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Dynamics of rigid bodies lecture on work and energy

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Lecture Notes # 5

Work-energy method is used particularly for solving problems involving

force, displacement, and velocity.

A force F will do work on a particle only when the particle undergoes a

displacement in the direction of the force.

1. Work associated with a Constant External Force

Figure 1

Consider the constant force P applied to the body as it moves from position 1

to position 2 (as shown in Figure 1). With the force F and the displacement x

written as vectors, the work done on the body by the force is:

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

We consider here the common linear spring of stiffness k (in N/m or lb/ft)

where the force required to stretch or compress the spring is proportional to

the deformation x ( in meters or feet) as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Figure 3

g may be considered constant, the work done by the weight W of the body

shown in Figure 3 as the body is displaced from an arbitrary altitude y 1 to a

final altitude y2 is:

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

The Kinetic Energy (KE) of the particle is the total work which must be done

on the particle to bring it from a state of rest to a velocity v. It is defined as:

Kinetic Energy is a scalar quantity with the units of N-m or joules (J) in SI

units and ft-lb in English units. Kinetic energy is always positive, regardless of

the direction of velocity.

WORK-ENERGY EQUATION

Work-energy equation states that the total work done by all forces acting on

a particle as it moves from point A to point B equals the corresponding

change in kinetic energy of the particle.

The capacity of a machine is rated by its power, which is defined as the

time rate of doing work.

Power is a scalar quantity, and in SI it has the units of N-m/s (Joule/s). The

special unit for power is the watt (W), which equals one joule per second

(J/s). In English system, the unit for mechanical power is the horsepower

(hp). These units and their numerical equivalences are:

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

The ratio of the work done by a machine to the work done on the machine

during the same time interval is called the mechanical efficiency (e) of the

machine.

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:

1. A force of 200 lbf acts on a block at an angle of 28 with respect to

horizontal. The block is pushed 2 feet horizontally. What is the work done by

this force?

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

speed of 2 m/s and decelerates uniformly to stop 20 m above its initial

position. Neglecting the friction and other losses, what work was done on the

elevator?

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

ft/s?

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Lecture Notes # 5

meters over a period of one minute is what?

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

5. The 300-lbf block in the figure shown rests upon a level plane for which

the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. Find the velocity of the block after it

moves 80 ft, starting from rest. If the 100-lb force is then removed, how

much farther will it travel?

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

6. Calculate the velocity v of the 50-kg crate when it reaches the bottom of

the chute at B if it is given an initial velocity of 4 m/s down the chute at A.

The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.30.

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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Lecture Notes # 5

7. The spring is unstretched at the position x =0. Under the action of a force

P, the cart moves from the initial position x 1 = -6 inches to the final position

x2 = 3 inches. Determine (a) the work done on the cart by the spring and (b)

the work done on the cart by its weight.

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page

Lecture Notes # 5

8. The platform P, shown in the figure below, has negligible mass and is tied

down so that the 0.4-m long cords keep a 1-m long spring compressed 0.6 m

when nothing is on the platform. If a 2 kg block is pushed down 0.1 m,

determine the maximum height h the block rises in the air, measured from

the ground.

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2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

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