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The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are
sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the
State to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the State. These sections comprise a
constitutional bill of rights for government policy-making and the behaviour and conduct
of citizens. These sections are considered vital elements of the constitution, which was
developed between 1947 and 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India.
The Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles had their origins in the Indian
independence movement, which strove to achieve the values of liberty and social welfare
as the goals of an independent Indian state. The development of constitutional rights in
India was inspired by historical documents such as England's Bill of Rights, the United
States Bill of Rights and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man. The demand for civil
liberties formed an important part of the Indian independence movement, with one of the
objectives of the Indian National Congress (INC) being to end discrimination between the
British rulers and their Indian subjects. This demand was explicitly mentioned in
resolutions adopted by the INC between 1917 and 1919. The demands articulated in these
resolutions included granting to Indians the rights to equality before law, free speech, trial
by juries composed at least half of Indian members, political power, and equal terms for
bearing arms as British citizens.
The Fundamental Rights, embodied in Part III of the Constitution, guarantee civil rights
to all Indians, and prevent the State from encroaching on individual liberty while
simultaneously placing upon it an obligation to protect the citizens' rights from
encroachment by society. Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the
Constitution right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to
freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to
constitutional remedies. However, the right to property was removed from Part III of the
Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.

Why was it introductedThe purpose of the Fundamental Rights is to preserve individual

liberty and democratic principles based on equality of all members of society. Dr
Ambedkar said that the responsibility of the legislature is not just to provide fundamental
rights but also and rather more importantly, to safeguard them.
Government Policies
To provide better living conditions for the people, the Constitution has provided some
rights for every citizen. These rights of the people cannot be ignored and thus are known
as the Fundamental Rights. Some of them are:
1. All the people are equal before the law.
2. All the people are free to express their views.
3. All people have the right to assemble and form lawful associations or unions.
4. All people have the right to travel in any part of India.
5. They can follow any profession or occupation of their choice.
6. They can follow, preach or practice the religion of their choice.
7. No one has the right to exploit others. Children cannot be employed as laborers.
8. Right to education for children from ages 6 to 16 years.
The courts in our country protect these Fundamental Rights of the Indian people.

The Right to Information Act (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India "to provide for
setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens" and replaces the
erstwhile Freedom of information Act, 2002. The Act applies to all States and Union
Territories of India except Jammu & Kashmir. Under the provisions of the Act, any
citizen may request information from a "public authority" (a body of Government or
"instrumentality of State") which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days.
The Act also requires every public authority to computerise their records for wide
dissemination and to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens

need minimum recourse to request for information formally. This law was passed by
Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 12 October 2005.
The establishment of a national-level law for freedom of information proved to be a
difficult task. The Central Government appointed a working group under H. D. Shourie
and assigned it the task of drafting legislation. The Shourie draft, was the basis for the
Freedom of Information Bill, 2000 which eventually became law under the Freedom of
Information Act, 2002. This Act was severely criticised for permitting too many
exemptions, not only under the standard grounds of national security and sovereignty, but
also for requests that would involve "disproportionate diversion of the resources of a
public authority". There was no upper limit on the charges that could be levied. There
were no penalties. The Act was passed by Parliament, but was never notified, so it did not
attain legal force.
Importance / Government Policies
The Importance of RTI
At the price of Rs.10, it provides the facility for Citizens to get information on the
Government's actions and decisions. If you send your application by registered post or
courier, the extra cost will be about 10 to 25 Rupees. The cost of getting the information
of about five pages would be Rs. 10/. Even if you add the postage cost of getting the
information the total will be about 70 rupees.
The law mandates that the information has to be given within 30 days.
If a few thousand Citizens spend about Rs. 70 per month and about an hour in their own
house they can file a new RTI application and get information about matters, which
concern them.The power of getting accountability, reducing corruption, impacting policy
decisions and ensuring better governance is now with us. We missed our opportunity in
1950, but have another chance now.YOU individually can make a big contribution to
getting the Nation we want.A small effort from our own house, can bring Swaraj.

