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EXAMPLE 1

DESIGN OF CANTILEVERED WALL, GRANULAR SOIL


Introduction:
A sheet pile wall is required to support a 12 excavation. The soil is uniform as shown in the
figure. To take into account the friction between the wall and the soil, we use friction angle =
/2. Please note this value is applied only for passive pressure. Use factor of safety = 1.5 for
passive pressure.
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 12, P1 = Ka(12) = (0.27)(125)(12) = 0.405 Ksf
Active pressure below cut:
Below the cut, use pressure slope input.
The pressure slope Pa = Ka = (0.027)(125) = 0.034 Kcf
Passive pressure below cut:
Soil friction = 35, wall friction = /2, Kp = 6.74 (NAVFAC or Epres program)
The pressure slope Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(125)/1.50 = 0.56 Kcf
Running Program:
A short result for input and output is presented.
NOTE: 1 spacing for the sheet pile
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 9.3 and the pile length is 21.3. The
maximum moment in the pile is 17 Kip-ft /ft. The maximum moment is at 15.9 from the ground
surface.

EXAMPLE 1
= 125 pcf
= 35o
= /2 (only for passive)

H = 12

Dredge Line

P1 = 0.405 ksf
0.034 kcf

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0.56 kcf
1

SHORING EXAMPLES 1

EXAMPLE 2
Alternative Input for Example 1
Introduction:
The conditions are the same as example 1. In example 2, we use an alternative input to check
the versatility of the program. Instead of inputting both active and passive pressures below the
cut, we input the net passive pressure below the cut. The net passive pressure is equal to PpPa.
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
Same as Example 1.
Net pressure below cut:
Active pressure slope is
Pa = Ka = (0.27)(125) = 0.034 Kcf
Passive pressure slope is
Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(125) /1.5 = 0.56 Kcf
Net passive pressure slope is
Pn = Pp - Pa = 0.56 - 0.034 = 0.526 Kcf
The point of zero pressure is
e = P1/Pn = 0.405/0.526 = 0.77
Running Program:
Input two active pressures in driving pressure input:
One is from x = 0 to x = 12. Another is from x = 12 to x = 12 + 0.77
There is no active pressure input below dredge line.
The passive pressure starts Y = 0.77, with a net slope = 0.526 Kcf
Results:
The same as example 1.
Alternative:
Another alternative input is also presented in attached file, example 2A. In this input, the net
passive pressure slope, 0.526 Kcf is directly inputted from Y = 0 with starting pressure of -0.405
Ksf. In this way, the calculation of zero pressure point, e, can be omitted.

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SHORING EXAMPLES 2

EXAMPLE 2
= 125 pcf
= 35o
= /2 (only for passive)

H = 12

P1 = 0.405 ksf
e
Y = 0.77
0.526 kcf
1

SURCHARGE, Ps = 0.24

EXAMPLE 3

0.041
10

1
H = 12

SOIL 1
1 = 125 pcf
1 = 30o
= /2

P1 = 0.495
0.4

P4 = 1.2

15

0.58
1

CivilTech Software

P5 = 1.752

P2 = 0.618
P3 = 0.526
0.035
1

SHORING EXAMPLES 3

SOIL 2
2 = 130 pcf
2 = 35o
= /2

EXAMPLE 3
DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH TWO SOIL AND SURCHARGE
LOAD
Introduction:
A sheet pile wall is required to support 12 excavation. F.S. = 1.5 is required for passive
pressure. Soil conditions are shown in the figure. The surcharge load will be in a separate
diagram.
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
<soil 1> 1=30, Ka =0.33, P1 = Ka(12) = (0.33)(125)(12) = 0.495 Ksf
Active pressure below cut:
<soil 1> pressure slope, Pa = Ka = (0.33)(125) = 0.041 Kcf
P2 = Ka(15) = (0.33)(125)(15) = 0.618 Ksf
<soil 2> 2= 35, Ka = 0.27, pressure slope Pa = Ka = (0.27)(130) = 0.035 Kcf
P3 = Ka (15) = (0.27)(130)(15) = 0.526 Ksf
Passive pressure below cut:
<soil 1> 1 = 30, = 1/2, Kp = 4.8 (NAVFAC or Epres program)
pressure slope, Pp = Kp/F.S. = (4.8)(125) /1.5 = 0.4 Kcf
P4 = Pp(3) = 0.4(3) = 1.2 Ksf
<soil 2> 2 = 35, = 2/2, Kp = 6.74 (NAVFAC or Epres program)
pressure slope, Pp = Kp/F.S.= (6.74)(130) /1.5 = (6.74)(130) /1.5 = 0.584 Kcf
P5 = Pp(3) = 0.584(3) = 1.752 Ksf
Running Program:
Use 1 spacing for the sheet pile and 0.24 Ksf for surcharge load.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 13.3 and the pile length is 25. The
maximum moment in the pile is 53.3 K-ft/ft at 17.7 from the ground surface.

