Todu Mithu

Toda
Mithikka

Toni Mithittu

Nambu
Tirrupu Verritu

Namba
Tirrupa Verrita

Nambi
Tiruppi
Veritti*]

Turn off Turn out Turn round
Understand
Untie
..
...

Tirumbu
Avilu

Tirumba
Velunkka
Avilkka Pavikka

Tirumbi
Veluuki Avinttu Pavittu
...

(aviru)...

Use

Pavu

Walk Weigh Wine
Write

Nadu

...

Nadakka

Nadantu
;

... Niru Nirukka Niruttu* ... ... Tudeikka Tudei ... Tudeittu Elutu (eluthu) Eluta (elutha) Elutti (eluth

)*i

NOTE. — Compound
unchanged throughout.

verbs,

such as 'kandu

pudikka'

are
it

conjugated like the verb 'pudikka', with 'kandu' precedinn

the Imperative of a verb be forgotten use the Past Participle with 'podu' (put) after it. If the Future be forgotten make use of the Past Participlu followed by poruthu

N B

— If

or vftruthu, {going, coming).

81

COOLY TAMIL.

THE FOLLOWING

IS

A B1UKK

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.
{For reference only.)

A.

— Verbs with a 'U. 9 in the Infioitive. B. — Verbs without a *k' in the Infinitive.
C.— Verbs with the sound of 'ch', 'chu\ D.— Auxiliary Verb, 'to be', 'to have'.
in Past Tense.

NOTE. — Nearly
f

all verbs loith a *k'

in the

Infinitive have the

ch'

sound of
'k
:

't'

in the

Past Participle, while those
't'

without

the

usually
79).

keep the legitimate

sound.

(See List of

Verbs, page

all plural and honorific forms are omitted 2.) as these B.); also the Tamil pronouns (see (Appendix are the same for all tenses and verbs.

In the following

A

A.
Infinitive.

Past Participle.

To

give

...

Kudukka.

Having given

...

Kuduttu

Imperative.

Present Participle*

Give
1.

...

Kudu.
1.)

Giving

...

Kudukru(thu) (adj.)

Present Tense (C

Kudukren,
etc., give,

kudukruthu

I,

2.

Past Tense (D

2.)

3.

Future Tense

(G.)

— Kudupen,kuduputhu—
Kuduten, kudututhu
gave.
will give.

am

giving.

I,

etc.,

I, etc.,

4.

Past Indefinite (F.)

Kudutt'irukren, kudutt'iruk-

ruthu— I,

etc.,

am
5.

have given,
kudutt'irun-

given.

Pluperfect (F

2.)

Kudutt'irunten,

tuthu I, was given.

etc.,

had

given,

D1

(Note

1.)

COOLY TAMIL.
6.

85

Future Perfect

(J.)

Kudutt'irupen, k u dutt'irupu-

thu I, etc., shall given, will be given.
7.

have

8.

10.

Kudukum lfc will give. Impersonal Future (J 2.) Impersonal Future Per- / Kudutt'irukum— It will be fect (J 1.) given, will have given. been Impersonal Fast Tens© / Kudutt'achi It has (F 3.) given. Perfect Participle (L.) ... Kuduttu-kuttu Having been
i.

\.

11.

Subjunctive (K.)

— Kudukattum — May
given.
all

give (for

persons).

use of this 'Irukka'

Tamil the form Compound Tenses (4, 5, 6, 8) has an effect in some verbs of making a Passive, but as this is not admissable (see Postcript 9), such verbs take the pronoun in dative to keep them active (A 3.)
to

NOTE. — There

being only one Auxiliary verb in

A.

Negative Form
Infinitive.

Imperative.
|

Not to give...Kudukka vendam*

Do

not give

...

Kudukathe

Present Participle.^

Not giving
1.

...

Kudukathe.
Kudukruth'ille (for all persons)— Do not give, am not
giving.

Present Tense (C

1.)

Past Tense (D

2.)

Kudututh'ille (for all persons) Did not give, gave not. (a) (Colloquially Kuduk'ille)

:

3.

Future Tense (G.)

kudukkaKudukka-maten, matathe — I will not give,
he will not give.
Kudutt'irukrnth'ille (for all persons) Have not given use the Past [unusual,

4.

Past Indefinite (F.)

6.

Futuro Perfect
Subjunctive (H

(J.)

Tense 2 (a) ] Kudutt'irukka-miiten— rnatathe Will not have given.

6.

1.)

Kndukka-kudathe — may
give.

not

NOTE. — The
used
instead.
*

other Tenses are not

used,

the above can be

See page 77.

it

D1

(Note

1.)

86

COOLY TAMIL.
B.
Infinitive.

Past Participle.

To speak
Speak
1.

...

Pesa

Having Spoken
Speaking

...

Pesi.

Imperative.
...

Pesu.

Present Participle* ... Pesru(thu) (adj.)

Present Tense {C

1.)

Pesren, speak,

am

pesrnthu— I,
speaking..
1,

etc.,

>
3.

Past Tense (D

2.)

Pesnen,
spoke.

Future Tense

(G.)

Pesuven,

— pesuvuthu —
pesnuthu

etc,
etc.,

I,

will speak.
4.

PaBt Indefinite (F.)

Pes'irukrtn,
I,

have spoken.
etc.,

pes'irukruthu spoken,
pes'iruntuthu


is

5.

Pluperfect (F

2.)

Pes'irunten,
I,


I,

etc.,

had spoken,
pes'iruputhu

was

spoken.
6.

Future Perfect

(J.)

Pes'irupen,
etc., will

have spoken, will
will speak.

be spoken.
7.

8.

Impersonal Future (J 2.) Impersonal Future Per- (
feet (J 1.)
\

Pesum— It

Pes'irukum — It will spoken, be spoken.

have

9.

Impersonal Past Tense
(F 3.) Perfect Participle (L.)
...

10.

Pesi'achi— It has been spoken. Pesi'kuttu— Ha v i ng been spoken,

11.

Subjunctive (K.)

Pesattum— May

speak.

B.

Negative Form.Infinitive.

[dam.

Not

to speak (H.) ...Pesa ven-

Do
...

Imperative. not speak ... Pesathe.

Present Participle.*

Not speaking
1.

Pesathe

(adj.)

Present Tense (CI.)

Pesruth'ille (for all persons)— I, etc., do not speak, am

not speaking.
2.

Past Tense (D

2.)

Pesruth'ille (for all persons)— Did not speak, spoke not, (a) (Colloquially : Pes'ille.)
*

D1

(Note

I.)

COOLY TAMIL.
3.

87

Future Tense

(G.)

Pesa-m&ten, pesa-matathe I will not speak, he, etc., will not speak.
Pes'irukruth'ille (for all perhave not spoken sons) use the Past [unusual, Tense 2 (a)].

4.

Tast Indefinite

(F.)

5.

Future Perfect (J

)

Pes'irukka-LnSten pes'irukka-

6.

Subjunctive (H.)

Pesa-kudath e
speak

spoken, spoken,

matathe — I he

will will

not have not have
not

— May

(for all persons).

G.

NOTE. —In
'ch', 'chu', 'chi',

the following

where

't'

and

'tt' is

sounded

like

this book the

't's

these letters have been used, but in other parts of have been retained. As this altered pronuncia-

tion only applies to

Past Tenses, only these are shown.
Past Participle.

Infinitive.

To

hit

...

Adikka.

Having

hit

...

Adichu

Hit

Imperative, Adi. ...
)
...

Hitting

Present Participle* ... Adikru(thu).
etc.,

Past Tense (D 2

Adichen, adichuthu— I,
hit.

Past Indefinite
Pluperfect (F

(F.)

...

Adich'irukren,
Adich'irunten,
I, etc.,

2.)

...

— thu —
thn
hit.

adich'irukru-

I., etc.,

have hit,

is hit.

adich'iruntu-

had
have

hit,

was
will

Future Perfect

(J.)

...

Adich'irupen.

adich'iruputhu
hit,

I,

etc., will

Impersonal Future Perfect

(J 1)

Adich'irnkum — It
hit, will

be

hit.

will

havo

be

hit.

Impersonal Pa«t Tense (FS).
Perfect Participle

Adich'achi

— It

has been

hit,

was

hit.

(L.)

Adichi-kuttu
hit

— having
mid

been

NOTE —The
sound
is

negative

is

formed as in

oth'.r verb*

the,

'ch'

retained as above.

D

1

(Not©

1.)

88

COOLY TAMIL.
O.

Auxiliary

Verb.— To

be,

To have.
Past Participle. ... lruntu.

To be, have

Infinitive. (A. Note)...h'\ikka,

Having been, had
Being, having

Imperative.

Be
1.

...

...

Iru.
1 )

Present Participle. * ... Irukru(thu).

Present Tense (C
Past Tense (D
2.)

Irukren, Irukruthu am, have.

I,

etc.,

2.

Irunten, Truntuthu was, had.

I,

etc.,

3.

Future Tense

(G.)

lrupen, fruputhu—I, etc., will be, will have.

NOTE. — Other
used in their stead.
4.

Tenses are not often used, the above

may

be

5.

Impersonal Future (J 2.) Impersonal Future Perfeet (J 1.)

...

(

Irunt'

Irukum— It will be, will have. irukum— It will have
been, will have had.

I
1.)
...

6.

Subjunctive (K

Irukattum— May

be, (for all persons).

may;have

D.
Not

Negative Form.
Infinitive.
...

to be, have

[dam. Irukka ven-

Do

not be

Imperative. .. Irukathe.

Present Participle.*

Not
1.

being, having
1.)

...

Irukathe

Present Tense (C

Irukruth'ille (for all persons) not, have not

— Am —

2.

Past Tense (D

2.)

Iruntuth'ille (for all persons) Not been, not had. {Colloquially
:

Iruk'ille).

3.

Future Tense (G)

i-

Future Perfect
Subjunctive (H

(J.)
1.)

5.

Irukka-matathe I will not be, he will not be, have, Irunt'irukka-maten, -matathe 1, etc., will not have been. Irukka-kudatte May not be, have.

Irukka-mater,

PI

(Notel.)

VOCABULARY.
ENGLISB-TAMIL.
In order to make most use of references, after looking up a word in this Vocabulary, the Tamil for it should be turned up in the Tamil-English Vocabulary, where a rejerence to its
use in the Sentences,

pp

47-71,

may

be found.
in the

The references here are to Paragraphs
Ps.
is

Grammar

Section.

the Postscript after the Vocabularies.
2)

A, an A3(Note

90
Alas
I

COOLY TAMIL.

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
B.

91

Baby
Bachelor

Pulle

TTndikaran

Back Back (adv:)
Backwards,
to pull

Idupu Tirumbi Pinukku illukka
Agiithe, ketta

LI. B. Bad Bad motive Bag
Balance Balance Bald
Ball
(of

Akkus
Pai Terasu
Paiki

a/c)

Bamboo Banana Bank (for money) Bank
Baptism Barbecue Barber
Bargain, to

Motte Pantu, boli Munjie, vambu Vala pallam

Yangu
Yangi
Nianasaiiam

Kallam Ambattan,
Vile pes a

pariari

Bark
Barrel

(of tree)

Patte
Ivoleikka

Bark, to

(as a dog)
2.

Pipa

Basket B. Bat (animal) Bath, to

Kude
Vaval Kulikka

Bath room

B2

Tvulikru ka.mara

Batta (daily expense) A3. Page 88 Be, to Be, if it; if it is Ps.12

Vatta
..

Irukka, kidakka Anal (from aha)
Ponji

Bean
Bear
Bear, to

Karadi

Tankka
to

Bear

child, to Bear, tolerate,

Beard
Beat, to Beaten, to be

Because Become, to

Perukka Porrukka Tadi Adikka Adi pada, (suffer beating) Anapadia, yenendal (Ps.ll)

Ps.13.

Aha
Kattil

Bed Bed ( flower) Bed room Bee
Beef
Bertie

Par Padukru kainara
Ten-i

Madn erichi Ynndu
F3.

Before

Beggar
Begin, to

Mindi, minne Piche kilran

Behave, to

Tuankka Nadikka

92

OOOLY TAMIL.
,

Behind

F3. Behold, to

Pindi, poragu, pin

pakkam

r *

ii

.

Fakka

Believe, to Belief Bell

,

Namba
Visuvasam

••

•<

.

.

Manni
Turrutu
Kile, pannia

Bellows

.

Below
Belt

.

,

Bend,

to encircle, to
...

Var Madakka, madankka,
Valeikka

Bend round,
Bent
Betel Better (adv
:)

Konal
Vett'ele

Tevelea

Beyond

A4 (Footnote)

Channel (in tapping rubber) Bicycle Bier (with canopy)

Angutu Nettu kan
Vandi, baisiku

Pade
Peria, perisi

Big
Bill

B.

Kanak,

situ

hook Bind, to Bird Birthday
Bill

Vettu katti Katta Kuruvi Peruntu nal
Roti; (edible,) iskot

Biscuit (rubber) Bit (piece) Bit

Tundu

Lagam
Pen-nai

Bitch
Bite, to

Bite
Bitter, to be

Black Blacksmith Blame, to Blanket
Blast, to

Kadikka Kadi Kasapu irukka Karupu
Kollan

Blind
Blister

Yesa Kambli, jiil Kal vedi vaikka Kurutu Kopalan

«

Blood
Blotting paper Blot, to

Rettam Mai otta
Otta
"Otha

tal

Blow, to Blue Blunt Board
Boast, to

Nilam Malingu
Palagu

Vimbu

Boat

pesa Toni, Kappal (sea)

Body
Boil, to Bolt, to

Odambu, mei
Avikka, kothikka, ponkka Odi poa

Bone Book
Boot Born, to be

Elumbu
Postikum
tu

Perukka

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Borrow,
to

93

94

COOLY TAMIL.

Cabbage
Cable

... ...

Eosa Tandi
TTole

Cadjan

(plaited

and dried
... ... ... ...

leaves of palms)

Cage
Calf
Call, to

Kudu Kandu
Kupida

kutti

Camp (Ragama) Camp (Tuticorio)
Can
(be
able)

... ...

Mare
Tatapiire

H.

... ...
...

Candle

Cane
Cannot Card

Elam, kudam Molavu patti Perambu
Elathe, kudathe Situ
Yel'arisi

HI.

... ...
... ... ...
...

Cardamom
Care
(noun)

Care, to Carefully Careful

Kave Kavanakka Kavanama, patirama
Patiram

... ...
...

Carpet Carpenter Carriage Carrot Cart Cart road

Samukalam,
Odavi, bas

pai

... ...
...

Kuthere karrete Karatu Karrete
Karrete rotu

B2.

... ... ... ...

Carry away, to

Kondu
Kasi,
Sillari

poa, tuki kondu poa
salli

Casb CaBh (change) Cash (ready) Case (court) Cask
Castor Caste
oil

...
...

Ka-kasi, rokum

...
...

Valaku Pipa
Vilak'enne
Jathi, sathi Piine

...
... ... ... ... ...

Cat
Catch, to
Catechist, teacher Cattle Cattle keeper Cattle shed Cattle dung Ps.9 Cause, to

Pudikka, apida Upadesi

... ...
... ...

