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Hydromax

Windows Version 10.0

User Manual

Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 - 2004

License and Copyright


Hydromax Program
1985-2004 Formation Design Systems.
Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the
purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the
program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to
other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the
possession of the purchaser.
Hydromax User Manual
2004 Formation Design Systems.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or
by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation
Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to
make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of
such changes.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation
are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to
be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation,
including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory
profits. No Formation Design Systems distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to
make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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Contents
License and Copyright ..................................................................................................iii
Contents ........................................................................................................................v
About this Manual .........................................................................................................1
Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................3
Chapter 2 Using Hydromax...........................................................................................1
Installing Hydromax...................................................................................1
Starting Hydromax .....................................................................................1
Windows Registry............................................................................1
Preparing a Design for Hydromax ..............................................................1
Opening a Design .......................................................................................2
Analysis .....................................................................................................3
Choosing Analysis Type.............................................................................4
Upright Hydrostatics ........................................................................5
Large Angle Stability .......................................................................5
Equilibrium Condition......................................................................5
Specified Condition..........................................................................6
KN Values........................................................................................6
Limiting KG Analysis ......................................................................6
Longitudinal Strength .......................................................................7
Tank Calibrations.............................................................................8
Hydromax Limitations .........................................................................................9
Hull Shapes................................................................................................9
Checking the Sections .................................................................... 10
Checking the Sections in Maxsurf................................................... 12
Checking the Sectional Area Curve ................................................ 13
Internal Structure............................................................................ 13
Setting Initial Conditions.................................................................................... 14
Coordinate System ................................................................................... 14
Frame of Reference and Zero Point .......................................................... 14
Trim......................................................................................................... 15
Trim for Limiting KG and KN analyses .......................................... 15
Density..................................................................................................... 15
Wave Definition....................................................................................... 16
Grounding................................................................................................ 17
Hog and Sag............................................................................................. 17
Loadcase .................................................................................................. 18
Free Surface Moment options in Hydromax.................................... 18
Compartment Definition........................................................................... 19
Fluid Analysis Method ............................................................................. 19
Damage Definition ................................................................................... 21
Other Initial Condition Data ..................................................................... 22
Stability Criteria ....................................................................................... 22
Upright Hydrostatics .......................................................................................... 23
Choosing Upright Hydrostatics................................................................. 23
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 23
Setting a Range of Drafts................................................................ 23
Large Angle Stability ......................................................................................... 24
Choosing Large Angle Stability Analysis ................................................. 24
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 24
Setting Heel Angles........................................................................ 24
v

Equilibrium Analysis ......................................................................................... 26


Choosing Equilibrium Analysis ................................................................ 26
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 26
Unstable equilibria ................................................................................... 26
Specified Conditions.......................................................................................... 30
Choosing Specified Condition Analysis.................................................... 30
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 30
Specifying Heel, Trim and Immersion ............................................ 30
KN Calculations................................................................................................. 31
Choosing KN Analysis ............................................................................. 31
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 31
Setting a Range of Displacements................................................... 31
Limiting KG ...................................................................................................... 33
Choosing Limiting KG............................................................................. 33
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 33
Longitudinal Strength......................................................................................... 35
Choosing Longitudinal Strength ............................................................... 35
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 35
Distributed loads ............................................................................ 35
Allowable Shears and Moments...................................................... 35
Tank Calibrations............................................................................................... 37
Choosing Tank Calibrations ..................................................................... 37
Initial Conditions...................................................................................... 37
Compartment.................................................................................. 37
Defining Tank Properties................................................................ 37
Starting and Stopping Analyses .......................................................................... 38
Batch processing................................................................................................ 39
Data Transfer ..................................................................................................... 41
Saving Results to a File ............................................................................ 41
Saving the Design .................................................................................... 41
Saving Loadcases to a File ....................................................................... 41
Saving Damage Cases to a File................................................................. 41
Saving Compartment Definitions to a File ................................................ 41
Copying Data ........................................................................................... 42
Copying Hull Views................................................................................. 42
Copying Graphs ....................................................................................... 42
Printing.............................................................................................................. 43
Print Preview............................................................................................ 43
Chapter 3 Stability Criteria.......................................................................................... 45
Overview ........................................................................................................... 46
Setting up criteria - the Criteria dialog................................................................ 47
Resizing and adjusting the dialogs layout ...................................... 48
Criteria tree list ........................................................................................ 48
Parent criteria ................................................................................. 48
Moving criteria............................................................................... 48
Defining new custom criteria and groups........................................ 48
Using the criteria tree list................................................................ 49
Selecting the criteria for analysis .................................................... 49
Damage and Intact.......................................................................... 49
Criteria tree right-click context menu.............................................. 49
Criteria details.......................................................................................... 51
Check boxes in criteria properties section of criteria dialog............. 51
Criterion pass/fail test..................................................................... 52

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Criteria help ............................................................................................. 52


Criteria results.................................................................................................... 53
Criteria results table........................................................................ 53
Report and batch processing........................................................... 54
Importing and saving criteria sets ............................................................. 54
Default criteria library file .............................................................. 54
Saving criteria ................................................................................ 55
Importing criteria and specific criteria files ..................................... 55
Criteria file format.......................................................................... 56
Nomenclature..................................................................................................... 57
Definitions of GZ curve features: ............................................................. 57
GZ Definitions ............................................................................... 59
Glossary................................................................................................... 61
Parent stability criteria ....................................................................................... 62
Criteria at equilibrium .............................................................................. 62
Maximum value of heel, trim or slope at equilibrium...................... 62
Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium ................................................ 62
Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium................................................ 62
Value of GMT or GML at equilibrium ............................................. 63
GZ curve criteria (non-heeling arm) ......................................................... 63
Value of GMt at ............................................................................. 63
Value of GZ at................................................................................ 64
Value of maximum GZ................................................................... 64
Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified
angle .............................................................................................. 65
Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified
angle .............................................................................................. 67
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2................................................ 67
Angle of maximum GZ................................................................... 68
Angle of equilibrium ...................................................................... 68
Angle of downflooding................................................................... 69
Angle of margin line immersion ..................................................... 69
Angle of deck edge immersion ....................................................... 69
Angle of vanishing stability ............................................................ 69
Range of positive stability .............................................................. 70
GZ area between limits type 1 - standard ........................................ 70
GZ area between limits type 2- HSC monohull type........................ 71
GZ area between limits type 3 - HSC multihull type ....................... 74
Ratio of GZ area between limits ..................................................... 75
Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits....................... 78
Heeling arm definition.............................................................................. 81
General heeling arm ....................................................................... 81
General cos+sin heeling arm........................................................... 81
Heeling due to passenger crowding................................................. 82
Heeling due to turning.................................................................... 82
Heeling due to lifting of weights..................................................... 83
Heeling due to towing or bollard-pull ............................................. 84
Heeling due to wind ....................................................................... 85
Gust ratio ....................................................................................... 86
Areas and levers............................................................................. 86
Heeling arms for specific criteria - Note on unit conversion...................... 87
IMO Code on Intact Stability A.749(18) amended to MSC.75(69) .. 87
3.1.2.6 - Heeling due to turning
87

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3.2 - Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion)


88
IMO HSC Code MSC.36(63).......................................................... 89
Annex 6 1.1.4 - Heeling moment due to wind pressure
89
Annex 7 1.3 - Heeling due to wind
90
USL code (Australia)...................................................................... 90
USL C.1.1.3 - Wind heeling moment
90
USL C.1.1.4 - Heeling moment due to turning
91
Heeling arm criteria.................................................................................. 92
Value of GMT at equilibrium - general heeling arm......................... 92
Value of GZ at equilibrium - general heeling arm ........................... 92
Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm .... 93
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - general heeling arm .............. 94
Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm.... 94
Angle of equilibrium - general heeling arm..................................... 95
Angle of equilibrium ratio - general heeling arm............................. 96
Angle of equilibrium - passenger crowding heeling arm.................. 96
Angle of equilibrium - high-speed turn heeling arm ........................ 97
Angle of equilibrium - derived wind heeling arm............................ 97
Angle of vanishing stability - general heeling arm........................... 97
Range of positive stability - general heeling arm............................. 98
GZ area between limits - general heeling arm ................................. 99
Ratio of areas type 1 - general heeling arm ................................... 100
Ratio of areas type 1 - general cos+sin heeling arm....................... 101
Ratio of areas type 2 - general wind heeling arm........................... 102
Multiple heeling arm criteria .................................................................. 103
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - multiple heeling arms ......... 104
Angle of equilibrium - multiple heeling arms................................ 104
GZ area between limits - multiple heeling arms ............................ 105
Ratio of areas type 1 - multiple heeling arms ................................ 106
Heeling arm, combined criteria............................................................... 107
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general heeling arm...... 107
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - passenger crowding ..... 108
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - high-speed turn............ 108
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general cos+sin heeling
arm............................................................................................... 108
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - lifting weight ............... 109
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - towing ......................... 109
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) - general wind heeling arm109
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) - wind heeling arm ......... 111
Other criteria.......................................................................................... 112
Other criteria - STIX .................................................................... 112
Specific stability criteria................................................................................... 116
ISO 12217: Small craft stability and buoyancy assessment and
categorisation......................................................................................... 116
Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m116
Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m...... 117
Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m ....................................... 117
MCA MIN 153 Small Commercial Vessel Codes of Practice.................. 118
11.2.1.3 Damage Survivability...................................................... 118
Chapter 4 Hydromax Reference ................................................................................ 119
Windows.......................................................................................................... 120
View Window........................................................................................ 120
Loadcase Window.................................................................................. 121

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Adding and deleting loads ............................................................ 122


Distributed loads .......................................................................... 122
Tank loads.................................................................................... 123
Free Surface Moment options in Hydromax.................................. 123
Loadcase Formatting.............................................................................. 124
Adding Component or Heading Lines........................................... 124
Adding Blank Lines...................................................................... 124
Adding Total Lines....................................................................... 124
Grouping Similar Tanks ............................................................... 124
Damage Window.................................................................................... 124
Input Window ........................................................................................ 125
Compartment Definition............................................................... 125
Adding Simple Tanks................................................................... 126
Creating Tapered Tanks................................................................ 126
Linked Tanks and Compartments.................................................. 127
Adding Complex Tanks Using Surfaces........................................ 127
Forming Compartments................................................................ 129
Compartment Types ..................................................................... 129
External Tanks ............................................................................. 130
Longitudinal Extents of Tank Bounding Boxes ............................. 130
Modelling Non-Buoyant Areas ..................................................... 131
Tanks in Compartments................................................................ 132
Linked Compartments and Damage Cases .................................... 132
Tanks Wholly Within a Compartment........................................... 132
Tanks Partially Within a Compartment......................................... 133
Permeability ................................................................................. 134
Relative Density of Tank Fluids.................................................... 134
Tanks and Surface Thickness........................................................ 134
Compartment and Tank Ordering.................................................. 134
Compartment and Tank Visibility ................................................. 135
Sounding Pipes....................................................................................... 136
Calibration increment............................................................................. 136
Sounding Pipes............................................................................. 137
Key Points and Downflooding Points ........................................... 137
Links to tanks or compartments .................................................... 137
Adding Key Points ....................................................................... 138
Editing Key Points........................................................................ 138
Deleting Key Points...................................................................... 138
Margin Line Points....................................................................... 138
Modulus Points ............................................................................ 139
Results Window..................................................................................... 139
Data selection............................................................................... 139
Data layout................................................................................... 139
Stability Criteria ........................................................................... 140
Key Point Data ............................................................................. 141
Height/freeboard above free surface.............................................. 143
Graph Window....................................................................................... 143
Graph type.................................................................................... 143
Interpolating Graph Data .............................................................. 143
GZ Graph..................................................................................... 144
Curve fitting for GZ graph............................................................ 144
Report Window...................................................................................... 144
Keyboard Support For Reports ..................................................... 147

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Opening and Saving the Report .................................................... 147


Pasting images into the report....................................................... 147
Toolbars........................................................................................................... 149
File Toolbar.................................................................................. 149
Edit Toolbar ................................................................................. 149
View Toolbar ............................................................................... 149
Analysis Toolbar .......................................................................... 149
Window Toolbar .......................................................................... 149
Visibility Toolbar ......................................................................... 150
Render Toolbar............................................................................. 150
Menus.............................................................................................................. 151
File Menu............................................................................................... 151
New ............................................................................................. 151
Open ............................................................................................ 151
Close............................................................................................ 151
Save ............................................................................................. 151
Save As ........................................................................................ 151
Export .......................................................................................... 151
Page Setup ................................................................................... 152
Print............................................................................................. 152
Exit .............................................................................................. 152
Edit Menu .............................................................................................. 152
Undo ............................................................................................ 152
Cut............................................................................................... 152
Copy ............................................................................................ 152
Paste............................................................................................. 152
Select All ..................................................................................... 152
Fill Down..................................................................................... 152
Table............................................................................................ 152
Add.............................................................................................. 153
Delete........................................................................................... 153
Add Surface Areas........................................................................ 153
Error Values................................................................................. 153
View Menu ............................................................................................ 154
Zoom ........................................................................................... 154
Shrink .......................................................................................... 154
Pan............................................................................................... 154
Home View .................................................................................. 155
Set Home View ............................................................................ 155
Colour.......................................................................................... 155
Font.............................................................................................. 155
Toolbar ........................................................................................ 155
Status Bar ..................................................................................... 155
Analysis Menu ....................................................................................... 155
Heel ............................................................................................. 156
Trim ............................................................................................. 156
Draft............................................................................................. 156
Displacement................................................................................ 156
Specified Conditions .................................................................... 156
Fluids........................................................................................... 156
Density......................................................................................... 156
Waveform .................................................................................... 156
Hog and Sag................................................................................. 156

Criteria ......................................................................................... 156


Grounding.................................................................................... 157
Form Compartments..................................................................... 157
Set Analysis Type......................................................................... 157
Start Analysis ............................................................................... 157
Resume Analysis .......................................................................... 157
Stop Analysis ............................................................................... 157
Batch processing .......................................................................... 157
Case Menu ............................................................................................. 158
Add Damage Case ........................................................................ 158
Delete Damage Case..................................................................... 158
Edit Damage Case ........................................................................ 158
Max. Number of Loadcases .......................................................... 158
Display Menu......................................................................................... 158
Data Format ................................................................................. 158
Coefficients.................................................................................. 158
Units ............................................................................................ 159
Visibility ...................................................................................... 159
Frame of Reference ...................................................................... 159
Zero Point .................................................................................... 160
Select View From Data................................................................. 160
Render.......................................................................................... 160
Render Transparent ...................................................................... 160
Animate ....................................................................................... 160
Window Menu ....................................................................................... 160
Cascade........................................................................................ 160
Tile Horizontal ............................................................................. 160
Tile Vertical ................................................................................. 160
Arrange Icons............................................................................... 161
View Direction............................................................................. 161
Loadcase ...................................................................................... 161
Input............................................................................................. 161
Results ......................................................................................... 161
Graph........................................................................................... 161
Help Menu ............................................................................................. 161
About Hydromax.......................................................................... 161
Appendix A Calculation of Form Parameters ............................................................ 162
Definition and calculation of form parameters ........................................ 162
Nomenclature............................................................................... 162
Length .......................................................................................... 162
Beam............................................................................................ 163
Draft............................................................................................. 164
Midship Section ........................................................................... 164
Block Coefficient ......................................................................... 164
Midship Section Coefficient ......................................................... 165
Prismatic Coefficient.................................................................... 165
Waterplane Area Coefficient ........................................................ 165
Maximum deck inclination ........................................................... 166
Trim angle.................................................................................... 166
Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations ........................................ 166
Integration of wetted surface area ................................................. 166
Reference Designs.................................................................................. 167
Reference Calculations........................................................................... 168

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Appendix B Criteria file format................................................................................. 169


Index ......................................................................................................................... 173

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About this Manual

About this Manual


This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatics and stability
analyses on you Maxsurf design.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Contains a description of Hydromax and its interface to Maxsurf.
Chapter 2 Using Hydromax
Explains how to use Hydromax's powerful flotation and hydrostatic analysis routines to
best advantage.
Chapter 3 Stability Criteria
Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated in Hydromax.
Chapter 4 Hydromax Reference
Gives details of Hydromax's windows and each of Hydromax's menu commands.
If you are unfamiliar with the Windows '95/NT interface, please read the owner's manual
supplied with your computer. This will introduce you to commonly used terms, and the
basic techniques for using any computer program.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1
Introduction
Hydromax is a hydrostatics and stability program specifically designed to work with
Maxsurf. Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax, eliminating the
need for time-consuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets. This direct
transfer preserves the three-dimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model.
For the calculation of large angle stability data, a range of heel angles may be specified,
together with a displacement and centre of gravity position. Displacement and centre of
gravity information is entered by way of a spreadsheet of weights and levers. Hydromax
then cycles through the heel angles, floating and trimming the hull to find equilibrium
and calculating hydrostatic data.
Upright hydrostatics can be calculated over a range of drafts. Hydromax can also
simulate the floating of a hull to its equilibrium position given a displacement and centre
of gravity. After finding equilibrium, Hydromax will perform longitudinal strength
calculations on the hull. In addition, tables of KN values can be calculated and presented
as a graph of stability cross curves.
Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity, centre of gravity and free surface
moment. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the
effects of damage.
Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time, either in tabular form, or as graphs
of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. All results are accumulated
in the Report window, which can be saved, copied or printed for further reference.
In addition, views of the hull are shown for each heel and trim, complete with immersed
sectional areas and actual waterlines. The centres of flotation, gravity and buoyancy are
also displayed. Heeled and trimmed hull forms and water plane shapes may be printed.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Chapter 2
Using Hydromax
This chapter describes how to carry out the range of hydrostatics and strength analyses
available in Hydromax.
Installing Hydromax
Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program, then follow the
instructions on screen.
Starting Hydromax
After installation, Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu. Simply select
Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under the Programs menu in the Start menu.
Windows Registry

Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. It is possible
for this data to become corrupted, or you may simply want to revert back to the default
configuration. To clear the Hydromax preferences, start the program with the Shift key
depressed. You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences, click OK.
Preparing a Design for Hydromax
There are several important steps that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a
design in Hydromax:
Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command to tell Maxsurf which direction
points outwards for each surface. The surface direction may be defined using the Outside
Arrows command from the Display menu in Maxsurf. The surface direction may then be
toggled by clicking on the end of the arrow.
Ensure that all surface intersections and trimming are correct. You should have
completely closed transverse sections (or sections with, at most, one opening). In
Maxsurf, define a large number of sections in the Grid Spacing dialog. Step through the
sections in the Body Plan view and check that they are formed correctly.
If surface thickness is to be used in hydrostatics calculations, ensure that the thickness
and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. Thickness can be
specified differently for each surface, resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. If surface
thickness is to be used, all surfaces should have a non-zero thickness specified.
If you wish bonded edges to be displayed in Hydromax, ensure that the design is saved
in Maxsurf with bonded edges turned on.
Verify that all internal surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are
defined as Internal Structure. If a surface is defined as internal structure, it is not
included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

The other surface properties may be set for each surface using the Properties dialog from
the Surface menu in Maxsurf.

