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- Foundation Design [Compatibility Mode]
- MURTHY - Geotechnical Engineering - Principles and Practices
- is.9527.3.1983
- Vup
- Line Mapping Sheet YN R1
- Vm 01 Gravity Wall
- Copy of Weekly Progress Report # 42 ( 13-2-2018 - 20-2-2018).xlsx
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- Staad Etc HelpIND
- DSM Manual
- STE03020 Guidelines for Tank Foundation Designs 200505
- Design of Retaining Wall
- (ASCE)GT.1943-5606 Pile-Soil Interaction and Settlement Effects
- 10bt60106-Foundation Engineering 2
- 10.1680@rs.19324.0069
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- B35836969.pdf
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- Theme - K 2
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You are on page 1of 17

Introduction:

A sheet pile wall is required to support a 12 excavation. The soil is uniform as shown in the

figure. To take into account the friction between the wall and the soil, we use friction angle =

/2. Please note this value is applied only for passive pressure. Use factor of safety = 1.5 for

passive pressure.

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 12, P1 = Ka(12) = (0.27)(125)(12) = 0.405 Ksf

Active pressure below cut:

Below the cut, use pressure slope input.

The pressure slope Pa = Ka = (0.027)(125) = 0.034 Kcf

Passive pressure below cut:

Soil friction = 35, wall friction = /2, Kp = 6.74 (NAVFAC or Epres program)

The pressure slope Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(125)/1.50 = 0.56 Kcf

Running Program:

A short result for input and output is presented.

NOTE: 1 spacing for the sheet pile

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 9.3 and the pile length is 21.3. The

maximum moment in the pile is 17 Kip-ft /ft. The maximum moment is at 15.9 from the ground

surface.

EXAMPLE 1

= 125 pcf

= 35o

= /2 (only for passive)

H = 12

Dredge Line

P1 = 0.405 ksf

0.034 kcf

CivilTech Software

0.56 kcf

1

SHORING EXAMPLES 1

EXAMPLE 2

Alternative Input for Example 1

Introduction:

The conditions are the same as example 1. In example 2, we use an alternative input to check

the versatility of the program. Instead of inputting both active and passive pressures below the

cut, we input the net passive pressure below the cut. The net passive pressure is equal to PpPa.

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

Same as Example 1.

Net pressure below cut:

Active pressure slope is

Pa = Ka = (0.27)(125) = 0.034 Kcf

Passive pressure slope is

Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(125) /1.5 = 0.56 Kcf

Net passive pressure slope is

Pn = Pp - Pa = 0.56 - 0.034 = 0.526 Kcf

The point of zero pressure is

e = P1/Pn = 0.405/0.526 = 0.77

Running Program:

Input two active pressures in driving pressure input:

One is from x = 0 to x = 12. Another is from x = 12 to x = 12 + 0.77

There is no active pressure input below dredge line.

The passive pressure starts Y = 0.77, with a net slope = 0.526 Kcf

Results:

The same as example 1.

Alternative:

Another alternative input is also presented in attached file, example 2A. In this input, the net

passive pressure slope, 0.526 Kcf is directly inputted from Y = 0 with starting pressure of -0.405

Ksf. In this way, the calculation of zero pressure point, e, can be omitted.

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 2

EXAMPLE 2

= 125 pcf

= 35o

= /2 (only for passive)

H = 12

P1 = 0.405 ksf

e

Y = 0.77

0.526 kcf

1

SURCHARGE, Ps = 0.24

EXAMPLE 3

0.041

10

1

H = 12

SOIL 1

1 = 125 pcf

1 = 30o

= /2

P1 = 0.495

0.4

P4 = 1.2

15

0.58

1

CivilTech Software

P5 = 1.752

P2 = 0.618

P3 = 0.526

0.035

1

SHORING EXAMPLES 3

SOIL 2

2 = 130 pcf

2 = 35o

= /2

EXAMPLE 3

DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH TWO SOIL AND SURCHARGE

LOAD

Introduction:

A sheet pile wall is required to support 12 excavation. F.S. = 1.5 is required for passive

pressure. Soil conditions are shown in the figure. The surcharge load will be in a separate

diagram.