Madu Madu karan Madu patti
Sani,

mad'uram

Pada
Siil

Ceiling

Cement
Cent
Cent, per cent. Centre

... ...

Siminti

M

Sadam
Nurukku

...
...

Nadu
Kalipu

Ceremony
Certain
Certificate

(religious)

... ... ...

Nisamana
Karaktar SapB
Sillari

Chaff (food)

... ...

Change (money)

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Change, to Chance Chain
Chair Charcoal
...
...

Mata

Mapu
Sangili

...

... ...

Na'kali (4 legs)

Kare

Charge

of, to

give

... ...

Chatter Chatter, to Cheat, to

...

...
...
...

Param kudukka Kathe Kathekka Yeikka
Puli

Cheetah
Chest Chick Chicken Chicken-pox Child
Chill Chilli

Nenji
Koli kunchi Koli Amme vattu Pulle, kolante

...

...
... ...

...
...

Tadame
Kochi kai

Chin
Chisel

... ...

Nadi
fjli

Cholera Christian Christmas

...
... ...

Veithi, peithi

Vetha karan
Kiristu peruntu nal Koil, kovil

Church Cinchona Claim
Clay Clean Clean, to Clean out, to
Clearing Clear out drains, to Clear out things from a

...
...

... ...
...

Kina Crime
Kali

mannu

...
... ...
...

Tupara, narusa Tupara panna Valeikka

PQthu kadu

Kan
Ketti

valeikka

room, to
Clever

...

Olittu poda, olikka

... ...

Climb, to Clock Close, near
Close, to Cloth, any kind of Cloth, (man's)

Era, erangu poa
Peri a orlas Kitta

... ...
...
...

Adukka
Savali Veiti
Sile

... ... ...
... ...
...

Cloth (woman's) Cloth (folded), lap Clothes

Madi UdupG,

tuni

Cloud Coach
Coagulate, to Coagulated latex Coarse leaf Coast (Tndia)

Meham
Kochi
Oria Orinttu pal Mutt'ele Rime, uru Batte Nalla pfimbn Rival
Sokolati

...
... ... ...

Coat

...

Cobra Cock Cocoa

...
...

...

OOOLY TAMIL.
Coconut Coconut Coconut
Coffee
...

Ten-kai
Serrete

shell

...
... ...
...

(yaung)

Kurumba
Kopi
(also used for tea bush)

Cold (in head) Cold (after being hot) Cold (previously not hot) v Cold, to be Cold (dried up)
Colic
Collect, to

Tadame
Ari (adj.)

...
.

...

Pacha

(adj.)

... ...

... ...
...

Kuthil irukka, kulir Ari poichi Vaitu valli
Alia, porrukka

Colour

Nerram
Sipu

Comb
Come,
to

...

G.
to

...

Vara
Kile era, erangu vara

Come down, Commode

A

..

... ...
... ... ...
...

Kakus

petti

Complain, to Compromise, to Conceal Concerning that Consequently
Consider, to Continually Contract Contradict, to Convulsions

Kol solla Basi panna Mareikka, olikka Athe pati
Athinal'athukaha Yosikka

... ...

...
...

Nitham, tennam Kontrap Etheruthu pesa
Illupu

...
...

Cook, to Cooly Cooly (kitchen)

Akka, avikka
Al, kuli al

...
... ...

Kusini meite
Vilu, kopil,

Copy Copper
Cord Coriander eeed

vivaram

...
...

Sembu
Kavuru, kairu Kottamali
Solan

...
...

Corn (Indian) Corner
Corrupt, to Cost Cotton

... ... ...
... ...

Mul», modaku

Kedakka
Vile

Panchu
Irumal

Cough
Count, to Country Couple Court, of law Cousin (m) Cousin (/) Cover Cover, to

...
...
...

Enna, enni pakka
Siine, deisan

Jodi

...
... ... ... ...

Kortu

Mchinan
Machinacbi

Muih

Muda
Pasu (madu)

Cow
Crab
Crack, to

... ... ...

Nandu
Polikka

Crack open,
Crack, a Cradle

(of shoots)

to
-

... ...

Vedikka
Kiral

...

...

TotU

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Cramp
Crazy
Credit, to Credit balance
...
... ...
...

97

Irpu
Paiti

Creeper
Cripple

(bramble)

...
...

Crooked
Cross Cross drain Crossed Crouch, to

...

Vara vaikka Vara kasi Kodi Nundi Konal
Silve

...
... ...

Marapu kan
Pinal

...
... ...
...

Kuninkka, othunkka
Kaka,

Crow
Crowbar Crowbar (large) Crowd Crowd, to
Crumble,
Crush, to Cry, to Culvert
Culprit
to

Alavanga

Landa

... ... ... ... ...

Kutam
Kiitama vara

Kasankka
Nasakka, kasakka Alukka

...
...
...

Voku
Kuttavali

Cup
Cure, to Curve, circle Curved, bent

...
... ...

Koppe Sogam aha

(akka)

Curry
Cut, a Cue, to

...
... ...
...

Valeivu Valeinttu poichi Karri Vettu Vetta
Korreittu vetta

Cut short, to
Cut, short

...
...

Custom

Kurrukka pathe Valakam, valame

D.
Daily
...
...

Dam
I )
;

i

i-j i

age
to

...
...

Nalukku-nalukku, nitham Teppu kallam Palathu, naetam

Damp
Dance,

... ...
...
...
...

Irama Ada
Irrutu Trrutu poa Teidi

Dark
Dark, to be Date
Date, fixed for payment

...

Daughter
Daughter-in-law

... ... ...

Dawn
Dawn, to (the Dav N2.
to-

Tavane Magal Maru-magal \ idinttu kalam
\idia
vidinttu irukka
indiki

day)

... ...

Nil
Frniki,

...
...
...

N2 Day before yesrerday N2. .. Day of the week Daytime Dead Dead (of trees)

Mundam
Kilame
Pagal
Fettu

nal
rial

...
...

...

Ittu, 5>attu

M

98
.L/6UI

COOLY TAMIL.
•••

•<

Sevitu

Debt Debtor

Eadan Xadan karan
Makali masani
Korreittu poda Kallikka

Deoember
Decrease Deduct, to

Deep
Deer
Defect

Ham
Man
Vitesam

Delay
Delay, to

Sonakam
Sonakka, sonanttu poa Erangu poa kile
hill

Descend
Descent, steep Desire Detect, to Devil

Yeitatile

ise

Kandu pudikka
Pesasi, pei

Dew
Diarrhoea
Die, to Die, to Difference
Different
Diffioult

Pani
Vaitale poa

J3.

Saha Irandu poa, settu poa Vitesam Vere

Varratum

Dig, to Dig round, to Dilapidated

Dinner
Direcflv Dirt

R.

Mannu vetta Parrittu vetta, parikka Idinttu poichi Tini TTdane

me

Aluka Dirty Kana poa Disappear, to Discharge note (without debt)... Pattu situ Discharge certificate (shewing
debt)

Tundu
Vellia anupa Kaleikka

Dismiss, to Disperse, to Distance
Distribute, District
to

Turam
Pirittu kudu Silla, 'TSluk

Disturbance
Divide, to

Sande
Pirikka
1)
;

Do,

to

Do

not

D2(Note

H

Seia, -athe

panna
(suffix)

Doctor (native) Doctor

Vaitian

Daktar
-karan, -kari
(fern
:)

Doer

suffix

Dog
Done D2. Donkey Door Dot Dosa
Double
F3.

Nai
Achi Kaluthe

Kadavu
Pulli, sipher

Alavu
Rettu

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULABY.
Dove

to

100

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULAET.
Famine

101

Panjam
Solugu;
visiri

Fan (winnowing) Fan (machine)
Far
Farrier

(hand)

Fast Fasting

Fat Fat (adj.) Father

Katu adikka rothe Turam, yetti Ladakaran Veham, vehamane Viratham Kolupu
Kolutu-

B.

Appan, tagappan

Father-in-law Fault

Maman

Favour Fear
Fear, to Feather

Kuttam, tappitham Ishtam

Paiam Paiam pada
Iragu

February Fee
Feed, to
Feel, to

N3.

Masi Masam

Sampalam
Tini kudukka

meia
Teria

(of

animals)

Feel pulse, to
Fell, to

Nadi pakka

Maram

vetta

Fellow

Pail
-kari (suffix)

Female (doer) Female (adj) Fence Ferment (tea,) Fern
Festival

Pen, pette
Veft
to

Sivantu poa

Mina

(pillu)

Fever

Perunal Kachal
J3.

Few
Fie!
Field Fifteen
Fifth

Konjam
Chi-chi
!

Male

M.

Pattinanji

Fifty

An jam Ampathu
Sande

Fight
File Filth
Fill, to

Aram
Pi Nereikka Kuli muda Kadeiai

Fill in holes, to

Final Find, to

Kandu pudikka,
-Tipida

Fine
Fine, to
Fir.£*T

Thendam Thnndam poda
Virral

Finish, to Fire

Mudia Nerapu
Vcragu, katte Ketti panna, pellama poda

Firewood Firm, to make
First

Ml.

Moth ill, moths

102

OOOLY TAMIL.

Fish

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Full, to be
.. ..
.. ..
..

103

Nerinttu irukka

Fun
Funds
Funeral

Pagadi

Fannam
Keith aru Nul, kairu

Fuse Future
Future, in

.. ..

Varu'neram
Inimel

G.

Gamble (cards), Game, to play
Gaol

to

.

.

.

Garden Garden cooly
Gather, to

.

B2.

.

Situ ada Vele ada Marriel Pii totum Tota kiiran

.

Alia

Gate Gentleman
,

.

T.

.

Getu, kadavu Ture (Dore), esaman
Mulla, patiram

Gently Get to to fetch Get out of the way, to
;

.

.

Vanga
Othunkka
Endirikka, elumba

.

Get up,

to

.

Getting Getting late etc. Giddiness Giddy to be
Gif'

.

Use poruthu...(poa-to go)

Ps.13

.

Neram

.

.

poruthu, or, authu Kiru-kiru Tale sutta

.

Santosum
Inji

Ginger
Girl

.

.

Kutti

Girth strap Give, to

.

Tangu var
Kudukka, tara Santosum a
Vithuru

.

Glad
Glass Glass (pane)

.

.

.

Go away
*

!

.

Go,

to

G.
(he)

.

Kanadi Po! Poa

Goat Goat

.

Adu
Kidda Sami,
Swiinii,

.

God
Gold Goldsmith

.

(kndavul)

.

Tangam, pon
Tattan, asari Nalla 8a man
Vfite

.

Good Goods

B.

.

.

Goose Gourd Gradually Grain

.

.

Footnote Page

r,c,

.

Bora kai Vara-vfira Niaiatn

Gram
Grape Grass
Grass (guinea) Gravel Grate, to (of animals)

.

.

Kadale Kodi mintiri pallam
Pillu

.

.

Sime
Saral

pillu

.

.

Meia

104

COOLY TAMIL.

Great

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULAEY.
Heaven Heavy Hedge
Heel
...
... ... ...
...

105

ITadavul

Para in ravun Kuthin kal
Veli,

Hen Hen
H.-re

Pette koli

(broody)

... ...
...

Ade

koli

Henceforth Her A2.

Inimel
Avale, ivale, avalude Inje, ingatu
(adj.)

A3 (Example)

...

Hiccough
Hide, to

\..
... ...

Vikkal
Olikka, mareikka

High
Hill

...

Him
Hinge Hindu,
His

A3.

... ...

Osaram, osinta, uyaram Modu, male Avane, ivane, avare
Saranir

heathen A4 (Example)
i.e
:

...
...

Aniani

Hit, to

... ...

Hold, to Hole Hole (in an article) Hole, to Holiday Holiday in January (when
rice is specially cooked)
..

Avanude, avan Adikka Pudikka
Kuli
Pottal

...
...

... ...

Kuli vetta Perunal Tai pongal

(so-called

from

Hollow

... ... ...

Hone Honey
Honoured Hoof
(adj.)

ponkka to boil, bubble) Palam, palatukku Tita kal, enne kal

... ... ...

Ten Taruma Kolambu
Koki Konibu Rangu Kuthere
Kuthere karan
Aspitiri. aspital Siidu, kange

Hook Horn Horn

...

(to

blow)

...

Horse Horse keeper
Hospital

...
...

... ...

Hot
Hof,
(as of pepper etc.)
..

... ... ...

Hrepfi

Hour House

P.

Maui neram
Vfidu
(vulg
:

iidn)

How C2. How long How many How much
Hurry Husband Humbly, Hunger
to

...
...

Yeppadi
Fevalo neram

Fl
Fl.

... ... ...

...

Ettane Yevalo ivisaram Purnsban

speak

...

Baranam
Pasi

aolla

...

T

A2.

...

Nan
Soraara,

Idle

...

suma

N

106

COOLY TAMIL.
person

Ignorant

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Jangle

10?

108

COOLt TAMIL.
to

Laugh,

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULABY.
Lime
Line
Lintel
(fruit)
,.

109

Line, row Line, in
(cooly

...

Tesi kai Nerre, vari Varisa

house)

Laiam
Nele

Lion Lip
Listen, to
Little Little

Singam Uthadu Kelkka
J3.

(kei

kka)
pocii

LI.
(adv.)
(in

Sinna, siru,

Konjam
Karretunde
Siime, kattu
.

Lizard

Ceylon), a
...

Load Loaf Lock
Lock, to Loft

Boti

Putu Putu vaikka
Atale,

me

mette

Log Long Long row
Look, to Looking glass

Katte
Nettu, nilam, nitam Nettu nerre

Look

!

see

!

Pakka Kanadi Antha par

!

Lose, to Lost

Kana

poa, ilakka

Loss

Loud
Louse Love

Kana, kaname Nattam, nastam Pelama, pelakku
Pein

Anbu
Sinna sathi

Low Low Low

caste
(adj.)

Ki
Kile

(adv.)
to

Lower
Lower,

Pannia, ki

Pannikka

Luggage

Saman
Katte
"Tiffin"

Lump
Lunch

M.
Machine
Yentiram, mol
Paiti
.

Mad
Magic

Manommedan
Mail

Mantiram Tulukan
Taval
Solan

Maize Make, Make,

to to; to cause to be noise, to
(adj.)

Seia,

panna

Make
Mai.'

tlndakka, a kka Rattain poda, vaikka

Karan

Male

An
Kotupnli

Mallet

Man

A inhale sban

(i.e.,

Sn-pullc),

manu-

110

COOLY TAMIL.
Peria dore (ture)

Manager

Mango Manner
Manure Manure

R.
(artificial)

Man-kai Maderi
tJram

Sime uram

Many

N.
N3.

Micham
Panguni masam
Adieilam, maiam, uambar Nambar adikka

March (month) Mark Mark, to
Marriage Marry, to
Martingalr.