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SHORING EXAMPLES 4

EXAMPLE 4
DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH COHESIVE SOIL AND
SURCHARGE LOAD
Introduction :
In this example, the surcharge load is merged with the active pressure. It also can be separated
as example 3. Soil 2 below cut line is a cohesive material with cohesion = 500 pcf (F.S.
included).
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
<soil 1> 1=30, Ka = 0.33, @ 0, P1 = Ka q = (0.33)(300) = 0.1 Ksf.
P2 = Ka (q + H) = 0.33 (300 + 122.5 x 12) = 0.485 Ksf
Passive pressure below cut:
<soil 2> 2 = 0, Ka = 0, @ 12, P3 = 4c - v = 4(500) - (q + 1H) = 2000 - [300 + 122.5(12)] = 0.23
Ksf

Running Program:
For passive pressure input, use Top Pres.= 0.23 and Pres. Slope = 0
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 41.58 and the pile length is 53.58. The
maximum moment in the pile is 43.2 Kip-ft/ft at 27.3 from the ground surface.
q = 300psf

EXAMPLE 4
P1 = 0.1

H = 12

P2 = 0.485

SOIL 1 (LOOSE SAND)


1 = 122.5 pcf
1 = 30o
=0
Cu = 0

P3 = 0.23

SOIL 2 (MED. CLAY)


2 = 110 pcf
2 = 0
Cu = 500 psf

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SHORING EXAMPLES 5

EXAMPLE 5
DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH DIFFERENTIAL WATER LEVELS
Introduction:
The water level is higher outside of the excavation base. Seepage is allowed to flow through the
bottom of the pile. The water pressures of both sides are equal, therefore, the net pressure is
zero at the bottom of the pile.
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 5, P1 = Ka(5) = (0.27)(125)(5) = 0.17 Ksf
@ 12, P2 = (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(12 - 5) + P1 = 0.287 Ksf
Active pressure below cut:
Pa = Ka = (0.27)(125 - 62.4) = 0.017 Ksf
Passive pressure below cut:
= 35, Kp = 6.74, @ = /2, P1 =0
Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(62.6) /1.5 = 0.281 Ksf
Running Program:
Due to seepage, the net water pressure = 0 at the embedment bottom. Because the
embedment depth is unknown, the value can be set 999 to let the program find embedment.
(See Chapter 5).
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 16.8 and the pile length is 28.8. The
maximum moment in the pile is 38.9 Kip-ft/ft at 20 from the ground surface.

EXAMPLE 5

H = 12
Water @ 5
Seepage @ bottom
F. S. = 1.5

1 = 125 pcf
1 = 35o
= /2 (Only for passive)
P1 = 0.17

Pw = 0.43
H = 12
12

P2 = 0.287

0.281
1

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0.017
1

SHORING EXAMPLES 6

The depth is unknown,


input 999 in program

EXAMPLE 6
DESIGN OF ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL WITH THE SAME WATER
LEVEL
Introduction:
This example has a 36 deep excavation to which tieback anchors are applied. The water levels
are the same inside and outside of the excavation. Two layers of soil are presented in the
example.
Question:
What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
<soil 1> 1= 34, Ka = 0.28, @ 10, P1 = Ka (10) = 0.308 Ksf
@ 36, P2 = P1 + Ka(36-10) = P1 + (0.28)(60)(26) = 0.745 Ksf
Active pressure below cut:
<soil 2> 2 = 34.5, Ka = 0.26, @ 36, P3 = Ka[(10) + (26)] = 1.26 [110(10) + 60(26)]
= 0.692 Ksf
Passive pressure below cut:
2= 34.5, Kp = 6.63, Pp = Kp
Pn = Pp - Pa = (6.63 - 0.26)(65) = 0.414 Ksf
Running Program:
Try input anchor level at 9 from the ground surface.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 7.5 and the pile length is 43.5. The
maximum moment in the pile is 68.7 Kip-ft/ft at 26 from the ground surface. The brace force =
8.8 K/ft.