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

<soil 1> 1=30, Ka =0.33, P1 = Ka(12) = (0.33)(125)(12) = 0.495 Ksf

Active pressure below cut:

<soil 1> pressure slope, Pa = Ka = (0.33)(125) = 0.041 Kcf

P2 = Ka(15) = (0.33)(125)(15) = 0.618 Ksf

<soil 2> 2= 35, Ka = 0.27, pressure slope Pa = Ka = (0.27)(130) = 0.035 Kcf

P3 = Ka (15) = (0.27)(130)(15) = 0.526 Ksf

Passive pressure below cut:

<soil 1> 1 = 30, = 1/2, Kp = 4.8 (NAVFAC or Epres program)

pressure slope, Pp = Kp/F.S. = (4.8)(125) /1.5 = 0.4 Kcf

P4 = Pp(3) = 0.4(3) = 1.2 Ksf

<soil 2> 2 = 35, = 2/2, Kp = 6.74 (NAVFAC or Epres program)

pressure slope, Pp = Kp/F.S.= (6.74)(130) /1.5 = (6.74)(130) /1.5 = 0.584 Kcf

P5 = Pp(3) = 0.584(3) = 1.752 Ksf

Running Program:

Use 1 spacing for the sheet pile and 0.24 Ksf for surcharge load.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 13.3 and the pile length is 25. The

maximum moment in the pile is 53.3 K-ft/ft at 17.7 from the ground surface.

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 4

EXAMPLE 4

DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH COHESIVE SOIL AND

SURCHARGE LOAD

Introduction :

In this example, the surcharge load is merged with the active pressure. It also can be separated

as example 3. Soil 2 below cut line is a cohesive material with cohesion = 500 pcf (F.S.

included).

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

<soil 1> 1=30, Ka = 0.33, @ 0, P1 = Ka q = (0.33)(300) = 0.1 Ksf.

P2 = Ka (q + H) = 0.33 (300 + 122.5 x 12) = 0.485 Ksf

Passive pressure below cut:

<soil 2> 2 = 0, Ka = 0, @ 12, P3 = 4c - v = 4(500) - (q + 1H) = 2000 - [300 + 122.5(12)] = 0.23

Ksf

Running Program:

For passive pressure input, use Top Pres.= 0.23 and Pres. Slope = 0

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 41.58 and the pile length is 53.58. The

maximum moment in the pile is 43.2 Kip-ft/ft at 27.3 from the ground surface.

q = 300psf

EXAMPLE 4

P1 = 0.1

H = 12

P2 = 0.485

1 = 122.5 pcf

1 = 30o

=0

Cu = 0

P3 = 0.23

2 = 110 pcf

2 = 0

Cu = 500 psf

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 5

EXAMPLE 5

DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH DIFFERENTIAL WATER LEVELS

Introduction:

The water level is higher outside of the excavation base. Seepage is allowed to flow through the

bottom of the pile. The water pressures of both sides are equal, therefore, the net pressure is

zero at the bottom of the pile.

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 5, P1 = Ka(5) = (0.27)(125)(5) = 0.17 Ksf

@ 12, P2 = (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(12 - 5) + P1 = 0.287 Ksf

Active pressure below cut:

Pa = Ka = (0.27)(125 - 62.4) = 0.017 Ksf

Passive pressure below cut:

= 35, Kp = 6.74, @ = /2, P1 =0

Pp = Kp/F.S. = (6.74)(62.6) /1.5 = 0.281 Ksf

Running Program:

Due to seepage, the net water pressure = 0 at the embedment bottom. Because the

embedment depth is unknown, the value can be set 999 to let the program find embedment.

(See Chapter 5).