Kalianam Kalianam

katta, kalianam

manna
Matin kalar

Mason
Master

Mesan
Dore
Pai
(ture),

esaman

Mat
Matches
Matter, affair Mattock, hoe May (month)

Nerapu kuchi Kariam

Mamati
Veiasi -attum

May Me A2;
Mean
Measles

N3. (subjunctive mood)
S.
(adj.)

masam
(suffix)

Yene, nan tan

Karami Sinn'amme
Alavu Alakka Alavu kambu, kol
Erichi

Measure
Measure, to Measuring stick

Meat
Medicine Meet, to
Melt, to

Marantu

Amba, sandikka
Urrukka, Nineivu
to

elevi

poa

Memory
Mend,
to
(the

Menstruate,
lent for) Metal (road)

equiva

Seri katta, palathu pakka. Tale mula, vudukka tura iruk-

ka, vellia

Eotu kal

Middle

Mildew
Mile Milk Milk, tq

Nadu Pusanam
Katte Pal Pal edukka

Mind
Mine

,

the
to bear in

Manasu
Manasile vaikka Yenude, namma

Mind,

A2; A4.

Minute
Mirror Miss, to Missing Mistake

Nimasam
Kanadi Tappa

Kana
N2.

(irukruthu)

Kuttam, mistek
Kallakka, kalantu poda Tinkal kilame Manti, kuranga

Mix,

to

Monday Monkey Month

Masam

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Month by month Money Money order Moon Moon (new)
Moonlight
Pitge
fit*

Ill

...

Masam-masam
Kasi,
salli

... ...
...

Kasi odru

Santaram

...
... ...
...
...

AmmavaBi
Nila Kiida, innam, athikum Naliki

N. More N2. Morrow, to N2. Morning
Mortar

Kalame,
Orul

kale,

kalambre

... ...
...

Moss
Mosquito LI. Most Mother Mother-in-law
...

Pasam
Kosugu, kosu

... ... ...

Athium
Tai,

amma, Mami, atte

ai

Mound
Mouse
Moustache

...
...
... ...

Modu
Sund'eli

Mouth
Move, to

Move Move

(trans) (intrans.) out of a hous^ to

... ...
... ... ...

Mise Vai Aseikka
Aseia Olikka

Much

N.

Micham, remba
Ser, segadu

Mud
Mulberry
Multiply, to Multiplication

...
...

...
...

Kambli pallam Perukka
Perkul

Muscle H. Must

...
...

Narambu Venum
Vanda
ivendiim)

Must not Muster

HI. Page

77

...

...

...
...
....

Muster, to make a Muster, to disperse Mv A2. A4.

...
...

Peratu Peratnkku vaikka Peratu kaleikka Yen, yenude

Myself

S.

Nan

tan

N.
Nail Nail
(finger)
... ... ...

Neham
Ani Per

Name Name Name
Navel
Nearly

(full)

...

Muln

per

(half)

Ml.
Pr.4.

...
...

Are per Tonal
-|>ule

.

almost

...

(suffix)

Near
Necessary, to be Necessary, not

...

Kitta

(see

Examples P.)

HI.

...

Vendiuth'irukka
Vendiuth'ille

...
... ...
...

Neck
Need, occasion Needle Neither nor

Kalatn

Akkare
Osi ille -TTm (-um both repeated)
suffix

...

and

112

COOLY TAMIL.
Narambu
Kuruvi kudu Vale

Nerve Nest Net (tennis) Never L2. New LI.

Yeppothum

ille,

oru kalam

ille

New moon
News
Next
Night Nine N2. N2.

Piithu, puthisi

Ammavasi
Sangathe Adatu, varu Raval, Ratiri

M.

Ompathu
Pattompathu Tonnuru

Nineteen

No

Ninety 'A3

B2(Note
L2.

2)

Ille

Nobody
Noise

Ortrum

ille

Sattam, sande

Nose

Muku
E. L2. A3.
...

Now
None
Not

!ppo

Unnum
Ille
...

ille

Note, promissory

Notu
Situ Tal, kadutasi
kiisi

Note Note (money) L2. Nothing Nothing else
Notice

TJnnum ille Vere imnum
Notis

ille

November

N3.

Number
Nurse (native) Nursery

Katia masam Nambar

Aia (Ayah) Tavarani
Miidichi

Nut Nut

(of a

screw)

Kotte
0.

Oath
Oath, to
O'clock

...

Sathiam
Sattiam panna

make

...

P. Occasion Occasion, on that October N3.

... ...
... ...

Mani Sameitham
Antha sameitile
Apia masam
Otte

Odd
Odour (bad) Of A4. A4(Note
Off!
Office
3)

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Natam
-fide

(suffix)

Po

!

velangu
!

!

Tallu

!

Oh!
Oil Oil Oil
(castor)

Apis kiirnara Aiyo

Enne
Vilak'enne

... ... ...

(coconut)

Tenk'enne
Palia, palisi

Old Old

B.

LI.

man
A4.
the table

... ... ...

Kelavan
-ile

On On

(suffix),

mele

Mese mele

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Once

113

One M. One by one

Oru neram teram Unnu, oru'or
;

M(Note
F3.

4).

tTn-unnu, ov'onu

Onion Only Onward, ahead
Open, to Or L3(Note).
Order, method

Venkai Matiram, mat am

Minukku
Turakka
Allate, allathe
(or ellate)

Ornament, jewellery Ornaments (some used by
coolies)

Other J3(9th Ex.) Otherwise L3.

Pirakaram, varisa Nahi, nagi milTali, kadakan, mothiram, kuti, koppu, muruvu, kapu, val levu, meladu, puchi kudu Matta, maru
Ulate (ponal)

Ounce A4. Our
Outside

iuns

^

Namma,
Vellia

yengalude

Oven
Over Over the table
(see

Adapu

me
"on")

(after a

word

in dative case)

Meseikki mele

Owe,

to
8.

Kadan kudukka vendia
Sunda
Sfinda karan

Own
Owner

Pack, to

114

COOLY TAMIL.

Peg

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Post Post cooly Post office Pot Pot (flower) Potato
...
... ... ...
...

115

Taval, tappal

Taval karan Taval kanthor Pane, chatti

Pu

chatti

... ...

TJrule

kelangu

Pound Pound Pound

Ratal
Arisi tita

rice, to

...
...

(£)
rice)

Pavun
Idikka

Pound, to Pounder (for Pour out, to

... ... ... ...
... ... ... ...
...

Olaku
Uta, kotta

Powder
Practice

Tul

Palakam
Pusari

Prayer (one who prays) Prayer
Precipice

Puse Varra'kadu
Pulle teiittu Aitarn panna

Pregnant
Prepare, to Present Present (adj.)
Presently Press, to Press (print) Pretty Previous, former Prevent, to Price Prick, to

...

...
...
... ... ... ... ... ...

Santosum
Irukruthu

Poragu, peragu

Ammakka,
Achu
Muntina
Nipata
Vile

alutta

Andis, nertiana

...
... ... ... ... ... ...

Kuta
Tai vathu

Primary
Print, to

Achu adikka
Marriel

Prison

Privy
Prize
Profit

...
... ... ...
. . .

Eakus Pandiam Niaiam
Ferkol

Proctor Proof Pro-note

Yembiuam
Notu
Seriana
Seria Veisi, kiithi

B. Proper Properly
Prostitute

...
...

Proud

(assertive)

... ...
... ...
...
...

ltangi

Prove, to Provisions Prune, ro

Yembikka
Selavu, uppii-kochi-kai

Kavatu
Kavat'al

vetta

Pruners Prunings Priming knife
Pull, to Pull out, to

... ...
...

Ml! Kavatu
Illukka

katti

Pudinkka
Nalla oertukku

Punctually Punish, to

...

... ...

Tandikka

Punishment

Tandanam

116

COOLY TAMIU.

Puppy

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Really

117

118

COOLY TAMIL.
...

Eoom
Eoom,
to

make

...
... ...
... ... ... ...

Kamara Idam kudukka
Ver Adi ver Verodu pudinkka Kavuru, kairu Rosa pu
Ittu Ittu poa Suri, kannam

Root Root (tap) Root out, to

Rope
Rose Rotten
Rotten, to get

...
...

Rough Round Round

...

Ravun
tJrunde Nerre, vari Sande, sattam

(adj.)

Row Row
Rub,

(globular)

... ...

(line)

...

to out, to

...
...

Teikka
Allikka

Rub

Rubber Rubber latex Rubbish

...
...

Rabar, labar Pal

... ...

Kuppe
Jul

Rug
Ruin, tp Rule, law Rule (foot) Ruler Rule (a line)

...
... ... ... ... ...

Kedukka Saddam
Rul kambu Alavu adi
Vari

Run,

to

Oda
Odi poa

Run away,
Rupee
Rust

to

...

... ...

Rua
Rare
Sak
Kutti sak

S.

Sack B2. Sack (email) Sad Saddle
Saffron

Tukkam
Sadal,
jini

Manjal
Sav'arisi

Sago
Salary
Salt

Sampalam
TJppii

Same
Sand
Sandal

R.

Oru maderi

Mannal
N2.
Serrapu Saini kilame Sasa

Saturday Saucer

Saucepan

Saw
Saw, to Sawyer
Say, to
Scales
Scent, smell School

Saspani

Val
Arrikka Val karan Solla, ena Terasu

Ps.

Vade
Pali

kudam

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Schoolmaster

119

120

COOLY TAMIL.
Kadde, sapu (European)

Shop (native) Shop keeper
Short Short row Short cut Shoulder Shout, to Shovel

Kadde karan
Korre Kprre nerre Kuruka pathc Tol Sattam poda Iskopu
Veidike

,. ..

... ...
...

Show, Show,
Sick

spectacle, plaj to Shut, to

r
.

.

...

Kambikkn, kata
Sata

.

...
... ...
:

.

Sogam
Ari'val

ille

Sick, to be "Sick," to put Sickle

.

J3.(13th Ex)
. .

Vaiale poa Siku poda

... ... ... ...

Side Side adj.) Sieve
Sift,

Pakkam
Pakka
Salade Salakka, arikka

.

.

to

.

... ...
...

Signature
Silent, to be

.

Kai oppam Pesame irukka
Pesathe Pattu
Velli
!

Silence Silk Silver

!

.

...

vai

mudu

!

.

...

.

... ...
... ... ...

Since

P.

.

Sing
Single Singalese Sir
Sister Sister
Sit, to Site

.

Athukku pidpadu Pada
Otte, finde

.

.

Singal-al

.

...
...

Aiya
Akka(l)

.

(young)

.

...
... ... ... ...

.

Tangachi Udkara

.

Idam
Aru
Av'aru Pattinaru

Six M. Six by six Sixteen
Sixty
Size
Skilful

.

.

.

...
...

.

.

... ...
...

Aruwathu Kanak
Eetti Tol

.

Skin
Skull

.

.

... ...
...

Mande

Sky
Slate

.

Vanam
Siletu

.

Sleep
Sleep, to
Slip, to

.

... ...
...

TGkam
Tunkka, Valukka
Islopu
nitire seia

.

.

Slope Slow, slowly Small B. Small, as stumped Small-pox
to Smell, to

.

... ... ... ...

.

Mulla
Sinna, siru, podi

.
.

Kottu

.

...

Smear,

.

...

Peri'amme Pusa

.

...

Mannakka

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Smell

121

122

COOLY TAMIL.
...
...

Spur Square (end of crowbar) Squeeze, to
Squirrel Stab, to Stable Stalk Stalk (2 leafed without a bud, in tea)

...

...
...
...

Kuthin mullu, sapatu mullu Ele pakkaui Pulia Annil, kiri
Kiita

Kuthere

patti, stal

...

Kambu
Vanji
Mutiri, tale, istampu

... ... ... ... ...
...

Stamp
Stamp,

(postage)

to Stand, to

Mithikka

Nikka
Talli nikka, othunki nikka

Stand aside, to
Stand, stop Star
Stare, to
!

Nillu

... ... ...

Nachataram Mulikka
Pattini (irukruthu)

Starving, starvation
Steal, to

... ...
...

Kalavu edukka
Avi
Padi, padi kattu

Steam
Step
Steel

...

Steep

Stem

^
(of tree)

...
...

Uraku Yeitam Adi maram

Stick Stick on, to
Stiff, to

...
...

Kambu,
Otta

kuchi

get

...

Maratu poa

(adv.) Still, to be Sting, to Stir up earth, to Stir up, to

Still

...
...
...
;

Innam
Siima irukka

dig

...
...

Kuta Nonda
Kinda, uthari poda

Stirrup Stitch

... ... ... ...
...

Likap
Teiil
"Vaitu, vairu

Stomach Stomach ache
Stone Stone (small) Stone (food crusher) Stone (for crushing on)
Stop, to Stoop, to Story Store

Vaitu

valli

... ...
...

Kal Sakku
Kolavi kal

Am mi

kal

... ...

...
...

Nikka; nipata (trans.) Kuninttu nikka Kathe
Istoru

Storey Stove

(of

building)

... ...

Mette

Strap

...
...
...
..

Adapu Var
Vaikal Neire Nita ( V like
l

Straw
Straight Stretch out, to (the hand) String
Strip, to Strong (aa of drinks)

...

'ee')

... ...
...

Sadambu
Motte pudinkka,
firia

Karum
Pellim

Strong

...

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Stuff,

138

cloth

121

COOLY TAMIL.
...

Taste
Taste, to

...
... ...
...

Tat
Tattoo

Eusi Eusi pakka, tinni pakka Tattu Pachche
Tei tanni Tei ele, koluntu Tei ele, kopi (coffee) Tei ele kandu Pache koluntu; pinju koluntu Podi koluntu
Kanj'ele

Tea (liquid) Tea leaf Tea bush Tea plant Tea leaf (young, green) Tea leaf (small) Tea leaf (dry) Tea leaf (fermented) Tea estate
Teach, to Tear, to Tear (of eye)

... ... ...
...

... ... ...
... ...

Segapu

ele, sivant'ele

...

...
... ...
... ...

Tei ele totum, kadu Padittu kudukka Kilikka

Telegram
Telephone
Tell, to

Kan'nir Tandi Pesa tandi, kambi
Solla

Temper steel, M. Ten

to

...

••

Tovea Pattu
Pant'adikka Pant' adikka male Athi Athi tan

Tennis Tennis court That C2; G2. That's it
I

...

...
...

... ...

That (adj.) Thanks

C.

Antha

... ...
... ...

Vandanam
Avangal, avargal

Them
Then
Thence There

A2.

E.
A4.

Appo
Angeiliruntu

...
...

Therefore B2. These Thief Their A2; A4.
Theirs, to

Ange, angatu Athinal, athukaha
Ithi ellam (this all)

...
... ...

Kalavani, kalian

them

A4.

... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
...

Avangalude Avangalukku

Thick Thigh Thin, lean Thin (not thick) Thing (matter) Things (goods) Think, to
Third, a Thirst Thirteen
(4)

Kannam
Tode
Elichi

Kannam
Kariam

ille,

melis

Saman
Nineikka, yosikka Mundil-oru-pangu

Ml.

...

Taham
Pattimfinu

M.

...

Thirty This C2. This (adj.)

... ...

Mupathu
Ithi

C.

...
...

Intha

Thorn
Those (adj.) C. Those C; B2. Thorough

...

Mullu Antha
Athi ellam (that
all)

...

...

Narusa

ENGLISH-TAMIL. VOCABULARY.
Thousand

125

M.

136

COOLT TAMIL.
... ...

Travelling expenses

Vali selavu

Tray
Tread, to Tree Trick, fraud Trouble Trousers

... ... ...
...
...