EXAMPLE 6
9
10

T
P1=0.308
SAND BACK FILL
= 110 = 60 pcf
o
= 34
=0
Ka = 0.28

H = 36

P2=0.745
P3=0.692
MEDIUM SAND
= 65 pcf
Kp = 6.63
= 34.5o
/ = 0.4
Ka = 0.26
Kp - Ka = 6.37

0.414
1

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SHORING EXAMPLES 7

EXAMPLE 7
DESIGN OF ANCHORED SOLDIER PILE WALL WITH LAGGING
Introduction: A soldier pile wall is used in this example with one tieback anchor applied for each pile.
Question:
What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
= 30, Ka = 0.33, @ 12, P1 = Ka(12) = 0.485 Ksf
Passive pressure below cut:
C = 700 psf, = 0, Ka = 0, @ 12, P2 = 4c - v = 4(700) - (122.5)(12) = 1.33 Ksf
Running Program:
Try an anchor level = 5 from the pile top.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 1.3 and the pile length is 13.3. The
maximum moment in the pile is 13.2 Kip-ft/ft at 9.3 from the ground surface. Horizontal tieback
force is 10.6 Kips per pile.

EXAMPLE 7
T

LOOSE SAND
1 = 122.5 pcf
1 = 30o
=0
Cu = 0
Ka = 0.33

Lagging spacing = 6

H = 12

P1 = 0.485
P2 = 1.33
MED. CLAY
2 = 110 pcf
2 = 0
Cu = 700 psf

Pile Dia. = 2

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SHORING EXAMPLES 8

EXAMPLE 8
DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH TIEBACK ANCHOR
Introduction:
This example has a limited surcharge load. The surcharge pressure from the Lpres program is
0.42 Ksf as shown in the figure. The water pressure is similar to the condition in example 5.
Question:
What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Surcharge:
Ps = 0.42 Ksf
Water pressure:
Pw = w (16 - 8) = (62.4)(8) = 0.499 Ksf
Active pressure:
P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf
P2 = P1 +Ka= P1 + (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(7) = 0.388 Ksf
Pa = Kp = (0.27)(125-62.4) = 0.017 Kcf
Passive pressure: starting 2 below dredge line
P3 = Kp[(1) + w (1)] = 8.95 [125 + 62.4] = 1.26 Ksf
Pp = Kp = (8.95)(125 - 62.4) = 0.56 Kcf
Running Program:
Use 999 for the unknown depth. (See Example 5)
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 5 and the pile length is 20. The
maximum moment in the pile is 17.3 Kip-ft/ft at 12.5 from the ground surface. T = 8.2 Kips.

EXAMPLE 8

Ps = 0.42
T

P1 = 0.27

10
H = 15

P2 = 0.39

17

18

0.017
0.56
1

CivilTech Software

16
Pw = 0.499
The depth is unknown,
input 999 in program

P3 =1.26
1
= 62.6 pcf
= 125 pcf
= 35o
= /2
SHORING EXAMPLES 9

EXAMPLE 9
DESIGN OF COFFERDAM WITH TWO BRACES
Introduction : A cofferdam is designed for a bridge pier excavation. Two braces are used herein.
Question:
What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Surcharge:
Ps = 0.42 Ksf
Water pressure:
Pw = w (16 - 8) = (62.4)(8) = 0.499 Ksf
Active pressure:
P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf
P2 = P1 +Ka = P1 + (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(7) = 0.388 Ksf
Pa= Kp = (0.27)(125-62.4) = 0.017 Kcf
Passive pressure: starting 2 below dredge line
P3 = Kp[(1) + w (1)] =8.95 [125 + 62.4] = 1.26 Ksf
Pp = Kp = (8.95)(125 - 62.4) = 0.56 Kcf
Running Program:
The condition is the same as in example 8. The maximum movement is significantly reduced
due to two levels of bracing.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 4.2 and the pile length is 19.2. The
maximum moment in the pile is 7.8 Kip-ft/ft at 14.1 from the ground surface. T1 = 5.3 Kips/ ft
and T2=2.9 Kips/ ft.