Maxsurf Surface Properties Dialog

Opening a Design
To open a design for analysis, ensure that the design view window is active, then select
Open Design from the File menu. Choose a design from the standard Open dialog:

When a file is opened a dialog box is displayed allowing you to select whether the data
should be read from the file or how the data should be calculated.

If station data has been saved with the design file by Hydromax, it is possible to choose
whether to read the stations from the file to recalculate them. In most cases you can
simply read in the saved sections. If you want to change the number of sections, or
trimming information or include surface thickness, you must recalculate the stations.
If you are reopening an existing Hydromax file, you will be given the option of reading
the sections from the file or calculating the sections. If you are opening a Maxsurf design
file for the first time, you will only be able to calculate sections.
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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Reading sections from file will also open all the compartment definitions, loadcases,
damage cases and other Hydromax data associated with the design.
Choosing Calculate Stations will calculate the specified number of sections through the
hull. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. If the file is an existing
Hydromax file, any other data (compartment definitions, loadcases, damage cases etc.)
will not be loaded and you will have to either redefine these, or load them from the
individual compartment definition, loadcase, etc. files. If you do not have the individual
files, you should choose Read Sections from File and then save the compartment
definition, loadcase, etc. as individual files.
When calculating stations, you may select how many stations should be used. Reducing
the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy,
conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to
higher accuracy results. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in
Maxsurf. This first option is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or
bow thrusters that need to be accurately calculated and may need a locally denser station
spacing to do so. It also allows designs with significant discontinuities in their volumes
to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity, avoiding any errors inherent in
the integration of evenly spaced stations. For example, if it was known that a design had
a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships, by specifying one
station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this
discontinuity can be modelled very accurately.
At this stage, any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog
may be included.
If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces, the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be
ticked.
The Surface Precision options has two functions: Firstly, when calculating sections, it
allows you to select the desired precision; secondly, if you are reading existing sections
from the file, it enables you to ensure that any newly computed compartments or tanks
use the same precision as that used to calculated the original sections. Maxsurf and
Hydromax keep track of the precision used to save the file and set the Surface Precision
button accordingly. So you should not need to change this setting unless you are
calculating new sections.
An alternative method to load a Hydromax file is to double click on the .hmd file. This
will launch Hydromax and cause it to load the selected file and associated .msd design
file.

Analysis
Analysis with Hydromax is a five-step process:
Open the Maxsurf design you wish to analyse.
Choose the type of analysis you wish to perform. The options are:

Upright hydrostatics
Large angle stability
Equilibrium analysis
Specified Condition analysis
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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

KN values and cross curves of stability


Limiting KG analysis
Longitudinal Strength analysis
Tank Calibrations
Set up the analysis conditions you wish to use. These are:

Frame of Reference
Type of Fluid Simulation
Fluid Densities
Wave Conditions if required
Grounding if required
Hog and Sag if required
Tank and Compartment definitions, where required
Damage Condition, if required
Stability Criteria if required
Set up the specific Initial Conditions for the analysis you have chosen. These are:

Trim fixed or free.


Loadcase Condition (Displacement and C.G. position) for Equilibrium and
Large Angle Stability Analysis.
A range of drafts for Upright Hydrostatics.
A range of heel angles for Large Angle Stability and KN Calculations.
A range of displacements for KN Calculations.
Specific conditions for the Specified Conditions Analysis.
A range of displacements, heel angles and required criteria for Limiting KG
Analysis
Run the analysis cycle.

Note that fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that
is required from Hydromax. For this reason, it is best to turn off sections, and especially
waterlines, when performing an analysis. You may then turn them on again after the
analysis has completed. For fastest performance, e.g. when running in Batch mode,
minimise Hydromax so that no redrawing occurs.
Choosing Analysis Type
Click on the Analysis menu and drag the cursor down to the Analysis Type item. A
second menu will drop down to the right of the Analysis menu. To choose an analysis
type, drag the cursor to one of the items listed. Alternatively, the analysis method may be
selected from the pull-down box in the Analysis toolbar. Further, the analysis mode will
change with the currently selected results table and vice versa.
When performing the first five analysis types, there are three pairs of related variables
that are used:
Draft
Trim
Heel

Displacement
Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG)
Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG)

The various analysis modes can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a
fixed value (independent variables) and deriving the others from the analysis (dependent
variables).

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

For example, the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and
stepping through a series of fixed drafts. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore
the required LCG and TCG) are dependent variables
In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be
specified.
Upright Hydrostatics

For Upright Hydrostatics, Heel and Trim are fixed and Draft is varied in fixed steps.
Displacement and Centre of Buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during
the analysis.
Large Angle Stability

For the Analysis of Large Angle Stability, Displacement and Centre of Gravity are
specified in the loadcase. Trim may be fixed, or left free to find its equilibrium position.
Heel is specified in fixed steps.
The key output value is GZ (or righting lever), the horizontal distance between the
centres of gravity and buoyancy. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms
a GZ curve.

Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve, including upright GM,
curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first
downflooding point. These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria
have been selected.
Equilibrium Condition

Equilibrium Analysis requires that Displacement and Centre of Gravity are fixed.
Hydromax iterates to find the Draft, Heel Angle and Trim Angle that satisfy equilibrium.
If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves, the Equilibrium analysis will
automatically time step the waveform through a complete wavelength. This gives ten
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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

columns of results, one for each movement of the wave crest. If necessary the results of
this time stepping can be animated giving a simple simulation of the hull motion in
waves. Note that this simulation only includes static behaviour, and does not cover
dynamic or inertial forces.
Specified Condition

In this analysis mode, any combination of input variable pairs may be specified.

If fixed trim is specified, you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts
(these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog).
KN Values

KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if
its VCG is unknown. They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the
height of the centre of gravity is known. The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ
curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula:
GZ = KN - KG * sin(Heel)
where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy
and the Centre of Gravity, and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's
effective Vertical Centre of Gravity.
For KN analysis the initial LCG is fixed to the LCB position in the intact, upright, zero
trim case for each of the specified displacements. When the vessel is heeled, it may be
fixed or free to trim.
Displacement and Heel are varied in fixed steps. Output is in the form of a table of KN
values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability.
Limiting KG Analysis

The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the
centre of gravity (maximum KG) for a range of vessel displacements. At each of the
specified displacements, Hydromax runs several large angle stability analyses at
different KGs. The selected stability criteria are evaluated; the centre of gravity is
increased until one of the criteria fails.
A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced:

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Longitudinal Strength

The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of weight, buoyancy,
net load, shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull.
The curves displayed on this graph are:
Weight
Buoyancy
Net Load
Shear
Moment

The weight per unit length along the hull.


The buoyancy per unit length along the hull. This will
be reduced by the amount of any damage.
Weight minus Buoyancy
Shear Force
Bending Moment

These data are also displayed in the Strength table in the Results window. You can
display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results sub-menu under
the Window menu.
For the purposes of strength calculations, any point loads in the load schedule will be
applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load.
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Tank Calibrations

Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity, centre of gravity and free surface
moment. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily.
Each tank that has been calibrated has a table of tank capacities available through the
Results window, and a separate graph of its volumetric properties available through the
Graph window.

Tank calibrations are for the upright (zero heel) vessel, but the vessel's trim may be
specified. Tank Ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free
surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe.

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Hydromax Limitations
It is important to be aware of the limitations in the way you can create your model in
Maxsurf to allow accurate analysis to be carried out using Hydromax.
Hull Shapes
Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of
cross sections taken through the hull surfaces. Where a hull consists of an open shell
(e.g. a hull surface with no deck), Hydromax will automatically close the section off with
a straight line.
If, however, the section is made up of two line segments, (e.g. having both a gap at the
centreline as well as an open deck), an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments
will be connected. This is not an acceptable shape.

Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed, or can be unambiguously
closed. In the example above, if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf
the design would cease to be ambiguous.
Where multiple surfaces exist, Hydromax will link curve segments together end to end if
they coincide at a bonded edge, or are only separated by a small amount. Where surfaces
intersect, each surface will be closed before being intersected with another. The excess
portions of the curve will be trimmed off to form a single continuous contour.
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Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as
these restrictions are observed:
Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge, preferably
by bonding the edges together.
Where surfaces intersect, trim away the excess regions of the surface; e.g. the part
of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel.
Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion, i.e. a
maximum of one gap in a surface.
Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off.
Internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull contours.

Checking the Sections

It is good practice to check that Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your
design after you have opened it. To do this, check the sections shown in the various view
windows. These should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines. In
particular, look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax
has interpreted the shape correctly.
Checking the sections is made easy by just displaying the section contours; use the
Display | Visibility dialog:

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View the model in the perspective and other views. Rotating the model in the perspective
view should enable you to determine whether the sections have been formed correctly:

The model may also be rendered, which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of
the model which have not been properly defined. Select Render from the Display menu
whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections:

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Checking the Sections in Maxsurf

Since it is sometimes difficult to differentiate sections in Hydromax, it can be useful to


review the model in Maxsurf before loading it into Hydromax. Again, turn off all
contours except for the current section:

Then step through, section-by-section in the body plan view. (Make sure that there are a
sufficient number of sections defined in the grid spacing, especially in areas where the
model is complicated. Any sections that are not closed (or have at most one opening that
will be closed with a straight line in Hydromax) or have any extra lines in the sections
are likely to cause problems when the model is brought into Hydromax.

Correct section: this section will be closed across the top.

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Incorrect: areas in red ellipses will cause problems and should be trimmed off.

Correct section: excess topsides and deck have been trimmed away
Checking the Sectional Area Curve

Another way of checking is to perform an analysis of the upright hydrostatics at one


draft and look carefully at the sectional area curve. If this displays any unexpected spikes
or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape.
Internal Structure

The same rules apply for groups of surfaces used to define internal structure, which have
been selected to form a tank or compartment boundary. Remember that hull structure is
ignored when forming the initial compartment sections. In the second stage, the
compartment sections are intersected to the hull surfaces so that the compartments are
made up of areas that are inside the hull. For the compartments to be formed correctly in
the initial stage, the selected internal surfaces must form the required closed sections.
See section on compartment definition for more details on defining tanks with internal
surfaces. The limitations for sections defined by internal structure are the same as those
for the hull sections.

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Setting Initial Conditions


Before you run any analysis using Hydromax, it is important that you set up the required
initial conditions for the design.
Coordinate System
Hydromax uses the following coordinate system:

+ve forward, +ve starboard, +ve up


Frame of Reference and Zero Point
When Hydromax opens a design, the Forward Perpendicular, Aft Perpendicular and
Amidships positions are based on the Frame of Reference and Zero Point specified in
Maxsurf. If you wish to change any of these positions, it is possible to do so using the
Frame of Reference option in the Display menu. Although it is possible to set the frame
of reference and zero point in Hydromax, it is highly recommended that they be set
correctly in Maxsurf and not changed in Hydromax or Workshop.
It is essential that a frame of reference be specified. Draft and trim are based on the
forward and aft perpendiculars, and if these are not in the correct position, some analysis
results will be meaningless.

Positions are entered relative to the zero point for the hull. Note that the zero point can
be changed using the Zero Point option in the display menu.
The DWL field specifies the height of the design waterline. The Baseline field specifies
the position of the baseline - this may be an arbitrary distance below the hull if

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necessary. By setting the Forward and Aft Perpendicular fields, one also defines the
Amidships position.
The Find Base button is used to scan the hull shape and find the lowest point of the hull.
The Set to DWL button automatically sets the Forward Perpendicular, Aft Perpendicular
and Amidships based on the ends of the current DWL.
Trim
For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is free to trim or has fixed trim.
Select the Trim item in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog.

This allows you to specify a fixed trim with a positive, negative or zero value. Positive
trim is down by the stern, negative trim is down by the bow. If Free Trim is specified,
Hydromax will iterate to establish the trim that aligns the LCB and LCG.
Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics, Large Angle Stability, KN Analysis
Limiting KG and Tank Calibrations. (For the Specified Condition analysis, the trim may
be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength
Analyses always use a free trimming analysis where the LCB and LCG are aligned.
Trim for Limiting KG and KN analyses

Free to trim using a specified initial trim value. With this method, at each
displacement, the LCG of the vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed. This
LCG is then used to compute the free to trim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the
large angle stability analysis is performed. Thus, for each displacement, the upright
vessel trim will be the same, but the LCG will be different.
Free to trim to a specified LCG value. With this method, a constant, specified, LCG is
maintained for each displacement. This LCG is then used to compute the free to trim
vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed.
Thus, for each displacement, the LCG will be the same, but the upright vessel trim will
be different.
Density
Where necessary, the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and
fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog.
Density using the current units, or non-dimensional relative density (specific gravity),
may be specified. Alternatively, density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of
volume. Conversions are performed automatically. Relative density is calculated relative
to a fluid having a density of 1000.0 kg/m3.

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Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated
automatically when the density of the fluid is changed. Tank calibrations and loading
conditions will also be updated.
Note that the vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming that the vessel is
floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water" this is the first fluid in the list. If the vessel is to
float in a different fluid, it is necessary to change the density of this fluid. Note that only
the custom fluids may have their names changed. Thus, if you wanted to carry out an
analysis for a vessel in fresh water, you would change the density of "Sea Water" to
1000.0 kg/m 3.
Wave Definition
Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as
well as for a level water plane. To specify a waveform, select the Waveform command
from the Analysis menu:

The water plane can be specified as flat, or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform. If a


waveform is specified, the wavelength, wave height and phase offset can be specified.
The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL. If the
wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a standard metric wave, equivalent
to:

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Once a wavelength has been set, the wave height can be modified to give a non-standard
height.
The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the
DWL, as a proportion of the wavelength. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1, both
of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL.
For example, a phase offset of 0.5, with a wavelength equal to the waterline length, will
give a single wave crest at amidships.
Grounding
Grounding is an additional analysis condition for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal
Strength analyses. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable
length. The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free
floating and will trim the hull accordingly. Damage can be specified concurrently with
grounding.

Note that the grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull
and therefore constrain the heel to zero. The length of the grounding points is only used
when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis. Otherwise the
vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point.
Hog and Sag
Hydromax has the option to apply hog or sag during the calculations. When hog is
specified the centre of the hull and frame of reference remain stationary and the ends of
the hull are deflected downward.

When sag is specified the centre of the hull and frame of reference remain stationary and
the ends of the hull are deflected upwards.

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Hog or sag is distributed in a parabolic curve centred at either the amidships location, or
a specified longitudinal position relative to the zero point.

Hog and sag apply to all analysis modes including tank calibrations, which will vary
slightly with changes in hog and sag.
Loadcase
For the calculation of Large Angle Stability, Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength
analyses, Hydromax requires you to set up the displacement and centre of gravity
information using the table in the Loadcase window. This allows several independent
weights and levers to be combined and automatically included in the analysis.
To create a new load case, bring the Loadcase window to the front and choose New
Loadcase from the File menu. A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase
window. You may have up to four loadcases open at one time. They may be saved and
loaded independently, effectively allowing you any number of load cases.

Each time you make a change to the loading spreadsheet, Hydromax will recalculate
total displacement and centre of gravity values and display them in the bottom row of the
loading table. It is these values that are used for the large angle stability calculations. The
load values and positions entered in the Loadcase window will also be utilised by the
longitudinal strength analysis method.
Free Surface Moment options in Hydromax

It is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a
Hydromax Load Case. The options available are:

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Maximum free surface moment;


Actual free surface moment for the current fluid level;
IMO free surface moment method Code on Intact Stability A.749(18), MSC.75(69);
User specified free surface moment.

Free surface moment method selected in the Loadcase window for each tank

These choices appear in a column on the far right of each loadcase. Note that if you have
multiple loadcases, the free surface moment methods have to be selected individually for
each loadcase.
For more information on setting up loadcases, refer to the section in the Hydromax
Reference chapter covering the Loadcase window.
Compartment Definition
To define a tank, compartment or non-buoyant volume, select Compartment Definition
from the Window menu. Now select New Compartment Definition from the file menu. A
window similar to the one below will appear.

By entering data in the columns of the table, you can define a boundary box for the
compartment and modify the compartment 's name, permeability and, in the case of a
tank, the relative density (specific gravity) of the contents. More compartments can be
added by selecting Add Compartment from the Edit menu. Compartments can be deleted
by highlighting the desired row with the cursor and selecting Delete Compartment from
the Edit menu.
For more information, refer to the section in the Hydromax Reference chapter covering
the Compartment Definition window.

Fluid Analysis Method


Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of analysing any fluids contained in
tanks or compartments. The choice of method is made by selecting the Fluids command
from the Analysis menu. Note that the criteria in Hydromax assume that the corrected
VCG method is being used.

