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Opportunities for energy efficiencies in

Refineries & Petrochemical Plants
November 2009

© 2008 UOP LLC. All rights reserved.

UOP 5033B-01

Waxman- Markey: 20% reduction in GHG by 2020

6400
9% by 2030

5800

3%
20%

4600

83%

53%
23%

0
2005
Baseline

2012

2020

Proposed Levels

32%

2030

2050

% Renewables of Total Energy Demand

CO2eq million tes

Business as usual

Background
The current state of the economy, along with the need for
better environmental performance are driving more
efficient operations and improved process technologies
Making basic energy efficiency improvements is a relatively
low-cost way refiners and petrochemical producers can
reduce operating costs, and GHG emissions
Few refiners today are taking a holistic, multi-faceted
perspective that looks at process conditions, process
design changes and technology to explore

We must find the synergy between
energy efficiency and profitability

Energy & CO2 in a Refinery
700,000 million cubic feet of natural
gas/year

Refining Unit

% of
Energy
Consumed

8% of crude is consumed as energy

CDU/VDU

17

Fluid Catalytic
Cracking (FCC) Unit

20

Reformer

14

Hydrocracking

10

Alkylation and
Hydrotreating

15

Coker

4

Utilities

15

Offsite

5

Energy costs 50% to 60% of total variable
operating costs (excluding feedstocks)
$80 to $100 million/year on energy & 1.2
to 1.5 million metric tons/year of CO2
CO2 emissions increase with heavier
feedstock, cleaner fuels, conversion and
complexity

Our Goal is NOT Energy Minimization
Minimum energy is not always optimum profit
Energy is an enabler
– More energy, can be used to realize greater
capacity, better yield, and better products

The overall process impact must be included in
the economic evaluation

Finding the Right Solution

Low
Cost Solutions

Moderate
Cost Solutions

Higher
Cost Solutions

Optimized energy use,
control, and process
conditions to unlock
“hidden energy
opportunities”

Minimum process
design changes to
seek synergy of
energy saving and
throughput/yield
enhancement

Advanced
technology to
maximize process
efficiency in reaction,
separation, heat and
power recovery

Need a holistic, multi-faceted approach to explore the synergy
between energy efficiency and profitability

Opportunities
Area of Savings

Actions

Energy
Improvement

Profit
Increase

CO2
Reduction

Improved
operation and
control

Improve online monitoring, control
and optimization through
multivariable, predictive control and
optimization applications

2 to 4%

$3 to 5M/year

24,000 to 48,000
metric tons/year

Improved heat
recovery

Increase heat recovery within and
across process units.

4 to 9%

$4M to
8M/year

48,000 to 108,000
metric tons/year

Advanced
Process
Technology

Employ new process technology,
design, equipment and catalyst
technology

3 to 7%

$5M to
10M/year

36,000 to 84,000
metric tons/year

Utilities
Optimization

Optimization and controls for onsite
steam and power production/supply
and demand optimization

2 to 3%

$3M to
6M/year

24,000 to 36,000
metric tons/year

1 to 2 %

$8 to
10M/year

H2 and Fuel Gas
Management

Optimize H2 recovery
Maximize LPG recovery

Total

12 to 25%

Basis: for a 100,000 BPSD refinery; natural gas cost @ $6/MMbtu

32,000 to 44,000
metric tons/year

$23M to
164,000 to
39M/year 320,000 tons/yr

Where Energy Savings Come From
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components
Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Operate More Efficiently
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components
Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Operate More Efficiently
How to capture hidden operational opportunities:
Optimize complex fractionation/separation systems
– Pump-arounds; Feed temperature; Operating pressure
– Minimize product give-away
– Maximize throughput/lift/desirable products

Optimize complex interactions
– Interactions between heaters, heat recovery systems
and processes
– Interactions between process energy demand and utility
energy supply sides

Operate More Efficiently
Capture hidden operational opportunities:
Optimize energy/processes under changing conditions
– Variations in feeds, products, production rate
– Fouling in heat exchangers, condensers and heaters

Energy Dashboard
– Determine targets for key process
and energy variables
– Monitor actual vs. predicted energy
consumption
– Instrumentation for measurement

The key is to optimize
complex systems and interactions

Operate More Efficiently
Advanced Control and Optimization
– Multi-variable control and optimization tools
– Maximize production, improve yields, minimize energy
– Include energy costs as part of overall
economic operating objectives

Energy related solutions include:



Furnace Pass Balancing and Excess Air
Distillation Quality and Pressure Control
Reactor Conversion Control
Preheat Maximization

Process know-how working
together with powerful tools

Operate More Efficiently
Advanced Controls Case Study
YNCC, South Korea



400 ktes/yr Ethylene Plant
Naphtha feedstock to 7 furnaces
Constraints in furnaces, refrigeration compressors and fractionators
Implemented 17 MPC controllers and an optimizer with non-linear
cracking model