Why it was introduced

The National Campaign for Peoples Right to Information (NCPRI) was founded in 1996.
Its founding members included social activists, journalists, lawyers, professionals, retired
civil servants and academics. One of its primary objectives was to campaign for a
national law facilitating the exercise of the fundamental right to information.
When it was introduced
Right to Information Bill, introduced in Parliament on 22 December 2004.
Government Policies
Bringing Information to the Citizens
Right to Information Act 2005 mandates timely response to citizen requests for
government information. It is an initiative taken by Department of Personnel and
Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions to provide a RTI Portal
Gateway to the citizens for quick search of information on the details of first Appellate
Authorities,PIOs etc. amongst others, besides access to RTI related information /
disclosures published on the web by various Public Authorities under the government of
India as well as the State Governments

Consumer Rights
The definition of Consumer right is 'the right to have information about the quality,
potency, quantity, purity, price and standard of goods or services, as it may be the case,
but the consumer is to be protected against any unfair practices of trade. It is very
essential for the consumers to know these rights.
In India, the consumer movement as a social force originated with the necessity of
protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade
practices. Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing, adulteration of food and

edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organized form in the 1960s. Till
the 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding
exhibitions. They formed consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops
and overcrowding in the road passenger transport. More recently, India witnessed an
upsurge in the number of consumer groups.
The right to be protected from all kind of hazardous goods and services
The right to be fully informed about the performance and quality of all goods and
The right to free choice of goods and services
The right to be heard in all decision-making processes related to consumer interests
The right to seek redressal, whenever consumer rights have been infringed
The right to complete consumer education
Why it was introduced
The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair
practices were being indulged in by the sellers. There was no legal system available to
consumers to protect them from exploitation in the marketplace. For a long time, when a
consumer was not happy with a particular brand product or shop, he or she generally
avoided buying that brand product, or would stop purchasing from that shop. It was
presumed that it was the responsibility of consumers to be careful while buying a
commodity or service. It took many years for organisations in India, and around the
world, to create awareness amongst people. Because of all these efforts, the movement
succeeded in bringing pressure on business firms as well as government to correct
business conduct which may be unfair and against the interests of consumers at large.
When it was introduced
A major step taken in 1986 by the Indian government was the enactment of the Consumer
Protection Act 1986.
Govt Policies
1. Right to Safety:

2. Right to Information:
3. Right to Choice:
4. Right to be Heard or Right to Representation:
5. Right to Seek Redressal:
6. Right to Consumer Education:
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act
(RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes
the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6
and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of 135
countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into
force on 1 April 2010.
Present Act has its history in the drafting of the Indian constitution at the time of
Independence but is more specifically to the Constitutional Amendment of 2002 that
included the Article 21A in the Indian constitution making Education a fundamental
Right. This amendment, however, specified the need for a legislation to describe the
mode of implementation of the same which necessitated the drafting of a separate
Education Bill.It is the 86th amendment in the Indian Constitution
Every child between the age of six to fourteen years, shall have the right to free and
compulsory education in a neighbourhood school, till completion of elementary
For this purpose, no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses
which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
Where a child above six years of age has not been admitted to any school or though
admitted, could not complete his or her elementary education, then, he or she shall be
admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age.

For carrying out the provisions of this Act, the appropriate government and local
authority shall establish a school, if it is not established, within the given area, within a
period of three years, from the commencement of this Act.
The Central and the State Governments shall have concurrent responsibility for providing
funds for carrying out the provisions of this Act.
Why it was introduced
A rough draft of the bill was composed in year 2005. It received much opposition due to
its mandatory provision to provide 25% reservation for disadvantaged children in private
schools. The sub-committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education which prepared
the draft Bill held this provision as a significant prerequisite for creating a democratic and
egalitarian society. Indian Law commission had initially proposed 50% reservation for
disadvantaged students in private schools.
On 7 May 2014, The Supreme Court of India ruled that Right to Education Act is not
applicable to Minority institutions.
Govt Policies
The right to education act is separated into three levels:
Primary (Elemental or Fundamental) Education: This shall be compulsory and free for
any child regardless of their nationality, gender, place of birth, or any other
discrimination. Upon ratifying the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights, states must provide free primary education within two years.
Secondary (or Elementary, Technical and Professional in the UDHR) Education must
be generally available and accessible.
Higher Education (at the University Level) should be provided according to capacity.
That is, anyone who meets the necessary education standards should be able to go to