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# Aerodynamic Moments (i.e., Torques)!

## Robert Stengel, Aircraft Flight Dynamics, MAE 331, 2014

Learning Objectives!
"
"
"
"

"
"

## Expressions for aerodynamic balance

and moment"
Concepts of aerodynamic center,
center of pressure, and static margin"
Conguration and angle-of-attack
effects on pitching moment and
stability"
Calculate conguration and sideslipangle effects on lateral-directional
(i.e., rolling and yawing) aerodynamic
moments"
Tail design effects on airplane
aerodynamics"

Flight Dynamics !
Aerodynamic Coefcients, 96-118!

http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/MAE331.html!
http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/FlightDynamics.html!

1!

Assignment #3"

## " Estimate and plot the non-dimensional

force and moment aerodynamic
coefcients and control effects for the
Cessna Citation Mustang 510 in the Mach
number range from 0 to 0.65!
" 3- and 4-member teams!

2!

Handbook Approach to
Aerodynamic Estimation!

## " Build estimates from component effects"

http://www.pdas.com/datcomb.html)"

Interference
Effects
Wing
Aerodynamics

Interference
Effects
Fuselage
Aerodynamics

Tail
Aerodynamics

Interference
Effects

3!

Moments of the
Airplane!

4!

Airplane Balance!

## " c.m. near wing's aerodynamic center (point at which wing's

pitching moment coefcient is invariant with angle of attack
~25% mac)"

## " Tailless airplane: c.m. ahead of the neutral point"

Northrop N-9M!

Douglas DC-3!

5!

Airplane Balance!
" Canard conguration: "

## " Neutral point moved forward by canard surfaces"

" Center of mass may be behind the neutral point, requiring
closed-loop stabilization"

## " Fly-by-wire feedback control can expand envelope

of allowable center-of-mass locations"
Grumman X-29!
McDonnell-Douglas X-36!

6!

Moment Produced By
Force on a Particle"

r! : Cross-product-equivalent matrix

r!f =

fx

fy

fz

## = yfz " zfy i + ( zfx " xfz ) j + xfy " yf x k

!
! mx \$ # yfz ' zfy
&
#
m = # my & = # ( zfx ' xfz )
#
# m & #
xfy ' yf x
#" z &%
#"

\$
! 0 'z y \$ ! fx \$
&
&
&#
& = r ( f ! r" f = # z
f
0
'x
&
#
y
#
&
&
#
# 'y x
0 & fz &
&
"
% #"
%&
&%

7!

## Forces and Moments Acting

on Entire Airplane"
Force Vector"

! X
# B
f B = # YB
#
" ZB

\$
&
&
&
%

Moment Vector"

! L
# B
mB = # M B
#
" NB

\$
&
&
&
%
8!

Aerodynamic Force
and Moment Vectors
of the Airplane"
! f \$
! X
x
#
&
# B
# fy & dx dy dz = # YB
fB = '
Surface
#
&
#
f
#" z &%
" ZB
"
\$ ( yfz ! zfy )
\$ zf ! xf
mB = (
( x z)
Surface \$
\$ ( xf ! yf )
y
x
#

\$
&
&
&
%

%
" L
'
\$ B
' dx dy dz =\$ M
B
'
\$
NB
'
#
&

%
'
'
'
&

9!

Pitching Moment
of the Airplane!

10!

## Body-Axis Reference Frames"

" Reference frame origin
is arbitrary; it is a
ducial point!

## " x axis along centerline"

" Tip of nose: All values of
x on airframe are
negative, but nose shape
could change"
" Foreward-most
manufacturing
measurements"
" Center of mass:
Rotational center, but
changes with fuel use,
11!

Pitching Moment!
" Pressure and shear stress differentials times
moment arms integrate over the airplane surface to
produce a net pitching moment"

=!

''

surface

''

surface

12!

Pitching Moment!

## (moment about the y axis)"

" Distributed effects can be aggregated
to local centers of pressure"

i=1

i=1

## M B ! " # Z i ( xi " x cm ) + # Xi ( zi " zcm )

+Interference Effects + Pure Couples

## " Net effect expressed as"

M B = Cm q Sc

13!