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The two options are:


Use corrected VCG - Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the
upright hull (zero trim and zero heel). The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free
surface is calculated by summing the maximum free surface moment of all the tanks
filled to less than 98% capacity and dividing by the total vessel displacement.
This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design, as it
corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification
societies worldwide. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim.
In this case, the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells
for corrected fluid VCG. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum
free surface moments of the tanks, calculated in the upright condition.

Simulate fluid movement - This method is a faithful simulation of the movement of the
centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle
being analysed. Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the
specified capacity. The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the
analysis. The new LCG, VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in
the calculation of GZ, KG, and GM.
This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest
possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. It is particularly useful at high
angles of heel or trim, or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly
different from the upright case (i.e. tall narrow tanks, or wide shallow tanks). The
penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer, however the results
are significantly more accurate.

In this case free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are not relevant and are not
included in the loading condition.
The fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a load case, i.e. Large Angle Stability,
Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength. When fluid simulation is used in one
of these analyses, the actual fluid level in the tank, filled to the volume specified in the
loadcase, will be displayed in the View Window. Otherwise the complete tank will be
shown.
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Damage Definition
Hydromax is capable of including damage to a hull shape in all the analysis modes.
Hydromax allows you to set up a number of Damage Cases. By default, there is always
an Intact case. The Intact case may not be edited, and volumes that are normally flooded
should be defined as non-buoyant volumes.
To add a damage case, make the Damage window topmost and select Add Damage Case
from the Case menu. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog. Each
new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed
to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case.

To delete damage cases, simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window
and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu. Note that it is not possible to delete
the intact case.
The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar.

The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage
case. To perform analyses for the intact vessel, select Intact as the current damage case.

Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. Note that
carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the Intact case to be selected.
When tanks have been damaged, their weights and levers are no longer used by the
Loadcase window to calculate the overall displacement and centre of gravity. Similarly,

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their free surface moments are not included for the purposes of calculating a free surface
correction to the VCG.
Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level. Any tank fluids are treated as
having been completely replaced by sea water up to the equilibrium waterline. Flooded
calculations are effectively carried out by the lost buoyancy method.
Damaged tanks are shown in the Loadcase Window in the following manner, with the
label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column, and all values set to zero.

Other Initial Condition Data


Other initial condition data may be defined. This includes downflooding points, margin
line and modulus points. The two former are used when evaluating criteria. See
Reference section for further details.
Stability Criteria
Stability criteria may be evaluated after a large angle stability analysis and after an
equilibrium analysis. Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG analysis.
Please refer to Chapter 3 for information on defining and selecting criteria.

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Upright Hydrostatics
Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range
of drafts.
Choosing Upright Hydrostatics
Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or
toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for Upright Hydrostatics are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Trim from the Analysis menu, you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts

Draft from the Analysis menu, specify range of drafts for analysis

Setting a Range of Drafts

A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts
command from the Analysis menu.

Initial and final drafts can be entered, together with the number of drafts to be used. The
Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc.
When a design is first opened, the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in
Maxsurf. Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL.

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Large Angle Stability


Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range
of heel angles either with or without trim.
Choosing Large Angle Stability Analysis
Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for large angle stability are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Error Values from the Edit menu
Fluid simulation type from the Analysis menu
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Stability Criteria from the Analysis menu
Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window


Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis

Setting Heel Angles

A range of heel angles for large angle stability calculations can be specified using the
Heel command from the Analysis menu.

The positive heel direction may be chosen to be to starboard or to port. Note that the
stability criteria are evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve and that key points
are displayed only on the positive side too.
Heel angles between -180 and +180 are permitted but consecutive limits must increase.
The heel steps must be positive. If only one set of steps is required, simply put 0 in the
other steps.
If criteria are being evaluated, the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen
accordingly, to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria.

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If all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10 a cubic spline will be fitted
through the data providing a smooth GZ curve.
WARNING: If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape; key
points; loading; damage; etc., and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel
direction, then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to
port to find the most pessimistic condition.

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Equilibrium Analysis
Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft, heel and trim of the hull as a result of
the loads applied in the table in the Load window. The analysis can be carried out in flat
water or in a waveform.
Choosing Equilibrium Analysis
Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for Equilibrium analysis are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Error Values from the Edit menu
Fluid simulation type from the Analysis menu
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Grounding (if any) from the Analysis menu

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

Unstable equilibria
When performing an equilibrium analysis, it should be borne in mind that Hydromax
starts to find the equilibrium position starting from upright. It is possible that, in the
upright condition, the vessel is in a state of unstable equilibrium. Because this is an
equilibrium position, Hydromax will stop the analysis having found an equilibrium
position. It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as
the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. This is
most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when
upright. The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely
by a small amount; see below.

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The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with
negative initial GM. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25
degrees.
If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero,
Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero heel:

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Results from Equilibrium analysis, note heel angle of zero:

In practice, it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. To do this, first ensure
that the error values (Edit | Error value) are set as sensitive as possible. This will ensure
that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position.

Now create a very small heeling moment. Either offset the lightship weight or you can
create a smaller moment by subdividing the lightship weight and only offsetting a
portion of it.

Now the results of the equilibrium analysis find the stable equilibrium position. Try and
use the smallest moment that will cause Hydromax to find the stable equilibrium
position. If you apply too large a moment, the vessel will be rotated past the position of
stable equilibrium.
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Specified Conditions
Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters and
equilibrium response of the hull as a result of changing the heel, trim and immersion.
Heel can be varied be specifying either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. Trim can
be varied by changing either the amount of trim, or the LCG and VCG. Immersion can
be varied by specifying either the displacement or the draft.
Choosing Specified Condition Analysis
Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or
toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for Specified Condition analysis are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar

Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu

Specifying Heel, Trim and Immersion

Three Sets of variables are provided, labelled Heel, Trim and Immersion. One choice
must be made from each of these groups. Hydromax will then solve for the vessel
hydrostatics at the conditions specified.

Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and
Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button.
Note that if the fluid simulation is turned on then the VCG obtained from the loadcase
will not include the free surface correction.

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KN Calculations
KN Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of
heel angles and displacements to produce a cross curves of stability.
Choosing KN Analysis
Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for KN calculations are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Fluid simulation type from the Analysis menu
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu

Displacement from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis


Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis

Setting a Range of Displacements

A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement


command from the Analysis menu.

Initial and final displacements can be entered, together with the number of displacements
required.
The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability analysis.
To set the range of angles, select Heel from the Analysis menu.

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During a KN analysis, the longitudinal centre of gravity (LCG) of the vessel is placed at
the longitudinal centre of buoyancy of the intact vessel at the specified displacement
with zero trim and heel. The LCG is computed for each of the specified displacements.
Hydromax calculates the LCG of a damaged vessel using the intact state. This gives a
better calculation of damaged KNs when large trim angles are likely.
The righting lever, GZ, may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the
desired displacement) for any specified VCG using the following equation:
GZ = KN - KG * sin(Heel)

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Limiting KG
Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of heel angles and
displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected criteria.
GZ curves are calculated for various KG values. After each cycle, the selected criteria
are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered.
When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability
analysis, it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the free-totrim options and CG are the same. Some criteria, notably angle of maximum GZ, are
extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen.
Choosing Limiting KG
Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Fluid simulation type from the Analysis menu
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu

Criteria from the Analysis menu, select which criteria should be evaluated
Displacement from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis
Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis

The range of displacements to be used are set in the same way as they are set in the KN
analysis.
The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability analysis.
To set the range of angles, select Heel from the Analysis menu. See the Large Angle
Stability section for further details. Since this can be quite a time consuming analysis,
you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability
calculations.
Note that the criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve, so if there
is any form of asymmetry, it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to
both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis).
The Limiting KG analysis also checks for equilibrium based criteria. However, you must
still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. Please note that after a
Limit KG analysis has completed, the results in the Criteria results table display Not
Analysed, this is because they would do not necessarily refer to the final VCG and
would be misleading all the selected criteria would have actually been evaluated during
the Limiting KG analysis. If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the
displacements and the corresponding limiting VCGs, this can be done in the Batch
Analysis.
Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessels VCG. Where these
values are explicit in the criterions definition in Hydromax, the correct values of
displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. However,
problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form most commonly
heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a
moment. In this case, since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its
definition within Hydromax, the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements
(where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement for
example in the case where the heeling moment, rather than the heeling arm is constant).
The user has two options: calculate the worst-case lever based on the displacement and
VCG that result in the worst lever and see if the criterion is actually a limiting one for
KG; or calculate limiting KG at single displacements and change the heeling arm for
each displacement.
Note that Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Longitudinal Strength
Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created
in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried
out in flat water or in a specified waveform.
Choosing Longitudinal Strength
Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or
toolbar.
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are:
Frame Of Reference from the Display menu (essential)
Fluid simulation type from the Analysis menu
Density from the Analysis menu
Wave Form (if any) from the Analysis menu
Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Grounding (if any) from the Analysis menu

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

Distributed loads

When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected, two extra columns appear in
the Loadcase window. These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load. A
trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of
the load. See the Loadcase Window section in Chapter 4 for more details.
Allowable Shears and Moments

The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shears and moments. It
will also be used in future for entering section modulus to display bending stress. One or
more points can be entered in this window. Allowable shear and/or moment can be
specified at each point.

To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments, bring the Modulus table
to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus
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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

window frontmost. The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using
Open and Save from the File menu. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting
Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable
shear and/or moment.
Allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Tank Calibrations
Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in
the Compartment window, at a range of capacities.
Choosing Tank Calibrations
Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Initial Conditions
Trim from the Analysis menu, you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts
Tank definitions, permeability and contents, see below:

Compartment

Tank boundaries and the properties of the tank contents. This is done using the
Compartment Definition window.
Defining Tank Properties

Using the Compartment Definition window you can specify the permeability of the tank
and the relative density of the tank contents.

Note that permeability and relative density values can be changed after the tanks have
been calibrated, the capacities and free surface moments will be updated automatically.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Starting and Stopping Analyses


To start the analysis, choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified, floating the hull to
equilibrium conditions where required. At each iteration, Hydromax will redraw the
contents of the windows to display the current hull position.
Calculations may be interrupted at any time by hitting the Escape key. You can also
choose Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar.
If you have stopped the analysis, you can resume calculation by selecting Resume
Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar.
There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is
finished.
You can also switch by clicking in the window of any background program. Hydromax
will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced.
The start, pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar:

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Batch processing
Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. With a single command, Hydromax
will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and
damage cases Further, Limiting KG and KN calculations will be made for each damage
condition. There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to
both port and starboard. For the Limiting LG analysis you may also check the limiting
KG for each criterion individually. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle
Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG.

Results are written to a tab delimited text file, which may be specified by the user at the
start of the analysis.
The aim of the batch processing function is to:
Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle
Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases.
Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post
processing and report generation.
Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs,
i.e.: analysis parameters, file name etc.

At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether they
want the results of a batch analysis to go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as
the batch analysis text file.
Analysis parameters such as trim, heel angles etc. are set in the normal way.
Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of
these are also output to the text file.
Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other, it is not possible to go
back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax; only the results of the
final analysis will be stored in Hydromax.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Once the loadcases, damage cases, key points, criteria and analysis parameters for the
Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses have been set up, the Batch Analysis is
started with the Start Batch Analysis command in the Analysis menu.
Before analysis starts, you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file
where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis. Once the analysis is
complete, this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further
processing.
Please note that under most operating systems, minimising Hydromax can reduce the
time required to perform the calculations. This is because time consuming redrawing of
the design windows, graphs and tables is avoided.
You may select whether you want the results of a batch analysis to go to the Report
window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file. Sending the results to the
report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system
resources. For large batch analysis, it is advisable not to include the results in the report

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Data Transfer
A wide range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as
spreadsheets and word processors is provided.
Saving Results to a File
Once you have performed an analysis, the data generated may be saved as a text file.
This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be
done in Word, Excel or other programs.
To save the data, ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the
table containing the data you wish to Save. Select Save or Save As from the File Menu.
Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window. The
Results files are saved as Tab delimited text, meaning that they can be read directly into
spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells.
Saving the Design
For convenience, the Hydromax design data, including the calculated sections,
loadcases, damage cases, compartment definition, key points etc., may all be saved. To
save the design, ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File
menu. The Hydromax data is saved in a .hmd file with the same name as the design. In
addition to saving all the data together, the data in the individual tables may also be
saved see below.
Saving Loadcases to a File
Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet, you can save it in a file on disk. This allows
the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or
with any other hull.
To save the loading data, ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and
choose Save Load Case from the File Menu. Selecting this option saves all the loads
displayed in the Loadcase window.
Saving Damage Cases to a File
Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage
Cases As from the file menu.
Saving Compartment Definitions to a File
To save a compartment definition to a file, bring the Input window to the front and
choose the compartment definition table; select Save Compartment Definition from the
File menu. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved.
The other tables in the Input window may be saved in a similar way (Key points, Margin
line points and Modulus points).

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Copying Data
The data or loading tables may also be copied to the clipboard. Simply select a cell, row,
column, range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command.
The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted
into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work.
Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed, will also copy the column
headings.
Copying Hull Views
Pictures of the hull in the View window may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy
command from the Edit menu. A dialog appears after selecting the Copy command that
will allow you to set the scale of the copied picture.

These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report
window.
Copying Graphs
You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the copy command. Note that the
picture that is placed in the clipboard will be the size that it was displayed on your
screen.

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Chapter 2 Using Hydromax

Printing
Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed. Simply bring the window you wish
to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu. Views of the hull in the View
window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf.
Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page
Setup command from the File menu. Note that in the report, the inserted tables will be
automatically formatted to fit the current page set up. However, once the tables have
been placed into the report, their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print
set up. Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before
any analyses have been made.
Print Preview
The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. To print the page
click the Print button, otherwise click the Cancel button.
The printing may be forced to be black and white. Choose the Colours button and select
the options required. Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes, but
the selection will be reflected in the printout.
The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Chapter 3
Stability Criteria
This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. Stability criteria are
evaluated for Large Angle Stability, Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Overview
Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria. This makes it quick
and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria
parameters. In the criteria results table, much more data relating to the intermediate
calculations is available.
It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria by selecting from a
wide range of standard criteria types, called parent criteria. Users may save, import and
edit their criteria sets. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email.
Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). This ensures that the
correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. Although
all criteria are displayed in the criteria table, only criteria that are applicable are added to
the report; i.e.: if the intact case is being computed, only the criteria that are selected for
evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report, similarly
for the damage cases.
Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium
analysis. However, only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are
displayed in the Results table); i.e. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that
are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added, and after a Large Angle Stability analysis
only GZ based criteria are added to the report.
Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the
dialog.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Setting up criteria - the Criteria dialog


The criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and have their parameters changed
in the Criteria dialog. Select Criteria from the Analysis menu:

or use the Criteria button,

, in the analysis toolbar:

The criteria dialog is shown below:

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Resizing and adjusting the dialogs layout

The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the
width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. Note that if, in the
unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog, the dialog size can
be reset by holding down the Shift key when you open the dialog.
Criteria tree list
The left-hand pane displays the list criteria that are available. The list allows you to
manage your stability criteria.
The criteria tree list

Parent criteria

The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in
Hydromax. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation; these are
the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived.
Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename, delete or add criteria to the Parent
Criteria group. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved, they will always revert
to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. This is because the parent criteria are
intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria. This
is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the My custom criteria group or
any other group you create.
To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria, they are displayed in bold
text in the Criteria list.
Moving criteria

Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the left-mousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the right-click context menu (see
above). Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be
made and the original will not be deleted.
Defining new custom criteria and groups

New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then
dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group. By holding down the Ctrl button a
copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion, in which
case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not).
Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the right-click context menu (see
above).

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names. If
duplicate group names exit, then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results.
As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found
with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. If
there are groups with the same name, all criteria that should be in a group of that name
will end up in the first one and none in the second.
Using the criteria tree list

The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer:
Click on the + sign to expand the folder (or double click on it).
Click on the - sign to collapse the group (or double click on it).
Click on an items name or icon to select it
Once selected, click again on the on the items name to edit its name

Some short-cut keys for the tree list:


Tree control smart keys
Alt+Keypad *

Function
Recursively expands the current group
completely

Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad +

Expands the current group

Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad -

Collapses the current group

Up Arrow

Move one item up tree

Down Arrow

Move one item down tree

Space

Include criterion for analysis

Selecting the criteria for analysis

Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion.
Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on
your mouse. To select an entire group, right-click on the group and choose Include for
Analysis from the menu.
Damage and Intact

Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). Intact criteria are
only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case
has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments
or tanks in the damage case). Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated.
These options may either be set using the right-click menu or by ticking the appropriate
boxes in the bottom of the dialog:

Intact and Damage tick-boxes.


Criteria tree right-click context menu

Several options are available by right-clicking on a criterion or criterion group:

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Criterion right-click menu


Include for Analysis:
Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated.
Intact:
Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for
intact conditions.
Damage:
Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for
damaged conditions.
Lock:
Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked. If a criterion is
locked, this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. Locking is used for criteria
belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed.
Add Group:
Add a new criterion group.
Cut:
Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. This may then be pasted
into another location in the tree.
Copy:
Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. This may then be pasted
into another location in the tree.
Paste:
Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location
Rename:
Renames the criterion or group. This may also be done by selecting the label, then
clicking again in the label.
Delete:
Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and sub-groups within the group.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Criteria details
The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the top-right of the dialog:

Criterion details table


To edit the parameters for a specific criterion, click on the criterions name in the tree
and the criterions parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. Edit the
parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree, or
click the dialogs Close button. Please note that the criteria are updated as you change
their data and that there is no Cancel function for this dialog. If in doubt, use the File |
Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before
making any changes in the Criteria dialog.
The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background; those which cannot be
edited have a grey background.
The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold.
Check boxes in criteria properties section of criteria dialog

There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on
their context. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a
criterion parameter. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the
individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion:

In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually
exclusive. However, at least one must be selected.

