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Sociology
Culture and Society

Define the key components of a culture.

Explain the difference between culture and society.

Differentiate between the types of societies and analyze societies through
this understanding.

Generate examples of cultures and societies, and various sub-types of groups
and formal organizations.

Culture

Lesson 1: Components of Culture

Culture

Society and Culture NOT interchangeable

Society consists of people

Culture: consists of shared products of human groups.

Material Culture: physical objects that a culture creates

Nonmaterial Culture: Abstract human creations.

Material Culture

Automobiles

Books

Buildings

Clothing

Nonmaterial Culture

Beliefs

Family patterns

Ideas

Language

Political and economic systems

• Lesson 2: Components of Culture • Norms • Norms are shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations. or event and identify the norms. • Create a 1-2 minute skit which shows a violation of norms (both folkways and mores) • Perform the skit • Lesson 2: Components of Culture • Lesson 3: Culture • Activator: Components of Culture • Cultural Variation . others to select groups • Types of Norms • Folkways • • Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have moral significance attached to them. • Groups use Norms to enforce cultural values • Norms are expectations for behavior. Mores • Great moral significance is attached to them • Societies establish punishments for violating in order to protect social well-being • Serious mores are formalized as laws • Group Assignment • Your group should pick a situations. not actual behavior • Some norms apply to everyone in society. place. • Failure to follow results in minor punishment or reprimand • Some non-conformity to Folkways is permitted because it does not endanger society.

(In addition. norms. to what can be found in the reading) • Share in cooperative groups • Cultural Variations: Subculture • Subculture: Groups that share values. and behaviors that is practiced by larger society • Response to Variation • Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups • Cultural relativism: a belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards • Cultural Change • Cultural diffusion: the process of spreading cultural traits from one society to another • Cultural leveling: the process through which cultures become more and more alike • Lesson 4: Value System . norms. and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population. 39-40 in your textbook. • Cultural Variations: Counterculture • Counterculture: Groups that rejects the major values.• Cultural Universals • Cultural Universals: features evident in all cultures • What are some features that all cultures have? • (Try and Guess 7) • Cultural Universals • Cultural Variations: Assignment • Read with a Purpose: Using the material on p. answer the following question: What is the difference between a subculture and counter culture? • Identify and example of each.

• Work • Discipline. initiative. • Efficiency and Practicality Every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality. Values are defined as shared beliefs about what is good or bad. Getting things done well in the shortest time is very important. dedication. • Freedom Personal freedoms. • Value Systems • American Values: A Pictorial • The American Value System • Personal Achievement Doing Well at school and at work is important.ACTIVATOR: One of the 5 components of culture discussed was that of values. • Equality and Democracy Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in government. right or wrong. Brainstorm and record American values. • Morality and Humanitarianism Judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong. and hard work are signs of virtue • Individualism Hard work. and this progress improves people’s lives. This sense of morality also involves helping the less fortunate. speech. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign of success. are central to the American way of life • American Values: Assignment • New Values: Narcissism . such as freedom of religion. and the press. • Progress and Material Comfort History is marked by ongoing progress. desirable or undesirable. and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement.

doctor-patient. values. teacher-student. or coach-athlete • Role Conflict. In a written response. and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society • The family. discuss your responses in assigned groups. takes responsibility for raising the young and teaching them accepted norms and values. .Narcissism: the feeling of extreme self-centeredness • Values: Assignment 1. • Most of the roles that you perform have reciprocal roles. roles. and Exit • Role Conflict: a situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status • Role Strain: a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single status • Role Exit: the process that people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity • Social Institutions Definition: a system of statuses. the most universal social institution. explain how YOLO is a reflection of a value system based in narcissism and self-fulfillment. Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life. • EX. • Lesson 5: Social Structure ACTIVATOR: What is the difference between ROLE and STATUS? • Social Structure • Status: Ascribed and Achieved • Status: Activity • Roles • Statuses serve simply as social categories. When directed. These are corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses. 2. Strain.

