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SITY OF CAPE

C

TOW

WN

DEPART

TMENT OF

F MECHAN

NICAL ENG

GINEERIN

NG

M

MEC3033F

F THERM

MOFLUIDS

S II

FLU

UID MECHANICS

Wo

orked exam

mples

Chapte

er 1

Q1.

The sschematic shows a piston w

with a

diametter

of

length

D 124.7

75 mm,

m

L 75 mm and mass

m 2 kg that iss being

pushed

d upwards with a force F at a speed

of v 6 m/s. Th

he internall diameterr of the

cylinde

er is 125 mm

m and the

e pressuress at the

top and bottom surfaces of

o the pistton are

d pb 100 kPa respe

ectively.

pt 101 kPa and

The g

gap betwe

een the piston an

nd the

cylinde

er wall is fiilled with a lubricantt with a

0.29 kg/ms.

viscosity of 0

Calcula

ate the po

ower required to pu

ush the

piston upwards.

Q2.

The sschematic shows a cone w

with

radius R , height H and ha

alf cone an

ngle

a an angu

ular

thatt is being rotated at

velocityy .

T

The

width of the g

gap

betwee

en the con

ne and the

e cavity is y

and the cavity iss filled witth a lubriccant

with visscosity .

Derive an expression for the

t

powerr P

require

ed to rotate

e the cone as a functtion

of the p

parameterss given above.

Chapte

er 2

Q3.

A

thrree-dimenssional flo

ow field

v 2 x 2 x xy y 3 xz z m/s.

i.

is

scribed

des

by

b

the

velocity

vector

he point 22,3,1 .

2 .

ii. Calculate the total ac

cceleration

n of a particle moving

g through tthe point 2,3,1

iii. Calculate the rotation of the flo

ow at the point 2,3,1 .

me flow ratte through a flat surrface definned by the

e points

iv. Calculate the volum

1, 0,0 , 11,1, 0 , 1,1,1 and 1, 00,1 .

Q4.

A thre

ee-dimensional, uns

steady flow

w field is

s describe

ed by thee velocity vector

v 10t x x xy y 5t 2 z m/s.

i.

d of a partticle movin

ng through

h the pointt 10, 2,5 at time

t 5 s.

n of a partiicle moving

g through tthe point 10, 2,5

at time t 5 s.

iii. Calculate the rotation of the flo

ow at the point 10, 2, 5 at time t 5 s.

me flow ratte through a flat surrface definned by the

e points

iv. Calculate the volum

0,1,0 , 11,1, 0 , 1,1,1 and 0, 1,1 at timee t 5 s.

Q5.

The de

ensity distriibution in a three-dim

mensional flow

f

field is

s given by x 2 2 z kg/m3

and the

e gravitatio

onal accele

eration vecctor by g 5.7 y 8 z m/s2.

Calcula

ate the ma

agnitude off the total g

gravitationa

al force ex

xerted on thhe fluid contained

in the b

block defin

ned by the origin and x 4 , y 2 and z 2 .

Q6.

A two-d

dimensiona

al pressure

e field is giiven by p xy 2 Pa.

Calcula

ate the ma

agnitude and

a

directio

on of the gradient of

o the presssure at th

he point

0.5,3.22 .

Q7.

A two-d

dimensiona

al pressure

e field is giiven by p 3 x 2 y 2 4 x 6 y Pa.

Find th

he position x, y whe

ere the pre

essure will be a minim

mum.

Q8.

1108 N/m2 and the density at

The bu

ulk densityy of water is given a

as 6.01

a 20C,

3

ven as 1 1000.4 kg

g/m .

p1 5 MPa is giv

Calcula

ate the den

nsity 2 at 20C, p2 15 MPa.

Chapte

er 3

600

Q9.

The fig

gure showss a cone th

hat can slid

de up and down

d

on a

wire th

hrough its center without any ffriction. A water jett

with dia

ameter D1 30 mm and velociity v1 15 m/s

m that is

s

3

2

open to

o atmosph

here strike

es the cone

e symmetrrically and

withoutt friction fro

om below. The dista

ance betwe

een points

1 and 2 is 4 m. The

T heightt difference

e between 2 and 3 is

negligib

ble.

point 2.

