You are on page 1of 12

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES

Lecture Notes # 5

WORK AND ENERGY


Work-energy method is used particularly for solving problems involving
force, displacement, and velocity.
A force F will do work on a particle only when the particle undergoes a
displacement in the direction of the force.

Work associated with three frequently occurring forces:


1. Work associated with a Constant External Force

Figure 1

Consider the constant force P applied to the body as it moves from position 1
to position 2 (as shown in Figure 1). With the force F and the displacement x
written as vectors, the work done on the body by the force is:

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 1

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

2. Work associated with a Spring Force


We consider here the common linear spring of stiffness k (in N/m or lb/ft)
where the force required to stretch or compress the spring is proportional to
the deformation x ( in meters or feet) as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

The work done on the body by the force is:

3. Work associated with Weight

Figure 3

If the altitude variation is sufficiently small so that the acceleration of gravity


g may be considered constant, the work done by the weight W of the body
shown in Figure 3 as the body is displaced from an arbitrary altitude y 1 to a
final altitude y2 is:

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 2

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY


The Kinetic Energy (KE) of the particle is the total work which must be done
on the particle to bring it from a state of rest to a velocity v. It is defined as:

Kinetic Energy is a scalar quantity with the units of N-m or joules (J) in SI
units and ft-lb in English units. Kinetic energy is always positive, regardless of
the direction of velocity.
WORK-ENERGY EQUATION
Work-energy equation states that the total work done by all forces acting on
a particle as it moves from point A to point B equals the corresponding
change in kinetic energy of the particle.

POWER & EFFICIENCY


The capacity of a machine is rated by its power, which is defined as the
time rate of doing work.

Power is a scalar quantity, and in SI it has the units of N-m/s (Joule/s). The
special unit for power is the watt (W), which equals one joule per second
(J/s). In English system, the unit for mechanical power is the horsepower
(hp). These units and their numerical equivalences are:

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 3

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

The ratio of the work done by a machine to the work done on the machine
during the same time interval is called the mechanical efficiency (e) of the
machine.

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 4

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:
1. A force of 200 lbf acts on a block at an angle of 28 with respect to
horizontal. The block is pushed 2 feet horizontally. What is the work done by
this force?

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 5

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

2. A 4000-kg elevator starts from rest accelerates uniformly to a constant


speed of 2 m/s and decelerates uniformly to stop 20 m above its initial
position. Neglecting the friction and other losses, what work was done on the
elevator?

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 6

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

3. What is the kinetic energy of a 4000-lb automobile which is moving at 44


ft/s?

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 7

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

4. The average horsepower required to raise a 150-kg box to a height of 20


meters over a period of one minute is what?

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 8

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

5. The 300-lbf block in the figure shown rests upon a level plane for which
the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20. Find the velocity of the block after it
moves 80 ft, starting from rest. If the 100-lb force is then removed, how
much farther will it travel?

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page 9

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

6. Calculate the velocity v of the 50-kg crate when it reaches the bottom of
the chute at B if it is given an initial velocity of 4 m/s down the chute at A.
The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.30.

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


10 of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

7. The spring is unstretched at the position x =0. Under the action of a force
P, the cart moves from the initial position x 1 = -6 inches to the final position
x2 = 3 inches. Determine (a) the work done on the cart by the spring and (b)
the work done on the cart by its weight.

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


11 of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page

DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODIES


Lecture Notes # 5

8. The platform P, shown in the figure below, has negligible mass and is tied
down so that the 0.4-m long cords keep a 1-m long spring compressed 0.6 m
when nothing is on the platform. If a 2 kg block is pushed down 0.1 m,
determine the maximum height h the block rises in the air, measured from
the ground.

Engr. Jerome F. Famadico


12 of 12
2nd Semester S.Y. 2013-2014

Page