and politics all involve exchanges. • Religion provides a shared. and certain skills and knowledge. that person owes you something in return. • Reciprocity is the basis for exchange • the idea that if you do something for someone. patterns of behavior.• The economic institution organizes the production. friendship. • Dating. distribution. Exchange theory appears to run counter to some social norms such as altruism. What was your motivation for interacting with them? • Social Interaction • Exchange • Most basic and common form of social interaction. collective explanation of the meaning of life. • Exchange Theory • Definition: a theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with others. family life. • Social Structure: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING • Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the culture quiz? • Lesson 6: Social Interaction ACTIVATOR: What motivates you in your actions with others? Think of 3 separate interactions with individuals or groups. • The political institution is the system of norms that governs the exercise and distribution of power in society. and consumption of goods and services. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. • People do things primarily for rewards. • Social Interaction Assignment . • Education ensures the transmission of values.

or to harm another person. and even conflict. disagreements within groups.Read p. • Basis behind capitalism and democracy • If it follows accepted rules of conduct. inequality. • May range from the deliberate snubbing of a classmate to the killing of an enemy. most sociologists view it as a positive means of motivating people to perform the roles society asks of them. • A common feature in Western society. • Conflict • Definition: The deliberate attempt to control a person by force. and even these often are ignored. • Four sources of conflict: wars. competition can lead to psychological stress. legal disputes. • Competition may be used along with cooperation to motivate members to work harder for the group. to oppose someone. a lack of cooperation in social relationships. • Few rules of accepted conduct. 59 in the text and identify the Difference between Conflict and Competition • Competition • Definition: an interaction that occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. and clashes over ideology (religion or politics) • Can be useful • Reinforces group boundaries • Strengthen group loyalty • Bring about social change • Cooperation • Definition: interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people • No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from its members. • Accommodation . • Negatively.

• Reconvene as a group and share the key characteristics. • Social Interaction • Types of Societies Assignment • Separate into groups of 3. sequence the four forms of accommodation in terms of their ease of achievement. • ENRICHMENT: Following the directions on p. Each member should take one of the 3 types of societies and identify the key characteristics of the society. identify real world examples of that type of society. identity and describe 3 different types of societies. In groups. • It can take a number of different forms • • Compromise • Truce • Mediation • Arbitration Social Interaction Assignment Using p. Using your knowledge of world history. Sequence the 6 types of societies. 66 question 7. Explain your placements with annotations. • Lesson: Social Interaction • Lesson 7: Types of Societies ACTIVATOR: As time goes on. (4 of the types are found in preindustrial societies) • Preindustrial Societies • Food production through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity • Subdivided according to technology and method of food production . 60-61 and a graphic organizer like the one below. societies advance and change.• Definition: a state of balance between cooperation and conflict • Accommodation helps to ensure social stability. When discussing each societal type. discuss and write your consensus on the board.

000 people • Similar in technology and social structure to Pastoral • Agricultural • Animals are used to cultivate land • Increased technology allows to plant more crops • Irrigation increases crop yield • Large crop yield support large/permanent societies .• Hunter-Gatherer • Pastoral • Horticultural • Agricultural • Hunter-Gatherer • Constantly moving searching for food • Do not build permanent villages • Limited artifacts • Rarely exceed 100 people • Status fairly equal • Family is the main social unit • Pastoral • Rely on domesticated herds • Nomadic: moving herds from pasture to pasture • Horticultural • Food grown in garden plots • Slash and burn techniques • Simple tools • Move to new land when land becomes barren • 30-2.