In other cases, where the items are mutually exclusive, the check boxes act as radio
buttons and only one may be selected. This occurs, for example, with the Value of GMt
at criterion:

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included,
for example, GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria:

Criterion pass/fail test

There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria. For
example one criterion may state Shall be greater than, whereas another may state
Shall not be less than. Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting
the required comparison from a combo-box in the criterion row of the details table:

Description
Shall be greater than

Symbol
>

Logical test
Greater than

Shall not be less than

Greater than or equal to

Shall be less than

<

Less than

Shall not be greater than

Less than or equal to

Criteria help
A brief description of the criterion is displayed in the lower right-hand pane. This help is
also available in the on-line help system.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Criteria results
After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis, criteria are evaluated and the
results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window. Criteria are also reevaluated whenever the Criteria dialog is closed. After calculation the relevant criteria
are also added to the Report.
Criteria results table

The tested criteria are listed one above the other. Intermediate values are displayed.
Values that could not be calculated, e.g.: angle of vanishing stability, angle of
equilibrium, etc., have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. This is normally due to an
insufficient range of heel angle having been used.
Results may be displayed in Verbose or Compact format (see above). The format for
the results table and the report are specified separately. Chose the Display | Data Format
command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed:

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Stability criteria results window: verbose format

Stability criteria results window: compact format


Report and batch processing

As noted earlier, only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch
file. Criteria that are not relevant, e.g. damage criteria during intact analysis or
Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis, are not added to the Report
(although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table).
Importing and saving criteria sets
It is possible to load and save the criteria. The parent criteria, built into Hydromax are
not saved, only the criteria that you create or import will be saved.
Default criteria library file

When starting, Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called:
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Hydromax Criteria Library.hcr from the directory in which the Hydromax program
resides. If this file cannot be found, you will be prompted to locate a criteria file:

You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the
default criteria, which consists of the Parent criteria and a My Custom Criteria group.
The default criteria library or the alternative file that you selected will be automatically
updated every time the criteria dialog is closed.
Saving criteria

It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file - this can be useful when you are
defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining
criteria sets for different vessels. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. This will
simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file.
Further updates will, however, continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that
was opened when Hydromax was first started, so if you want to save any further changes
you will have to resave as described above.
Importing criteria and specific criteria files

New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them - choose Import
Criteria from the File menu. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing
criteria:

If you choose Yes your existing criteria will be kept, if you choose No, all existing
criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you
are opening. The default criteria library will be over-written with the new criteria so if
you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria
library, it is a good idea to save them first in a new file.
Note that when keeping your existing criteria, it is important to ensure that the group
names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. If this
does occur, the imported criteria will be found in the original groups, not in the new
groups.
A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax.
These may be found in the HMSpecificCriteria folder.
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Criteria file format

The criteria are save in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension .hcr. The file is a
normal PC text file, which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. The
typical format of the file is given in the Appendix. Editing this file will also allow you to
add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your
criteria.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Nomenclature
This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by
Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria.
There are two distinct types of criteria:
Criteria that depend on the final static waterline of the vessel. These are computed
after an Equilibrium analysis has been performed. For example Margin line not
immersed.
Those that are computed after a Large Angle Stability calculation. The criteria
depend on various calculations made from the GZ curve. For example Area under
the GZ curve. These are the majority of criteria.

Note that the meta-centre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed
directly from the vessels hydrostatic properties (i.e. water-plane inertia and immersed
volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. This gives an
accurate result that is not dependant on the heel angles and intervals tested during the
analysis.
Definitions of GZ curve features:
Some typical GZ curves are shown below, the third graph shows the GZ curve with a
heeling arm overlayed.

Typical GZ curve

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Unusual GZ curve with double peak

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed


GZ Definitions

The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve:

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of vanishing
stability
Angle of vanishing
stability with
heeling arm curve

The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive


angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with
negative slope.
The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm
is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses
the heel arm curve and where the GZ-Heel Arm curve
has negative slope.

Downflooding
angle
Equilibrium angle

The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at


which a downflooding point becomes immersed.
The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where
the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope.

Equilibrium angle
with heeling arm
curve

The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the


angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel
arm curve where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has positive
slope.

First peak in GZ
curve

In some cases, the GZ curve may have multiple peaks;


this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight
cabin. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive
angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs.

GML or GMT

Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse


metacentre and centre of gravity. The location of the
metacentre is computed from the water-plane inertia, not
the slope of the GZ curve. Note that the centre of gravity
used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free
surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright
condition, rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle.

GZ Curve

The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against


vessel heel angle

Heeling arm curve

A curve of heeling lever, which is superimposed on the


GZ curve. This is typically used to assess the effects of
external heeling moments, which are applied to the
vessel. These include the effects of wind, passenger
crowding, centripetal effects of tuning, etc. Depending
on the moment that they represent, the heeling arm
curves will have different shapes.
The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative; if the
cos function goes negative, the heeling arm is made zero.
If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero,
the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater
than 90 and less than -90.

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Maximum GZ

Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum

Maximum GZ
above heeling arm
curve

Positive angle at which the value of (GZ - heel arm) is a


maximum

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Glossary
The table below describes some commonly used terms:
Angle of heel measured from upright.

Deck Slope /
The maximum slope of an initially horizontal, flat deck at
maximum slope
the resultant vessel heel and trim. i.e. combined effect of
heel and trim.
Gust Ratio
Used for some wind heeling criteria, the Gust Ratio is the
ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the
steady wind heeling arm.
-2
g = 9.80665ms
1998 CODATA recommended value for standard
acceleration of gravity

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Parent stability criteria


Criteria at equilibrium
These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium
position of the vessel after the analysis. The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the
report if you run an equilibrium analysis.
Maximum value of heel, trim or slope at equilibrium

This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel, Pitch or Maximum
Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck).
Option
The angle of

Description
Choose from the following (case
insensitive auto-completion is used):
Heel
Pitch
MaxSlope

Units
deg

Shall be less than /


Shall not be greater than

Permissible value

deg

Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium

Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value. This
could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion.
Option
The value of

Description
Choose from the following (case
insensitive auto-completion is used):
Marginline
DeckEdge
DownfloodingPoints
PotentialDfloodingPoints
EmbarkationPoints
ImmersionPoints

Units
length

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium

Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. This could be
used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option
The value of

Description
Choose from the following (case
insensitive auto-completion is used):
Marginline
DeckEdge
DownfloodingPoints
PotentialDfloodingPoints
EmbarkationPoints
ImmersionPoints

Units
length

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range, use a combination of both
forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria.
Value of GMT or GML at equilibrium

This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a


specified minimum value.
Option
The value of

Description
Choose from the following (case
insensitive auto-completion is used):
GMtransverse
GMlongitudinal)

Units
length

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

GZ curve criteria (non-heeling arm)


These criteria, calculated from the GZ curve, are calculated from the Large Angle
Stability analysis in Hydromax.
Value of GMt at

Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. The
criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. GMt is
computed from water-plane inertia and immersed volume.
Option

Description
Value of GMt at either

Units

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

Page 63

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Value of GZ at

Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle, first peak in GZ curve, angle of
maximum GZ or the downflooding angle. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is
greater then the required value.
Option

Description
Value of GZ at either

Units

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle
Shall be greater than /
Shall not be less than

See Nomenclature

deg

Permissible value

length

Value of maximum GZ

Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. The criterion is
passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value. If you want to check the
value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle. If
any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit, they will be
ignored when selecting the lowest. If all the upper limit values are less than the lower
limit, then the criterion will also fail. This functionality is to allow criteria such as The
maximum GZ at 30deg or greater.

Page 64

Option

Description
Value of maximum GZ

Units

in the range from the


greater of

Lower limit for heel angle range, the


greater of the following:

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

to the lesser of

Upper limit for heel angle range, the lesser


of the following:

specified heel angle


angle of first GZ peak

User specified heel angle


See Nomenclature

deg
deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

deg

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Value of Maximum GZ
Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle

If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value, the value of
GZ at the specified angle is calculated. Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is
calculated. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs,
see graph below.

Page 65

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option
heel angle at which
required GZ is constant

Description
If the angle of maximum GZ is greater
than or equal to this value, the required
value of GZ is constant and is taken at this
specified angle. Otherwise the required
value of maximum GZ varies as a
hyperbolic function with the angle of
maximum GZ. This is 0

Units
deg

required value of GZ at
this angle is

Required value of GZ at the heel angle


specified above. This is GZ ( 0 )

length

limited by first GZ peak


angle

Angle at which GZ is measured may be


limited to the location of the first peak in
the GZ curve

deg

limited by first
downflooding angle

Angle at which GZ is measured may be


limited to first downflooding angle

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length

If GZ 0 then GZ ( 0 ) must be greater than the specified, constant value.


max
If GZ < 0 then GZ max must be greater than
max

0
GZmax

GZ ( 0 )

where:
0 is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant

GZmax is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs

GZ ( 0 ) is the GZ value at 0 and GZ max is the maximum value of GZ.

Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ

Page 66

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle

As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle)


except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified, measured and
compared.
The righting moment RM is given by:

RM = gGZ
where:
is the vessel volume of displacement

is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in

is acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665m/s2


g
GZ is the righting lever
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2

Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles. The criterion is passed
if the ratio is less then the required value.

Ratio =

GZ (1 )
GZ ( 2 )

Option

Description
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2

Units

Phi1, first heel angle,


the lesser of
specified heel angle

First heel angle, the lesser of the


following:
User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

Phi2, second heel angle,


the lesser of

Second heel angle, the lesser of the


following:

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

Shall be less than /


Shall not be greater than

Permissible value

Page 67

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2


Angle of maximum GZ

Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value, heel angle can be
limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle. The criterion is passed
if the angle is greater then the required value.
Option
limited by first GZ
peak angle
limited by first
downflooding angle
Shall be greater than /
Shall not be less than

Description
Angle of maximum GZ
The angle of maximum GZ shall not be
greater than the angle at which the first GZ
peak occurs

Units

The angle of maximum GZ shall not be


greater than the angle at which the first
downflooding occurs
Permissible value

deg

deg

deg

Angle of equilibrium

Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis.
The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value.

Page 68

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option

Description
Angle of equilibrium

Units

Shall be less than /


Shall not be greater than

Permissible value

deg

Angle of downflooding

Finds the angle of first downflooding. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle
is greater then the required value.
Option

Description
Angle of downflooding

Units

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

deg

Angle of margin line immersion

Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. The criterion is passed
if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value.
Option

Description
Angle of margin line immersion

Units

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

deg

Angle of deck edge immersion

Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. The criterion is passed
if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value.
Option

Description
Angle of deck edge immersion

Units

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

deg

Angle of vanishing stability

Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the
GZ=0 axis. The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the
required value.
Option

Description
Angle of vanishing stability

Units

Shall be less than /


Shall not be greater than

Permissible value

deg

Page 69

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Range of positive stability

The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed. The criterion is
passed if the computed range is greater then the required value.
Option

Description
Range of positive stability

Units

from the greater of

Lower limit

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

to the lesser of

Upper limit of the range

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing
stability

See Nomenclature

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

deg

GZ area between limits type 1 - standard

The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected
limits and compared with a minimum required value. The criterion is passed if the area
under the graph is greater than the required value.

Page 70

Option

Description
GZ area between limits type 1 - standard

Units

from the greater of

Lower limit for integration, from greatest


angle of

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

to the lesser of
specified heel angle

Upper limit of integration, from lesser


angle of
User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing
stability

See Nomenclature

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length.angle

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

GZ area between limits type 1 - standard


GZ area between limits type 2- HSC monohull type

The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. However the
required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit. The required area is
defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.36(63) 2.3.3.2 and IMO
A.749(18) 4.5.6.2.1. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is
greater then the required value.
The required area is defined as follows:
If max 2 : required area = A2 ;
If max 1 : required area = A1 ;
If 1 < max
Where:

A A2
(2 max )
A2 + 1
< 2 : required area =
2 1
;

max is the upper integration limit;


A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle 1 ; and A2 is
the area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle 2 .
For example, if the lower angle was 15 and the required area at this angle was
0.07m.rad and the upper angle was 30 and the required area at this angle was
0.055m.rad, then the required area would be given by:

Page 71

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

0.07 0.055
A = 0.55 +
(30 max )
30 15
or simplifying:

A = 0.55 + 0.001 (30 max )

Variation of required area with upper integration limit

Page 72

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option

Description
GZ area between limits type 2- HSC
monohull type

Units

from the greater of


specified heel angle

Lower limit for integration, from greatest


angle of
User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

to the lesser of

Upper limit of integration, from smallest


angle of

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing
stability
lower heel angle

See Nomenclature

deg

Minimum angle that requires a GZ area


greater than... Until this angle the required
GZ area is constant

deg

required GZ area at
lower heel angle

Value of GZ area that is required until the


lower heel angle

length.angle

higher heel angle

Angle from which the required GZ area


remains constant onwards

deg

required GZ area at
higher heel angle

Value of GZ area that is required from the


higher heel angle onwards

length.angle

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length.angle

Page 73

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

GZ area between limits type 2- HSC monohull type


GZ area between limits type 3 - HSC multihull type

The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. However the
required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit ( max). The required area
is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.36 (63) Annex 7 1.1.
The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required
value.
required area = A1 (1 / max ) ;
Where:

max is the upper integration limit;


A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle 1 .
For example, if the specified angle ( 1 ) was 30 and the required area at this angle ( A1 )
was 0.055m.rad, then the required area would be given by:

A = 0.055(30 / max )

Page 74

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Variation of required area with upper integration limit


Option

Description
GZ area between limits type 3 - HSC
multihull type

Units

from the greater of

Lower limit for integration, from greatest


angle of

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

to the lesser of

Upper limit of integration, from lesser


angle of

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding
angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing
stability

See Nomenclature

deg

higher heel angle

Heel angle at which required GZ area is


specified

deg

required GZ area at
higher heel angle

Value of GZ area that is required until the


higher heel angle

length.angle

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

length.angle

Ratio of GZ area between limits

This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0
axis.

Page 75

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Area 1
Ratio =
=
abs(Area 2)

GZ ( )d

abs GZ ( )d

, where abs means the absolute value of.

Option

Description
Ratio of GZ area between limits

Units

Area 1 from the greater of

Area 1 lower integration limit, 1

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of equilibrium

See Nomenclature

deg

Area 1 to the lesser of

Area 1 upper integration limit, 2

deg

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing stability

See Nomenclature

deg

Area 2 from the lesser of

Area 2 lower integration limit, 3

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

angle of first GZ peak

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of maximum GZ

See Nomenclature

deg

first downflooding angle

See Nomenclature

deg

angle of vanishing stability

See Nomenclature

deg

Area 2 to

Area 1 upper integration limit, 4

specified heel angle

User specified heel angle

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only; GZ
areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not
considered positive. Typically, Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability
and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg, see graph below.
In the example below, the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium
and vanishing stability, respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and
180 deg.

Page 76

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of GZ area between limits Example 1


In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding
angle. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged.

Ratio of GZ area between limits Example 2

Page 77

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

In the final example, the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the
downflooding angle. Note that Area 2 is now A1 A2.

Ratio of GZ area between limits Example 3


Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits

This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis
in the given heel angle range.
Option

Description
Ratio of positive to negative GZ area
between limits

Units

in the heel angle range from

User specified lower limit heel angle

deg

to

User specified upper limit heel angle

deg

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Permissible value

Ratio =

Area 1
,
abs(Area 2)

where abs means the absolute value of. And the areas are defined as follows:
If both heel angle limits are = zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and
GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ > 0; Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and
GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ < 0. Area 1 is positive, Area 2 is negative.

Page 78

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.


Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg, upper limit = 180deg.
If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and
GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ < 0; Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and
GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ > 0. Area 1 is positive, Area 2 is negative.

Page 79

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.


Negative heel: lower limit = -180deg, upper limit = 0deg.
If the lower heel angle limit < zero, and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit
is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ
curve and GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles = 0 plus the area
between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0;
Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis, where the value of GZ < 0
for heel angles = 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis, where the value
of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0. Area 1 is positive, Area 2 is negative.

Page 80

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.