EXAMPLE 9

Ps = 0.42
5

T1
P1 = 0.27

T2
10

10

H = 15

= 62.6 pcf
= 125 pcf
= 35o
= /2

P2 = 0.39
16 Pw = 0.499

16
17
P3 =1.26

0.5
1

0.01

18

1
The depth is unknown,
input 999 in program
Pw = 0

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SHORING EXAMPLES 10

EXAMPLE 10
DESIGN OF COFFERDAM WITH THREE BRACES
Introduction:
A cofferdam is designed to support an excavation for a bridge pier. Due to a railroad 6 from the
wall, surcharge pressure of 0.42 Ksf is applied. No seepage is allowed below the pile bottom.
The water pressures at both sides are not equal. The outside pressure is higher than inside.
After subtraction of the inside pressure, the net hydraulic pressure is constant below 36.
Question:
What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above cut:
= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 8, P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf
@ 35, P2 = Ka(35 - 8) + P1 = (0.27)(62.6)(27) + 0.27 = 0.724 Ksf
Water pressure:
@ 36, Pw = (36 - 8)(62.4) = 1.747 Ksf
Surcharge load: (from Lpres program)
from 0 to 10, Ps = 0.42 Ksf
at 36, Ps = 0
Active pressure below cut:
active pressure slope: Pa = Ka = (0.27)(62.6) = 0.017 Kcf
Net water pressure:
Pw = 1.747 Ksf constant
Passive pressure below cut:
= 35, = /2, Kp = 8.95
@ 37, P3 = Kp(2) = 8.95(62.6)(2) = 0.843 Ksf
passive pressure slope: Pp = Kp = 8.95(62.6) = 0.56 Kcf
Running Program:
The soil below the excavation base is disturbed. Therefore the passive pressure of the top 2
soil below the dredge line is ignored. The input pressure diagram is shown as follows.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 8.5 and the pile length is 43.5. The
maximum moment in the pile is 32.4 Kip-ft/ft at 25.2 from the ground surface. T1 = 13.6 Kips/
ft, T2 = 12.6 Kips/ ft, and T3 = 16.1 Kips/ ft.

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SHORING EXAMPLES 11

EXAMPLE 10

10
19

Surcharge q

P1 = 0.27

T1

Ps = 0.42
8
10
= 62.6 pcf
= 125 pcf
= 35o
= /2

T2

T3
H = 35

31
P2 = 0.46
36

36
37
P3 =1.26
0.56
1

CivilTech Software

0.017

36
Pw = 1.747

1
Cancel out

SHORING EXAMPLES 12

EXAMPLE 11
DESIGN OF TIEBACK WALL
Introduction:
The tieback wall has an 8 spacing of soldier pile supported by timber lagging (3 x 12). The
active pressure diagram is a trapezoid. The surcharge load of 2 of soil is added to the active
diagram. The soldier pile has a 2 diameter shaft. Below the dredge line, the active pressure is
acting on one diameter. The passive pressure is acting on two diameters of pile due to the
arching effect.
Question:
What is the embedment, tieback force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
The soil report of this project requires 20(H + 2) for active pressure and ignoring the top 2 of
passive pressure. The passive resistance is 400 pcf including F.S.
Above base 8 spacing
Active pressure P2 = P3 = 20(H + 2) = 20(30 + 2) = 0.64 Ksf
Below base
Active pressure P4 = 30(Z + 2) = 30(30 + 2) = 0.96 Ksf
Active pressure slope Pa = 0.03 Kcf
Acting 1 diameter of pile. Diameter of pile = 2.
Passive pressure slope Pp = 0.4 Kcf
Acting 2 diameter of pile. Diameter of pile = 2.
Running Program:
Use 3 pressure programs to input the active pressure
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 6.7 and the pile length is 36.7. The
maximum moment in the pile is 49.7 Kip-ft at 27.1 from the ground surface. T1 = 44.7Kips, T2
= 45.1Kips, T3 = 42.9Kips.

Surcharge = 2 (Height of Soil)

EXAMPLE 11
P1 = 0.04

Lagging Spacing = 8

5.5
14

T1

22

T2
P3 = 0.64
T3

H = 30

0.2 H = 6

P4 = 0.96

32

0.03
0.4
1

1
0.4.Y

Acting 2 Dia. of Pile = 4

CivilTech Software

0.2 H = 6

P2 = 0.64

0.03 ( X + 2 )
Acting 1 Dia. Of Pile = 2

SHORING EXAMPLES 13

EXAMPLE 12
DESIGN OF ANCHORED AND RACKING BRACED WALL
Introduction:
The original design using one level of tieback is not adequate to support the wall. An additional
raking brace is added to help the stability of the wall.
Question:
What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active pressure above exc. 20(H) = 20(30) = 0.6 Ksf Acting 8
Active below exc. 30(Y) = 30(30) = 0.6 Ksf Acting 2 (diameter of pile)
Passive below exc. 400Y Acting 4 (2 diameter of pile)
Diameter of pile = 2 Lagging spacing = 8
Surcharge as shown Ps = 0.36
Running Program:
The program only calculates the horizontal bracing force. The user has to calculate the vertical
force and the total force based on the horizontal force calculations.
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 5.8 and the pile length is 35.8. The
maximum moment in the pile is 128.6 Kip-ft at 24 from the ground surface. T1 = 61.3 Kips, T2 =
71.1 Kips. The force is in brace = 50 /Sin 45 = 70.7 Kips.