Activities center on the family and community.• Increased specialization leads to cities • Wealth becomes more concentrated • Barter system emerges • The Effects of Industrialization • Preindustrial Society • Emphasis is food production • Economic activities in the home • Produced entire product • Family is the primary socialization and education agent • Social status fairly fixed • Industrial Society • Emphasis is manufactured goods • Economic activities in the factory • Division of labor • Education and socialization take place outside the family • Increased potential to change status • Postindustrial society • Emphasis in on the provision of information and services • Standard of living for much of the population as wages increase • Strong emphasis on roles of science and education • Technological advances are viewed as the key to future prosperity • Sociology and Society • Preindustrial Societies • Mechanical Solidarity: when people share values and tasks they become united • Gemeinshaft: most people know each other. Strong sense of solidarity .

relationships become less personal and people are less able to provide for their own need. Two or more people 2. The Four Features of a Group 1. temporary. • Varying Features of a Group SIZE TIME ORGANIZATION • Dyad • Two members . • Gesellschaft: Relationships are impersonal. and based on need rather than emotion. Shared expectations 4.• Industrial Societies • Organic Solidarity: with increased specialization. Interaction among members 3. Sense of common identity • Aggregates (Not A Group) Definition: When people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization or lasting patterns of interaction. Values are weak and individual goals are more important than group goals • Types of Societies: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING • Lesson 8: Groups ACTIVATOR: • Groups Within Society • What is a group? Definition: A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.

and activities are clearly defined • Informal Group There is not official structure or established rules of conduct • Primary Group • Small group that interacts over a long period • Communication deep and intense • Intimate/ face-to-face • Entire self-shared • Secondary Group • Interaction is temporary and impersonal • Casual and limited in personal involvement • Personal importance based on function performed • Individual easily replace • Partial self-shared • In-group • A group that a person belongs to & identifies with • Separate themselves through use of symbols • See themselves as (+) and out-groups as (-) . goals.• Each member has direct control over the group’s existence • Decision making can be difficult if they don’t agree • Triad • Three member • Group takes on life of its own • Can’t be disbanded by one member • Tie breaker make decisions easier • Formal Group Structure.

assign tasks. and flirt. Must define boundaries for belonging 2.• Compete with out-groups • Out-group • A group that a person does not belong to or identify with • Reference Group Definition: Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. play games. reference groups change. engage in intellectual discussions.Conformity 4. label each of these pictures using as many applicable terms as possible. Need to control members’ behavior . gossip. Must select leaders (People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others) • Instrumental leaders: Task-oriented • Expressive leaders: emotion-oriented • Groups need both to be successful . • Electronic Communities & Social Networks Electronic Communities demonstrate behaviors similar to primary groups – argue. • Assignment: Using the different types of groups. share intimate details. • Groups chosen are important because they can have positive and negative effects • As a person grows older. Social Networks: A web of relationships formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with others. • Unlike a group there is not a common identity • Provide interaction and career advancement • Can provide support during stressful periods • Group Functions 1. and make decisions 3. Need to set goals.

Ranking of Authority 3. Specific lines of promotion and advancement • Effects of Bureaucracy Positives • Creates order through clearly defined job tasks and rewards • Provide stability and are not reliant upon an individual Negatives . 80-81 • Groups Within Society: Summarizer QUESTIONS REMAINING • Lesson 10: Formal Organizations ACTIVATOR: • Lesson 10: Formal Organizations • Formal Organizations Definition: a large.• Assignment: Simulation Are You In or Are You Out? Textbook p. complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals Formal organizations include: Most formal organizations are structured in a form that is known as a bureaucracy • Bureaucracy Definition: a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures Weber’s Model 1. Division of Labor 2. Written rules and regulations 5. Employment based on formal qualifications 4.

• Can undergo goal displacement – abandon the original purpose and replace with self-continuation. • Encourage the development of bureaucratic personalities • Employees feel alienated • Power concentrates at the top – iron law of oligarchy • Exam Review EQ: What do I need to study for the exam? • Take practice exam and use answer key to correct • Use Culture and Society Unit Map vocabulary and practice exam results to identify areas of weakness • Prepare questions related to areas of weakness • Review as class • Study for the Culture and Society Exam • Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the Culture and Society Exam? .