Positive and negative heel: lower limit = -180deg, upper limit = 180deg.
Heeling arm definition
There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria. They are defined below.
General heeling arm

The general form of the heeling arm is given below:

H ( ) = A cos n ( )
where:

is the heel angle,


A is the magnitude of the heeling arm,
cos n describes the shape of the curve.
Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal
lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. For
wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever
decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. However, some criteria, such as IMO Severe
wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude, in this
case n=0 should be used.
General cos+sin heeling arm

Some criteria, notably lifting of weights, require a heeling arm with both a sine and
cosine component:

Page 81

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

H ( ) = k A cos n ( ) + B sin m ( )

It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity, the same heeling arm form
may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form:

H ( ) = k ( A cos( + ) + B sin( + ) )

in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing, the angle of the tow above the
horizontal) is included.
It may be shown that this is equivalent to:

H ( ) = k (C cos( ) + D sin( ) )

where:

C=

R2
B
1 + tan 2 ( ) , D = C tan( ) , R 2 = A 2 + B 2 and tan = A

Heeling due to passenger crowding

The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:

H pc ( ) =

n pas MD

where:

cos n ( )

n pas is the number of passengers


M is the average mass of a single passenger
D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline
is the vessel mass (same units as M )
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows:
Option
number of passengers:
nPass

Description
Number of passengers

Units

passenger mass: M

Average mass of one passenger

mass

distance from
centreline: D

Average distance of the passengers from


the centreline

length

cosine power: n

Cosine power for curve - defines shape

Heeling due to turning

The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal
force acting on the vessel during a high-speed turn and the vertical separation of the
centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn. The heeling arm is
obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight. The heeling arm is thus
given by:

H t ( ) = a

v2
h cos n ( )
Rg

where (in consistent units):


a is a constant, theoretically unity
v is the vessel velocity
Page 82

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

R is the radius of the turn


h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows:
Option
constant: a

Description
Constant which may be used to modify the
magnitude of the heel arm, normally unity

Units

vessel speed: v

Vessel speed in turn

length/time

turn radius: R

Turn radius may be specified directly

length

turn radius, R, as
percentage of LWL
Vertical lever: h

Or, as some criteria require, as percentage


of LWL
There are four options for specifying h (all
options are calculated with the vessel
upright at the loadcase displacement and
LCG):
User specified

h = KG

h is taken as KG - position of G above


baseline in upright condition

length

h = KG - mean draught
/2

h is taken as KG less half the mean


draught.

length

h = KG - vert. centre of
projected lat. u'water
area
cosine power: n

h is taken as the vertical separation of the


centres of gravity and underwater lateral
projected area.
Cosine power for curve - defines shape

length

length

Heeling due to lifting of weights

This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position. The
magnitude of the heel arm is given by:

H lw ( ) =

M
[h cos( ) + v sin( )]

where:
M is the mass of the weight being lifted
h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position
and the suspension position
v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and
the suspension position
is the vessel mass (same units as M )
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows:

Page 83

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option
Mass being lifted: M

Description
Mass of weight being lifted

Units
mass

vertical separation of
suspension from
stowage position: v

Vertical separation of suspension point


from weights original stowage position on
the vessel. This value is positive if the
suspension position is above the original
stowage position.

length

horizontal separation of
suspension from
stowage position: h

Horizontal separation of suspension point


from weights original stowage position on
the vessel This value is positive if the
horizontal shift of the weight should
produce a positive heeling moment.

length

Heeling due to towing or bollard-pull

The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:

H tow ( ) =

T
v cosn ( + ) + h sin( + )
g

where:
T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust, expressed as a force.
h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline
v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessels vertical centre of
thrust
is the vessel mass
n is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the
heeling arm curve
is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. It is assumed that the
towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the
vessel is heeled.
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows:

Page 84

Option
tension or thrust: T

Description
Tension in towline or vessel thrust

Units
force

vertical separation of
propeller centre and tow
attachment: v

Vertical separation tow attachment


position from the vessels vertical centre
of thrust. This value is positive if the
towline is above the thrust centre.

length

horizontal offset of tow


attachment: h

Horizontal offset of the tow attachment


position from the vessel centreline. This
value is positive if the offset is in the
direction of the tow.

length

angle of tow above


horizontal: tau

Angle of tow above the horizontal

angle

cosine power: n

Cosine power for curve - defines shape

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Heeling due to wind

In the case of the wind pressure based formulation, the wind heeling arm is given by:

H w ( ) = a

PA(h H ) n
cos ( )
g

where:
a is a constant, theoretically unity

A is the windage area at height h


is the vessel mass
P is the wind pressure
H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force
In the case of the wind velocity based formulation, the wind heeling arm is given by:

H w ( ) = a

v 2 A(h H ) n
cos ( )
g

where:
a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area
v is the wind speed.
And the other parameters are described as above.

Page 85

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option
constant: a

Units

wind model

Description
Constant which may be used to modify
the magnitude of the heel arm, normally
unity
Pressure or Velocity (type P or V)

wind pressure or
velocity

Actual velocity of pressure - depends on


wind model

Pa or
length/
time

area centroid height: h

Height of user defined total or additional


windage area

length

total area: A

User may specify either a total windage


area
Or, an area to be added to the windage
area computed by Hydromax based on
the hull sections

length 2

additional area: A

length 2

height of lateral
resistance: H

There are four options for specifying H


(all options are calculated with the vessel
upright at the loadcase displacement and
LCG):
User specified

length

H = mean draught / 2

H is taken as half the mean draught.

length

H = vert. centre of
projected lat. u'water
area
H = waterline

H is taken as the vertical centre of


underwater lateral projected area.

length

H is taken as the waterline

length

cosine power: n

Cosine power for curve - defines shape

Gust ratio

Some criteria require a Gust Ratio, this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling
arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind.

GustRatio=

H gust
H steady

Areas and levers

Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and
their vertical centroids. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids
or the total areas and vertical centroids. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the
Maxsurf/Hydromax co-ordinate system; i.e.: from the models vertical datum, positive
upwards.
Centroids of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero trim and heel) at the mean
draught. The areas are calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax; thus,
increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation;
further, only Hull surfaces are included in the calculation - Structure surfaces are
ignored.
Page 86

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

The vertical position of the keel, K, is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the
Frame of Reference dialog), even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical
bottom of the vessel.
Heeling arms for specific criteria - Note on unit conversion
There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling
arms. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is
generating the heeling moment.
Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or
moments in mass.length. All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is
ultimately plotted on the GZ curve. To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment,
it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g ); and in the case of moments in
mass.length, it is necessary to divide by vessel mass.
In the following section, the conversions for some common criteria have been explained.
IMO Code on Intact Stability A.749(18) amended to MSC.75(69)

3.1.2.6 - Heeling due to turning


Heeling moment defined by:

V02
d

M R = 0.196 tonne KG
L
2 [kNm]

Where:

MR

V0

= heeling moment in tonne.m


= service speed in m/s
= length of ship at waterline in m

L
tonne = displacement in tonne
d
= mean draught m
KG = height of centre of gravity above keel in m
Hence the heeling arm, H R = 1000 M R / g [m], is given by:

H R = 0.196

V02
d 1000
V2
d
= 0.196 0 KG
KG
L 1000
2 g
Lg
2 [m]

Where:

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg

The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

HR = a

V2
Rg

h
[m],

Where:

V
R

= vessel speed in m/s


= radius of turn in m
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

h
a

= height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m


= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm, we obtain:

V2
Rg

h = 0.196

V02
d
KG
Lg
2

Equating similar terms:

h = KG
2

V = V0
and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5.1:1, we obtain:

R
= 510%
L
and

a = 0.196 510% = 0.9996


R
a = 0.196
and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and
Note that it suffices that L
constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen, the choice of a ratio of 5.1:1
merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.
3.2 - Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion)
Heeling arm defined by:

l w1 =

PAZ
1000 g 9.81 tonne [m]

Where:

l w1

= heeling arm in m
= wind pressure in Pa
= projected lateral windage in m2
= vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m

P
A
Z
tonne = displacement in tonne
g9.81 = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration - 9.81m/s2
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

Hw = a

PA(h H )
g
[m]

Where:

h
H
a

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg
= height of centroid of A in m
= height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m
= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm, we obtain:
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

PA(h H )
PAZ
=
g
1000 g 9.81 tonne

Equating similar terms:

hH = Z
and

a=

g
g9.81

9.80665
= 0.99966
9.81

IMO HSC Code MSC.36(63)

Annex 6 1.1.4 - Heeling moment due to wind pressure


Heeling moment defined by:

M v = 0.001PAZ [kNm]
Where:

Mv

= heeling moment in kNm


= wind pressure in Pa
= projected lateral windage in m2
= vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m

P
A
Z

Hence the heeling arm, H v = 1000 M v / g [m], is given by:

H R = 0.001PAZ

1000 PAZ
=
g
g [m]

Where:

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg

The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

Hw = a

PA(h H )
g
[m]

Where:

h
H
a

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg
= height of centroid of A in m
= height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m
= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm, we obtain:

PA(h H ) PAZ
=
g
g

Equating similar terms:

hH = Z
and

a = 1.0

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Annex 7 1.3 - Heeling due to wind


Heeling arm defined by:

HL1 =

PAZ
9800 tonne [m]

Where:

HL1

= heeling arm in m
= wind pressure in Pa
= projected lateral windage in m2
= vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draught in
m

P
A
Z

tonne = displacement in tonne


The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

Hw = a

PA(h H )
g
[m]

Where:

h
H
a

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg
= height of centroid of A in m
= height of half the lightest service draught in m
= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm, we obtain:

PA(h H )
PAZ
=
9800 tonne
g

Equating similar terms:

hH = Z
and

a=

g
9.80665
=
= 1.00068
9800 tonne
9.8

Where the effect of wind plus gust is required, the factor a should be multiplied by the
gust factor typically 1.5. Hence, in the case of wind plus gust, a becomes 1.50102
USL code (Australia)

USL C.1.1.3 - Wind heeling moment


USL wind heeling moment is specified as:

M = 0.000102 PA ( h H ) [tonne.m]
Where:

h
H
P
A

Page 90

= height of centroid of A in m
= height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m
= wind pressure in Pa
= projected lateral windage in m2

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Thus the heeling arm is given by:

H = 0.000102 PA (h H )

1000
[m]

The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

H=a

PA(h H )
g
[m]

Where:

= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2


= displacement in kg
= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating:

H=a

PA(h H )
1000
= 0.000102 PA(h H )
g

simplifying and rearranging:

a = 0.000102 1000 . 0 g = 0. 102 9.80665 = 1.0002783


USL C.1.1.4 - Heeling moment due to turning
USL wind heeling moment is specified as:

M = 0.0053

2
v kts
tonnesh
L
[tonne.m]

Where:

v kts

= vessel speed in knots

tonne = displacement in tonne


h
= height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m
L
= waterline length of vessel in m
Thus the heeling arm is given by:
2
v kts
tonnesh 1
H = 0.0053
1000 .0
L

[m]

Where:

= displacement in kg

The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:

H=a

V2
Rg

h
[m],

Where:

V
R
h
a

= vessel speed in m/s


= radius of turn in m
= height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m
= non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)

Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm, we obtain:
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

2
v kts
tonnesh 1
a
h = 0.0053
1000 .0
Rg
L

V2

simplifying and rearranging:


2
tonnes
R v kts
R
1
1
a = 5.3g
= 5.3g
2
2
LV

L 0.5144 1000 .0
-2

finally, with g = 9.80665 [ms ]:

a = 0.196424

R
L

R
= 509%
Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length, L
gives a value
for a:

a = 0.196424 509% = 0.999798


R
a = 0.196424
, and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length
Note that it suffices that L
and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen, the choice of a ratio of
509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.
Heeling arm criteria
These criteria are derived from the GZ curve calculated from the Large Angle Stability
analysis in Hydromax in conjunction with user defined heeling arms. In all cases there is
a generic form of the criterion with the general form of the heeling arm, and in some
cases, the same criteria are given with a specific, heeling arm due to wind pressure,
passenger crowding or vessel turning.
Value of GMT at equilibrium - general heeling arm

Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel
arm curves. The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value.
GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the
equilibrium heel angle.
Uses the general heel arm as described in General heeling arm
Value of GZ at equilibrium - general heeling arm

Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel
arm curves. The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value.
Uses the general heel arm as described in General heeling arm

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Value of GZ at equilibrium - general heeling arm


Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm

Finds the maximum value of (GZ - heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle. The first
downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit. The criterion is passed if the
value of (GZ - heel arm) is greater then the required value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm


Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - general heeling arm

Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve. The heel arm is used
to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ - heel arm) is maximum.
The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value.

GZ (1 )
Ratio = GZ ( 2 )

Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm

Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling
arm is greatest (GZ - Heel Arm is maximum, positive). The criterion is passed if the
angle is greater then the required value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm - general heeling arm


Angle of equilibrium - general heeling arm

Calculates the angle of equilibrium with a general heeling arm applied. The equilibrium
angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and
the GZ curve has positive slope. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less
then the required value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of equilibrium - general heeling arm


Angle of equilibrium ratio - general heeling arm

Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with a general heeling arm applied) to
another, selectable angle. The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in Angle
of equilibrium - general heeling arm.
Ratio =

equilibriu m
specified

The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following:
Required angle for ratio calculation
Auto complete text
Marginline immersion angle
MarginlineImmersionAngle
Deck edge immersion angle

DeckEdgeImmersionAngle

Angle of first GZ peak

DownfloodingAngle

Angle of maximum GZ

MaximumGZAngle

First downflooding angle

FirstGZPeakAngle

Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm

VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle

Angle of equilibrium - passenger crowding heeling arm

Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding
applied. The heeling arm is calculated from the number, weight and location of the
passengers.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of equilibrium - high-speed turn heeling arm

Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning
applied. The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius, vessel speed and height of
the vessels centre of gravity, see Heeling arm definitions: heeling due to turning.
Angle of equilibrium - derived wind heeling arm

The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to
wind pressure exceeds a certain value. The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of
specified ratio. The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a
specified heel angle, angle of the first GZ peak, angle of maximum GZ or the first
downflooding angle.
The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio, if the angle of
steady heel is greater than the angle. This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle,
first peak in GZ curve, angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle, should be
large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than .

Angle of equilibrium - derived wind heeling arm


Angle of vanishing stability - general heeling arm

Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where
the slope of the GZ curve is negative. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then
the required value. This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive
stability.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of vanishing stability - general heeling arm


Range of positive stability - general heeling arm

Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm.


[Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] [Angle of equilibrium]
The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Range of positive stability - general heeling arm


GZ area between limits - general heeling arm

Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the
specified heel angles. The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value.
2

(GZ ( ) heel arm( ) )d


Area =
1

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

GZ area between limits - general heeling arm


Ratio of areas type 1 - general heeling arm

The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ
curve is computed. This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies
turning and passenger crowding criteria. Type 1 stands for which areas are being
integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph). The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater
than the required value.
2

Area 1 =

(GZ ( ) heel arm( ) )d ;


1

Area 2 =

GZ ( )d

Area 1
Ratio = Area 2

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of areas type 1 - general heeling arm


Ratio of areas type 1 - general cos+sin heeling arm

This is a very similar criterion to Ratio of areas type 1 - general heeling arm; the only
difference being the shape of the heel arm. In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine
and a cosine component. This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is
used by several Navies.
The modified form of the heeling arm is given below, for further information also see
Heeling arm definitions: general cos+sin heeling arm.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

H ( ) = k A cos n ( ) + B sin m ( )

Area 1 =

(GZ ( ) heel arm( ) )d


1

Area 2 =

GZ ( )d

Area 1
Ratio = Area 2
Ratio of areas type 2 - general wind heeling arm

This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in
waves. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several
options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated.
If a gust ratio of greater than 1.0 is used, the vessel is assumed to roll to windward
(under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it, then roll to
leeward under a gust. Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with
the steady wind heeling arm, but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium
with the gust wind heeling arm.
The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of
equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium
angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i.e.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis
with positive slope).
2

(GZ ( ) gust heel arm( ))d


Area 1 =
1

(steady heel arm( ) GZ ( ) )d


Area 2 =
1

Area 1
Ratio = Area 2

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of areas type 2 - general wind heeling arm


Multiple heeling arm criteria
These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of three heeling arms:
passenger crowding, turning and wind. The combined heeling arms are computed by
adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - multiple heeling arms

Checks the ratio of GZ values as per Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - general
heeling arms

Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 - multiple heeling arms


Angle of equilibrium - multiple heeling arms

Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per Angle of equilibrium - general heeling arm

Page 104

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Angle of equilibrium - multiple heeling arms


GZ area between limits - multiple heeling arms

Checks the area under the heel angle as per Heel: Area between GZ and heeling arm
curves

Page 105

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

GZ area between limits - multiple heeling arms


Ratio of areas type 1 - multiple heeling arms

Checks the area under the heel angle as per Heel: Ratio of areas (method 1)

Page 106

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Ratio of areas type 1 - multiple heeling arms


Heeling arm, combined criteria
Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components.
Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual
components, for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single
criteria. Note that at least one of the individual criteria has to be selected.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general heeling arm

This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met. These are:
1. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. The Angle of steady heel is
obtained as per Angle of equilibrium- general heeling arm.
2. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. The area ratio is evaluated as
per Ratio of areas type 1 - general heeling arm
3. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less
than a specified value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general heeling arm


Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - passenger crowding

This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general heeling arm, however the heel arm is the specific passenger
crowding form.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - high-speed turn

This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general heeling arm, however the heel arm is the specific high-speed
turning form.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general cos+sin heeling arm

The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - general
heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component.

Page 108

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) cos+sin heeling arm


Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - lifting weight

This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general cos+sin heeling arm, however the heel arm is the specific lifting
of a heavy weight form.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) - towing

This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general cos+sin heeling arm, however the heel arm is the specific towing
form.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) - general wind heeling arm

This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format. The heeling
arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power. Optionally, a gust wind can be
applied.
1. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. The angle of steady heel is
obtained as per Angle of equilibrium- general heeling arm.
2. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. The area ratio is evaluated as
per Ratio of areas type 2 - general heeling arm.
3. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less
than a specified value.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Area definition
If required, a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied. If this is done, all calculations
are done using a reduced GZ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows:

GZ ' ( ) = GZ ( ) B cos m ( )
This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many
others of similar format):
US Navy DDS079-1: 079-1-c(9) 1, 079-1-c(9) 4,

Page 110

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Royal Navy NES 109: 1.2.2, 1.3.5, 1.4.2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria
RAN A015866: 4.4.4.2, 4.8, 4.9.5
IMO A.749(18) Code on intact stability: 3.2
IMO MSC.36(63) High-speed craft code 2.3.3.1
ISO/FDIS 12217-1:2002(E) Small Non-Sailing Boats 6.3.2

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) - wind heeling arm

This criterion is exactly the same as Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) - general
wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically
calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity), projected area and area lever
information.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Area definition
Other criteria
Other criteria, which do not easily fall into the categories above, are found here.
Other criteria - STIX

The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft. The required input parameters

Page 112

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

are described below. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) for exact definitions of
parameters and how they should be calculated.

Page 113

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Option
delta

AS, sail area ISO 8666

height of centroid of
AS

Description
Adjustment to STIX rating, either 0 or 5.

= 5 if the vessel, when fully flooded


with water, has reserve buoyancy and
positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90
. = 0 in all other cases.
Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. Note that
no additional windage areas are calculated
by Hydromax for this criterion.
Height of sail area centre of effort from
models vertical datum (not necessarily the
waterline, this is not the same as the STIX
variable hCE which is measured from the

Units

length 2

length

waterline, positive up).