Operating Results
– Increased naphtha feed rate by 3.0%
– Reduced energy consumption by 3.25% reduced steam consumption in fractionators;
furnace excess O2
Operating Results
– Project payback of
less than
3. Maximum Load
2. W/ APC
(W/ APC + OPT)
5 months
1. Normal Operation w/o APC

Operate More Efficiently
What’s It Worth ?
2~4% improved energy efficiency
$3 to 5M/year
CO2 Reduction of 24-48 kMt/yr
from a typical
100,000 bbl/day refinery

Where Energy Savings Come From
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare
Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Recover More Heat
Heat recovery within and across process units
Integration of process energy with utility systems
Energy savings combined with increased throughput
– Determine process bottlenecks
– Transfer expensive bottlenecks to cheap ones
– Optimize operating conditions simultaneously–
pressures / specs / pump-arounds / rundowns

Practical considerations for any changes
– Safety, operability, reliability

Recover More Heat

Add power
recovery turbine
Medium energy benefit
at medium cost

D

Add 4-Hx (A-D) to before
Rx & Frac charge heaters
Energy & Throughput benefit
Low Cost

B

D

C

PRT

A
C

B
A

A = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 1
B = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 2
C = CFE 1 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
D = CFE 2 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
E = Diesel P/A – Heavy Naphtha Exchanger

Recover More Heat

Install combined
convection section for two
charge heaters
Large energy benefit
at high cost

PRT

Optimize the ratio
of flow through the
split (non-symmetric)
raw feed trains
No cost energy benefit

A = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 1
B = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 2
C = CFE 1 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
D = CFE 2 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
E = Diesel P/A – Heavy Naphtha Exchanger

Recover More Heat

Charge heaters
are less full
More feed can be added
to the unit

PRT

~100 MMBtu/h saved
and 15% increase in
throughput

Change catalyst for
better cold flow property
Change Rx internal for
better vapor/liquid
distribution
More product

Charge Frac/separator
internals
Improved throughput
But…poorer diesel
cold-flow properties

A = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 1
B = Effluent – Frac Feed Exchanger 2
C = CFE 1 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
D = CFE 2 – (Effluent Feed Exchanger)
E = Diesel P/A – Heavy Naphtha Exchanger

Recover More Heat
What’s It Worth ?
4~9% improved energy efficiency
$4 to 8M/year
CO2 Reduction of 48-108 kMt/yr
from a typical
100,000 bbl/day refinery

Where Energy Savings Come From
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components
Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Utilize New Process Technology
Take advantage of new technology, equipment
and catalysts
– High selectivity/activity catalyst
– High efficiency reactor internals
– High capacity fractionator internals
– Enhanced heat exchangers
– Modern power recovery turbines
– Novel process design

A

A
B
C

B

C

UOP 5027I-18

Utilize New Process Technology
To Fuel Gas
System
Unstabilized Gasoline
Sponge
Absorber
Wet Gas
Compressors

Primary
Absorber

LPG
HCN
LCO PA

Feed

DEC4 BTMS
Recycle

LCO
Main
Column

CSO

Can this be
improved?

Stripper

Light
Naphtha

DEC4

Middle
Naphtha

Aromatics Rich
Naphtha
Naphtha
Splitters
Heavy Gasoline

Utilize New Process Technology
To Fuel Gas
System
Unstabilized Gasoline
Sponge
Absorber
Wet Gas
Compressors

Primary
Absorber

LPG
HCN
LCO PA

Feed

LN

LCO
Main
Column

CSO

LN
Recycle

Stripper

DEC4

MN

Naphtha
Splitter

Benefit:
Modifications:
• LN for primary absorber • 9 MkCal/h or 3% energy saving
for 70 kBPD FCC
• Dividing wall columns

ARN

HG

Utilize New Process Technology
Thermal Efficiency In Dividing
Wall Column
B

A
B
C
C
A

A
B
C

B

C

Col 1

Column Tray

A

Top

Bottom

Col 2

Remixing occurs
Component B mole fraction

Dividing Wall Column
Vertical wall separates column
sections
Eliminates thermal inefficiency
3 products using a single column
Typically 25-40 % savings in capital
and energy costs

Utilize New Process Technology
What’s It Worth ?
3~7% improved energy efficiency
$5 to 10M/year
CO2 Reduction of 36-84 kMt/yr
from a typical 100,000
bbl/day refinery

Where Energy Savings Come From
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components
Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Better Manage H2 & Fuel Gas System
Advantages of Improved H2 Management:
H2 Plant is one of the largest emitters of CO2
Can improve refinery margin through process
performance improvement
Avoid capital expense on new H2 plant
Alleviate H2 constraints

Better Manage H2 & Fuel Gas System
H2 Network Analysis
– Matching purities of producers & consumers
– Cascades
– Purge Rates

H2 purification

– Recover H2 now going to fuel
– Revamp existing purifiers
– Add new purification capacity

Optimize process
– Maximize H2 yield in reformers
– Set / maintain H2 partial pressure targets

Better Manage H2 & Fuel Gas System
Monitor C3/C4 % in refinery fuel gas
Recover valuable components in refinery fuel gas
Use excess fuel gas for cogeneration
Have a mitigation plan for
fuel gas long scenarios

