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Durability testing and limiting values

for special concretes

Dr. Prakash Nanthagopalan


Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay

Dr. Pasala Dinakar


Assistant Professor
School of Infrastructure
Indian Institute of Technology
Bhubaneswar

Durability of concrete
Diffusion

Service Environment & Transport properties

Absorption
Permeation

Microstructure
Mixture composition & Construction process

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)

Limited aggregate
content
Essential properties
of SCC
SCC
Segregation Resistance

Why Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)?


Strength

Durability

Concrete Construction Practices

Durability of SCC

Durability Paradox

RILEM TC 205 report Durability of SCC

Durability test methods for SCC

Gas (Oxygen) permeability


Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT)
Rapid Chloride Migration Test (RCMT)
Water absorption
Sorptivity
Water permeability
Carbonation
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Gas (Oxygen) permeability

Boel et al. 2008

Gas permeability-SCC

Boel et al. 2008


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Gas permeability-SCC
Pressure = 0.5 to 2 bar

Zhu and Bartos, 2003


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Gas permeability-SCC
Pressure = 2 bar

Assie et al. 2007

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Gas permeability- LWAC


Gesoglu et al. 2013

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Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT)

Bagheri and Zanganeh, 2012

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RCPT - SCC

Nehdi et al. 2004

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Charges passed (Coulombs)

RCPT SCC

Uysal et al. 2012

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RCPT - SCC

Siddique and Aggarwal, 2010


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RCPT - SCC
Days

Kanellopoulos et al. 2012

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RCPT - SCC (IIT BBS)

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RCPT HSC (IIT BBS)

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RCPT LWAC (IIT BBS)


LWC
NWC

66
60
54
48
42
36
30
0.25

4000
NWC

0.30

0.35
0.40
0.45
water binder ratio

0.50

0.55

Charge passed [Coulombs]

Compressive strength (MPa)

72

3500

LWC

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

0.30

0.35

0.40

water binder ratio

0.45

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RCPT - LWAC
Gesoglu et al. 2013

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Rapid Chloride Migration Test (RCMT)


Bagheri and Zanganeh,
2012

Luo and Schutter 2008

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RCMT - SCC

Zhu and Bartos, 2003

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RCMT- SCC

(Schutter and Audenaert, 2004)

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Water Absorption Test (WAT)

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WAT - SCC (Schutter and Audenaert, 2004)

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WAT - SCC (IITBBS)

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WAT HSC (IITBBS)

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Sorptivity Capillary Water absorption


RILEM TC 116-PCD, 1999

Zhu and Bartos, 2003

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Sorptivity - SCC

Zhu and Bartos, 2003

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Sorptivity - SCC

Kanellopoulos et al. 2012

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Sorptivity - HSC (IIT Madras)

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Sorptivity - LWAC

Gesoglu et al. 2013

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Water Impermeability Test (WIT)

Uysal et al. 2012

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Water Penetration depth (mm)

WIT - SCC

Uysal et al. 2012

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WIT SCC (IIT BBS)

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WIT - SCC

Ramezanianpour et al. 2010


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Accelerated Carbonation Test SCC

Assie et al. 2007


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Carbonation Depth (mm)

Accelerated Carbonation Test - SCC

Age of specimens 90 days


Parra et al. 2010
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Limiting values for SCC


Tests

Range of values

Gas (Oxygen) permeability

0.3 to 0.6 10 -12 m2

RCPT (Charge passed)

100 to1000 coulombs

RCMT

5 to15 10 -12 m2/s

Water absorption

4 to 6 %

Sorptivity

0.06 to 0.12 mm/min0.5

Water Penetration (depth)

5 to 10 mm

Accelerated Carbonation Test

5 to 10 mm
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RILEM Technical Committee


Reports on Durability

Technical Committee 230-PSC: Performance-based specifications and control of concrete


durability

Technical Committee 235-CTC: Corrosion initiating chloride threshold concentrations in


concrete

Technical Committee 246-TDC: Test methods to determine durability of concrete under


combined environmental actions and mechanical load

Technical Committee 247-DTA: Durability testing of alkali-activated materials

Technical Committee 211-PAE: Performance of cement-based materials in aggressive


aqueous environments

Technical Committee 213-MAI: Model assisted integral service life prediction of steel
reinforced concrete structures with respect to corrosion induced damage

Technical Committee 214-CCD: Concrete cracking and its relation to durability: Integrating
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material properties with structural performance

RILEM Reports on Durability (Contd..)