Page 114

LH, length

Hull length as defined by ISO 8666. This


may be either specified or calculated by
Hydromax. Hydromax calculates this
parameter as the overall length of the
vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright,
zero trim condition.

length

BH, beam of hull

Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. This


may be either specified or calculated by
Hydromax. Hydromax calculates this
parameter as the overall beam of the vessel
(all hull surfaces) in the upright, zero trim
condition.

length

LWL, length waterline

Hull waterline length in the current load


condition as defined by ISO 8666. This
may be either specified or calculated by
Hydromax. Hydromax calculates this
parameter as the waterline length of the
vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at
the loadcase displacement and centre of
gravity; if the analysis is carried out free to
trim, the waterline of the trimmed vessel is
used.

length

BWL, beam waterline

Hull waterline beam in the current load


condition as defined by ISO 8666. This
may be either specified or calculated by
Hydromax. Hydromax calculates this
parameter as the waterline beam of the
vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at
the loadcase displacement and centre of
gravity; if the analysis is carried out free to
trim, the waterline of the trimmed vessel is

length

Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

used.
height of immersed
profile area centroid

Shall be greater than /


Shall not be less than

Height of centre of the lateral projected


immersed area of the hull from models
vertical datum (not necessarily the
waterline, this is not the same as the STIX

length

variable hLP ); may be specified or


calculated by Hydromax. Hydromax
calculates this parameter at zero heel and at
the loadcase displacement and centre of
gravity; if the analysis is carried out free to
trim, the waterline of the trimmed vessel is
used.
Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating
value rather than the STIX design category.

Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E). Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index.
Hence, if no downflooding points are defined, or defined downflooding points do not
immerse within the selected heel angle range, the angle of downflooding is taken to be
the largest heel angle tested. This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and
Downflooding factors.

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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Specific stability criteria


A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with
Hydromax. These may be found in the HMSpecificCriteria folder.
Most specific criteria are locked; those that are not locked require your ship design data
to be input.
ISO 12217: Small craft stability and buoyancy assessment and
categorisation.
This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in
Hydromax.
Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m

In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria, which
depends on the category and length of vessel being tested. In most cases the default
required value would exceed the worst case.
6.1.2: Downflooding height
Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3
(Section 6.1.2) and entered into the required value field; the default value is set at 1.42m
which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in
length.
6.1.3: Downflooding angle
Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category; see
Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6.1.3, 6.2). The default value is set to 49.7
6.2: Offset-load test
There are several ways of evaluating this criterion:
1. Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the
GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium.
2. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium
analysis. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum
permissible value.
An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded.
6.3: Resistance to wind and waves
Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the
criterion. Also determine the required wind speed and roll-back angle (depending on the
design category) and enter these values.
In Hydromax, there is no option for placing the height, H, of the centre of lateral
resistance at the bottom of the vessel, so this must be specified manually (it is measured
from the model zero point, positive upwards).
6.3.3: Resistance to waves
This criterion comprises two parts, one to check that the righting moment is sufficient
and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient.
6.4: Heel due to wind action
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Chapter 3 Stability Criteria

Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per
6.3, but note the different wind speeds to be used. Determine the limiting heel angle
from Table 4 (Sections 6.2)
Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m

6.2.2: Downflooding height


Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section
6.2.2) and entered into the required value field, the default value is set at 1.42m which is
slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.
6.2.3: Downflooding angle
Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category, see
Tables 3 (Sections 6.2.3). The default value is set to 40
6.3: Angle of vanishing stability
Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category
and vessel displacement. The default value is 130.
6.4: Stability index (STIX)
Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category, see Table 5
(Section 6.4.9). Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid
and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion. If desired you can specify
the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you.
6.5: Knockdown-recovery test
The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the
flooded condition. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle, it
should self right.
6.6.6: Wind stiffness test
Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6.6 for the wind speed of interest
(Table 6, Section 6.6.7). Convert this to a heeling lever. Calculate the GZ curve with the
crew seated to windward, this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the
vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.
Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m

These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading
condition.
Non-Sailing Boats:
6.2.2: Downflooding-height tests
Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading
condition. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis.
6.3: Offset-load test
This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with
the required offset loading condition
Sailing Boats:
7.2: Downflooding height

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Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section


6.2.2) and entered into the required value field, the default value is set at 1.42m which is
slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.
7.5: Knockdown-recovery test
The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the
flooded condition. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle, it
should self right.
7.6.6: Wind stiffness test
Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6.6 for the wind speed of interest
(Table 6, Section 6.6.7). Convert this to a heeling lever. Calculate the GZ curve with the
crew seated to windward, this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the
vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.
MCA MIN 153 Small Commercial Vessel Codes of Practice
11.2.1.3 Damage Survivability

The range of the GZ curve considered should be 15 degrees beyond the damage
equilibrium heel angle. For several criteria based purely on the GZ curve this upper limit
is not available. However, it is available in most of the Heeling Arm criteria, so these
criteria can be used if the heeling arm is set to zero.

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Chapter 4
Hydromax Reference
This section describes the windows and menu commands of the Hydromax program.

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Windows
Hydromax uses a range of graphical, tabular, graph and report windows.
View Window
The View window displays the hull, frame of reference, immersed sections of the hull
and any compartments, and the centroids of gravity, buoyancy, and flotation. These
positions are represented by:
centre of buoyancy
cb
centre of gravity
cg
centre of flotation
cf
You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or
the View toolbar.
The Zoom, Shrink, Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used
and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. If a Perspective view is shown, you
may also use the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. Please refer
to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions.
You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility
command from the Display menu. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained, one is used
for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank
calibration analysis is selected.
If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out, it will display the hull
shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current iteration of the analysis.
After an analysis, the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used
to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window.
The view of the tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes can be toggled between
an outline view and a view of the sections.
In the perspective view, the model may be rendered, and this is a good way of checking
that the sections have been formed correctly:

The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised,
especially when the hull shell is made transparent.

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The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu, with further lighting options
in the Render toolbar.
Loadcase Window
To create a load case, select Loadcase from the Load Case sub-menu in the Window
menu. Then select New Load Case from the File menu. A new load spreadsheet will be
displayed in the Loadcase window.

Up to twenty-five different load cases can be stored in Hydromax at the same time, and
each one can be selected and used for analysis. Each may be saved and loaded
independently, effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require.
The maximum number of loadcases (up to twenty-five) that can be loaded in Hydromax
at any one time is set by selecting Max. Number of Loadcases, from the Case menu. You
may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require.

You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. In most cases, you will only
need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. It is
not something we expect users to change frequently.

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Please note that if you attempt to load a design that has more loadcases than the
maximum you have currently set in Hydromax, you will receive a warning and the file
will not be loaded. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and
restart Hydromax before you can load the design; this is the main reason for setting this
parameter to a sensible maximum and not changing it.
Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load, for example
"Lightship", and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table.
For each item in the list, you can specify a quantity, so if the item was cargo with a
weight per unit, you could use the quantity and mass columns to automatically calculate
a total. The mass of each item should be entered in the next column.
Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for this particular load item. After
you type in this number, press enter and the LCG will be automatically re-calculated and
displayed in the bottom row of the table.
Note that levers in Hydromax are measured from the Zero Point. You can change the
position of the Zero Point by using the Zero Point command from the Display menu.
Adding and deleting loads

You can repeat this process for the vertical and transverse levers, and for as many loads
as you wish to include. To add an extra load to the spreadsheet, choose Add Load from
the Edit menu. A new load will be inserted into the table.
If you want to remove a load from the table, simply click anywhere in the row you want
to remove, and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu. If you wish to delete several
loads simultaneously, click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to
delete are selected, then select Delete Load.
Distributed loads

Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the forward limit and aft
limit cells. The forward limit and aft limit columns only appear when Longitudinal
Strength analysis is selected.

If Longitudinal Arm is changed in the Loadcase window, the forward and aft limits will
be moved by the same amount.
Note that since the load is distributed as a trapezium, the centre of gravity should lie
within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. For a uniformly
distributed load, the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft
limits.
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Tank loads

When you create tanks using the compartment definition, they will be included
automatically in the Loadcase Condition.
Tanks have a quantity value, expressed as a percentage of full, and at first will show
question marks for their weights and levers. This is because the calculation of each tank
level is relatively slow, so it is only performed when you wish the values to be updated.
To do this, enter the percentage levels you want for each tank in the quantity column,
then select Form Compartments from the Analysis menu or toolbar. Alternatively you
can enter the tanks weight and the capacity will be calculated by Hydromax.

Tank volumes are entered as a percentage of full capacity or a weight. If the corrected
VCG fluid option has been chosen, the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments,
divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG
accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. Note that the tank's maximum free
surface moment is used if that tank is less than 98% full, otherwise the free surface
moment is 0.

Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition, the
Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the
Loadcase information.
Free Surface Moment options in Hydromax

It is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a
Hydromax Load Case. The options available are Maximum free surface moment, Actual
free surface moment for the current fluid level, IMO free surface moment method, or a
user specified free surface moment.

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These choices appear in a column on the far right of each loadcase. Note that if you have
multiple loadcases, the free surface moment methods have to be selected individually for
each loadcase.

Loadcase Formatting
Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding
blank, heading or sub-total lines in the table.
Adding Component or Heading Lines

Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a
period (.) character.
Adding Blank Lines

A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a period (.) character in the Item
Name field.
Adding Total Lines

A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case. To do this the item
name field must commence with the word total.
Grouping Similar Tanks

Tanks are listed in the loadcase in the order they are defined in the Compartment
Definition window. If you wish to change the order in which tanks appear in the
loadcase, it is necessary to reorder them in the Compartment Definition window.
Damage Window
The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in
each damage case. There is always an Intact case, which may not be edited, this is the
default condition. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be
defined as non-buoyant volumes.

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Damage cases may be added by bringing the Damage window to the front and selecting
Add Damage Case from the case menu. The new damage case name may be typed in the
dialog:

The new damage case will be inserted before the column selected in the Damage
window. To append at the end of the list, select the Intact case's column.
To delete damage cases, select the columns to be deleted and choose Delete Damage
Case from the Case menu.
The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case.
The current damage case is selected from the pull down list in the Analysis toolbar. The
loadcase and view will reflect the current damage case and any analyses will use this
damage.
Input Window
The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered.
The tables in the Input window contain the: Compartment Definition; Sounding Pipes;
Key Points; Margin Line Points and Modulus tables.
Compartment Definition

To start adding compartments, select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on


the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. Select New
Compartment Definition from the File menu; this will give you a new set of
compartment definitions with one default tank. See the Compartment definition section
of the Using Hydromax chapter for full details on how to define the tanks.
Compartments may be added or deleted by selecting Add or Delete Compartment from
the Edit menu. Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete
will delete the currently selected compartment(s). The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the
Delete key (or Ctrl+D) may also be used to Add and Delete respectively.

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Adding Simple Tanks

Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. These values are the fore and aft extremities of the tank,
the top and bottom, and the port and starboard limits of the tank.

Creating Tapered Tanks

The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. If you wish to define tapered
compartments, it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the
points defining the compartment ends.
The column headings in the Compartment Definition window include terms such as 'F
Bottom, 'A Top', 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for
Forward and Aft, in other words the two ends of the compartment. You will notice that
aft columns contain the word "ditto". This means that the value is identical at the aft end
of the tank to the forward end, resulting in a parallel tank.

If a different value is entered in one of these aft columns, a tapered tank will result.
Tanks can be tapered or sloping in Plan or Profile views, but Hydromax does not have a
mechanism for sloping the tank boundary in the Body Plan view.

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Linked Tanks and Compartments

Tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes may be linked. This means that although
they are defined as separate tanks, they act as a single tank with a common free surface.
To link tanks, compartments or non-buoyant volumes, first make them the same type as
the parent and give them the same name. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste
the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked
tank row. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type
column.
Adding Complex Tanks Using Surfaces

Complex tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes can also be defined by surface
boundaries as well as constrained to particular dimensions. This allows for modelling of
arbitrarily complex tanks.

The tank surfaces are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the
middle of the Compartments Definition table. A dialog will appear that allows you to
select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. Note that for surfaces to appear in
the dialog, they must have been defined as internal structure in Maxsurf.
If a tank uses boundary surfaces, the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column in coloured
filled in blue:

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If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment, tick next to the
surface name in the Boundary Surface list. Note that surfaces appear twice as there will
be a starboard and a port side copy of each surface. The Starboard surface is mentioned
first in the list and the Port surface last. The port surface is also identified with the suffix
(P) after the name.
As with the hull sections, the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form
closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. The area inside the
selected surfaces will define the tank contour. This will then be intersected with the hull
surfaces so that the tanks lie inside the hull.

Note that it is also necessary to type in the extents of a tank or compartment defined
using surfaces. As for normal compartments, this is done by entering extents into the
Compartment Definition table. If you enter extents that are smaller than the shape
defined by the surfaces, the tank will be trimmed to the extents specified.
An example of how internal surfaces may be used to model a cylindrical tank inside a
compartment is shown below. Here five internal surfaces have been used. Two define the
cylindrical tank, "Cylinder, inner" and "Cylinder, outer", one to define each side. Then a
further two surfaces are added, one to the top, "Inner, top", and one to the bottom,
"Inner, bottom". Finally an "Outer" surface is added which is joined to the "Inner, top"
and "Inner, bottom" surfaces. Thus to define the internal tank you would select the
"Cylinder, inner" and "Cylinder, outer" surfaces. The enclosing compartment would then
be made up of two linked compartments. The first would be defined by: "Inner, top",
"Cylinder, inner" and "Inner, Bottom"; the second would be defined by "Outer" and
"Cylinder, outer".

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Forming Compartments

Once the boundary box of the tank has been defined it can be intersected with the hull to
create the tank shape. This is done either by selecting Form Compartments from the
Analysis menu or completing a Tank Calibration analysis.

Those portions of the compartment's defining box that are outside the hull are trimmed
away, leaving a tank or compartment that conforms precisely to the hull shape. These
can be linked together to create more complex tank volumes.
Compartment Types

Six compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition window tanks, linked tanks, compartments, linked compartments, linked negative compartments
and non-buoyant volumes.
Tanks will be included in the tank calibration output and be added to the loading
condition.
Linked Tanks will have their volume added to the parent tank having the same
tank name. They do not have a separate entry in the loading condition. In addition,
if a tank is damaged, any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged.

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Linked tanks are used when a tank has a complex shape that cannot be created by
intersecting one bounding box with the hull shape. Several tanks may be linked
together to form one larger tank. Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked, they
can be remote from one another, and in this case the tank linking simulates tanks
with cross connections.
Compartments are only used to specify compartmentalisation for damage. They
are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loading
condition.
Linked Compartments work in the same way as linked tanks. This allows you to
damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together
and damaging the parent compartment.
Linked Negative Compartments these allow you to subtract a volume from a
compartment and are useful if tanks are defined within a compartment see below
for further details.
Non-Buoyant Volumes are only used to specify compartments of the vessel
which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline. They are ideal for
defining water-jet ducts, moon pools, etc. and essentially behave as damaged
compartments. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be
added to the loading condition.
To change the type of a tank, type the first character of the tank type (t, c or n) in the
Type column of the Compartment Definition window and then type Enter. This will
automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type.
External Tanks

External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax. However, it is normally possible to


add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model, which will enclose the external tanks. The
tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax. Note that these "external" surfaces will add to
the buoyant volume of the vessel.

Additional box-shaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks


Longitudinal Extents of Tank Bounding Boxes

The volumes of tanks are computed by inserting a number of transverse sections between
the longitudinal limits specified in the compartment definition window. Where the hull
surfaces extend beyond these limits, the tanks will be accurately defined with a large
number of sections. However, if the longitudinal extents of the tank are limited by the
surfaces, rather than the bounding box, it is possible that there will not be sufficient
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sections to accurately define the tank. Such a situation may arise for the external tanks
listed above. In this case, the longitudinal extents of the tank should be specified just
inside the longitudinal extents of the surfaces (1mm say).
Modelling Non-Buoyant Areas

Non-buoyant areas of the hull can normally be modelled with hull surfaces. However,
there are occasions when it is more convenient to use non-buoyant volumes. These are
permanently flooded compartments.
Occasions where it is useful to use non-buoyant volumes include the modelling of bow
thruster ducts on very long vessels. If the vessel is very long, and the thruster duct is of
small diameter, there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you
use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model). In this case you are better
off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a
non-buoyant volume.
Modelling the thruster duct as a non-buoyant volume has the additional advantage of
being able to specify a permeability, and hence account for the thruster.

Bow thruster tube modelled as two non-buoyant volumes

Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces

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Moon pools, water jet ducts and other items may all be modelled in a similar manner.
Tanks in Compartments

If you have a single tank within a compartment, there are now two ways in which this
may be defined. The first is to define six linked compartments, which surround the tank.
A spreadsheet which automatically calculates the bounding boxes of the compartments is
installed when you install Maxsurf. If you selected C:\Program Files\Maxsurf as your
installation directory, the spreadsheet is installed here:
C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\Utilities\Hydromax\
and the spreadsheet is called:
Tank Within Compartment.xls
There is an alternative, which may be more practical if there are several tanks within a
compartment. It is now possible to model tanks that lie inside compartments. Currently,
this must be done manually, however in the future this will be an automatic process.
The procedure is outlined below. A compartment is defined in the same position as the
tank, and is then linked to the compartment and specified as a negative volume. Hence
when the compartment is flooded due to damage, the negative volume that forms the
tank is not included.
Linked Compartments and Damage Cases

Note that when specifying damage all linked compartments, negative compartment
volumes etc. must have been already defined. If you add subsequent linked
compartments or negative compartment volumes to an already damaged compartment,
you will have to toggle the damage setting for the parent compartment to ensure that all
the linked compartments are damaged too.
Tanks Wholly Within a Compartment

For tanks that lie wholly within a single compartment, follow the procedure outlined
below:
Define the tanks and compartments, using boundary surfaces if required.

Add extra compartments, which will become negative compartment volumes linked
to the main compartment. One compartment is required for each of the tanks that
are inside the compartment.