Tattu Mithikka

Maram
Suthu, pitalatam Karachal, kastam

Trunk Trunk
Truth

(of
(of

a tree)

... ... ...

elephant)

Kal satte Ada maram Tumbikai Nisam, nicham

Trust, to

...
...

Namba
Thendikka, pakka Kir a pillu Seva kilame Van-koli Tirupa

Try, to Turf

...

Tuesday Turkey

N2.

... ...
... ...

Turn off, to Turn over, to Turn round, to
Turpentine
Turtle

... ... ...

Perkka Tirumba Karpantailam

Ime
Pannirendu, pan'nendu Iruwathu
20
anjiile

Twelve

M.

...

Twenty
Twenty, multiply by 5, to Twice Twins Twigs Twigs, young, with leaves

... ...
...

perukul seia

Kendu neram
Eettu'pulle

... ...
...

Asambu
Tale

M. Two Two by two
Type
Udder Umbrella H. Unable
Unable,

...

Eendu
Eev'endu

Ml.

...

...

Schu

U.

Madi Kode
25, 12th Sent.

Page Unaccustomed
if

Elathe, kfldathe E lathe ponal

Unceasingly Uncle

Palakam Oiame
;

illathe

Under
Understand, to

Sittappan Kile ki (adj.)

Undergrowth
Undeveloped
(of

Velankka Sim kadu
leaves)

Undo, to Uneven
Unfair Unguilty

Pinju (ele) Avilkka, avilttu poda

Mattam
Aniaiam
Sutavali

illame

Unknown
L3. Unless Unlucky day Unmarried Unseen

Teri'ame
Illate

(-ponal)

Kudathe nal
Kaliana mann'ame Kan'ame (compare with lowing:)
fol-

ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY.
Undrained, to be
Until
...

127

Kan

illame irukka
(suffix),
ille

P3,

...
... ... ...

-varikum

mattam

Untrue Unusual Unwell

Poi, nisam

Valakam ille Sogam ille
Mele, osakka

Up
Upper
Upright

...

Page

23, 5th Sent.

...

Me
Kotta, sinta

Upset, to

...

...
... ...

Nimatu
Mele, melikki

Upon
Upside down Urine
Urine, to pass A2. Us Use, to Useless

...
... ... ...

Kuppara Mutiram Mutiram peia
Yengal, nangal

... ...

Usual

Pavikka Totta, uthavathu Valakam, valame

Vaccinate, to

...
... ... ...

Amme
Vile

kuta

Value
Valley, hollow

Varnish Vegetable Vein

Pallam, pallatuku Vanis

...
... ... ...

Marra

kai, kai kari

Narambu
Viranda, istopu Tirpu

Verandah
Verdict

Very
Vomit,
Village

N.
to

... ...
...

Eemba, micham
Kappal
Vaiale poa Urn, nadu

Vessel (ship)

...
...

Virgin

Kumari

W.
w.
c.
to
...

Eakus kamara
Idupu Nikka
Endirikka, miilittu irukka
Miilittu iru

Waist Wait,

... ...
...

Wake

up, to
!

Wake, up Wall Wall (briek) Wall (mud) Wall (wood) Walk, to

... ... ...
...

Sevar

Mannu

Sen-kal sevar sevar

...
... ...
... ...

Palagu adittu sevar

Nadakka
Nade, kal-nade
Alechal

Walk

(noun)

Wandering, walking (n) Wander, to Want HI. Page 77. HI. Want, to

Alea ...Venum (onum)
...

Vendum, vendiuth'irukka
Echarikka Varant Kaluva Velnkka

Warn, to Warrant Wash, to

...

... ... ...

Wash

clothes, to

128

COOLY TAMIL.
for

Wash

gems, to

..

Arikka

Washerman Wasp
Waste time,
to

..

Vannan, dobi
Kolavi

..

..
..
.. .. ..

Neram
Orlas

illakka,

poa

Watch Watchman
Watch, Water Water Water
to

Kaval karan Kaval pakka
Tanni, -nir

(cold)

..
.. .. .. ..

(hot)

Watercourse Watering can

Pache tanni Suda tanni Tanni kan
Vali Pathe, rotu Padi, ippadi

Way
Way,
this

C2.

.. .. ..

We

A2
to

Weak
Wear,

Nangal Pellam
Katta

ille

..

Wear out, Wedge
Wedding Wednesday

to

..
..

Teia, teinttu poa

Apu
Kalianam Puthan kilame
Pillu Pillu vetta

..

N2.

.. ..

Weed

Weed, to Weeding hoe
N2. Week Week day N2.

.. ..
..
..

Kottu mamati Kilame, yelu nal

Weep, to Weigh, to Weight T

..
.. .. .. ..

Kilame nal Alukka NiruTcka, param pakka

W

Param
Kinara, keini Sogam aha Nallathu Nalla Nananju, irma Nannia, naninttn poa

(water) Well, to get-

ell

Well, very

!

..

Well

(adj.)

B.

..
..

Wet
Wet,
to get
for
is

..
..
..

What What What
Wheel

Enna
Enniitukku (aha) Ath'enna? Eothe
-pothu
(suffix)

T.

that?

.. ..

When When?
Where?

PI.

..

E.
A4.

..
.. ..

Yeppo?

Whereto?

A4 (footnote)
A4.
C2. C.

Where from? Which? C; Which hand?
While
PI.

Enge? Engatu?
Engeiliruntu? Ethu? entha? Entha kai?
-pothu
(suffix)

..
..

(adj.)

.. .. ..

Whip
Whistle, to

Savuku
Sike adikka

..
..

Whisper, to

Kusukusukka
Velle

White White ant

.. ..

Karrean

Who?

E.

...

Yir?

ENGLTRH-TAMTL VOCABULARY.

129

Who

is

that?

...

.

..

Ath'ar atho; ar athu?

Whoever Whole

..
..

Yarum

seri

Whom?
Whose,
of

E; A4; G2(Note

1)

..

Mulu, ellam Yare?

Worship, to

..

Kumba
Yarude, yarukku

whom

A4.

...

...

Why
Wick Wide
Wife
Gl. Will not (he) Gl. Will not, I Will not be; is not

...

Ye
Tiri

(yen)

...

,..

Agalam
Penjathi -matathe
(suffix) to

...

... ...

Inf
:

:

HI...

...

-maten (suffix) to Inf Kidaathe (from 'kidakka')

Wind Window
Winnowing
Wipe, Wire
to

...
...

Katu
Jannal Solugu Tudeikka

fan

...

...

...
... ...

Kambi
Piriam, ishtam Piriam irukka

Wish
Wish, to

With

A4.

...
...

Kuda,

seitu, kuditi

Withered leaves Within Withont T(Note Witness

Kanj'ele,

saragu,

sette

...

Olukku
Tllame, -ame, illathe Sachi

1).

...
...

Woman

...

Pumbali (i.e. Mannshi
Kelavi

pen-pulle),

pom,

Woman
Wood

(old)

... ...
...

Maram, palagu

Wooden box

Maram
Sollu

potti

V

ord
to

...
... ...

W>rk Work,

Worn
Worry
Worse

out

...
...

Veile Veile seia Teinttu poichi Machal, karrachal

Worms
Wnnnd
Wrathfully, to Hpeak

...
...

Puchi

Athikum agathe
Kiliam

...
...

Akoram pe»
Savi Eluta, elutha
Seri'ille

Wrench, a
Write, to

... ...

Wrong
Yard
"V

...

...
,

awn

to

...
...

Year Yellow
*rt N. Yes A3; B2. N2. Yrstorday Ynu A2; Appendix.

... ...
... ...

Yat Kotavikka Vaisu Manjal

Innam Ama,

Am

...

Young

...

Neitn Ni, ningal Yellan, piraiam

Q

130

COOLT
(of

TAMIL'.
Kunji, kutti Pinju (adj.)

Young Young

some animals)

(of leaves, fruit, etc

Younger sister Younger brother Your A2; A4.
Youth, age

Tangachi

Tambi
tJn, unude Piraiam

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
In order

word

to make most use of the references, on looking up in this Vocabulary, the English equivalent should be turned up in the English-Tamil Vocabulary where, a

a

reference to the

Grammar may

be found.

The figures refer to some of the sentences where the word, or inflected form, will be found in the "Sentences" section.

its

-a (suffix)

9. 44.

139

COOLY TAMIL.
...
.

ADS Ahum, akum
iia
(ayah)
46.
illath'al

.

To become, to make Will become, will cause to
become Nurse (native) Thousand

Air am

Aitham Aitham iitam
Ait am

,

Tool People without tools

.

pauna
37. 42.

.

Ready To prepare
Sir

Aiya Aiyo

,

I

.

Alas
If,

!

oh

!

-aka (Buffix) Akka (aha) Akka(l)

362.

.

when
cook, to

To
,

make

Akkare Akkue

Akoram pesa
Al
17. 37. 44. 212. 388. -al (suffix) 36. 57. 135
..

.

Elder sister Need, occasion Bad motive Tj speak wrathfully Person, cooly
If

...
,

Alakka

lb measure

Alam

311. 327. 312. 319. Alavanga

325.

.

Deep Cn<wbar
Measure, dose

Alavu
Alea Alechal
Alia
186.

Tc wander Walking, wandering To
collect

Aluka Alukka
Alutta
Allittu

Dirty To cry

poda
suffix)

Allikka

To press down To rub out To rub out
Ps.3.
All hough
10. 69.

-alum (verbal

Ama, am'

Yes

Amar Amba
Ambale (an-pulle) Ambattan Ambattu (vulg.)
Ambat'tan
(vulg.)

Hammer
29.
44.

To meet, find Man, male
Barber So much
That's
Turtle.
all

Ame Ammakka
Ammavasi

208. 115. 321

To

press

down

New moon
Chicken pox Small pox Measles

Amme Amme Amme Amme
Ammi
In

vattu
(peria)

(sinna)
kiita

To

kal

vaccinate 8tone for crushing on
(adj.)

Male

Anapadia Anaei pallam

Because Pineapple
. .

Anbu
Andik: And's

Love
Afternoon
Pretty, nica

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Ane
Aneikkf*

133

.

Elephant

••

.

To extinguish
There Beyond,
Nail
to there

Ange
Angatu Ani

18. 268. 276.

346.
... ••• ...
.

.

276.

.


.

(iron)

Aniver Ani masam
Aniani

.

Taproot

N3.

... ... ...

.

.

.

.

June Heathen
Fifth

An jam
Anji

.

...

.

Annan
Annil Aniaiaui Anth'antha
...

.

Five Elder brother
Squirrel

.

.

Unfair, unjust

Antha Antha

!

Anupa
Appa

404. 406 177.242.277.204. (adj.) 24. 38. 322 ... 390. 498. 462
.

.

Each
That Lcok
I

.

.

there

1

..

To send
Tf- catch
(find)

Apida Apis (kamara)
!

...

,. .. ..

481.

Office

Oh

!

alas

!

Appadi
Appaii

160. 319.

.. ..

Appia

masam

N3.

.. ..

Thus, that way Father October

Appo Appu Apu
Ara

64. 68. 314.

Then
'Boy,' butler

..
..

Wedge
Afterwards

Apuram
(adj.)

131.

.. ..
..

Arachi (Sinhalese)

CoH (after Headman
File Sixth

being hot)

Aram Aram
Are 231. 294. 431. 103. Are per Are mani neraui
Are-kal

..
..
.. .. ..
..

Are are-kal
Areikk;i

431.

.. .. ..

Half Half name Half-an-hour One-eighth Five eighths

Arikka
Arisi

To To
Got

grind
rinse,

wash

for

gema,

sift

378.
.

Jlicc

(raw)
cold, dripil up (as flesh) to roap

Xri

ponuthu

Arrikka Arrival

To saw,
..
.

Sickle

Aru Aru

Six

.

River

Arumbu
Aruwathu
Aee

213.

..
..

Bud
Sixty Ppsire
TwifjB

Aeambu
*

236.
257. 322.

Ascikkn (trans) Aseia (intrans.)
Bpit'ri

... ...
• •

To move, shake To moTf, shake
Hospital Loft

Atale •atha

(suffix)

39.69.118.212

...

D:

134

COOLT TAMIL.
What
is is

Ath'enna
Ath'ar athu Athi 127. 263. 353. Athi tan 159. Athium (before a noun) 265... Athikum (before a noun) ... Athikum agathe, athium aj ;athe

Who
That

that? that?

That's

(pron.) it, just that

Much
More, most

Worse
It

Athu 397. Athukku vathil Athukku pidpadu
-attum Atte
(suffix) 32.

Instead of
Since, after that

341
.

May
Leech, mother-in-law
...

Auns
Aval

430. 431.
75.

Avolgal 42. 258. 448. Avalo Avalo tan 128. 57. 395. Avangal

Ounce She They (/) That much,
That's
all

so

much

Avan Avane

366.
63.
..

They (m) He, his
...

Him

(obj.)

Avani masam N3. Avar 485. 493. Avi Avikka
Avilkka
Avilttu poda
..

August

He, they Steam
...

(polite

fonm

To boil, cook To unite To undo, untie
Soul,
spirit

Avisam Avisaram
E.

Hurry

Echarikka

...

To warn To

Edukka

46. 88. 95. 109.

...

Eduttu poda Eouttu kolla Ekru 384.

316.335.445.

...To take, to get .. To remove
.

... ...
... ...
...
...

receive

Ela.n 45. 106. 305. 39. 42. 59. Elathe 89. 112. 247. Ele Ele (karat ') Elevi poa
Elicln

Acre Can, able Cannot, unable
Ijeaf

Black leaf ...To melt .. Thin, lean
.

Ella in

9.

38

104. 383

397
...

411

Ellaium Elutha 466. 469. Elutu

Everybody, ...To write
..,

all

men

Letter

(of

Elumba

alphabet)

Ena
Enge

457. 470. 472.
6G.

...To get up ...To say
...

Endirikka
274.
66.

To

rise,

get

uy

...

Engeilinintu

...

Where Whence

Engetu Enna, enni p.ikka

...To where ...To count
...

Buna

191. 438.

What

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Enniitukku
315.
...

135

What
Oil

for

Enne Entha? Entu

49.

...

...

Which

(adj.)

Ps.7.
kile

... ...

Era, erangi poa

Era kile, erangi vara Erakka
Erichi Erichi petti Erichi karan Errichal

... ...
... ...

Having said, that To ascend To descend, alight To set down a load
Meat, beef Beef box Butcher Jealousy
Buffalo

... ... ...
... ...

Erume madu Erumbu
Eruvu kudukka Eruvu vanga 78. Ethu
Etta Ettathe Ettane

...

Ant To lend To borrow

... ...
...

Which To reach
Cannot reach

21.

93

...

How many
To keep
(of

Etti irukka, poa

...

aside,

move away

Evalo

...

How much
Fly

persons)

Idam
Idathu
[dathu
Idi

182. 288. 310

Space, place, site

[dam kudukka
kiii

To make room
Left Left hand
,

Idikka
Idinttu poichi

Thunder To pound
Dilapidated

,

Idupu
-ikki
(suffix)

24.

35.

60. 202..