004-CDC: Durability of concrete
012-CRC: Concrete reinforcements corrosion
016-C: Investigation on carbonation
032-RCA: Resistance of concrete to chemical attack
060-CSC: Corrosion of steel in concrete
071-PSL: Prediction of service life of building materials and components
102-AFC: Ageing and durability of fibre concrete
106-AAR: Alkali-aggregate reaction
116-PCD: Permeability of concrete as a criterion of its durability
117-FDC: Freeze-thaw and de-icing resistance of concrete
130-CSL: Calculation methods for service life design of concrete structures
140-TSL: Prediction of service life of building materials and components
146-TCF: Tightness of concrete with respect to fluids
156-CPD: Durability of concrete polymer composites
160-MLN: Methodology for life prediction of concrete structures in nuclear power plants
177-MDT: Masonry durability and on-site testing
178-TMC: Testing and modelling chloride penetration in concrete
186-ISA: Internal sulfate attack
191-ARP: Alkali-reactivity and prevention - Assessment, specification and diagnosis of alkali-reactivity
204-LTP: Life time performance of materials and structures
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205-DSC: Durability of Self-Compacting Concrete

ACI Technical committee


Reports on durability

201 - Durability of Concrete


201-0A Durability-Sulfate Attack
350-0B - Durability
440-0L FRP-Durability
544-0F FRC-Durability
562-0F Durability
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References

Assie, S., Escadeillas, G. and Waller, V. (2007) Estimates of self-compacting concrete potential durability, Construction and Building
Materials, Vol. 21, 19091917.
Bagheri, A. R. and Zanganeh, H. (2012), Comparison of Rapid Tests for Evaluation of Chloride Resistance of Concretes with
Supplementary Cementitious Materials, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 24, 1175-1182.
Boel, V., Audenaert, K. and De Schutter, G. (2008) Gas permeability and capillary porosity of self-compacting concrete, Materials and
Structures, Vol. 41, 12831290.
De Schutter, G. and Audenaert, K. (2004) Evaluation of water absorption of concrete as a measure for resisitance against carbonation and
chloride migration, Materials and Structures, Vol. 37, 591-596.
De Schutter, G. Durability of SCC From Materials to Structures, Proceedings of 6th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting
Concrete, Vol. II, Canada, 2010, 45-51.
Gesoglu, M., Guneyisi, E., Ali, B. and Mermerdas, K. (2013) Strength and transport properties of steam cured and water cured lightweight
aggregate concretes, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 49, 417 424.
Luo, L. and De Schutter, G. (2008) Influence of corrosion inhibitors on concrete transport properties, Materials and Structures, Vol. 41,
1571-1579.
Nehdi, M., Pardhan, M. and Koshowshi, S. (2004) Durability of Self-consolidating concrete incorporating high volume replacement
composite cements, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, 2130-2112.
Parra, C., Valcuende, M., Garca, L., Rodriguez, C. and Garrido, A. Influence of Viscosity Modifying Admixtures and Limestone Filler on
the Durability of Self- Compacting Concrete, Proceedings of 6th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Vol. II,
Canada, 2010, 1039 and 1047.
Ramezanianpour, A. A., Samadian, M. and Mahdikhani, M. Evaluation of Pozzolanic Materials on Mechanical Properties and Durability of
High-Performance Self- Consolidating Concrete (HPSCC), Proceedings of 6th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting
Concrete, Vol. II, Canada, 2010, 127 135.
RILEM TC 116-PCD (1999) Permeability of concrete as a criterion of its durability Recommendations, Materials and Structures, Vol. 32,
174-179.
RILEM Technical Committee (2008) Final report of RILEM TC 205-DSC: Durability of self-compacting concrete, Materials and Structures,
Vol. 41, 225-233.
Siddique, R. and Aggarwal, P. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Class-F Fly Ash, Proceedings of 6th International RILEM
Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Vol. II, Canada, 2010, 171-180.
Uysal, M., Yilmaz, K. and Ipek, M. (2012) The effect of mineral admixtures on mechanical properties, chloride ion permeability and
impermeability of self-compacting concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 27, 263270.
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Zhu, W. and Bartos, P. J. M. (2003) Permeation properties of self-compacting concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, 921926.

Thank you

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