These compartments are the second and third rows in the table below. They
should have the same name as the main compartment and be of type
compartment. The dimensions and any boundary surfaces should exactly
correspond to the tanks that lie in the main compartment.

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Link the negative volume compartments to the main compartment by selecting


Linked Neg. Compart. from the combo-box in the Type column of the
compartments.

Once linked, it will be placed under the parent compartment. As for other
linked compartments and tanks, ensure that the compartments to be linked
have identical names.

The compartment and its negative volumes are now linked. Not that if any
changes are made to the tanks, corresponding changes must be made to the
negative volumes.

In the picture above, the damaged compartment, with the excluded, negative
volumes can be seen.
Tanks Partially Within a Compartment

For tanks that lie only partially within a single compartment, follow the same procedure
as that outlined above, however, the negative volumes should be bounded by the limiting
compartment boundaries, rather than including the whole tank.

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Permeability

Tanks may have two permeabilities; one, which is used when the tank is intact, and the
other when it is damaged. Compartments and non-buoyant volumes have only one
permeability, however, this permeability is listed and may be edited in either
permeability columns, as they are both kept synchronised.
Relative Density of Tank Fluids

Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative
Density column of the Compartment Definition window.

Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column, either as the full
name, an abbreviated name or as one of the single letter codes. If a fluid type is entered,
the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog.
Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog, all entries for that fluid in the
compartment definition are automatically updated.
Acceptable fluid names and abbreviations are:
Fluid Name
Abbreviations Code
Fresh Water
Fre, Wat
W
Salt Water
Sea, Sal
S
Fuel Oil
Fue
F
Diesel Oil
Die
D
Lube Oil
Lub, Oil
L
Gasoline
Gas, Pe
G
Tanks and Surface Thickness

If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness, the tanks,
compartments and non-buoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness
and its projection direction; the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell.
Surface thicknesses are not taken into account when Structure surfaces are used as
Boundary surfaces for tanks, hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the
tank.
Compartment and Tank Ordering

Tanks defined in the Compartment Definition window appear in the loadcase in the same
order as they are defined in the Compartment Definition window. To reorder the tanks:
Copy the tank definition data to Excel
Sort the rows in to the desired order
Paste the data from Excel back into the Compartment Definition window.

Take care if you have linked tanks unlink them first. Also be aware that any selected
internal surface data will not be copied and you will have to reselect them manually.

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Compartment and Tank Visibility

When creating complicated tank plans, it is often useful to check individual tanks.
Selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner:
Define a damage case
Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display, turn off the display of
intact tanks and compartments.
Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks
sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since
it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other
properties).
Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar
Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the
damage case window.

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Sounding Pipes
Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. One sounding pipe per
tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe, allowing inclined, bent or
curved sounding pipes to be modelled.
Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when Analysis | Start Tank Calibrations is
selected in the new version of the program. The default sounding pipe is placed at the
longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. If the lowest point of
the tank is shared between several locations (e.g. the bottom of the tank is flat either
longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aftmost low point and as close to the centreline as possible. The top of the sounding pipe is
taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is
assumed to be straight and vertical.
To customise a sounding pipe, you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input
window, shown below.

You can reach this window by selecting from the Windows | Input | Sounding Pipes
menu, by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window, or by clicking on the
icon in the window toolbar.
Note that if you have not performed a Tank Calibration, no default sounding pipes will
have been created and the table will be blank.
To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe, click on the first row of a particular
sounding pipe and choose Edit | Add, or use the Ctrl+A key combination. A new row
will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position, offset and height of the
vertex can be edited. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in
the table and selecting Edit | Delete, or by hitting the Delete key. Note that each
successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i.e. it is
not acceptable to have S-bends in the sounding pipes.
Calibration increment
Together with the Sounding Pipes changes to Hydromax, the program has been modified
to allow definable increments for tank soundings. This is done by specifying an
increment for each tank in the second column of the Sounding Pipes Input window. If no
increment is entered, Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of
the depth of the tank. In this case the sounding pipes window will display Auto in the
Calibration Increment column for the tank.

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Note that increments are measured along the sounding pipe, not in the vertical axis of the
tank. If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles, soundings will step
evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe.
Sounding Pipes

This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. Default
values are provided but these may be edited if necessary.
Key Points and Downflooding Points

Key points such as deck edges and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the
Key Points window. Downflooding points are tested for immersion by the Large Angle
Stability analysis and by various stability criteria. The points may be displayed on the
Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or
not they are immersed. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as
flooded tanks or compartments.
Key points may be placed asymmetrically, a positive offset is to starboard and a negative
offset is to port. Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides
must have both key points added to the table.
There are several types of Key Points:
Down Flooding points
Potential Down flooding points
Embarkation points
Immersion Points

Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle, which is
used in criteria evaluation. The other types of points have their freeboard measured but
are not used during criteria evaluation and are for information only.
The type of Key Point may be selected from the combo-box in the Type column of the
Down Flooding Points table in the Input window:

Links to tanks or compartments

Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments. Select the tank or


compartment from the combo-box in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points
table in the Input window:
Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments, which are damaged in the
currently selected damage case, will be ignored when computing the downflooding
angle. These downflooding points will appear italicised prefixed and an asterisk

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postfixed to the downflooding points name in the DF Angles table of the Results
window:

The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window. The
downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis; the freeboards
after an Equilibrium analysis.
Adding Key Points

The Key Points table works in a similar manner to the Compartment Definition table. To
start adding downflooding points, select New Downflooding Points from the File menu.
You will be given a default point. To add additional downflooding points to the table,
choose Add Point from the Edit menu. A new point will be inserted after the currently
selected row in the table.
Editing Key Points

Key points are specified by entering a name, a longitudinal position, a transverse offset
from the centreline, and a height. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you
require. All points are entered relative to the current zero point.
Deleting Key Points

To delete a Key point, click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select
Delete. To delete more than one point at a time, click and drag over the rows you want
deleted.

Select Delete from the Edit menu, and the selected rows will be deleted.

Margin Line Points

The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. Hydromax automatically calculates
the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in.
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If necessary, the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line
Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the
margin line).
Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the
downflooding points.
Modulus Points

This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment
during the longitudinal strength calculations.
Results Window
The Results window contains ten tables, one for each of the different analysis types plus
a criteria results and key points results tables. The currently selected results table will
change to reflect the current analysis mode, when switching mode. Note that results are
never invalidated if analysis options are modified it is up to the user to ensure that the
results are recalculated as necessary.
Data selection

It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are
displayed. To do this, choose Data Format from the Display menu. You may change the
table to view the results from the last analysis of each type.

A dialog similar to the one above will appear. Items that are selected with a tick will be
displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. Items that are not selected
are still calculated during the analysis cycle, but are not displayed. You may change the
display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations.
The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the Zero Point
specified or from the Amidships location. To choose either format, select Data Format
from the Display menu and click on either the From Amidships or the From Zero Pt
items.
Data layout

Analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the
printed page. For example, with Upright Hydrostatics, the data can be formatted so that
each draft has a column of results, or so that each draft is on a separate row.

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To change the format, select Data Format from the Display menu, and select either the
horizontal or vertical layout button.
The data for each of the analysis types is stored in a separate table in the Results
window. Changing the current analysis mode will change the current table in the Results
window.
Two additional tables are available in the Results window. These are: Stability Criteria
and Key Point Data (downflooding angles and freeboards).
Stability Criteria

If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu, they will be evaluated during
Large Angle Stability, Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses. The results of the criteria
evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium
analyses. The results may be displayed in compact format:

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or in verbose format, where all the intermediate calculations are shown:

by selecting the desired format in the Display | Data format dialog.

Key Point Data

After a Large Angle Stability analysis, the Key Point Data table lists the downflooding
angles of the margin line, deck edge and defined downflooding points. In addition, the

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first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph. Only the positive
downflooding angles are displayed, hence if there is any asymmetry, the large angle
stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. The
immersion angles and freeboard to the margin line and deck edge are also included, as
well as the longitudinal position at which this occurred.
The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle
Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to
Equilibrium or Specified condition.
The freeboards of the various points are given when an Equilibrium or Specified
Condition analysis has been performed. The longitudinal positions at which the
minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified.

Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the
currently selected damage case, will be ignored when computing the downflooding
angle. These downflooding points will appear italicised, prefixed and an asterisk
postfixed to the downflooding points name in the Key Point Data table of the Results
window:
A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero
degrees of heel.
The downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Large Angle Stability table in
the results view, selecting the column at the closest heel angle and selecting Select View
From Data in the Display menu.

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The hull will then be rotated to the selected position in the View window (Body Plan).

Height/freeboard above free surface

The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. The freeboard is for the vessel
condition currently displayed in the Design view. Hence if the display is changed, for
example by using the Select View from Data command (Data menu), the Key Point
freeboards will be updated. Negative freeboards, i.e. where the Key Points are immersed
are displayed in red.
The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free
surface, hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into
account. The freeboard is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions
analysis.
Graph Window
The Graph window displays graphs, which show the results of the current analysis.
Graph type

Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being
performed. These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics, Curves of Form, GZ curves,
Longitudinal Strength and Tank Capacities. These can all be displayed via the Graph
item in the Windows menu.
In some cases, such as hydrostatics, multiple sets of data are plotted on the same graph.
Interpolating Graph Data

To display an interpolated value from one of the curves, use the mouse to click anywhere
on the curve. The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the
curve name and co-ordinates of the mouse on the curve. Click anywhere on the dashed
line and drag it with the mouse; as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be
displayed.

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GZ Graph

The area, integrated from heel angle = zero to the location of the graph slider, is
displayed at the bottom of the graph window together with the heel angle and curve
value at that angle. Note that because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees, the
area is always given in units of length.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of
length.radians.
Note that the lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium
angle). Thus if you require the area between two limits, you must subtract the area at the
lower limit from the area at the higher limit.

Curve fitting for GZ graph

A parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at
the specified heel angles. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the
calculated GZ points. The curve fit will only be performed if all the heel angle intervals
are less than or equal to 10.
Report Window
Hydromax contains a Report window. This window is used to create a progressive
summary of the analyses that have been carried out. This report can be edited via Cut,
Copy and Paste; printed, saved to and recalled from a disk file.
It is generally recommended that you only use the Report window to accumulate results
and that you do not attempt any formatting of the report within Hydromax. Once you
have completed the analysis simply copy and paste the contents of the Report window
into Microsoft Word and proceed with the formatting there.
While the Hydromax report still has some shortcomings, attempts have been made to
improve it. We recommend:
use the Hydromax report purely for collecting the results; do all the actual
formatting in Microsoft word;

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set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses
the same column widths, fonts etc.); do the same for the graph widow;
choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this
paper size, so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables
from being split);
copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word. Use the Format |
Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for
the different levels of heading in the document, this will facilitate generating a table
of contents and also allows you to re-format the various styles (or import a custom
set of styles using the style organiser in Word).

If you really feel the need, the Report window offers full editing features, allowing you
to edit and manipulate text much as you would in any other word processor. THIS IS
NOT RECOMMENDED. This makes it even easier to customise your reports. In
addition, files are loaded and saved in Rich Text Format (RTF), allowing you to load
them directly into your favourite word processor for further editing should you need to.
The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view, as well as a
ruler showing you tab stops, indentation and margin widths. Underneath all of this you
have your actual editing area.
Note that it is best to set up the desired page size, orientation and margins before starting
any analyses. This way Hydromax will make best use of the page when inserting tables,
graphs and text. Changing the page layout after data has been inserted will not reformat
the tables etc. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set
up. However, both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split.

The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings,
or the section of text that is currently highlighted.

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The toolbar contains the following items:


Font combo box
Font Size combo box
Bold
Italic
Underline
Right/Left Justify
Centre Justify
Double Line Spacing
Indent Margin Left
Indent Margin Right
Hanging Indent

Use this to change the current font


Use this to change the current font size
Use this to toggle the Bold style
Use this to toggle the Italic style
Use this to toggle the Underline style
Use this to toggle Left/Right Justification
Use this to toggle Centre Justification
Use this to toggle Single/Double Line
Spacing
Indent the Left Margin
Indent the Right Margin
Indent the Hanging Indent

The Ruler comes in two formats, in metric and in inches - the format you have displayed
on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the
Display menu to change this). The format shown below is metric.

The Ruler allows you to set left, right, centre, and decimal tab stops. The tab stops are
very useful for creating columns and tables. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab
positions.
The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. To create
a left tab stop, click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The left
tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right.
The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab
marker. To create a right tab stop, click the right mouse button at the specified location
on the ruler. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the
left.
The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. To create a centre tab
stop, hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the
ruler. The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow.
The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. To create a decimal tab stop,
hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler.
The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow.
To move a tab position using the mouse, simply click the left mouse button on the tab
symbol on the ruler. While the mouse button is depressed, drag the tab to the desired
location and release the mouse button.
To clear a tab position, simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler.
Normally, a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. However,
if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command, the tab command is then
applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text.

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Keyboard Support For Reports

In addition to menu support, there are also several useful keystrokes that are available
while editing the report. These are listed below for convenience:
Ctrl+B
Toggle Bold on/off
Ctrl+U
Toggle Underline on/off
Ctrl+PageUp
Ctrl+PageDown

Position at the top of the report


Position at the bottom of the report

Ctrl+Enter

Insert a page break

Opening and Saving the Report

The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu
commands with the report window highlighted.. This is useful if you wish to append an
analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. (Load in the old
report, perform the analyses; the new results will be appended to the end of the report
which may then be resaved).
Pasting images into the report

Sometimes, it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. This is
very easily done, by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it
into the report at the desired location. Ensure that the colours selected will be easily
visible in the white background of the report view.
Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98), the
image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square. To
overcome this problem, paste the image into Microsoft Word first, then copy it from
Word back into the Hydromax report window.
Changing the scale will affect the size of the image, and hence the thickness of the lines.
For example, copying the image at 1:100 instead of 1:50 will effectively double the
thickness of the lines if you make the images the same size in the report. Remember that
you can change the font size in the design window.

hatch 1
Tank 3
cg
AP

hatch 2
cf
cg Tank
Tank Tank
4 12
cg
cbcg cg
zero pt.
MS

hatch 3
Baseline
FP

Image copied at 1:500 (Word image displayed at 200%)

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hatch 1

Tank 3
cg
AP

hatch 2

ccf g
Tank1 2
Tank
Tank 4
cgc g
cb
cg
zero pt.
MS

hatch 3

Baseline
FP

Image copied at 1:250 (Word image displayed at 100%)

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Toolbars
Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some
commonly used functions. You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tip
of what the icon does.
File Toolbar

The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands:
New - Open - Save - Cut - Copy - Paste - Print
Edit Toolbar

The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands:
Add Row - Delete Row
View Toolbar

The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands:
Zoom - Shrink - Pan - Home View
Analysis Toolbar

The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis, loadcase and
damage case:
Analysis Type - Current Loadcase - Current Damage Case

The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands:
Criteria (dialog) | Start Analysis - Pause Analysis - Resume Analysis | Form
Compartments
Window Toolbar

Perspective Plan Profile Body Plan |


Loadcase Damage Case |
Compartment Downflooding Margin Line Modulus |
Results for Current Analysis Criteria Results Key Point Results |
Graph Report

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Visibility Toolbar

The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical
views:
Sections Datum Waterline Waterlines |
Key Points Margin Line |
Tanks Damaged Tanks Compartments & NBVs Damaged Compart. & NBVs
Tank/Compart./NBV Names Tank/Compart./NBV Sections
Render Toolbar

Render Render transparent Toggle custom light 1 Toggle custom light 2 Toggle
custom light 3 Toggle custom light 4 Customise light settings

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Menus
The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax
program.
File Menu
The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing.
New

Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost, e.g: when the Loadcase
Condition is the frontmost window, the New command will create a new loading
condition. When the Compartment Definition window is frontmost, New creates a new
compartment definition.
Open

When no design is open, selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list
of available Maxsurf designs. Select the design you wish to open, click the Open button.
The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax.
If a design is already open, the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to
the frontmost input window.
Close

The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window. Hydromax will ask
whether you wish to save any changes.
Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current
Maxsurf design.
Save

Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk.
Save As

Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new
filename preventing the original file from being overwritten.
Export

Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file
formats such as DXF or IGES. DXF exports sections as closed poly-lines. In addition,
each tank, compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the
layer name being the same as the compartment name, so it is important to have unique
compartment names)
Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of
Hydromax.

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Page Setup

The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing.
Print

The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the
screen.
Exit

Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows. If you have any data or results,
which have not been saved to disk, Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them
before quitting.
Edit Menu
The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables.
Undo

Undo may be used with desk accessories, but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing
windows or data windows.
Cut

Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data
windows.
Copy

The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows, including the
design view, input tables, results tables and graph window.
Paste

Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables,
or the Report window. Paste cannot be used in the View, Graph or Results windows.
Select All

Selects the entire Report.


Fill Down

Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet.


Table

Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window.


Insert New Table
Create a new table in the Report.
Insert Row
Insert a new row into the current table in the Report.

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Split Cell
Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report.
Merge Cells
Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report.
Delete Cells
Delete current cell, column or row or a range of cells, columns or rows in the
Report.
Row Positioning
Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report.
Cell Border
Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report.
Cell Shading
Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report.
Show Grid
Toggle table grid lines in the Report.
Add

The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables.


Delete

The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables. If no rows are selected, the
last row in the window will be deleted, otherwise all selected rows will be deleted.
Add Surface Areas

This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull
surfaces into the current loading condition. This is useful for estimating the initial weight
of hull plating.
Error Values

Defines the error values that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish an iteration
during Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. Ideal Error values can range
between 0.00001% and 0.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). Acceptable Error
values can range from 0.001% to 1.0% . Acceptable Error values should always be
greater than Ideal Error values.
Hydromax will attempt to solve the analysis to within the ideal error value. If this is not
achieved within a certain number of iterations, but the acceptable error has been
achieved, Hydromax will continue. If convergence to within the acceptable error has not
been achieved, Hydromax will display a warning. Note that this warning is not displayed
during batch analysis, instead the warning is written in the batch file.
One of the most common causes of non-convergence is if the specified displacement
exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. Also convergence
may be poor if the trim angle approaches 90. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that
the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog
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will be displayed. The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current
iteration are provided for information.