Back, waist To, at, for

IUkka
-ile

To
142. 199. 203.
.. ..

lose

(suffix)

In, into, on

-iliruntu,

8. iruntu (suffix) 61. 94. 181. Illume, -'ame

From
Without Without

217. 184.

Ularhe
Blate(ponal)
Jllathe
I

57.149.167.327.

..

If not, otherwise, o.

-

nenun
51. 58. 56.

JUath'avan
lie

Absence, when not present He who has not

No, not

lllukka
lllupu
Illuthi

357.

To To
89. 271

pull

Convulsions

pudikka
294.
fi5.

[nchi
Tnji

TnjV, ingatn

tighten rneh Here, to here

Inimel

486.
53. 128. indiki 34.

Ginger In future
Still, yet,

Innam
Inniki,

more

68

Today

136

COOLY TAMTL.
...

In 'intha, an'antha Inoru Intha 40. 228. 222. Intha 38. 172.
!

...
... ... ...

So and so, such and such Another This (adj.)

Look
Thus,

I

here
this

!

Ippadi

90.

Ippo Iragu Irakka
Iraina

... ... ...
...

Now

way

Feather, wing To set down, lower

Damp
To
die
(of earth)

Irantu poa
Irigi

... ... ...

Dried

Irpu
Irrutu

Irukka 16. 36. 37. 43. Irul Irukruthu 28. 335.

Cramp ... Dark 140 142 To be, have ... Be be still
1

!

stop

!

!'!!

... ...
...

Is, present,

have

Irumbu
Irumal Iruwathu Tskopu
48.

Iron

... ... ...
... ...

Cough Twenty
Shovel

Iskrup'ani 252. Islopu
Istal

Screw
Slope
Stall, stable

(Istam) ishtam (Istama) ishtaraa

...
...

Favour, wish

Amicably

Istampu
Isteisan
408.

... ... ...
...

Stamp

(postage) Station (railway)
Store, factory

Istopu
Istor Ithi 70. 82. Ithi tan Ittu
166. 438.

Verandah
This (pron.) Just this Rotten

...

...
... ... ...
...

Ittu poa Ival, ivan Ivale, ivane

To

rot

She, he (here)

Her, him (here)

Iyam Iyam Tyam

...

piisa tal

... ...

Lead To solder
Sheet of lead

K. Kachal Kachal marantu
Fever Quinine

Kadakan Kadan 441. Kadan kndukka Kadan kiiran Kadan situ Kadan tirkka Kadanukku vanga Kadavu
Ki'.davul

Man's ear-ring Debt To owe Debtor I. O. U.

To settle debt To borrow
Door Heaven (God)
Shop (native) Shop keeper

Kadde Kadde kiran

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
197. Kadeisi Kadeisile

137

Last
Eventually
Bite

Kadi Kadikka

To To

bite
clear

Kadu Kadu

Jungle
vetta

jungle

Kadutasi Kai
146. 199. Kai Kai kari Kai kfisi Kaia Kaia, kaia poda Kai karete 272. Kai pudi 372. Kaia poda

Paper Unripe

fruit

Hand
Vegetables Beady casb

Dry To dry
Rickshaw Handle

To dry

Kaiam
Knitham
Kiika

415. 459. 461.

Wound
Letter

Crow
Privy, secretion W. C.

Kakus Kakus kamara Kakns petti
Kai Kai Kai
356.

Commode
356.

(patham)
316. 322. 451.
kale,

Leg, quarter, J Foot
Stone
69.

Kalam

Kalame, Kalan

kalambre

Time, period 153 Morning

Mushroom
Thief Theft

Kalavani Kalavu Kalavu edukka Kale madn Kaleikka Kaleittu poa

To
Bull

steal

To To

disperse, put in disorder get tired, disordered

Kalianam
Kaliana katta Kalichu (kalittn)
461. Kalichi, oru nal Kalikka 100. 200. 245. 246.
163.
(adj.), kai

Marriage

To marry
After (li* having deducted) After a day('s time) To pick off, deduct, subtract
:

2J>5

Kaluthe Kalvasi

Donkey
Quarter, J

Kai virral Kai vedi vaikka
Kill

Toe

To

blast

satte

Trousers
False, forged

Kalla (adj.) 208. Kallakka

To mix
Pond, dam Muster ground
Thief

Ka II am
Kallam
Kalian Kalla Kalntn

(teppu-)

(peratu)
490.

Kaluva

Toddy Neck To wash

Kamara

Boom
R

138

COOLY TAMIL.
...
,..

Kambi
Kambili Eambili pallam

Wire
Blanket

...
,..

Kambikka

Mulberry
Stalk

Kambu Kambu
Kamia

157. 290. 100. 102. 142.

..To show
...
,..

..
...

Pole
Shirt

Kan Kan Kan

811. 815. 330. vetta
...

..
..

Drain

..
,

Kanadi

..
..
..

Kanam
Kanak

To drain Eye Eoad tracer,
Eespect Disappeared,

glass
lost

(ganam) Kana(n), kana me Kana poa
167. 339. 445. 19. Kanakapulle

...
.
.

,

.. ..
.

To

lose

Kan'iime irukka

..

Account, amount, size Accountant To be missing
Calf

Kandu

kutti

...

,

.. ..

Kandu, kannu

338. 339. 356
... ...
,

Plant

Kandn pod a Kange
Kanji Kanji
372.
185.

..

,

.. ..

To plant Heat
Gruel, rice water, starch Dry, hard

...

,

.. .. ..

Kankka, kana
Kan-nir

To To

see
:

Kannam
Kapn

407
... ...
,

.

Tear (lit Thick
Ship

eye water)

Kantu pudikka Kappal
309. Karachal Karachal kiidukka Karadi

..
..

discover, find

,

..

Amulet
Trouble

...
...

,

..
..
..

.

To

trouble

Karadu

kal

...

.

.. ..

Bear Ankle
Character

Karaktar

Earami
-karan
(suffix)

... ...
..

.

.. .. ..

Mean
Male, man, doer Tappal cooly Hardener
Scraper, spoon

,

Tappal-karan Tota-karan Karandi 375. Karandi alavn Karatu

,

... ...

,

..

.

..
..

...

,

.. ..

Spoonful Carrot

Kare (akkare) Kare
Kareian Karete 498. Karetunde
-kari

Landing place
Charcoal, coal White ant Cart

at a river

...

,

.. .,
.. ..

... ...
...

,

.

,

A

Kari Kliriam

..

Feminine Curry
Affair,
(It)

lizard (in Ceylon) of karan

...

,

..
.

matter
(of

Kariam

ille

130. 409
... ... ...
.

does not matter
drinks, etc.)

Karum Karumbu
Karupu

..

Strong

.

..
..

.

Sugar cane Black

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Karunain Earupantailam

139

An
...

act,

ceremony

Easakka Easankka Easapu
58. Easi Easi odru

...
...
...

Turpentine To crush To crumble
Bitter, bitterness

...

Cash, money
order Trouble, hard work

...
... ... ...
...

Money

Eastam
Eata 285. Eathe
Eatheikka

To show
Chatter, story To chatter

Eathu
Eatiri kol Eatiri kai

...

Ear
Shears, scissors Brinjal (a vegetable)

...
...
...

Eatia Eatta Eatta Eatte
Eatti Eatti
Eattil

masam

... ... ...
...

November To tie, wear To build, bind
Keally

Kattaiara
141. 277. 229. 250. 272.

Stump,

log,

post

(mile)

... ...
...

Knife Past part, of 'katta'

Eata

302.

...
... ... ...

Bed Wind,

air

Eattu Eaval karan Eaval pakka

Bundle, packet

Watchman
To watch
Carefully To take care

Kavanam
Kavanakka
Kavat'al

107.

...
...

224.

...

Primers
Pruning, (work)

Kavatu (veile) Kavatu katti Kavatu vetta Kave Kavuru, kairu Kedukka
Eeini

...
...
...

Pruning knife To prune
Care, concern Cord, rope To ruin, corrupt Well (water)

...

...
... ...
...

Eeitham Eelangu Eelavan
Eelkka (keilkka) Eclkka (kathodu)
59.

Funeral
Potato, bulb

... ...

Old

man
ask, hear

474.

...

... ...
...

To To

Eelvi Eelvi kelkka (keilkka)

listen (hear with ears) Question, hearsay To ask question

I\>nfagam
Ketal

... ...
...

Sulphur
Kettle

Eetta Eetta poichi
Eetti Eetti

Bad
done bad, «poilt To make firm
Clever, firm

272.

...

panna
like 'ee')

...
... ...

Ei 25 (T Eidakka Eidda

...
...

Low, under (adj.) To be, remain
Will nut be,
is

EiiTaathe (see Eng. Vocab.)

not

...

He-goat

140

COOLY TAMIL
Week Week day
'ee')...

Kilame 182. Kilame nal
Kile 134. 141. ('i' like Kilikka (1st 'i' like 'ee')

Down, under To tear
Piano

Kinaram Kinda
Kinnaru
Kira
Kiral
pillu

To

stir up Well (water)

Turf
crack Giddiness Near, from

A

Kiru-kim
Kitta
15. 181. 356. 436

(a person), to

Kochi

496.

Coach
Chilli

Kochi-kai Kodali

Axe
Creeper, bramble

Kodi

Kode
Koia
Koil,
pall am

Umbrella, flag

Guava

fruit

kovil

Koina Koki Kol Kol Kol solla

Church, temple Cinchona

Hook
Measuring rod Complaint To complain

Kolambu
Kolante Kolavi Kolavi kal Kole (? Sinhalese) Koleikka
Koli Kolla Kollan Kolle

Hoof
Child

Wasp
Food crusher
(stone)

Leafed twigs To bark (as a dog) Chicken

To

kill

Blacksmith Heart

Koluntu edukka 102. 136. Koluntu 19. 33. 214 Kolupu Koluta Konal 838.

To pluck Young leaf
Fat, grease

Konde kal Konde Konde kuchi Kondu poa Kondu vira 50. Konjam
Kopi
Kopil

Fat (adj.) Crooked Tbigh
Top-knot (woman's)

Hair pin
24.

169. 369. 371. ... To bring 344. 182 Few, little (often used for 'tea bush') Coffee

To take away
(adv.),

some

Copy
Blister

Koplan

Koppe
Korre 118. 340. Korre nerre 118. Korreikka 284. Korreittu poda 262 Korto

Cup
Short, less

Short row To reduce To shorten, decrease

Court (law)

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Kosa Kosugu, kosu
Kotapuli
,..

141

Cabbage
Mosquito
Mallet

...
...

Kotavikka Kotbikka 425. Kotta Kottaraah
Kotte

,..

To yawn
Coriander Seed, nut

...To boil ...To empty
...

... ...
...

Kottu mamati 420. Kottu kude Kovikka

... ... ...
...

Stumped, or weeding inamoti Small sized basket To be angry

Kovum
Koya
Kiichi

Anger

Guava
Stick, peg With, too, more Unlucky day Unable, must not

Kuda
Kude

60. 298.

...

Kudathe nal Kudathe
Kudikka
487. 488.

...
... ...

Basket ...To drink ... In company with, with Kuditi ... Envelope, cage Kudu 168. 199. 285. 443. ...To give Kudukka ... To shake up Kulakka ... Hole 293. 350. Kuli
Kuli (al) Kuli adikka 387. Kuli muda Kuli vetta 293.
...
...
...

Cooly (hired person)

...

Kulikka
Kfilikru

...

To drill holes To fill holes To dig holes To bathe
Bathroom
Cold, shivery

kamara

...
... ...

Kulir Kulir kachal

Ague
Virgin

Kumari
Kurnal

... ... ...

Heap,

pile

Kuraba
Kiimittu

pod a

370.

...

To worship To heap up
Peg To peg out

Kuni 361. 362. Kuni adikka
Kuuincbi nikka
303.

... ...

...
...

To

Kundi
Konjj
8. 74. KQpida Kuppara Kuppara poda 174. Kuppe Kuranga Kure Kuru Kuruka Kuruka pStbe

stoop Seat (of body)

...

83.

... ...

425.

...

The voung of animals To call Upside down To put upside down
Rubbish

... ...

Monkey
Boof
Point
Short, across Short-cut

... ... ...
...

Kummba
Kururai

...
...

Young coconut
Top-knot (man's) Blind

Kuratn

...

142

COOLY TAMIL.

Kuruvi

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY.
Midi
...
...

143

Udder
Catfele

Madu Madu Madu
Magal

karan
patti

...
...

Cattle keeper Cattle shed

...

Magan
Mai

...
...

Daughter Son
Ink, paint

Maiam
Mai
Mairu Makali

885.

...
...

Mark, boundary
Blotting paper

otti tal

...

masam
22.

N3.

... ... ... ... ...

386. Malei 305. Malei peia

Hair December Bain

Male
Mil man

33.

34.

To rain Field, hill
Blunt
Father-in-law Mother-in-law

Mallingu

251.

...

Miimi

Mamati

40.

...

Man
Mande

...
...
...

Large hoe, maiuaty Deer
Skull Antlers

Man kombu
Manasu
Manasile vaikka Manjal
6. 60. Mani Maui neram

...
... ...

The mind To bear in mind
Yellow, saffron
O'clock, hour

227.
15.

393.

... ...

Man-kili

... ... ...
...

An hour's Mango
Monkey
Indigestion To smell

time

Manti Manthara

Mannakka Manual

...
... ... ...
...

Sand
Gor.i smell

Man nam
Mannakka
Mannikka Mannipu Manni Manni adikka

To To To

smell
forgive

Forgiveness
Bell
ring

...
...

Man mi 304. Mannu sevar Mannn vetta MamiHhan
Maj.ale

318. 373.

... ...

Earth

Mud
To

... ...
...

wall dig (cut earth)

Man
To perform 'magic' Bridegroom To give a chance Pruning*

Manti ram panna
Mfipu kudukka

... ... ...
...

Mar 829. Ma ram petti

Wooden

Maram

112.

MO.

Miirapu kan

125. 427.

... ...

box, chest Tree, wood Cross, secondary drain

Marantu

...
...

Medicine

MS re

478.

Bagama Camp
To To
hide
forget

Mareikka Marakka, marantu

...

post

354

...

144

COOLY TAMIL.
... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
...
.
. .
.

Marra kai
Marriel

Vegetables Prison

Marre

.
.

.

Elk
Daughter-in-law Son-in-law Other, another Again

Maru magal Maru magan Maru
Maruvadi Marumuli

.

,

.

.

.

..

.

.

.

Masam
Masi masam Masam-rnasam

., . .,

...

.

...

.

Mata Matalam
-matathe
167.
(suffix

Answer, written reply Mcntfc Fern nary Mrntli by month

.

.

Tt change Large drum
He,
etc will not I will not
:

to infinitive)
,

306.

-maten (suffix) 161. 166 Mathipu 214 Matiram, mattam Matin kalar 242. Matta, maru

,

,

,

Mattam
-mattum

21.

121. 133

Estimate Only Martingale Other Level
Until,
till

(suffix)

Mattam illame Mattam odikka

120. 121. 145..
135.

Uneven To tip, break
Flour

to

a level

Mau

Me (adj.) Meham
Mei Meia

25.

211

...
...

..
.