Better Manage H2 & Fuel Gas System
What’s It Worth ?
1~2% improvement in energy efficiency
from the refinery
$8 to 10M/year
CO2 Reduction of 32-44 kMt/yr
from a typical 100,000
bbl/day refinery
Significant process benefit

Where Energy Savings Come From
Use
Energy
More
Efficiently
In Process
Reduce
Emissions

Reduce
Energy
Costs and
Emissions

Managing
H2/Fuel
Systems
Efficiently

Get
Energy
Cheaper

Operate More
Efficiently

Recover
More Heat

Improve Monitoring
& Operation
Online Control
& Optimization
Improve Heat Integration
Reduce Waste/Leaks

Utilize New
Process
Technology

Advanced Process
Technology, Equipment
& Catalysts

Better
Manage H2

Minimize H2 to Fuel

Better Manage
Fuel
Gas System

Maximize Recover of
Valuable Components
Minimize Fuel
Gas Flare

Manage H2 Partial
Pressure

Improve Resource
Allocation
Boiler/Turbine
Performance
Balance Supply
& Demand

Use
Carbon
Credits

Renewable
Energy Source
GHG Capture
& Storage

Get Energy Cheaper
Master Pressure Control
• Advanced predictive control
• Stabilize header pressures
Advanced
Combustion Control
• Tight Fuel/air ratio
• Control excess O2

Boiler-1

Boiler Optimization

Power Users

Power Supply Grid
Boiler-2

Electricity

Purchased
Steam

HPS - 500 psi
TC-1

TG-1

TC-2

TG-2

• Accept steam loads and
allocate according to
efficiency and constraints

TG-3

500#
Users

LDV-1

MPS - 150 psi
LDV-2

150#
Users

LPS - 50 psi
LDV-3

Energy Mix
• Optimize choice of fuel
• Optimize dual drive
motors

Air

50#
Vent

Air

50#
Users
CONDENSATE

Plant Air
Users

Supply/Demand Optimization
• Realtime supply/demand balance
• Meet demand forecast
accounting for price, emissions,
availability, make vs. buy

Turbine Optimization
• Accept electrical loads
and balance according to
efficiency and price

Get Energy Cheaper
What’s It Worth ?
2~3% improvement in energy efficiency
from the refinery
$3 to 6M/year
CO2 Reduction of
24-36 kMt/yr
from a typical 100,000
bbl/day refinery

Energy Solutions Summary
Area of Savings

Actions

Energy
Improvement

Profit
Increase

CO2
Reduction

Improved
operation and
control

Improve online monitoring, control
and optimization through
multivariable, predictive control and
optimization applications

2 to 4%

$3 to 5M/year

24,000 to 48,000
metric tons/year

Improved heat
recovery

Increase heat recovery within and
across process units.

4 to 9%

$4M to
8M/year

48,000 to 108,000
metric tons/year

Advanced
Process
Technology

Employ new process technology,
design, equipment and catalyst
technology

3 to 7%

$5M to
10M/year

36,000 to 84,000
metric tons/year

Utilities
Optimization

Optimization and controls for onsite
steam and power production/supply
and demand optimization

2 to 3%

$3M to
6M/year

24,000 to 36,000
metric tons/year

1 to 2 %

$8 to
10M/year

H2 and Fuel Gas
Management

Optimize H2 recovery
Maximize LPG recovery

Total

12 to 25%

Basis: for a 100,000 BPSD refinery; natural gas cost @ $6/MMbtu

32,000 to 44,000
metric tons/year

$23M to
164,000 to
39M/year 320,000 tons/yr

Execution
ROI
Start

Prelim
Prelim
Online
Online
Monitoring
Monitoring

Energy
Energy Opportunity
Opportunity
Assessment
Assessment
(Benchmarking
(Benchmarking &&
Prelim
Prelim analysis)
analysis)

Deploy
Deploy
On-Line
On-Line
Monitoring
Monitoring

Detailed
Detailed Study
Study
&& Analyze
Analyze
Opportunities
Opportunities

Review
Review
Opportunities
Opportunities

Review
Review
Opportunities
Opportunities

Prepare
Prepare FEED
FEED
for
Equipment
for Equipment &&
Control
Control Projects
Projects

Implement
Implement
Quick
Quick
Hits
Hits

Implement
Implement
Operation
Operation &&
Maintenance
Maintenance
Solutions
Solutions

Implement
Implement
Equipment
Equipment
&& Control
Control
Projects
Projects

Sustain
Benefits

Conclusions
There is NO single approach
Reduce operating costs and CO2 emissions while increasing
profitability
Improved throughput and yields are possible
The demands from the process must be tightly linked to supply
from the utilities plant.
Identification of good energy projects requires combined skills in
operation, process design, modeling and energy optimization
Sustaining the benefits requires monitoring and
optimization tools, on-line and closed loop control
Technology is the key

Energy savings of
12-25% are possible

Thank You