Calculate the mass of

o the cone

e.

4m

Q10.

Flexiblee

couplingg

D1=80

= mm

V2

D2=40 mm

W

Water

V1

Air

Water

W

flow

ws throughh the 90 degree

bend nozz

zle in a horizontal plane.

The

T nozzle

e is fixed too the pipe system

via

v

a flexible rubbber couplling as

shown

s

and

d also to tthe ground

d with a

fixed

f

strut.. The nozzzle has a circular

cross-sectional areaa along its

s length

with

w diame

eters as inddicated. The

T flow

rate throug

gh the nozzzle is 0.01 m3/s.

Calcula

ate what th

he magnitu

ude and d irection will be of the

e resultantt force exe

erted by

the nozzzle on the

e strut.

Q11.

A sma

all toy car on wheels

s weighs m 1.2 kg and is drriven by aair issuing from a

nozzle with a diameter off D 5.0 m

mm. The air is sup

pplied at a constantt gauge

pressure of 10 kP

Pa. The combined

c

ttotal drag and

a friction

n force from

m the wheels and

the su

urrounding air on the

t

car ccan be ca

alculated as

a F 1.22 102 u 2 where

t density

y of the surrrounding air

a and u is the speeed of the ca

ar. The

discharrge coefficcient of the nozzle ma

ay be assu

umed to be

e Cd 0.6 .

Derive an expression

n for the sp

peed of the

e car over time u t .

Determine

e the termin

nal velocityy uT .

4

Q12.

2

3

100

30

100

f

to

the flat top surfaace of a tank at

point 1 but open to atmosp

phere at

points 2 and 3.

The

e pipe

3 diameters

30

aree

D1 25

2 mm,

m and

D2 15

5 mm and D3 15 mm

z

100

the velocity

v

aat the in

nlet is

e dimensio

ons are

v1 1.5 m/s. The

y

x

1

all prov

vided in mm

m. The weight of

the pipe

p

matterial ma

ay be

neglected but thhe weight of the

m

be takken into ac

ccount.

water must

es and dete

ermine the

e magnitud

de and direction of aall the forc

ces and

momen

nts exerted

d on the su

urface of th

he tank where the pip

pe is fixed tto it.

Q13.

The flo

ow rate off water through the

e sprinkler shown ab

bove is 0 .0012 m3/s

s.

diametters of the two outlet nozzles arre 7 mm ea

ach.

Derive an

a

equatio

on for tthe

required resisting

r

torque, as a

function of

o , to maintain a

given consstant rotational speed

d.

Calculate the magn

nitude of tthe

required resisting torque to

maintain a rotational speed of

180 rpm.

Calculate what the rotation

nal

speed will be, in rpm, if no

resisting to

orque is ap

pplied.

The

D=7m

mm

Q==0.0012m3/s

Q14.

The ba

ackward curved

c

centrifugal fan

n is rotating at 3000 rpm while pumping air at a

rate

r

of v 0.5 m3//s with density

3

30

e angle

is

i 30 as shown aand the absolute

a

velocity

v

at the inleet v1 is radially

v1

r2 =1

147mm

outwards.

o

The widdth of the

e vane

passages

p

is 200 mm

m.

Find

d the inlett vane an

ngle so

that

t

the air will enteer parallel to the

vane.

v

Find

d the pow

wer required to

drive

d

the fa

an if the efffficiency is 60 %.

r1 =63.5mm

Q15.

D

D=50mm

0

1m

Water

3

2.5m

Air

The fig

gure showss a tank that is open to atmosp

phere at po

oint 0. A ppipe with diameter

D 50 mm is ussed to syp

phon wate r from the

e tank. Th

he jet at ppoint 3 is open

o

to

atmosp

phere. Neg

glect all los

sses.

Determine

e the mass

s flow rate of water.

Determine

e the gaug

ge pressure

e at point 2 just inside the pipe..

Q16.

The total hea

ad loss in the pipe system

sho

own is give

en in term

ms of the velocity

2

L

v

hea

ad as hL f K

witth K

D

2g

the sum of

o

the respective

e loss

coe

efficients K , the friction factor

f 0.02 , the pipe diam

meter D 0.25 m

200kPa

K4=0.25

oil

K5=1.0

and

d the to

otal

L 150 m.

