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# DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## WORK AND ENERGY

Work-energy method is used particularly for solving problems involving
force, displacement, and velocity.
A force F will do work on a particle only when the particle undergoes a
displacement in the direction of the force.

## Work associated with three frequently occurring forces:

1. Work associated with a Constant External Force

Figure 1

Consider the constant force P applied to the body as it moves from position 1
to position 2 (as shown in Figure 1). With the force F and the displacement x
written as vectors, the work done on the body by the force is:

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## 2. Work associated with a Spring Force

We consider here the common linear spring of stiffness k (in N/m or lb/ft)
where the force required to stretch or compress the spring is proportional to
the deformation x ( in meters or feet) as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Figure 3

## If the altitude variation is sufficiently small so that the acceleration of gravity

g may be considered constant, the work done by the weight W of the body
shown in Figure 3 as the body is displaced from an arbitrary altitude y 1 to a
final altitude y2 is:

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY

The Kinetic Energy (KE) of the particle is the total work which must be done
on the particle to bring it from a state of rest to a velocity v. It is defined as:

Kinetic Energy is a scalar quantity with the units of N-m or joules (J) in SI
units and ft-lb in English units. Kinetic energy is always positive, regardless of
the direction of velocity.
WORK-ENERGY EQUATION
Work-energy equation states that the total work done by all forces acting on
a particle as it moves from point A to point B equals the corresponding
change in kinetic energy of the particle.

## POWER & EFFICIENCY

The capacity of a machine is rated by its power, which is defined as the
time rate of doing work.

Power is a scalar quantity, and in SI it has the units of N-m/s (Joule/s). The
special unit for power is the watt (W), which equals one joule per second
(J/s). In English system, the unit for mechanical power is the horsepower
(hp). These units and their numerical equivalences are:

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

The ratio of the work done by a machine to the work done on the machine
during the same time interval is called the mechanical efficiency (e) of the
machine.

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:
1. A force of 200 lbf acts on a block at an angle of 28 with respect to
horizontal. The block is pushed 2 feet horizontally. What is the work done by
this force?

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## 2. A 4000-kg elevator starts from rest accelerates uniformly to a constant

speed of 2 m/s and decelerates uniformly to stop 20 m above its initial
position. Neglecting the friction and other losses, what work was done on the
elevator?

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## 3. What is the kinetic energy of a 4000-lb automobile which is moving at 44

ft/s?

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

## 4. The average horsepower required to raise a 150-kg box to a height of 20

meters over a period of one minute is what?

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

5. The 300-lbf block in the figure shown rests upon a level plane for which
the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. Find the velocity of the block after it
moves 80 ft, starting from rest. If the 100-lb force is then removed, how
much farther will it travel?

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

6. Calculate the velocity v of the 50-kg crate when it reaches the bottom of
the chute at B if it is given an initial velocity of 4 m/s down the chute at A.
The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.30.

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

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7. The spring is unstretched at the position x =0. Under the action of a force
P, the cart moves from the initial position x 1 = -6 inches to the final position
x2 = 3 inches. Determine (a) the work done on the cart by the spring and (b)
the work done on the cart by its weight.

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## DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

8. The platform P, shown in the figure below, has negligible mass and is tied
down so that the 0.4-m long cords keep a 1-m long spring compressed 0.6 m
when nothing is on the platform. If a 2 kg block is pushed down 0.1 m,
determine the maximum height h the block rises in the air, measured from
the ground.