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 16.8 and the pile length is 28.8. The

maximum moment in the pile is 38.9 Kip-ft/ft at 20 from the ground surface.

EXAMPLE 5

H = 12

Water @ 5

Seepage @ bottom

F. S. = 1.5

1 = 125 pcf

1 = 35o

= /2 (Only for passive)

P1 = 0.17

Pw = 0.43

H = 12

12

P2 = 0.287

0.281

1

CivilTech Software

0.017

1

SHORING EXAMPLES 6

input 999 in program

EXAMPLE 6

DESIGN OF ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL WITH THE SAME WATER

LEVEL

Introduction:

This example has a 36 deep excavation to which tieback anchors are applied. The water levels

are the same inside and outside of the excavation. Two layers of soil are presented in the

example.

Question:

What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

<soil 1> 1= 34, Ka = 0.28, @ 10, P1 = Ka (10) = 0.308 Ksf

@ 36, P2 = P1 + Ka(36-10) = P1 + (0.28)(60)(26) = 0.745 Ksf

Active pressure below cut:

<soil 2> 2 = 34.5, Ka = 0.26, @ 36, P3 = Ka[(10) + (26)] = 1.26 [110(10) + 60(26)]

= 0.692 Ksf

Passive pressure below cut:

2= 34.5, Kp = 6.63, Pp = Kp

Pn = Pp - Pa = (6.63 - 0.26)(65) = 0.414 Ksf

Running Program:

Try input anchor level at 9 from the ground surface.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 7.5 and the pile length is 43.5. The

maximum moment in the pile is 68.7 Kip-ft/ft at 26 from the ground surface. The brace force =

8.8 K/ft.

EXAMPLE 6

9

10

T

P1=0.308

SAND BACK FILL

= 110 = 60 pcf

o

= 34

=0

Ka = 0.28

H = 36

P2=0.745

P3=0.692

MEDIUM SAND

= 65 pcf

Kp = 6.63

= 34.5o

/ = 0.4

Ka = 0.26

Kp - Ka = 6.37

0.414

1

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 7

EXAMPLE 7

DESIGN OF ANCHORED SOLDIER PILE WALL WITH LAGGING

Introduction: A soldier pile wall is used in this example with one tieback anchor applied for each pile.

Question:

What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

= 30, Ka = 0.33, @ 12, P1 = Ka(12) = 0.485 Ksf

Passive pressure below cut:

C = 700 psf, = 0, Ka = 0, @ 12, P2 = 4c - v = 4(700) - (122.5)(12) = 1.33 Ksf

Running Program:

Try an anchor level = 5 from the pile top.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 1.3 and the pile length is 13.3. The

maximum moment in the pile is 13.2 Kip-ft/ft at 9.3 from the ground surface. Horizontal tieback

force is 10.6 Kips per pile.

EXAMPLE 7

T

LOOSE SAND

1 = 122.5 pcf

1 = 30o

=0

Cu = 0

Ka = 0.33

Lagging spacing = 6

H = 12

P1 = 0.485

P2 = 1.33

MED. CLAY

2 = 110 pcf

2 = 0

Cu = 700 psf

Pile Dia. = 2

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 8

EXAMPLE 8

DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL WITH TIEBACK ANCHOR

Introduction:

This example has a limited surcharge load. The surcharge pressure from the Lpres program is

0.42 Ksf as shown in the figure. The water pressure is similar to the condition in example 5.

Question:

What is the embedment, anchor force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Surcharge:

Ps = 0.42 Ksf

Water pressure:

Pw = w (16 - 8) = (62.4)(8) = 0.499 Ksf

Active pressure:

P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf

P2 = P1 +Ka= P1 + (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(7) = 0.388 Ksf

Pa = Kp = (0.27)(125-62.4) = 0.017 Kcf

Passive pressure: starting 2 below dredge line

P3 = Kp[(1) + w (1)] = 8.95 [125 + 62.4] = 1.26 Ksf

Pp = Kp = (8.95)(125 - 62.4) = 0.56 Kcf

Running Program:

Use 999 for the unknown depth. (See Example 5)

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 5 and the pile length is 20. The

maximum moment in the pile is 17.3 Kip-ft/ft at 12.5 from the ground surface. T = 8.2 Kips.