P

K1=0.5

=

10m

K2=3

K3=0.25

20m

lengthh

of

the

e

pipe

Dettermine the

e mass floow rate off the oil

with

h density 850 kgg/m3 and viscosity

v

k

if thhe pump supplies

s

a he

ead of hM 45.2 m.

Q17.

The fig

gure show

ws a pipe with inne

er

radius D 100 mm throu

ugh whicch

water w

with a den

nsity of 1000 kg/m3 iis

flowing

g. A pitot-static tub

be with a

an

outer d

diameter of

o 3.2 mm is used tto

determ

mine the mass flow ra

ate throug

gh

the pip

pe. For this the pipe

p

crossssection

nal area is divided into equa

al

increments with width dr as show

wn

and the tip of th

he pitot tu

ube is the

en

ned in turn

n at ri at th

he centre o

of

position

R

ri

dr

each o

of these inccrements fo

or i 1...m .

i

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

10

r[i]

[mm]

0

5

11

16

21

26

32

37

42

47

dP[i]

[Pa]

1125

1108

1090

1070

1046

1018

985

942

880

760

The positio

on of the tip of the

e pitot tubbe could only

o

be

to the nearest 1 mm andd the pressure

measured

m

over the pitot

differential o

p

tube could

c

onlyy be measured to

th

he nearesst 1 Pa. The table

e providess the res

sults of

0.

measureme

m

ents taken with m 10

Determine

D

tthe total mass

m

flow rate

r

througgh the pipe

e based

on the data provided.

Q18.

A pipe with an inn

ner diametter of D1 150 mm is

s fitted with

h a venturi tube with a throat

diametter of D2 75 mm. Air

A with visscosity 1.821 10 5 kg/ms at p1 100 kPa

k

and

enturi tube

e and the pressure difference over the tube is

T1 20 C flows into the ve

measured as p 20 kPa

a.

995 for

eynolds

50mm D1 250m

mm , 0.4 0.75 and 2 10

numbe

er of the approaching

g flow deffined as Re

R D

v1 D1

. Also giiven for th

he air is

K and cv 0.718

kJ/kg

gK.

c p 1.0006 kJ/kgK

0

Determine

e the mass flow rate iif the flow is

i assumed

d be incom

mpressible..

Determine

e the mass

s flow rate if the flow

w is assum

med to be ccompressible and

isothermal.

Determine

e the mass

s flow rate

e if the flow

w is assum

med to be compressible but

not isotherrmal.

Compare the three results byy calculatin

ng the res

spective errrors in the

e mass

flow rates..

8

Chapte

er 4

Q19.

A visco

ous liquid flows dow

wn the ou

utside of a vertical

round b

bar under the influen

nce of gravvity as sho

own. The

radius of the solid bar is a and the outer radius of the

fluid iss b . Th

he outside

e of the liquid is open to

atmosp

phere. Th

he flow can be asssumed to be fully

developed at th

he point of

o interesst and the

e friction

betwee

en the liqu

uid and the

e air can be assumed to be

negligib

ble.

Derive a relation

nship for the velociity profile vz as a

function of the radius r , the

t

fluid d ensity , the fluid

viscosity , gravvitational acceleration

n g and th

he radii a

and b .

Q20.

A viscous

s liquid flow

ws down a ramp with angle

ence of g ravity as shown.

under the influe

The thickn

ness of the

e liquid layyer is H . The

T top

of the liqu

uid layer is

s open to aatmospherre. The

flow can be assume

ed to be ffully develo

oped at

the point of interes

st and the

e friction between

b

d to be

the liquid and the air can bee assumed

negligible.

Derive an expression

n for the sttatic pressure p as a function oof z .

Derive an expression

n for the ve

elocity proffile vx f z, , g , , H , .

n for the m

maximum shear stress max f , g , , H , .

Derive an expression

Derive an expression

n for the vo

olume flow

w rate v f , g , , H , .

Chapte

er 5

Q21.