Pure Couple"
" Net force = 0" " Net moment # 0"
Rockets!

## " Cross-sectional area, A!

" x positive to the right"
" At small "!

Fuselage!

## " Positive lift slope with dA/dx > 0"

" Negative lift slope with dA/dx < 0"

## " Fuselage typically produces a

destabilizing (positive)
pitching moment!

14!

## Local centers of pressure can be aggregated at a net center

of pressure (or neutral point) along the body x axis"

xcpnet

! x C
cp N
="

wing

+ xcpC N

fuselage

+ xcpC N

C Ntotal

S = reference area!

tail

+ ...#
\$
C N = !CZ
C A = !C X

Body Axes!

Wind Axes!

15!

Static Margin"
" Static margin (SM) reects the distance between the
center of mass (cm) and the net center of pressure (cp)!
" Body axes"
" Normalized by mean aerodynamic chord"
" Does not reect z position of center of pressure!
" Positive SM if cp is behind cm!

Static Margin ! SM =

,%

## " 100 hcm ! hcpnet %

16!

Static Margin"

Static Margin = SM =

), %

## " 100 hcm ! hcpnet %

17!

Pitch-Moment Coefcient
Sensitivity to Angle of Attack"
For small angle of attack and no control deection"

## M B = Cm q Sc ! Cmo + Cm" " q Sc

18!

Pitch-Moment Coefcient
Sensitivity to Angle of Attack"
For small angle of attack and no control deection"

"

## Cm! " #C N! net hcm # hcpnet " #C L! net hcm # hcpnet

\$ xcm # xcpwing '
\$ xcm # xcpht '
# C L! ht &
" #C L! wing &
)(
)
c
c
%
%
(

19!

## Horizontal Tail Lift Sensitivity

to Angle of Attack"

( )

"
\$ C L! ht
#

( )

%
= C L! ht
horizontal '
tail
& ref = S
Vht :
!:

)* .
+
+ Sht . + Vht .
1(
1
0
- 0
ref = Sht ,
)! / elas , S / -, VN 0/

## Airspeed at horizontal tail

Downwash angle due to wing at tail

## "! "# : Sensitivity of downwash to angle of attack

\$elas :
Aeroelastic effect

"
"

Downwash effect on
aft horizontal tail"
Upwash effect on a
canard (i.e., forward)
surface"

20!

## Aerodynamic Center of a Wing"

!Cm
#0
!"
= xcp for a symmetric airfoil
xac = x for which

## \$ xcp for an asymmetric airfoil

NACA 0012!

NACA 2412!
Airfoil Tools!
http://airfoiltools.com!

NACA 4412!

21!

Pitching Moment"

22!

Pitching Moment"

## " Sum of moments is zero in trimmed condition!

M B = Cmo + Cm! ! q Sc

## = 0 in trimmed (equilibrium) flight

" Typically, static margin is positive and #Cm/#"
is negative for static pitch stability"
23!

## Effect of Static Margin on Pitching

Coefcient"
" Zero crossing determines trim angle of
attack, i.e., sum of moments = 0"
" Negative slope required for static stability"
" Slope, #Cm/#!, varies with static margin"

M B = Cmo + Cm! ! q Sc

! Trim = "

C mo

Cm!

24!

## Effect of Elevator Deection on

Pitching Coefcient"
" Control deection shifts curve up and down,
affecting trim angle of attack"

## M B = Cmo + Cm! ! + Cm" E " E q Sc

!Trim = "

1
(Cmo + Cm#E# E )
Cm!
25!

Lateral-Directional Effects
of Sideslip Angle!

26!

## Rolling and Yawing Moments

of the Airplane"
Distributed effects can be aggregated to local
centers of pressure"

Rolling Moment!

i=1

i=1

## LB ! # Z i ( yi " y cm ) " # Yi ( zi " zcm )

+Interference Effects + Pure Couples
Yawing Moment!

i=1

i=1

## N B ! # Yi ( xi " x cm ) " # Xi ( yi " ycm )

+Interference Effects + Pure Couples

27!