EXAMPLE 8

Ps = 0.42

T

P1 = 0.27

10

H = 15

P2 = 0.39

17

18

0.017

0.56

1

CivilTech Software

16

Pw = 0.499

The depth is unknown,

input 999 in program

P3 =1.26

1

= 62.6 pcf

= 125 pcf

= 35o

= /2

SHORING EXAMPLES 9

EXAMPLE 9

DESIGN OF COFFERDAM WITH TWO BRACES

Introduction : A cofferdam is designed for a bridge pier excavation. Two braces are used herein.

Question:

What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Surcharge:

Ps = 0.42 Ksf

Water pressure:

Pw = w (16 - 8) = (62.4)(8) = 0.499 Ksf

Active pressure:

P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf

P2 = P1 +Ka = P1 + (0.27)(125 - 62.4)(7) = 0.388 Ksf

Pa= Kp = (0.27)(125-62.4) = 0.017 Kcf

Passive pressure: starting 2 below dredge line

P3 = Kp[(1) + w (1)] =8.95 [125 + 62.4] = 1.26 Ksf

Pp = Kp = (8.95)(125 - 62.4) = 0.56 Kcf

Running Program:

The condition is the same as in example 8. The maximum movement is significantly reduced

due to two levels of bracing.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 4.2 and the pile length is 19.2. The

maximum moment in the pile is 7.8 Kip-ft/ft at 14.1 from the ground surface. T1 = 5.3 Kips/ ft

and T2=2.9 Kips/ ft.

EXAMPLE 9

Ps = 0.42

5

T1

P1 = 0.27

T2

10

10

H = 15

= 62.6 pcf

= 125 pcf

= 35o

= /2

P2 = 0.39

16 Pw = 0.499

16

17

P3 =1.26

0.5

1

0.01

18

1

The depth is unknown,

input 999 in program

Pw = 0

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 10

EXAMPLE 10

DESIGN OF COFFERDAM WITH THREE BRACES

Introduction:

A cofferdam is designed to support an excavation for a bridge pier. Due to a railroad 6 from the

wall, surcharge pressure of 0.42 Ksf is applied. No seepage is allowed below the pile bottom.

The water pressures at both sides are not equal. The outside pressure is higher than inside.

After subtraction of the inside pressure, the net hydraulic pressure is constant below 36.

Question:

What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above cut:

= 35, Ka = 0.27, @ 8, P1 = Ka(8) = (0.27)(125)(8) = 0.27 Ksf

@ 35, P2 = Ka(35 - 8) + P1 = (0.27)(62.6)(27) + 0.27 = 0.724 Ksf

Water pressure:

@ 36, Pw = (36 - 8)(62.4) = 1.747 Ksf

Surcharge load: (from Lpres program)

from 0 to 10, Ps = 0.42 Ksf

at 36, Ps = 0

Active pressure below cut:

active pressure slope: Pa = Ka = (0.27)(62.6) = 0.017 Kcf

Net water pressure:

Pw = 1.747 Ksf constant

Passive pressure below cut:

= 35, = /2, Kp = 8.95

@ 37, P3 = Kp(2) = 8.95(62.6)(2) = 0.843 Ksf

passive pressure slope: Pp = Kp = 8.95(62.6) = 0.56 Kcf

Running Program:

The soil below the excavation base is disturbed. Therefore the passive pressure of the top 2

soil below the dredge line is ignored. The input pressure diagram is shown as follows.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 8.5 and the pile length is 43.5. The

maximum moment in the pile is 32.4 Kip-ft/ft at 25.2 from the ground surface. T1 = 13.6 Kips/

ft, T2 = 12.6 Kips/ ft, and T3 = 16.1 Kips/ ft.