EXAMPLE 12

Surcharge

P1 = 0.6
T1

0.2 H = 6

4
Ps = 0.36

Lagging Spacing = 8
17
T2
H = 30

P2 = 0.6
0.2 H = 6 0.0675

45

30

P3 = 0.9
0.4
1

CivilTech Software

0.03
1
36

SHORING EXAMPLES 14

EXAMPLE 13
DESIGN OF BRACED CUT WITHOUT EMBEDMENT
Introduction :
For trench excavation, sometimes the supporting system only uses steel plates, swale, and
braces. The steel plates do not penetrate into the ground. The program also can solve these
types of problems. The program also can be applied for trench box excavation for pipelines.
This example uses three level of braces for a 20 cut. To check the stability problem, the heave
program can be used.
Question:
What is the bracing force?
Calculation:
Active pressure: = 30 Ka = 0.33
P1 = 0.65 KaH = (0.65)(0.33)(120) 20 = 0.51 Ksf
Running Program:
In the program output on page 2, check the bottom which will indicate the shoring wall without
bracing.
Results:
Brace @ 3.7 T1 = 2.64k/ ft
Brace @ 10
T2 = 2.87k/ ft
Brace @ 16.3 T3 = 2.64k/ ft
Maximum moment in plate:
2 Kip-ft/ft

EXAMPLE 13
0.2 H = 4
P1= 0.51
= 120pcf
= 30o

H = 20

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SHORING EXAMPLES 15

0.2 H = 4

EXAMPLE 14
DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL, POUR SEAL AT BOTTOM
Introduction:
Sometimes the bottom of the excavation is sealed to prevent water and heave. In this case, two
ways can be used for inputting the concrete seal. 1) Use a brace at the level of the seal. Note:
the depth of the brace cannot be equal to the depth of the excavation. 0.5 to 1.0 is required
above the excavation level as the input of this example. 2) In the passive pressure input, use a
large value of Pres. Top and Pres. Slope. However, if the value is too large, the program cannot
function. Trial and error is required.
Question:
What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active:
P1 = 650 psf
Water:
Pw = w (25 - 10) = 62.4 (15) = 936psf
Passive:
Pp = 300 pcf
Concrete seal was poured at bottom of excavation, then dewater to excavation base.
Sheet pile spacing (width) = 1
Running Program:
Results:
The program shows that the minimum embedment is 3.7 and the pile length is 28.7. The
maximum moment in pile is 11.7 Kip-ft/ft at 18 from the ground surface. T1=5.8 Kips/ ft,
T2=5.8 Kips/ ft, and T3=4.2 Kips/ ft. T3 is the concrete seal. If the seal is 2 thick, the
compression stress is 175 psi.

EXAMPLE 14
P1= 0.65
4

T1
10

12

T2

CONCRETE SEAL, 2 THICK


24

T3

25
Pw = 0.936

0.3
1

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SHORING EXAMPLES 16

EXAMPLE 15
DESIGN OF DEEP EXCAVATION USING MULTI-TIEBACK WALL
Introduction:
This is a real project in Seattle area. The excavation is 60 below ground. The lagging spacing is
6. 7 levels of tiebacks are used. Vertical spacings of tiebacks need to be adjusted for a
minimum moment in piles and smaller reaction force in tieback. The program proves easy input
interface, so the user can change the depth of each tieback and run the program several times
to get an optimum result.
Question:
What is the embedment, tieback force and maximum bending moment in the pile?
Calculation:
Active: Above Base
P1 = 0.65 KaH = (0.65)(0.28)(125)(60) = 1.365 ksf
Below Base
P2 = KaH = (0.28)(125)(60) = 2.1 ksf
Pa = Ka = (0.28)(125) = 0.035 kcf
Passive: Below Base Pp = Kp = 6.74 (130) = 0.876 kcf
Surcharge 0-10, Ps1 = 0.64 ksf; >10, Ps2 = 0.24 ksf
Running Program:
Results:
The output results are shown in the following:

EXAMPLE 15
Surcharge
5.5
13.3

P1= 1.365

12
= 125 pcf
= 34o
ka = 0.28

20.6
28.0

Ps1= 0.64
35.3
Lagging Spacing = 6

42.6
Ps2 = 0.24

50
48

H = 60
0.876
1

Acting 2 Dia. of pile = 4.

CivilTech Software

P2 = 2.1

0.035
1

Acting 1 Dia. of pile = 2

SHORING EXAMPLES 17

70

= 130 pcf
= 35o
= /2
kp = 6.74