## Sideslip Angle Produces Side Force,

Yawing Moment, and Rolling Moment!
!" Sideslip usually a small
angle ( 5 deg)"
!" Side force generally not a
signicant effect"
!" Yawing and rolling
moments are principal
effects"

28!

Y!

"CY
qS # = CY# qS #
"#

( )

## CY! " CY!

Fuselage

( )

+ CY!

Vertical Tail

( )

+ CY!

Wing

S = reference area!

29!

## Side Force due to Sideslip Angle!

( )
CY!

Vertical Tail

(C )
(C )
Y!

Fuselage
Y!

\$ #C '
\$S '
"& Y )
*vt & vt )
% #! ( ref = Svt % S (

2
SBase
, d Base
" +2
; SB =
4
S

Wing

## !vt = Vertical tail efficiency

" AR
k=
1+ 1+ AR 2
# = Wing dihedral angle, rad

30!

## Yawing Moment due to Sideslip Angle!

% \$V 2 (
" Cn % \$V 2 (
N!
'
* Sb # = Cn# '
* Sb #
"# & 2 )
2
&
)
!" Side force contributions times
respective moment arms"
" Non-dimensional stability
derivative"

( )

## Cn! " Cn!

Vertical Tail

( )

+ Cn!

Fuselage

( )

+ Cn!

Wing

( )

+ Cn!

Propeller
31!

S = reference area!

Dihedral effect"

## L ! Cl" qSb "

( )

C l! " C l!

Wing

( )

+ C l!

Wing # Fuselage

( )

+ C l!

Vertical Tail

S = reference area!

## Unequal lift on left and

right wings induces rolling
motion"

32!

## Rolling Moment due to Sideslip Angle!

" Wing vertical location effect:
Crossow produces up- and
down-wash "
" Rolling effect depends on
vertical location of the wing"

33!

## Tail Design Effects!

34!

Tail Design
Effects"

"

Aerodynamics
analogous to those of
the wing"
Longitudinal stability"

"

Directional stability"

"

## " Horizontal stabilizer"

" Short period natural
frequency and damping"
" Vertical stabilizer (n)"
" Ventral ns"
" Strakes"
extensions"
" Multiple surfaces"
" Buttery (V) tail"

"
"

## " Dutch roll natural

frequency and damping"

## Stall or spin prevention/

recovery"
Avoid rudder lock (TBD)!

35!

## Horizontal Tail Location and Size!

!" 15-30% of wing area"
!" ~ wing semi-span behind the c.m."
!" Must trim neutrally stable airplane at maximum lift in ground
effect"
!" Effect on short period mode"
!" Horizontal Tail Volume: Typical value = 0.48"
Grumman XF5F !

VHT =

Sht lht
S c

36!

Deection!

## !" Normal force coefcient variation due to elevator deection"

C L! E !

Sht
"C L
= # ht\$ht C L%
& C N! E
ht
"! E
S
'C N = C N! E ! E

( )

deection"

Cm! E = C N! E

lht
" #\$ ht%ht C L&
c

( )

( )

= #\$ ht%ht C L&

ht

ht

VHT

Sht lht
S c
37!

## Downwash and Elasticity Also

Effect Elevator Sensitivity"
)# !C L & ,
= C L" E
+%\$ !" E (' .
*
ht - ref = S

ref = S

= C L" E

# Vtail & #
!0 &
# Sht &
1/
2
%
(
%\$ ('
elas
ref = Sht %
S
\$ VN (' \$ !1 '

38!

## " Analogous to horizontal tail volume"

" Effect on Dutch roll mode"
" Powerful rudder for spin recovery"

## " Full-length rudder located behind the elevator"

" High horizontal tail so as not to block the ow over the rudder"

Curtiss SB2C!

## North American P-51B!

Otto Koppen!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_C._Koppen!

VVT =

Svt lvt
S b

39!

Elevons!

Rudder!

40!

Deection!

## !" Side force coefcient variation due to rudder deection"

(C )
Y! R

ref =S

# "C &
!% Y (
= * C L)
\$ "! R ' ref =S +

( )

0CY = CY! R! R

S
,
. vt/vt vt
vt - ref =Svt
S

## !" Yawing moment coefcient variation due to rudder deection"

( )
Cn! R

ref =S

( )

= " CY! R

lvt
# " % C L\$
&
ref =S b

( )

( )

= ") vt*vt % C L\$
&

vt

S l
'
) vt*vt vt vt
vt ( ref =Svt
S c

'
V
( ref =Svt VT
41!