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 11

EXAMPLE 10

10

19

Surcharge q

P1 = 0.27

T1

Ps = 0.42

8

10

= 62.6 pcf

= 125 pcf

= 35o

= /2

T2

T3

H = 35

31

P2 = 0.46

36

36

37

P3 =1.26

0.56

1

CivilTech Software

0.017

36

Pw = 1.747

1

Cancel out

SHORING EXAMPLES 12

EXAMPLE 11

DESIGN OF TIEBACK WALL

Introduction:

The tieback wall has an 8 spacing of soldier pile supported by timber lagging (3 x 12). The

active pressure diagram is a trapezoid. The surcharge load of 2 of soil is added to the active

diagram. The soldier pile has a 2 diameter shaft. Below the dredge line, the active pressure is

acting on one diameter. The passive pressure is acting on two diameters of pile due to the

arching effect.

Question:

What is the embedment, tieback force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

The soil report of this project requires 20(H + 2) for active pressure and ignoring the top 2 of

passive pressure. The passive resistance is 400 pcf including F.S.

Above base 8 spacing

Active pressure P2 = P3 = 20(H + 2) = 20(30 + 2) = 0.64 Ksf

Below base

Active pressure P4 = 30(Z + 2) = 30(30 + 2) = 0.96 Ksf

Active pressure slope Pa = 0.03 Kcf

Acting 1 diameter of pile. Diameter of pile = 2.

Passive pressure slope Pp = 0.4 Kcf

Acting 2 diameter of pile. Diameter of pile = 2.

Running Program:

Use 3 pressure programs to input the active pressure

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 6.7 and the pile length is 36.7. The

maximum moment in the pile is 49.7 Kip-ft at 27.1 from the ground surface. T1 = 44.7Kips, T2

= 45.1Kips, T3 = 42.9Kips.

EXAMPLE 11

P1 = 0.04

Lagging Spacing = 8

5.5

14

T1

22

T2

P3 = 0.64

T3

H = 30

0.2 H = 6

P4 = 0.96

32

0.03

0.4

1

1

0.4.Y

CivilTech Software

0.2 H = 6

P2 = 0.64

0.03 ( X + 2 )

Acting 1 Dia. Of Pile = 2

SHORING EXAMPLES 13

EXAMPLE 12

DESIGN OF ANCHORED AND RACKING BRACED WALL

Introduction:

The original design using one level of tieback is not adequate to support the wall. An additional

raking brace is added to help the stability of the wall.

Question:

What is the embedment, brace force, and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active pressure above exc. 20(H) = 20(30) = 0.6 Ksf Acting 8

Active below exc. 30(Y) = 30(30) = 0.6 Ksf Acting 2 (diameter of pile)

Passive below exc. 400Y Acting 4 (2 diameter of pile)

Diameter of pile = 2 Lagging spacing = 8

Surcharge as shown Ps = 0.36

Running Program:

The program only calculates the horizontal bracing force. The user has to calculate the vertical

force and the total force based on the horizontal force calculations.

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 5.8 and the pile length is 35.8. The

maximum moment in the pile is 128.6 Kip-ft at 24 from the ground surface. T1 = 61.3 Kips, T2 =

71.1 Kips. The force is in brace = 50 /Sin 45 = 70.7 Kips.

EXAMPLE 12

Surcharge

P1 = 0.6

T1

0.2 H = 6

4

Ps = 0.36

Lagging Spacing = 8

17

T2

H = 30

P2 = 0.6

0.2 H = 6 0.0675

45

30

P3 = 0.9

0.4

1

CivilTech Software

0.03

1

36

SHORING EXAMPLES 14

EXAMPLE 13

DESIGN OF BRACED CUT WITHOUT EMBEDMENT

Introduction :

For trench excavation, sometimes the supporting system only uses steel plates, swale, and

braces. The steel plates do not penetrate into the ground. The program also can solve these

types of problems. The program also can be applied for trench box excavation for pipelines.