The fig

gure below

w provides the

t perform

mance currves for a specific

s

waater pump with an

impelle

er diameterr of 160 mm

m.

Make use

e of dimen

nsional an

nalysis to derive the

e relevant non-dime

ensional

PI groups that chara

acterize the

e pump perrformance.

oints on the perform

mance currves to dra

aw up graaphs show

wing the

Use 20 po

relationshiips betwee

en the PI g roups.

Make use of the rela

ationships a

above to determine

d

what

w

the p ressure he

ead and

required power

p

willl be if a geometric

cally simila

ar pump with an impeller

diameter of

o 230 mm

m is used to

o provide a water mass

m

flow rrate of 4.5 l/s at a

rotational speed

s

of 2700

2

rpm.

10

Q22.

H

gned so that if waterr flows ove

er it at a

1 m/s.

of H 10 m,

m the average veloccity of the water

w

overr the wall w

will be v 1.2

depth o

1

You arre asked to

o design a

scale m

model of th

he dam wa

all to study the flow patterns.

50

You kn

now that the gravity g will be an

n importan

nt paramete

er in the sccaling proc

cess.

sional ana

alysis to de

erive the relevant noon-dimensiional PI

groups.

Determine

e what the volume flo

ow rate ov

ver the wall of the sccale model should

be to ensu

ure similarity.

11

Chapte

er 6

Q23.

A pipe

eline consissts of thre

ee differen t

pipes as sho

own with

h interna

al

diametters D1 00.05 m, D2 0.152 m

and D3 0.076 m and tottal lengthss

L1 45.72 m,

L3 544.86 .

L2 27.43 m

and

d

K=0.5

K=0.95

30.48m

The

e surface roughnesss

K=6.3

of all th

hree pipes is 0.04

d

46 mm and

the hea

ad over the turbine is

i given ass

ues of the

e

hM 224.66 m. The valu

1

Valve

K=0.95

Turbine

3

unknow

wn second

dary loss coefficients

c

s

3

3

are givven. (For water

w

and 103 kg/ms.)

10 kg/m a

Take in

nto accoun

nt the frictional losse

es as well as all the

e relevant ssecondary

y losses

om the fluiid via the turbine.

and de

etermine th

he power ex

xtracted fro

Q24.

6

60m

K=0

0.5

Th

he diamete

ers of the pipes connecting

the

e

two reservoirss

shown

n

are

and

D1 0.05 m,

D2 0.12 m

t pipe suurface roughness

D3 0.1 m, the

are

e

K=0

0.5

1 2.5

5 mm,

m

2 1.2 mm

and

a

the ppipe lengtths are

3 2 mm and

and L3 120 m.

L1 60 m, L2 90 m a

2

Take in

nto accoun

nt the frictio

onal lossess as well as the inlet and outlet losses wh

here the

pipes a

are conneccted to the

e reservoirrs and dettermine wh

hat the totaal mass flo

ow rate

will be between the two res

servoirs.

12

Q25.

100m

m

B

70m

C

30m

A

3

1

The

figure

shows

three

rese

ervoirs opeen to atmo

osphere

that are connnected via

a three

pipes with a ccommon junction

point J. The ppipes all have

h

an

interrnal

diameter

of

D 250 mm and a surface

roug

ghness of 0.5 mm

m. The

pipe lengths are L1 80 m,

d L3 110 m.

L2 150 m and

ndary losse

es and dete

ermine the

e magnitud

de and direection of the mass

flow ratte of waterr in each of the three

e pipes.

Q26.

2

A

Pump

The fig

gure show

ws a pipe network w

with D1 0.1

0 m, D2 0.12 m, D3 0.05 m and

D4 0.1 m;

m and

1 0.002 m, 2 0.00112 m, 3 0.0025 m and 44 0.002 m;

d

in the tota

al head

L1 1200 m, L2 90 m, L3 60 m an d L4 80 m. The difference

betwee

en A and D is H A H D 78 m a

and the pump efficien

ncy is 00.58 .

Neglecct all secon

ndary losse

es and dete

ermine wh

hat the inpu

ut power reequirementt will be

of the p

pump to ob

btain a tota

al volume fflow rate from A to D of v 0.033 m3/s.

13

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