Deection!
L ! Cl " qSb " A
L A

## !" For a trapezoidal planform, subsonic ow"

(C )
l! A

k"

( )

3D

2
C La
" C L! %
*
1) k 3
3D 1) k
!\$
)
(1) ( )/
'
,
3
# C La & 2 D 1+ ( + 3
.

y
, y = Inner edge of aileron, ( = Taper ratio
b2

Ayres Thrush
Crop Duster"

42!

Next Time:!
Aircraft Performance!
Flight Dynamics !
Aerodynamic Coefcients, 118-130!
Airplane Stability and Control!
Chapter 6!

43!

Supplemental Material!

44!

## Planform Effect on Center of Pressure

Variation with Mach Number"
" Straight Wing"

## " Subsonic center of

pressure (c.p.) at ~1/4
mean aerodynamic
chord (m.a.c.)"
" Transonic-supersonic
c.p. at ~1/2 m.a.c."

## " Delta Wing"

" Subsonic-supersonic
c.p. at ~2/3 m.a.c."

45!

## Subsonic Pitching Coefcient

vs. Angle of Attack (0 < ! < 90)"

46!

Pitch Up
 and Deep Stall"
" Possibility of 2 stable equilibrium
(trim) points with same control setting"
" Low !"
" High !!

" Low lift"
" High drag"

## " Large control moment required to

regain low-angle trim"
TU-154 Pitch Up Accident!
BAC 1-11 Deep Stall Flight Testing Accident!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BAC_One-Eleven!

47!

## Pitch Up and Deep Stall, Cm vs. !

"

"

"

Possibility of 2
stable equilibrium
(trim) points with
same control
setting"
" Low ""
" High "!

High-angle trim is
called deep stall"
" Low lift"
" High drag"

Large control
moment required to
regain low-angle
trim"
48!

## Sweep Effect on Pitch Moment

Coefcient, CL vs. Cm!

## " Low " center of pressure

(c.p.) in front of the quarter
chord"
" Stable break at stall (c.p.
moves aft)"

Stall!
Stall!

CL(")!

Stable!
Break!

Unstable!
Break!

## " Low " c.p. aft of the quarterchord"

" Stable break at stall (c.p.
moves aft)"

## " Low " c.p. aft of the quarterchord"

" Unstable break at stall (c.p.
moves forward)"
" Outboard wing stalls before
tip stall
)"
inboard wing (

"
"

NACA TR-1339!

Cm(")!

49!

Cross-plot"

## Crossplot CL vs. Cm to obtain plots such as those shown on previous slide"

Positive break in Cm is due to forward movement of net center of pressure,
decreasing static margin"

## North American F-100!

50!

Shortal-Maggin
Longitudinal
Stability Boundary
for Swept Wings"
AR!
" Stable or unstable pitch
break at the stall"
" Stability boundary is
expressed as a function of"

## " Aspect ratio"

" Sweep angle of the
quarter chord"
" Taper ratio"

#c/4!

NACA TR-1339"

51!

## Horizontal Tail Location"

" Horizontal tail and elevator in wing
wake at selected angles of attack"
" Effectiveness of high-mounted elevator
is unaffected by wing wake at low to
moderate angle of attack"
" Effectiveness of low tail is unaffected by
wing wake at high angle of attack"

52!

## Effects of Wing Aspect Ratio and

Sweep Angle"
Lift slope"
Pitching moment slope"
Lift-to-drag ratio"
All contribute to"

"
"
"
"

## " Phugoid damping"

" Short period natural frequency and
damping"
" Roll damping"

53!