This example uses three level of braces for a 20 cut. To check the stability problem, the heave

program can be used.

Question:

What is the bracing force?

Calculation:

Active pressure: = 30 Ka = 0.33

P1 = 0.65 KaH = (0.65)(0.33)(120) 20 = 0.51 Ksf

Running Program:

In the program output on page 2, check the bottom which will indicate the shoring wall without

bracing.

Results:

Brace @ 3.7 T1 = 2.64k/ ft

Brace @ 10

T2 = 2.87k/ ft

Brace @ 16.3 T3 = 2.64k/ ft

Maximum moment in plate:

2 Kip-ft/ft

EXAMPLE 13

0.2 H = 4

P1= 0.51

= 120pcf

= 30o

H = 20

CivilTech Software

SHORING EXAMPLES 15

0.2 H = 4

EXAMPLE 14

DESIGN OF SHEET PILE WALL, POUR SEAL AT BOTTOM

Introduction:

Sometimes the bottom of the excavation is sealed to prevent water and heave. In this case, two

ways can be used for inputting the concrete seal. 1) Use a brace at the level of the seal. Note:

the depth of the brace cannot be equal to the depth of the excavation. 0.5 to 1.0 is required

above the excavation level as the input of this example. 2) In the passive pressure input, use a

large value of Pres. Top and Pres. Slope. However, if the value is too large, the program cannot

function. Trial and error is required.

Question:

What is the embedment and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active:

P1 = 650 psf

Water:

Pw = w (25 - 10) = 62.4 (15) = 936psf

Passive:

Pp = 300 pcf

Concrete seal was poured at bottom of excavation, then dewater to excavation base.

Sheet pile spacing (width) = 1

Running Program:

Results:

The program shows that the minimum embedment is 3.7 and the pile length is 28.7. The

maximum moment in pile is 11.7 Kip-ft/ft at 18 from the ground surface. T1=5.8 Kips/ ft,

T2=5.8 Kips/ ft, and T3=4.2 Kips/ ft. T3 is the concrete seal. If the seal is 2 thick, the

compression stress is 175 psi.

EXAMPLE 14

P1= 0.65

4

T1

10

12

T2

24

T3

25

Pw = 0.936

0.3

1

CivilTech Software

Cancel out

SHORING EXAMPLES 16

EXAMPLE 15

DESIGN OF DEEP EXCAVATION USING MULTI-TIEBACK WALL

Introduction:

This is a real project in Seattle area. The excavation is 60 below ground. The lagging spacing is

6. 7 levels of tiebacks are used. Vertical spacings of tiebacks need to be adjusted for a

minimum moment in piles and smaller reaction force in tieback. The program proves easy input

interface, so the user can change the depth of each tieback and run the program several times

to get an optimum result.

Question:

What is the embedment, tieback force and maximum bending moment in the pile?

Calculation:

Active: Above Base

P1 = 0.65 KaH = (0.65)(0.28)(125)(60) = 1.365 ksf

Below Base

P2 = KaH = (0.28)(125)(60) = 2.1 ksf

Pa = Ka = (0.28)(125) = 0.035 kcf

Passive: Below Base Pp = Kp = 6.74 (130) = 0.876 kcf

Surcharge 0-10, Ps1 = 0.64 ksf; >10, Ps2 = 0.24 ksf

Running Program:

Results:

The output results are shown in the following:

EXAMPLE 15

Surcharge

5.5

13.3

P1= 1.365

12

= 125 pcf

= 34o

ka = 0.28

20.6

28.0

Ps1= 0.64

35.3

Lagging Spacing = 6

42.6

Ps2 = 0.24

50

48

H = 60

0.876

1

CivilTech Software

P2 = 2.1

0.035

1

SHORING EXAMPLES 17

70

= 130 pcf

= 35o

= /2

kp = 6.74

- Foundation Design [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byKhemerakh
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