Upper, top Cloud

Body To graze,
456.

feed

Meil vilasam

Address
Ear-ring (woman's)

Meladu Mele 330 Mele vara

Me

Melis mette

...

...

Mesan Mese 140
Mettr

..

..

Up, above, on To come up Thin (not thick) Upper story Mason
Table
Story (of building)
Soft,

.

..

Methuva Methuva panna

smooth
verv,

To

soften

Micham 42. 228 Min (long'i' like ee') Min (adj :) Mina ('i' like 'ee')
Mindi
160.

Much, many,
Fish
..

remainder

Fore, front

Fern
Before, previously
,

381

Minna; min pakkam Minnal Minukku Minigam
Mise
Mistek

In front

;

front side

Lightning

To

the front

(V

like

'ee')

Animal Moustache
Mistake

Mithakka Mithikka 859.

(Ib*

'i'

like 'ee')

To To

float

tread

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Modaku 275. 276 Modu 119
Moi Mol
Moleikka
148
.

146

.

Corner (as of a road)

...

Mound,

ridge
at

...
.
.

Swarm; ceremony
Machinery, engine

marriage

...

To

sprout

Molavu Moluga

tiri

...
...

Candle To smooth
Breast

MoUe
Morre

... ...

Time

(period)

Mosam Mosam

...
... ...

Harm
To harm
First

362 6eia Mothal, motha 196

Mothiram

...

Ring
Total

(for finger)

Mottam

66.

... ...

Motte Motte pudinkka 108. Miichu 300. 387. Mfida

Bald

223

...

To
To

strip off

buds
in

etc.

... ...
...
...

Breath
cover,
fill

Mudi

424. Mudichi 228. 256 Mudia 34. 80. 117. 140. 167

Lid, cover Knot, screw nut

205
... ...

To

finish

Mugare
Miiku

(vulg

:)

Face Nose
Spectacles

Muku

kanadi

... ... ... ...

Mflkuti Miilan kai Miilan kal

Nose ornament

Elbow Knee
Torch, candle Brain Corner

Mulavu
Mulei

patti

...
...

Mule
Miili

208

...

...
...

Deformed

(as to ears)

Miilikka 48 Mulittu irukka

...

To stare To wake up, be awake
Pepper Whole, entire To swallow
Full

Mulugu Mulu, mulukka Mnlunkka 16R. Mulu per
Mnlla Mullu
106. 288.

...

lfi8.

...

...
...
...

name

292.

... ... ...
...

Mullum pandi
Mullu kuta 292 Mnllu chedi

Slow, slowly Fork, thorn Porcupine

To

fork before veaterday

Thorn, bramble

Munam Munam

rial

... ... ...

Day

Third

Mundil-nru-pangu Munji
Munjil MTi'inunu

A

third, £

...
...

Face

Bamboo
Three by three, Three
Thirty Jagged, uneven
in threes

...
...

Munu
Mu|>;if;hn

...
...

Muratu
Miiriivu Miisal

...

...

Ear ornament Hare

146

COOLY TAMTL.
To mend, sew up
278.
(koli)

Muta Mute Mute
Mutiri

Sack, bag

Egg

(fowl's)

Mutiram, mol

Mutta

99 Mutt'ele 99.

Urine Postage stamp Hard, coarse

Hard
Kiss
FiBt,

leaf

Muttam
Mutti

hammer

N.

Nachataram

Star

Nada 354 Nadakka
Nadantu poa Nade
Nadi pakka

To plant To walk, behave, happen To go on walking (i.e. hurry Walk (noun), gait To feel pulse
Middle Midnight
Village

up)

Nadu Nadu Nadu

26
ratiri

Nahi, nagi

JeweUery

Nai Nai kutti

Dog Puppy
Profit, justice

Naiam
Naitu kilauie

Naku
Na-kali Naliki Nai
Nftlandiki

Sunday Tongue
Chair
(4

legs)

Tomorrow

Day Day

after

tomorrow

Nalam
Nalla 31. 87 Nalla nertukku Nallathu 449. 500.
.Valla

Fourth Good, well
Punctually

Very well
Cobra

(all

right)

pambu
60.

101. Nalu Nalukku-nalukku

Four
Daily

Nambar Nambar adikka

Namba
Namrna

473.

Number, mark To number To trust believe
,

Our,

my
me
(mine)

Nammukku Nan Nan tin
Nananttu irnkka

To
I

us, to

Myself

To be wet
Crab

Nandu
Nangal Nangal tan
Nangili inn ram

We
Ourselves Iron wood tree Poison

Nanju
Nania, nananttu poa

To
,

Napathn

Narambu

get wet Forty Muscle, vein

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Nari
.

147

Jackal

Narusa 113 Nasakka Nasam, natam

.

Thoroughly

.
.

To crush
Odour (bad) To "go to the dogs"
Bruise Loss, deficit

Nasama poa
Nasivu

.

.

Natam, nastam
Nav'alu

.

.

Four by

four, in fours

Nedua

435.

.

Neham
Neire Neitu Nele Nellu
Xellal

.

Along, straight Finger nail
Straight

79

.

.

.

Yesterday Lintel of door

.

Paddy

(rice)

272

.

Nenji
Nenjile vaikka

.

Shade, shadow Chest

.

Xeram 102. 389. Xeram achi 5 Neram illakka Xeram poa
Xerapu Xcrapu Xerapu
kfichi

.

To commit Time
Late

to

memory

.

.

.

To lose time To waste time,
Fire

to get late

.

.

petti

.

Xereittu irukka

.

Xereikka

282
...

.

Match Match box To be full To fill
Colour

Xerram
Xerre 79. 118. 370. 388 Xerre pudikka 26

.

.

.

Row, line To take up rows
Bier
Pretty At the time

Nerrn
Xerti&na
Xertile Netti
428. Nettu kan Nettu nerre

.

.

.

.

Forehead

.

.

Ni ('i' like Xifmasanam
Xikka
Nil!
20.

'ee')
('i'

44.
like

315.
'ee')

.

Main drain Long row You
Baptism

.

Xichal adikka

.

134. 275. 488.

.

To swim To stop, stand
Moonlight Blue

.

Xilam (T
Nilam,
Xilh]

like 'ee')

.

riignlflin,

nitam

294.

.

Long, length
Stop!

18
351

.

Ximasam
Ximatu
47'"> II N'meikkn Nineivu Kingal (V l'ki 'ee')

.

Minute
I'prigbt

To think
Thought, memory
.

You

Cplur

1.

ynti

(fnntf

hon-

orific)

Xintikka

.

Io insult

Xipata

378.
"

.

NipSti roda Kir mattaiii

To stop (trans :) To pat a step to
Spirit le^el

Ci'

likp

'e<

148

COOLT TAMIL.
158. 170. 183. 202.
solla
.

Nirnkka

Nisam Nisama
Nita

.

To weigh Truth
To To
tell truth stretch out (the hand)

.

(T

like

'ee')

.

Nitham Nitam Noa Nonda
Notis

.

Continually, daily

('i'

like

'ee')

.•Long
.
.

To To

pain, hurt scratch up; dig

.

Notu

.

Novu
Nul Nundi Nuni
Nunittu poda
.
.

Notice Pro-note Pain, illness

Thread, fuse

Lame
Tip, point

.
.

To break
o.

off tip

Oda

4.

Odambu
Odavi Odikka 120. 122. 132. 475. 489. Odi poa
139

To run Body
Carpenter To break To bolt, run away Unceasingly
Pestle To clear out (of a house) To hide

Oiame
Olaku
Olikka Olikka

492.

Olittu poda

Olukka

To remove To leak

(furniture)

Ompathu
Oppare panna
459. Oppam Oppam poda

Nine To make smooth
Signature

(of

mud

walls)

Oppikka

Oram
Orepu

834.
(see 'nrepu*) 427.

Oria Orinttu pal Orlaa

To sign To hand over, prove Edge Hot (as of curry) To coagulate, thicken
Coagulated latex

Ortram
Oru, or'

ilia

Watch, Nobody
Never

clock

A, an, one

Oru kalam ille Ora maderi Orn maderi (very long Orumika Orn podi
Ora-tai-pulle
455.

Same
a)

Queer, prevarication
All, total,

whole

Handful

Oni teram, morr©
Oral
Oratftn irukka

One family Once
Mortar

Osaram

22.

To be High

alone

Osavul Osinta (adj :) Osukkn poa

Swamp
High, upper To go up, climb

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Othukka
420.

149

160 Pal Palal

COOLY TAMIL.
..

Tooth

(pal-al)

,.. ,.. ,..

Palagu

Kubber tappers (milk-people) Plank
Experience

Palakam 499. Palakam irukka Palam 15. Palam
Pal edukka Pal kudukka Paluthu pakka

..
.. .. .. .. ..

To know
Bridge Ripe fruit

(a person)

To To To

milk, to tap rubber suckle
repair

Pallam

388.

333
90.

..

Palia, palisi Palli kudam

2G1.

375

..

Hollow, valley Old
School

.. .. ..

Parnbu Panju
Panjarn

Snake
Cotton

.. ..
..
..

Famine
Pig
Prize

Pandi ' Pandiaru

Pane 483. Paugu Panguni ma sain

Pan
Portiou

..

N3.

..

March

Pani 131. 142. 239 Pania, panittu Panittu poda, panikka 244.

..
.. ..
.

Dew
Low, under To lower To do, make Funds
Twelve
Ball
(adj
:)

Panna

309.

415.
... ... ... ...

Pannam
Pannirendu Pantu
Pant'adikruthu Pant'adikka male Papati
,

..

.. .. .. .. ..

.

.

,

Tennis Tennis court
Butterfly

Par

13. 77.

... ... ...

.

. .

Param Param kudukka
Paraiam
Parakkn Pare 363
Pariari Parittu vetta

.

..
.. ..

Look Heavy, weight
!

.

To give charge of Age, youth
To
fly

...

.

..
..
..

...
... ... ...
...

.

Rock
Barber

.

.

.. ..
.. ..
.

Paru

.

To dig round Flower bed
Moss

(a thing)

Pasam
PaBii

.

(madu)

... ... ...
...

.

Cow
Hunger
Foot Pat I.
Sonic, portion

Pasi
Patbai.i

.

.

..

Pathe
Pathi Pathi*
P=3M
106.

.

.

...

.

.

451
487.

..

To

issue

(ag rice)

.

.

About, concerning
Carefully

Patiram
Pattanain Patta
Patt#!fiiu

162.

250

...

.

.

Town
Dead
(of treeal

...

.

.

...
...

.

.

Aymy
Tenth

'battalion)

Pattam

.

.

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Pattathe, patt'ille 289. 226. 306. Not enough

151

Bark
Patte siva
Patti Pattini
413.

(of tree)

To shave
Putty
Starving Sixteen

bark, tap

Pattinarn
Pattinettu
(for

Eighteen
see para
:

numbers
situ

M.)
Discharge Note
(without debt)

Pattu Pattu

Ten
Sin, error

Pavum
Pavikka
314

Pavun
Peii Peichi
494.

To use Pound (£) Demon, devil
Language, talk Louse

Pein Pellam Pellam

253
ille

Weak
Pen Wife
Bitch

Strong

Pellamana

Loud, strong

Pena
Penjathi Pen-nai

Pen-pandi
Pensil Per 191.
41.

Sow
Penoil

Name, person
Cane
Birthday

Perambu
Perantu nal Peratu 14. 434.
Peratu kaleikka Peratasi rnasam

Muster

To

disperse muster

September
Passion fruit
...

Perende pallara
106. 138. 228. Peria, perisi Peri'aijime Peria dore (ture) Peria kangani 60. Perile

Big, large

Head Superintendent Head kangani
Impertinent, unrnly Proctor To turn over
Multiplication

Smallpox

Perkol Perkka. peruta Perkul

Penikka
Perfikka

Perumula pesa
Perunal Peea 27. 177. 1R4 Pesagu

To bear, give birth To multiply To speak insolently
Holiday To speak
Error, mint alee bo silent Don't talk Devil

PesSme irnkka
Pesathe
i'tsasi
Pt'ttrt
'27.

To

39.

48.

Female
'Hen')
i

of

some

animals

(set

Prtti, pott Pet tor

Box, chest
Parents
'ee')

Pi

(T

like

Excrement

152
Picha kai Piche karan

COOLY TAMIL.
(for)
left

hand

Beggar
414.

Pidpadu Pika6U
Pilan Pilakka
Pili
(let

402.

After

Pickaxe Plan

To
'i'

split,

crack

like 'ee')

Spout, pipe

Pillu 368. Pillu vetta 378. Pillu arrikka

Weed
To weed To cut grass, reap
Back, hind
Crossed, crossing

Pin

(adj.)

Pinal

264.
(adj.)

Pinchu
Pindi

Young
Plate

(of leaves,

fruit,

etc.)

104.

Behind, late

Pingan Pinna Pinukku Pin pakkam
Pipa
('i'

To plait To behind, backwards
Behind, backside of Cask, barrel
Order, method

like 'ee')

Pirakaram Piraiam
Pirikka
Pirittu

Age, youth
500.

kudukka

Pirrium Pirrium irukka Pitalatam
Pittale

To divide To distribute Wish To like, wish
Trick

Brass

Pittene
Pla,

Lawn
Jak
fruit
!

pallam
64.

Po Poa

!

Go away
To go

25. 26. 30. 57. 59. 337 .400.

(see

English vocab.

'getting')

Poattum 32. 64. 102. 112. 282. Poda
Podi Podian

May
316. 3$1
it

go, let go
to another verb
intensifies

To put (added
Very small

meaning)

P2.

21. 211.

Boy
Except
Lie, falsehood

Pohe
Poi
449.

Poi, poittu

400.

Having gone
Ps.

Poiana
Poi/shi

(adj.)

(po-achi)

13

Ealse, untrue Gone, done, finished

Poi karan Poi solla Poittu vara

Liar
400. 452.

To To

lie

return

Pokku Pokku Pokku

Excuse
solla

To make excuse Dry (as seed that
Ps.4.

will

not

Polapu pesa
-pole (suffix)

germinate) To speak evil Perhaps, about, almost, as
Police

Polis

Polikka

To crack

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Poleikka
Poleipu
489.
34.
(tai)

153

To earn
Earnings
327.

Ponal Pongal
Ponji

57.

(See para.

L.)
(of rice),
i.Cb,

January boiling

Ponkka Ponu 249. Pouu kilanie
Poragu, peragu

Hindu festival in Jan. Bean To boil, bubble up
Last (adj.), gone Last week
Presently, after To bear, tolerate

Porukka Porrukka Postikum Pothikka
-pothu

187. 398. 296.

To pick Book To bury

over,

collect

(suffix)

While, whilst

Pothum Pothuma?
Pottal

125.

Enough
Is
it enough? Hole (in a thing) Advantage Fjower

Preosanam

Pu
Puchi Puchi marantu Pudikka 26. 66. 257. Pudikka (nerre)
Pudittu kasi Pudittu vaikka

Insect
.

To To

Santonine powder hold, catch take up rows

Recovery To keep
374.

(money)
pull out

Pudinkka

223.

381

PQhe
Puh'ele

To pull, Smoke
Tobacco

Pukka
Puli Pulia Pulle kari Pulle Pulle teittu
Piilli

To

blosson. flower

Cheetah, tiger To squeeze Woman with baby

Baby
390.