## Effects of Wing Aspect Ratio"

Neglecting air compressibility"
Angles of attack below stall"

"
"
Lift slope"

"

C L!wing =

## \$ Static Margin (%) '

Cm! " #C L!total &
)(
%
100

2
)
# AR & ,
.
+1 + 1 + %
\$ 2 (' .
+*
-

"

Lift-to-drag ratio"

C Ltotal
D = C + !C 2
Do
L

"

total

l p

wing

! ( "Cl )wing
! p

=#

(C

Lo

+ C L" "

total

#\$C Do + ! C %&
total
2
L

Roll damping"

(C )

## Pitching moment slope"

"

" AR

C L\$wing & 1 + 3% )
(
+
12 ' 1 + % *

(C )
l p

Wing

=!

" AR
32

54!

## Tail Moment Sensitivity to

Angle of Attack"

( )

Cm! ht = " C L! ht

# Vht & #
)* &
# Sht & # lht &
1"
+
%
( elas %\$ (' %\$ ('
ht %
S
c
\$ VN (' \$ )! '

( )

= " C L! ht

VHT =

# Vht & #
)* &
1"
%
(' +elasVHT
(
\$
ht %
)!
\$ VN '

Sht lht
= Horizontal Tail Volume Ratio
Sc
55!

## Yawing Moment due to Sideslip Angle!

Vertical tail contribution"

(C )
n!

Vertical Tail

Svt lvt
! #CY!vt \$vtVVT
Sb

## lvt ! Vertical tail length (+)

= distance from center of mass to tail center of pressure
= xcm ! xcpvt [x is positive forward; both are negative numbers]
!vt = !elas

VVT =

1+ "#

% Vvt2 (
"\$ '& V 2 *)
N

Svt lvt
= Vertical Tail Volume Ratio
Sb

56!

## Yawing Moment due to Sideslip Angle!

Fuselage contribution"

(C )
n!

Fuselage

"2K VolumeFuselage
Sb
1.3

"
%
K = \$1! dmax
'
Length
#
fuselage &

(C )
n!

Wing

57!

## " Increase directional stability"

" Counter roll due to sideslip of the dorsal n
""
LTV F8U-3!

Learjet 60!

## North American X-15!

Beechcraft 1900D!

58!

V (Buttery) Tails"
"
"
"

## Analogous to conventional tail at low

angles of attack and sideslip"
Control surface deection"

Beechcraft Bonanza!

## " Sum: Pitch control"

" Difference: Yaw control "

## Nonlinear effects at high angle of

attack are quite different from
conventional tail"

Fouga Magister!

59!

## Twin and Triple Vertical Tails!

" Increased tail area with no increase in vertical height"
" End-plate effect for horizontal tail improves effectiveness"
" Proximity to propeller slipstream

"

Consolidated B-24!

Lockheed C-69!

## North American B-25!

Fairchild-Republic A-10!

60!

Propeller Effects!
"

"
"
"
"
"

## Slipstream over wing, tail, and fuselage"

" Increased dynamic pressure"
" Swirl of ow"
" Downwash and sidewash at the tail"

## DH-2 unstable with engine out"

Single- and multi-engine effects"
Design factors: n offset (correct at one
airspeed only), c.m. offset"
Propeller n effect: Visualize lateral/
horizontal projections of the propeller
as forward surfaces"
Counter-rotating propellers minimize
torque and swirl"

DeHavilland DH-2!
DeHavilland DHC-6!

Westland Wyvern!

61!

"
"
"
"

## Normal force at intake (analogous to propeller n effect) (F-86)"

Deection of airow past tail due to entrainment in exhaust (F/A-18)"
Pitch and yaw damping due to internal exhaust ow"
Angular momentum of rotating machinery"
North American F-86!

62!

Loss of Engine"
"
"
"

## Loss of engine produces large yawing

(and sometimes rolling) moment(s),
requiring major application of controls "
Engine-out training can be as
hazardous, especially during takeoff, for
both propeller and jet aircraft"
Acute problem for general-aviation
aircraft"
Learjet 60!

Beechcraft Baron!

63!

"
"
"
"

Congurational
Solutions to the
Engine-Out Problem"
Engines on the centerline (Cessna
337 Skymaster)"
More engines (B-36)"
Cross-shafting of engines (V-22)"
Large vertical tail (Boeing 737)"

Cessna 337!

Convair B-36!

## NASA TCV (Boeing 737)!

Boeing/Bell V-22!

64!

65!

Some Videos"
XF-92A, 1948"