Pumi Pun

Pumbale, pom
379.

(pen-pulle)

A dot, spot Woman, wife
Ground
Sore,
nicer

Pregnant

Punaku Pune Pune kutti
Pura Purus Purusuan Puaa
Pusal

Poonac
Cat Kitten

Pigeon Brush

Husband To smear
Bushel

Pusanam
Pusari Paae

Mildew
i

>ne

who prays
r

Pra\f
38.

Puthu, puthisi
Piithu kiidu

391.

.

,

New New

clearing

Putbaa

kilurue

,

Wednesday

154
Putti
487.

COOLY TAMIL.

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Bade pambu

155

1S6

COOLY TAMIL.
...

Sathe
Sathi
487.
47. 28.
7.

... ...
...

Satne

Sattam

Flesh (human) Caste, sort, kiud At once Noise

Sattara poda Satte

... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ... ...

To

shout Coat

Sattiam panna
Satti

To swear on oath
Pot
Cloth, any kind of stuff

483.

Savali

Saval Savari
Sav'arisi

Cock
Exercise, walk

Savi

Savikiam Savukarani

... ... ...
...

Sago Key, wrench Advantage Soap

Savuku Savuku inaram Segadu
Segapu, sevapu
Seia
39. 45. 190. 268. 308.

Whip
Grevillea tree

Mud
Eed To do, make To put together,
Together
include

... ... ...
...

Seikka, serkka
Seitu, sendu

Seitu poda

101. 104. 299.

...
... ...

Selavu
Sella Sellu

To add, put together Expenses, stores To pass
Flea
(as time)

...
... ...

Sembu
Sen-kal

... ... ...
... ...

Sepu

Copper Brick Pocket

Seppanam
Ser
Seri 16. 54. Seri katta 158. Seri ille Seria 18. 105.

Dream

Mud
Right,
all

... ...
...

To mend, Wrong

right

put right

Proper, properly, straight

Serrapu
Serrete 425. Sette 299.
Setti

...
...

... ... ...
... ... ...

Sandal Coconut shell Dried leaves
Chetty

Settu poa

To

die
red, ferment (as tea)

Seva kilame Sevapu poa Sevar
Sevitu Sike adikka

Tuesday

To get Wall
Deaf

...

(T

like 'ee')

...

... ... ...

Sikka Sikku Siku poda
Sila Silari
Silafi Silari

To whistle To become entangled
Entanglement

(V

like 'ee')

16

... ... ...

To put Some

'sick'

(stop day's pay)

kadan
katigani

Small change (money)
'Outside' debt

...

...

Silesu

Sub-kangani
Sledge

...

hammer

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Sihi vuele

157

455.

...

Sometimes, perhaps
Slate

Siletu
Sile
Silla
('i'

...

like 'ee')

...

Woman's
District

cloth

457.
like 'ee')

...
...

Silve

Cross

Sime

('i*

446.

...

...
...

Country, coast

Siminti Sineithan
Sini (1st
'i'

Cement
Friend Sugar

...

like 'ee')

...

Singam
Singal-51
150. Sinna Sinna dore (ture)

...
...
...

Lion
Sinhalese Small, little Assistant Superintendent

... ... ... ... ...

Sinn'ai

Sinna kadu

Aunt Undergrowth
Measles Uncle

Sinn'amme
Sinnappan Sinna sathi
Sinta
301. 487.

...

Low
To

caste

...
... ...

drop, spill

Sipu

(T

like 'ee')

Comb
Small

Siru Sirikka

185.

... ...

To laugh
Laughter
Note, card To play cards April To shave To get red, ferment

Siripu Situ ('i' like 'ee') Situ iida ('i' like 'ee')
Sitiri

... ...
...

masam
'ee')

Siva (T like Sivantu poa
Siv-uli
(1st

413

...

... ...

'i'

like 'ce')

...

...

Plane
Eest, remainder

Socham Sogam So#am ille Sogam aha
Sakolati

... ...
...

Health Unwell

... ...

To

get well

Solan
Soli

...
...

Cocoa Indian corn Business

SoUa
Snllu

3.

63.

(

J3. 108. 306. 498,

...
... ...

To

say, tell

Word
Winnowing fan
Idle, lazy

Sohigu
Somfirn
163.

... ... ...
... ...

Sonakam
Sonakka Sonangu poa Sonapu
Soru 480. Sora kai Sothene Sothikka

Delay

To delay To be delayed
Sharp Bice (cooked)

...
...

... ...

Gourd Examination

To examine,
Burial place

search

Suda kadu
Sfldil

...
...

Hot, Heat
Soldering iron

SuHu
Sul

kol
47.

...

(fal)

...

Suma

Rug
Idle (see par*
:

155.

327.

...

L3)

158

COOLY TAMIL.

Sumadu

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Tunda

159

To jump
Punishment Telegram

Tandanam
478. Tandi Tandikka 108.

Tangam
Tangachi

To punish Gold Young
sister

Tangu var Tankka
Tanni Tanni kan Tannia Tannia poda
Tappithain

Girth strap

To bear, Water

carry

Watercourse
Alone, separate To segregate Fault, mistake To miss Post, tappal

Tappa
Tappal

114.
1.

Tappu
Tara Tara Tare
Tatta

2.

448.

Tom-tom To give Duck
Floor To knock, tap
:)

421.
(adj

Taruma

Honoured, trusted
Tuticorin

Tattapare Tattan, asari Tattu Taval Taval karan Taval kantbor Tavale
Tavanc.

Camp

Goldsmith
Shelf, tray, tat

Post, tappal Post cooly

Post

office

Frog

A
336. 353.

fixed time for

payment

Tavarani Tavira Teia

Nursery Except

To wear
Tea

out

Tei elc 86. 329. Tei elc toium Teidi pakka 474. Teidi

Tea, tea leaf
estate

To

seek

Date

Tcikka
Teil

To rub
Scorpion

Teiikka
Teiil-karan
Teiil

To sew
Tailor
Stitch,

Teinttn poichi

Worn
Honey
Bee

sewing
out, rubbed out

Ten
Ten-i Ten-kai

Tenk-enne Teppu kallam

Coconut Coconut oil Pond, Dam
Continuallv

Tennam
Tepu Teram
Terasu
Teria
31.

Tape Time
Scales
159.

(period)
feel

To know,

Teri'ime

Unknowingly

160
Teriathe 155. Teriath'al
391.

COOLY TAMIL.
Do
460. 157. •374.
,

not

know

Terium (yenakku) Teriuma? teriutha?
Tesi kai Tevelea (adj.) Thelikka

know (to me knowledge) Do you know, understand?
I

Ignorant person

Lime
263. 488.

(fruit)

Better

To To To

sprinkle
fine

Thendam Thendam poda
Thendikka, thendittu pakk;
324.
.

Fine
try
of familiarity suffixed to

Thevan
-ti

Deity

(di), -ta

(da)

(suffixes)

.

Terms

verba (fem. mas.)

Appdx. D.

Tinkal kilame Tini (1st 'i' like Tini pakka Tini saman Tinisu

.

Monday
Food

'ee')
••

.

.

To

taste

• •

.

Provisions
Species, genua To eat

.

Tinkka
Tint a

.

.

Paint

Tipau

Tnkka
Tiri

449. 474. 445.

.

Depot, Cooly Agency

.

To

aettle a/c

.

Wick, bud
Verdict

Tirpu
Tirurabi

.

.

Again, back

Tirumbi katta Tirumbi vara Tiruppa
Tirutu pail 250. Tita ('i' like 'ee') Tita (arisi) ('i' like 'ee') Titu kal ('i' like V)
Ti-vali (1st
'i'

.

,.

,. ,.

,. ..

.. ..

like

ee')

To rebuild To return To turn Rogue To sharpen To pound (rice) Hone Hindu festival dedi<;ite;l
goddesB of prosperity To touch

to the

Toda Tode Toge Toku
Tol Tol

109.

141.

217.

• •

..

Thigh
Total

.. ..
.. .. ..

Gun
Skin, shoulder, leather

Tonde
Tongal 206. 399. Toni Topal Topal ele 88. 89. 97. 218. Topi

Small drum Throat

..
..
.. .. ..

End
Boat Navel Fish leaf Hat, topi Estate, garden

Totam
Tota'karan
Totil

..

..
.. ..

Garden cooly
Cradle Useless

Totta Totta pail

..

Tovea
Tahedi,
(ehedi)

..

Worthless fellow To repair, temper

steel

„.

Bush

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Tuale

161

162

COOLY TAMIL.
ille

tjnnum

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY.
Vai-nir
(vani)
.. ..
..

163

Saliva

Vairam
Vairu Vaisu
Vaitale poa Vaitian
•••
i

Hard

(of

wood), diamond

Stomach
Year, age To purge Native doctor

.. ..

.. .. ..

Vaitu Vaitu kadapu Vaitu valli Val \ al Val karan

Stomach
Dysentery

.. ..
.
. .

Stomach ache
Tail

..

Saw
Sawyer

.. ..
.. ..

Valakka Yalaku Valakam, valame Valata 150. Valantu Vala pallam 150. Valara Valathu pakkani Vale Valeikka (kan) 310.
Valeivu 405. 424. Vali Vali Vali selavu 446.
Valli

To

rear (from young)

Case (court)

Custom
Tall

..
..
..

High,

(of persons) tall

..
.. ..

Banana To grow
Eight side

Net

328...

..

To

(also for tennis net) clear out drains, to bend

round
..

A

glass bracelet, a curve

..
..

Bucket

Way, path
Travelling expenses

..
.. ..
..

Pain

Vallikka

Valukka

Vambu Vanam
Vanda 247. Vandanam
Vandi
Vandris
385.
258. 272.
...

.. ..
..

To pain, To slip Bamboo
Sky

hurt

Don't want

..
.. .. ..

Thanks
Bicycle

Boundary
Beetle

Vandu Vanga
Vangi
Vanji

62
111.

:

376.

.. ..

To buy, Bank

get

..
..

Two
Bank

leaves without a bud
(for

Vangu
Vanis
Van-koli

money)

.. ..
..
..

Varnish Turkey

Vannan Var Vara
"\

Washerman,
Belt,

'dhobi'

strap

7.

9.

16.

60.

62. 68
..
..

119. 109. iira-vara

To come
Gradually,
in

time

Vara kaei
Vari Varieia nilln

..
..

Credit balance

Kow,
Until,

rule
till

..

Stand in a row, regularly
Buckle

•varikam

(snffix)

117. 468.

..

Vir pu«u

..

164

COOLt TAMIL.
476.
...
...
...

Varantu
Varra'kiidu Varrichi

Warrant
Steep place

132. Varu Vara neram

...
... ... ...

Varum vaikka
Varratum
Vasal Vasal kuti Vasani
304. 383.

Lath (wood) Coming, next Next time To credit
Difficult

...
... ...

Threshold

Sweeper

Vasam
Vasane Vasikka
Vilte

...
...

Good smell House
Smell

4$6.

...

To read
Goose

... ...
...

Vatham
Vathil

Vathu
Vatier

129. 234. 252.

... ...
... ... ...

Rheumatism Answer Branch
Schoolmaster Batta (daily expenses) Interest (money) To crack, sprout up Explosion Blasting powder To burn
Fast, quickly May (month) Show, play
Sport, hunt

Vatta
Vatti kasi

Vedikka Vedi sattam Vedi marantu

...
... ...

Veha 371. Vegam, vegaina
Veiasi rnasam

258.

...

...
...

Veidike

Veidu
Veiil

...

Veile

272. 57. 87. 190. 394.

... ... ...
...

Sun

Work
Working field To look after work To work To leave work Worker
Prostitute

Veile-kadu
Veile pakka 92. Veile seia 39. 390. Veile vuda 394. Veile-karan Veisi Veithi Veithi marantu Veiti

... ...
... ... ...
...

Cholera

Purgative

...

Man's

cloth

Vekkaro

...

Vekkam
Velagu Velankka
I

irukka
194.

...
. . .

... ...
...

Shame To be ashamed Get away To understand
I

Velankrutha, ? Velank'ille

Do you Do not
To play
Fence Light

understand? understand

Vele
Veli

a da

91.

... ...

Velicham
Veile Vellia Vellia
412.

...
... ...

White
Out, outside

anupa
14.

...

To

dismiss, send

away

Vellana
Velli

...

Early
Silver,

t

...

10 cents

TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
Velukka Vendia
Vendiutbu Venkai
434. 491.
472. 491. 495.

165

Vendiuth'irukka

To wash clotheB, whiten To require To be necessary
Wants, requires Onion
Butter

Venne

Venum Venum

(onum)
endal

25. 94. 358

Must, want
If

want
to

Venum, avan unakku enna?
Ver 341. Veragu
Vere Vere Qnnuin ille Verodu pudinkka
Verrita
47.

is he related Root Firewood

How

you?

Different, another Nothing else To root out To drive away

Verve . Vevere 19. Vevere poda Versa Vethani Vetha'karan Vethe 379. Vethene Vetta 248. 254. 380. 382
Vettu
Vett'ele
261.

-

Perspiration Separate, apart To separate

Rapidly
Religion Christian

Seed Pain
429
•<

To

cut, to tap (rubber), to

A

prune

cut Betel
Bill

Vettu katti
Viathi Vidia

book Hlness

To dawn

Vidinttu kalam

Dawn
Swelling

(day)

Vikam (T
Vikka
('i'

like *ee') like *ee')
'ee')

To

sell

Vikkal ('i' like Vilaku Vilak'enne Vilatu Vilatu kondu poa Vile
Vileikkj

Hiccough

Lamp
Castor oil Exercise To take out for exercise
Price, cost

vanga
like 'ee')

To buy
Copy Rainbow To boast To swell
Verandah Guest Fasting Finger
poda
152.

Vilu
Villu

(T

Vimbu
Vinkka

pesa
('i'

like 'ee')

Viranta Virantadi

Viratham
Virral

Virrikka, virrittu 172. 214.

Virrnm
Visa 259. Visarane

(V

like

'ee')

To spread Empty To throw
Enquiry

out

166

COOL* TAMIL.
To enquire Poison To throw away
Belief, faith

Visarikka

Visham
Visi poda
174. (1st
'i'

like 'ee)...

Visuvasam Vitesam
Vithuru ('i' Vivararn
like 'ee')

Defect, error, difference

Glass (drinking) Explanation

Vizala, viyala kilame

Voku
Votal (botal)

Thursday
Culvert.

Bottle

Vuda

257; 284. 393. 468

Vuttu poda

Vudu, udu Vnlua 362.

To leave, allow To let go House To fall
Y.

(Some

of these

words appear elsewhere without the

initial

T")

Tar
Yare Yaruin

71. 377. 388.

Who ? Whom

?

(seri)

Yat

Yedu
Yeikka
Yeini

Whoever, anyone Yard Page

To cheat
Ladder
Steep Descent,

Yeitam
Yeitatile

down

hill

Yellan
Yelli Yellia

Young
Rat Poor Seven
Seventy

Yeiu Yeluwathu

Yembikka

To prove
Proof

Yembanan
Ye, (yen)

Yen

270. 888. 61. 58. 458.

Why My
Me, meV
Because

Yene, yenei? Yenendal 478. Yengal Yengalukku
YeTigslude

Us To na
Of ns, our Engine

Yentiram 181. 296. 440 Yeppadi 75. Yeppo

How? When?

Yeppothum Yeppotbum

ille

76. 455. 76.

Always Never

Yen

Yerangu poa Yerangu kile
Yerichi

To climb To ascend To descend
Meat, beaf

Yesa
Yethir

161

To blame
Opposite

TAMIL-ENC4LISH
I'tthukkn pudikka nerre

VOCABULARY'.
To
take up rows at opposite

16^

ends

Yetha

78.

Yetta 221 Yettu 469. Yevalo? Yevalo neram? (kalam) Yidu vaikka Yoaikka

Which? To reach

451....

How much? How long?
To pawn To consider

Eight

168

COOLY TAMIL.

POSTSCRIPT.
1.

(«)

Past Particles ending in -tin and wards formed from them, as Past Tenses and Adjectives, are usually pronounced -elm or -chi. The -ttu is retained in spelling in order to distinguish them easily from other words as
being verb-formation*, thus assisting cognising the different parts of speech
the

student

in

re-

when seen

in print.

(b) The tense terminations of the verbs have been spelt -kren and -kruthu, etc., in preference to the really correct -kiren, -kirathu, as the cooly does not pronounce the This occurs also in other distinct 'i' and 'a' sound. words. In the termination -athu (uthu) will be recognised
'athu.
..it;

also

in

-an...(av)an,

he;

-al...(av)al,

she.'

(See Appendix.)

Some high
often

caste coolies,

pronounce more according to student can pick this up by practice.
•2.

and those loho can read and write, The grammatical Tamil.
the suffix -TJM in the
it

ALSO. 'This is translated by way as for 'and' except that

same
:

is

not repeated. Thus

I said that also,— athium nan sonen. This also is not correct, ithium seri ille. He went also,— avanum ponan. Yes, there are alavangas there as well

—ami,
:

alavang'um

irukruth 'ange.
3.

This is translated by adding -ALUM to the stem of the Past tense (D2). Thus Although he said that you must not believe it avan appadi sonalum ni athe namba vanda. Although he speaks thus will it be true? avan ippadi pesnalum nisam irukuina'? Although he blames you it does not matter, you keep quiet

ALTHOUGH.

— —

avan uue yesnalum kariam ille, Though he will %ave said that,
soll'inintalum poi tan
i.

ni
it

mi
1

patile
)a

is

*

lie

pesame iru. avan athe

(see

S2).

Thus : speech. It is nearly dead— athu settuthu-pole tan. He is nearly dying avan saruthu-pole tan. There are about fire mamotiea mamati anji-pole irukrutbu. It is almost finished athu mudinttu-pole irukrutbu. He is almost 70 years old avanukku yeluwathu vaisu-pole irukrutbu. The wall is about ten feet high— sevar patt'adi-pole osaram

ABOUT, ALMOST, NEARLY. -POLE suffixed to any part of

These are translated

by

— —

IT

CAN ALSO MEAN

'AS'

:

Do

as

you wish—un pirium-

pole aei

POSTSCEIPT.
5.

169
(see

IN

ORDER THAT, SO THAT

No. 11).

This can

the Impersonal Future (Jl ; J2) and is a very usual form of speech. After a negative it means 'in order not to,' 'so as not to.'

be translated by

'PADIKKI' preceded by

Thus

:

I gave the money so that he should not run away avan odi poathe padikki kasi kuduten. I sent Tiarnasamy to the General Hospital so that he should get well Ramasami sogam ahum padikki Peria Aspatirikki anupunen. Cut the drain so that the water does not flow that way tanni appadi odathe padikki kan vettu. I sent the kangani to the coast in order that he should brino

6.

coolies puth'al kondu varum padikki kangani simeanupunen. I wrote a telegram to the Labour Commissioner in order that Arulappan might get money there Arulappan ange kasi edukum padikki Tipau doreikki oru tandi eluthinen. THE PAST PARTICIPLE is always used in Tamil with all tenses where the conjunction 'and' is used in English.

new

ikki

Thus

:

I will go and tell— nan poittu solluven, will tell). You go and see ni poittu par.

(lit

:

I

having gone

He He

returned avan poittu vantan, (i.e., he went and came). avan poittu varuvan. will return Come this way and bring a fork oru mullu eduttu ippadi va. Generally when a sentence in English has several finite verbs (i.e., verbs not dependent on each other to make complete sense) they should all be rendered in Tamil by tlw-Past Participle, except the last one which should close

the sentence.
7.

QUOTATION.—This
word 'emu,' having
say) with the use will come'He said

is

rendered

by the addition of the
of

T

said (Past. Part, of the 1st person.

verb
:

'ena,'

to

Thus

He He

said 'I said
soi

nan varuven entu sonan. gave it to master' -doreikki kuduten «-ntu sonan. that he gave it to masl be doreikki kuduten

entu

to muster peratukku varuven entu aval sonuthu. Tf he said he was coming— varuven entu sonal.
8.

She said that she would come

HE WHO, THAT WHICH,
ii

etc.— Relative
its

clauses

are

by the verb

(in

all

tenses)
erj

vxrd adjectivally in pronoun. TIim
-day ose.

Tims

He who

has
1 1
,

not
vere
i

a

k

at

to
to

a
(lif
'

different
:

work

katti

illath'avan

veilikki

ponuthu

he-without-a-knife).

1

Those who

vi

no
tree''

>

1

i

!

,

aitham

illath'a]

koluntu cdukka poattnm. Where ia b< who pruned this
:'C?

intha

maram

veftn'avan

V

170

COOLY TAMIL.
now is Suppaia ippo is coming along the road rotodu varuth'avan Suppaia tan. Who is that who is going to the bungalow? Bangalaukku poruth'avan ar? She who weeds this contract intha kontrapu pillu vettruth 'aval. He who stole those things is a thief (caste cooly) anths saman kalavu edutt'avan kalian (sathi al). Call him who is standing there ange nikruth'avan kupidu. (It is) he who called me yene kiipituthu avan.

He who

9.

PASSIVE VOICE,
by using the verb

or,

To cause

to

be.—This

is

translated

PAD A,

to suffer, in all its tenses after

a verb in the Infinitive, but it cannot always be employed for the translation of the English Passive (F. Footnote).

Thus

:

He
I

ha a

caused

made

told by me avanukku nan to be known to him) him do it (I caused him to do it)

been
it

teria paten

(J

— atho

avanukku

— Palaniai being blamed Palaniai yesa padruthu. — She being beaten aval adikka padruthu. —pulle paiam padruthu. This child (being) afraid He must be told— avanukku solla pad'onum. Don't be afraid—paiam padathe, paiam pada kudathe. To be done — seia pada. — avan adikka paduvan. He will be beaten He will have been beaten— avan adikka patt'irupan. I was called — kiipida patten. Mnst be called — kiipida pad'onum.
is

Beia paten.
is

is

or,

10.

ON ACCOUNT
-TXALE. On account

OF, Thus
:

BY.— This
he ran

is

translated

by

suffix

of that

woman

away— antha

pumbalinfile
a

avan odi ponan.

On
in

account of the amount of rice issued there was the laiatile lines kanakinale pathintt'arisi

row

sande

irimtuthu.
lot of weeds in her contract, on account of that I put coolies on aval kontrapile micham pillu iruntuthu athinale (nan) a] potten. Because of the manure the weeds grow very fast iiratinale pillu micham vchama valaruthu. On acount of the dirt the. coolies get ill ilteinale algal sogam

There were a

poruthu. Take that up by hand athe kaiinale edu. the earth by (using) a mamoti mamatinale mannw Dig vettn Go by the road rotodu po (not 'rotinale' as the meaning is to go in 'company with' the road as it were). A4.

ilia

me

.

11.

BECAUSE OF
translated

(pertaining

to

an

^» (see No. 5). Because of what you are doing I stop your
padikki un ariai nipatren.

by 'PADTEKI'

aft. r

This can be action). any tense of the verb,
rice

—Ni

seiruthu

POSTSOEIPT.

171

I allowed him to go to the Coast because of what the kangiini said kangani sonuthu padikki avane urukku poa vuduten.

I fined you because of what you did ni seithuthu padikki une thendam potten. 'Padial' can also be used in the above sentence; also with

negative

:

Because you do not do
12.

it

— athe
:

ni seiathe padial.

When
noun
If
(it

Tamil, 'IF'
is)

auxiliary 'IRUNTiL,'— 'if is,' is omitted in is often translated by '5.NAL' placed after a or adverb. Thus the
so

the estate appadi anal ye totatile nikran? If the row was like that I will fine the kangani sande appadi anal kangani thendam poduven.

why

does he remain on

If

(it

is)

all

right

you

may

do

it

— athu

nallathu anal ni

seiattum.
is the Head Kangani you cannot do anything peria kangani anal ni unnum sei'elathe. Anal can also be added to the future tense. (See L3) If you will take— ni eduputh'anal.

If he

— avan

If
13.

he will go

— avan
late

povuthu anal.
translate

BECOME, GET.— To
Thus
It
:

these use the
or

verb 'aha.'
ahi

is getting ruthu.

—neram
l

Suthu

(CI.)

nerara

po-

'Shi' is pronounced as

di'

when used

before another word,

but like

He
ai

achV otherwise. (F3). has become a grown (big) man now
vantuthu.
fruit will soon

l

—ippo

avan

peri'al

The

become

ripe

kai surrukka pallat'authu,
veileikki

or, pallat ai porathn.

He

is

getting used to the

new work — puthu

avanai

ukku palakam ai poruthu. "He has got used to the work
poichi (ahi poi achii.
It

— veileikki
:

avan palakam

— second — third, Second (under) boy — rend'authu The assistant clerk — rend'authu
Renil'authu Mun 'authu
.

has got very late— niicham neram ai poichi. Another use of 'authu' is with numeral';
etc.

podian.
klark.

The

assistant

agent— rend'authu
:

egent.

Etc.

Used as adverbs
Thirdly Fourthly

— mun 'authu. — nal'authu.

Etc.

Whichever— eth 'authu. However — rppadiauthu.

Etc.

172
14.

COOLY TAMIL.
REPETITION often denotes continuity, thus:— Pull on the rope all the time as you come along
vara kavuru puditt'illu. He will gradually go on getting more athium sogam illame povuthu.
ill

— Ki

vara

—Avan

vara vara

You must keep on
P2.

pulling

it

— Athe ni illutV illuttu pod'onum.

Every week 1 go on giving a little Kilame hilame nan konjam konjam kudukren. Go on putting (it in) little by little Konjam konjam pottu
pottu va.
It is

— —

no good continually talking about it Athe pati oiame mudiathe (lit about it unceasingly having spoken won't finish). He continually talks about nothing and does no work Avan
pesi pesi
:

siima pesi pesi veile seiruth'ille. Repetition also denotes each, every, etc: Full pay each month Masan mdsam mulu sampalam.

Kanganies

must walk about to every nerreikki nerreikki aleinttu po'onum.

row.

—Kanganimar

173

APPENDIX.
A.

The

plural of nouns and pronouns

is

formed by adding

-gal

Al — person algal— people. Podian — boy podiangal — boys. Nan— I nangal — we. Ni— you (vulg. form) ningal — you (plural). Ni—you (vulg. form); ningal— you (plural), also 'you' (singular). Une— you (obj.); ungale— you (plur.), also polite also polite for 'he.' Avar — sing,
;
;

to the singular.

Thus

:

;

;

polite
for

for

'you'

(obj.)

fehey,

is

B.

The

The full form of spelling of the verb is as follows. terminations—en, ai, an, al, athu, om, irkal, arkal, ar are the same for all tenses and verbs.
Present tense of Irukka, to be.
I

am
are
is

Nan
Ni

irukiren

You

irukirai

He
She

Avan

irukiran

is

Aval irukirai

It is

We
You
'I'l

are are
arc
\

Athu irukirathu Nangal irukirom
^Ningal irukirirkal * Avangal irukirarkal Avar irukirar (also polite f for 'he
all

i'->

J Ik

an

is')

Note.- -L have heard

exception of
verbs.
t

used by coolies (with the niugal irukirirkal') and also in other teuses and
these

*

In use by coolies speaking of a superior. Used by coolies and often pronounced irukiraha.
suffixes applied to words by coolies expresspolite or honorific form of speech to a superior. Some of these are as follows and should be carefully noted as they are rather misleading to the

C

There arc several
ing
a

— -anga, -ingala? — am 'anga. Yes, — 'anga. No, — ami, irukruth'anga. Yes, there
Sir
-ile,

beginner.

sir

sir

ill

is,

sir

Do

it

like this,

sir—ippadi Bei'anga.

No, sir— ille'ile.

May May

I put this here?— Nan ithe inge podat 'ingala ? I go? nan poat ingala?

Master dorei 'ile. Don't cut that, (sir)

— athe

vettath'anga.

174

APPENDIX.
There are also some
:

D.

suffixes coolies use amongst themselves denoting familiarity or equality which should be avoided Such as -da, -di; -augada (anga— da) -ra, -ri, etc. Poda, poangada, for po— go. Vada, for va— come. Vadi come thou (feminine). Pori go thou (feminine).
;

— —

Edura, for edu take. Odura, for odu run. Vangada, for va come. Yenda?, for ye? why. Ennada, for enna? what? Compare Odia, an admissible contraction for 'odi va (having run come, i.e., come running). Edutta, for eduttu V&, or, eduttu ta having taken come, having taken give (tara,
:

— — — — —

to give).

Etc.

Jl

INDEX.

Familiar Speech

INDEX.
Nobody
Noons, Inflexion
,, ,,

HI

of

...

used

as

Adjectives

L2. Al. B2.

Plural of

Al
E.

;

Appdx

:

A.

Now
Numbers
,,

M.
Ordinal

Ml.
Al(c).
...

Objective Case Object, Position of

Of
Old
account of '•oanm' Ordinal numbers Other

A3 (Note A4. B.
Ps.10.

1).

On

HI (Note).
Ml.
J3.

Own

Ought

K.
S.

Passive Past Definite Past Participle
,,
,,

Ps.9; F3. P.

D;
Dl. D2.

Ps.6.

with Imperative

Past Tense Past Tense, Impersonal

pa
Examp M.
:

Paying Coolies
Planting Plucking
Pluperfect Plural
'poda'
-por.ii
1

Sentences Page 61. Sentences Page 50. F2.

Al; Tl; Appdx.
P2.

A.

Polite Speech

Possessive
Postscript

Present Tense Present Participle
Prepositions

...

L3(Note 1). Appendix B and C. A4(Nore 3). Page 168. CI; Ps.l(b); Appdx. B. Dl(Note 2).
A4.

Pronouns Omission ,,
Pronounciation

of

...

A2; 02. A2(Note

1).

Pruning
Put, to
Questions Quotation
KecruitinK Relative Clauses Rico (Issuing)

A. Sentences Page 57. P2.

CI (Note
Ps.7.

1).

Sentences Page 66.
Pb.8.

Examples

to

Ml.

Rubber

Same
Self

Sentences Page 64. R.
S.

Sentences

Pages 47-70.

IV

INDEX.

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