If there is a convergence problem, which appears not to be due to sinking, then the
following dialog will be displayed. This problem can sometimes occur if the specified
displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom, producing a
highly non-linear waterplane area vs. draught plot.

However, there are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the
maximum allowable number of iterations. This can occur if the vessel has a large
discontinuity in the waterplane area vs. draught curve or moment to trim vs. trim angle
curve or moment to heel vs. heel angle curve. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give
you a warning, but will allow you the option of continuing the search. If you choose to
continue, Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely. If the search is
unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time, you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing
the analysis.
View Menu
The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows.
Zoom

The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in
detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen.
Shrink

Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows
by a factor of two.
Pan

Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window.

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Home View

Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size.
Set Home View

Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. To set
the Home View, use Zoom, Shrink, and Pan to arrange the view, then select Set Home
View from the View menu.
Colour

The Colour function allows you to set the colour of lines, labels, and graphs.
Remember to always be careful when using colour. It is very easy to get carried away
with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with.
In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use
lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues.
From the scrollable list, select the item whose colour you wish to change. The items
current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog. To change the colour click in
the box and select a new colour from the palette.
Font

Font command allows you to set the size and style of text.

The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report,
Loadcase, Graph, Curve of Areas, and Results windows.
Toolbar

Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off.


Status Bar

Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen.
Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. It also contains
commands to set the input data required for the current analysis.

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Heel

Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish
Hydromax to step through. Separate ranges may be set for Large Angle Stability, KN
and Limiting KG analyses.
Trim

Free trimming is activated by setting the Free Trim box, otherwise all calculations are
performed with fixed specified trim.
Draft

The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this
command.
Displacement

The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values and Limiting KG can be
set using this command.
Specified Conditions

Allows you to specify Heel, Trim, CG, Displacement and Draft for the Specified
Condition analysis.
Fluids

Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid
Movement method when analysing the fluid contained in tanks.
Density

This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis.
Waveform

The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or
sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms.
Hog and Sag

Allows you to define the amount of hog or sag to be applied to the hull when calculating
the vessels hydrostatics.
Criteria

The Criteria menu item allows you to specify the stability criteria to be checked when a
Large Angle Stability analysis is performed. Some stability criteria require an
Equilibrium analysis to be performed as they relate to the equilibrium position reached
after damage to the hull has been included.
This also specifies the criteria to be evaluated in the limiting KG analysis.

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Grounding

Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length. The Equilibrium analysis
will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull
accordingly. Damage can be specified with grounding.
Note that for the time being the grounding points are considered to span the transverse
extents of the hull, and therefore constrain the heel to zero.
The length of the grounding point is only used when calculating the distributed load in
Longitudinal Strength analysis, otherwise it is assumed to be a point of contact.
Form Compartments

Selecting Form Compartments instructs Hydromax to intersect the tank boundaries


defined in the Compartment Definition window with the hull surface and calibrate the
tanks.
Set Analysis Type

Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the sub-menu.
Start Analysis

Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis. The
analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu, also.
Resume Analysis

If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis, Resume Analysis may be used to
restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted.
Stop Analysis

This command halts the analysis at the current iteration. Note that the analysis may not
have been completed and in the case of large angle stability, equilibrium condition and
KN values, any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect.
Batch processing

Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations
of load and damage cases using the batch processing command. Results are written to a
tab delimited text file which may be specified by the user at the start of the analysis.
The aim of the batch processing function is to: a) Provide the user with a simple and
consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large
number of load and damage cases; b) Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and
import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation; and to c) provide all
relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs, i.e.: analysis
parameters, file name etc.
Analysis parameters such as trim, heel angles etc. are set in the normal way.
Any criteria which have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results
of these are also output to the text file.

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Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other, it is not possible to go
back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax; only the results of the
final analysis will be stored in Hydromax.
Once the loadcases, damage cases, key points, criteria and analysis parameters for the
Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses have been set up, the Batch Analysis is
started with the Start Batch Analysis command in the Analysis menu.
Before analysis starts, you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file
where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis. Once the analysis is
complete, this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further
processing.
Please note that under most operating systems, minimising Hydromax can reduce the
time required to perform the calculations. This is because time consuming redrawing of
the design windows, graphs and tables is avoided.
Case Menu
The case menu is used to add, delete and rename damage cases.
Add Damage Case

Adds a damage case before the currently selected damage case, in the Damage Case
window. If either the intact case or none is selected, the new damage case will be added
to the end of the list.
Delete Damage Case

Deletes the current damage case(s) in the Damage Case window.


Edit Damage Case

Allows the name of the selected damage case, other than the intact case, to be edited.
Max. Number of Loadcases

Allows the user to set the number of loadcases that can be defined. A maximum of 25
loadcases may be specified.
Display Menu
The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data, which are displayed in
the graphics and other windows.
Data Format

Data Format allows you to choose which stability data are tabulated. A dialog box allows
you to choose from a range of stability variables.
Coefficients

In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the
waterline length for the calculation of Block, Prismatic and Waterplane Area
Coefficients. Select Coefficients from the Display menu:

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Units

The units used may be specified using the Units command. In addition to the length and
mass units classes, units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed
turn etc. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves, may also be
set. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees.

Visibility

The visibility of tanks, compartments, labels, hull contours, and other items in the design
view may be set by using this dialog.

Frame of Reference

If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those
defined in the Maxsurf model, they may be changed using the Frame of Reference
command. It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in
Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. This will ensure that a consistent
frame of reference is used in all the programs.

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Zero Point

This function sets the longitudinal and vertical reference point for all measurements,
including the centre of gravity. It is highly recommended that the correct zero point be
set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. This will ensure that a
consistent zero point is used in all the programs.
Select View From Data

This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with
one of the sets of data in Results window. The view may be set from any of the results
from Upright Hydrostatics, Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. Simply
highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and
select Select View From Data; the Design View will change to match the condition in
the selected row or column in the Results window.
Render

When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may
be toggled on and off to render the surfaces.
Render Transparent

When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent
option may be toggled on and off. Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the
model semi transparent so that the rendered compartments within the model may be
viewed.
Animate

Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window,
through the range of heel angles specified. You may set the initial viewing position in
the Perspective View window using the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators. When
Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving
the mouse from side to side. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation.
If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves, the
animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases, giving a
simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through a wave pattern.
Window Menu
For the items in this menu, each represents a Hydromax window. Selecting the item
brings the appropriate window to the front.
Cascade

Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows.


Tile Horizontal

Layout all visible windows across the screen.


Tile Vertical

Layout all visible windows down the screen.


Page 160

Chapter 4 Hydromax Reference

Arrange Icons

Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the
bottom of the Maxsurf program window.
View Direction

Select the desired view direction from the sub-menu. The selected design window will
then be brought to the front.
Loadcase

Brings the Loadcase window to the front. The Loadcase window allows you to enter a
series of component weights, together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from
the zero point. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of
Gravity for Stability, KN and Equilibrium analysis.
Input

Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display
the Compartment Definition, Key Points, Margin Line Points or Modulus table.
Results

Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and
display the desired table.
Graph

Brings the selected Graph window to the front. The Graph window displays a number of
different graphs, depending on which analysis mode is currently active.
Help Menu
Provides access to on-line help system.
About Hydromax

Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using.

Page 161

Index

Appendix A
Calculation of Form Parameters
This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB, CP, AM, etc.) is achieved in
Hydromax, and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur.
Definition and calculation of form parameters
Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in
Hydromax.
Nomenclature

Amax
AWP
BOA
BWL
B
b
LOA
LWL
LBP
L
T0
T
t

Maximum immersed cross-sectional area to waterline


under investigation
Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation
Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below
waterline)
Maximum waterline beam at design waterline
Maximum beam of waterline under investigation
Waterline beam of station under investigation
Length overall
Length of design waterline
Length between perpendiculars
length of waterline under investigation
Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest
point on the design)
Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull
Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation
Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under
investigation

Length

The design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to
float under normal circumstances. The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the
intersection of the DWL with the bow. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the
position of the rudder post, or possibly the transom.
Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars, this may be
different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general, will also be different from the
LOA (overall length). In some cases, particularly for resistance prediction purposes, it may be
more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body, features such as bulbous
bows and overhangs can make the LBP, LWL and LOA quite different. In addition, for
calculations at drafts other than the DWL, it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline
length at that draft (L).

Page 162

Appendix A

Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel.
In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline
length for the calculation of Block, Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. Select
Coefficients from the Display menu:

Beam

It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients, and this may be
of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. However, there may be times when it is
appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e.g. submarine, vessel with tumble-home or
blisters). For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and
draft of the section in question.

Vessel with tumble-home


Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. In some cases the overall beam
is of importance, in others, the beam of the individual hulls may be required.
Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for
calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. For the case of a monohull this
will be the normal waterline beam. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam
(remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the
same as that of a single demihull). For the section shown below, the beam used would be
the sum of B1, B2 and B3.

Page 163

Index

Multihull beams
Draft

The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. Normally this datum is the lowest part of
the hull. However, for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts, the datum may be elsewhere. In
Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line. However, there are also occasions when the
immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft, this is often the case when
form parameters are calculated.
Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form
coefficients. For calculations of block coefficient, the greatest immersed section depth is
used; for calculations of section area coefficients, the immersed depth of the section in
question is used.

Draft measurements
Midship Section

It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars,
however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. For vessels with no parallel
mid-body, the section with greatest cross-sectional area may also be of particular interest.
When comparing form coefficients such as CP and CM, remember that Hydromax uses the
station with the maximum immersed cross-sectional area at the waterline under
consideration.
Block Coefficient

Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as:


"the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume
of a rectangular prism with length, breadth and depth equal to the length, breadth and mean draft
of the ship at that waterline."
However, the actual definitions of the length, beam and draft used vary between authorities.
Length may be LBP, LWL or some effective length. The beam may be at amidships or the
Page 164

Appendix A

maximum moulded beam of the waterline; or may be defined according to another standard
this may be important for hulls with significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline.
Hydromax uses the length of the waterline under consideration, L, the maximum
waterline beam of that waterline, B. The draft is the depth below the waterline of the
deepest section, T. Note that B and T need not occur at the same longitudinal station.

CB =

L B T

Midship Section Coefficient

Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as:


"The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to
moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships."
It should be noted that, for sections that have significant tumble-home or blisters below the
waterline, the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity.
The midship section coefficient used by Hydromax, is calculated at the station with
maximum cross-sectional area. The beam used is the waterline beam at this station, b, and
the draft is the immersed depth of the station, t.

CM =

Amax
b t

Prismatic Coefficient

Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as:


"The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of
the ship and whose cross-section equals the midship section area."
Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used.
Hydromax uses the length of the waterline under investigation, L, and the maximum
immersed cross-section area Amax.

CP =

L Amax

Waterplane Area Coefficient

Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as:


"The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle."
Hydromax uses the length of the waterline, L, and the maximum beam of the waterline, B.

CWP =

AWP
LB

Page 165

Index
Maximum deck inclination

Hydromax now calculates the maximum inclination of an imaginary, initially horizontal deck.
Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account.
Trim angle

The trim angle as defined by:

Ta T f
= tan 1
L pp

where: is the trim angle; Ta , Tf are the aft and forward draughts at the corresponding
perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars.
Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations
There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of
immersed shapes. These mainly occur from the integration method used, and occur in both hand
calculations, and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. Both methods use
numerical integration techniques, which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the
Trapezium rule. As with all numerical integration schemes, the accuracy increases as the step
size is reduced, hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand
calculations, due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be
carried out. With hand calculations, it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 3-5
significant figures; with computer calculations, it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more
with 10s of significant figures. These effects are noted from comparing the results of different
hydrostatics packages on the same hullform. In general, differences for basic parameters such as
displacement etc. are under 0.5% (note that, in general, agreement of hand calculations to within
2% is considered good). Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable
variation. However, this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used see discussion
above.
The 0.5% error discrepancy noted above, may be attributed to a number of causes:
Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity.
Different number of integration stations used, and their distribution. Where there are large
changes in shape, such as near the bow and stern, the stations should be more c losely
spaced. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile
between two sections.
Differences in the hull definition, and number of interpolation points used to define each
section. If the surface is exported as DXF poly-lines then the precision used and the
number of straight-line sections used to make up the poly-line are important.
The integration method used: trapezium, Simpson, or higher order methods.

Integration of wetted surface area

At first glance, it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the
station girth along the length of the hull, in a similar way that one might integrate the station
cross-sectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. However, this is not the
case, and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over
the complete surface. Further, the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot
be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. The only accurate
numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric
surface.
The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere. This is given
analytically by: A = 2R 2 , where R is the radius of the circle.
Page 166

Appendix A

It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is
given by:
A = 2R 2 , note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps, and there is a error
factor of

, or approximately 57%.
2

However, for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less, due to the greatly reduced
longitudinal curvature. Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialogue in Maxsurf are
the most accurate, since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface.
Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages, which use a number of
vertical stations to define the hull, will be subject to the error described above.
Reference Designs
A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. These designs are of
simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax.
Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results
obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions.

Page 167

Index

Reference Calculations
Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs, comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values
sphere 10m diam at 5m draft
Volume m^3
261.79939
260.4998
260.34279
261.532
257.105

WP Area m^2
78.53982
78.381
78.357
78.341
77.849

VCB m
-1.875
-1.874
-1.874
-1.875
-1.871

LCB m
0
0
0
0
0

Trans. I m^4
490.873852
488.6807269
488.564741
490.57
483.191

Long. I m^4
490.87385
489.14247
488.93873
485.761
480.89

Volume
% error
-0.50%
-0.56%
-0.10%
-1.79%

WP Area
% error
-0.20%
-0.23%
-0.25%
-0.88%

Trans. I
% error
-0.45%
-0.47%
-0.06%
-1.57%

Long. I
% error
-0.35%
-0.39%
-1.04%
-2.03%

10m Cylinder 10m diam. at 5m draft


Volume m^3
Analytically derived
392.699
Hydromax High Precision
391.991
Hydromax Low Precision
391.991
Maxsurf Hi Precision
392.522
Maxsurf Low Precision
389.874

WP Area m^2
100
100
100
100
100

VCB m
-2.122
-2.121
-2.121
-2.122
-2.118

LCB m
0
0
0
0
0

Trans. I m^4
833.333333
833.333333
833.333333
833.333
833.333

Long. I m^4
833.33333
833.33333
833.33333
833.333
833.333

Volume
% error
-0.18%
-0.18%
-0.05%
-0.72%

WP Area
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Trans. I
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Long. I
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Analytically derived
Hydromax High Precision
Hydromax Low Precision
Maxsurf Hi Precision
Maxsurf Low Precision

Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft


Volume m^3 WP Area m^2
Analytically derived
1000
200
Hydromax High Precision
1000
200
Hydromax Low Precision
1000
200
Maxsurf Hi Precision
1000
200
Maxsurf Low Precision
1000
200

VCB m LCB m
-2.5
0
-2.5
0
-2.5
0
-2.5
0
-2.5
0

Trans. I m^4
1666.666666
1666.666666
1666.666666
1666.667
1666.667

Long. I m^4
6666.6667
6666.6667
6666.6667
6666.667
6666.667

Volume
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

WP Area
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Trans. I
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Long. I
% error
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

Parabolic Wigley type Hull, LWL=15m,B=1.5m,D=0.9375


Volume m^3 WP Area m^2
Analytically derived
9.375
15
Hydromax High Precision
9.364
14.985
Hydromax Low Precision
9.351
14.98
Maxsurf Hi Precision
9.372
14.999
Maxsurf Low Precision
9.302
14.942

VCB m
-0.352
-0.352
-0.352
-0.351
-0.351

Trans. I m^4
1.92875
1.92527
1.92418
1.927
1.91

Long. I m^4
168.75
168.4685
168.3773
168.63
167.621

Volume
% error
-0.12%
-0.26%
-0.03%
-0.78%

WP Area
% error
-0.10%
-0.13%
-0.01%
-0.39%

Trans. I
% error
-0.18%
-0.24%
-0.09%
-0.97%

Long. I
% error
-0.17%
-0.22%
-0.07%
-0.67%

Page 168

LCB m
0
0
0
0
0

Appendix B

Appendix B
Criteria file format
The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension .hcr. The file is a normal
PC text file, which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. The typical format
of the file is given below:

Hydromax Criteria File


[units]
LengthUnits
= m
MassUnits
= tonne
SpeedUnits
= kts
AngleUnits
= deg
GZAreaGMAngleUnits =
deg
[end]
[criterionGroup]
GroupName
= Specific Criteria
ParentGroupName = root
[end]
[criterionGroup]
GroupName
= My Custom Criteria
ParentGroupName = root
[end]
[criterionGroup]
GroupName
= STIX input data
ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria
[end]
[criterion]
Type
RuleName
CritName
CritInfo
CritInfoFile
Locked
GroupName
TestIntact
TestDamage
Test
Compare
UseLoHeel
UseEquilibrium
UseHiHeel
UseFirstPeak
UseMaxGZ
UseFirstDF
UseVanishingStab
LoHeel
HiHeel

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits
STIX input data
GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or
Area under GZ curve between specified heel
HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.rtf
true
STIX input data
true
false
false
GreaterThan
false
true
false
false
false
true
true
0.0
30.0
Page 169

Index

RequiredValue
[end]
[criterion]
Type
RuleName
CritName
CritInfo
CritInfoFile
Locked
GroupName
TestIntact
TestDamage
Test
Compare
RequiredValue
[end]

= 0.000

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab
STIX input data
Angle of vanishing stability
Calculates the angle of vanishing stability
HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.rtf
true
STIX input data
true
false
false
GreaterThan
0.0

The file must have Hydromax Criteria File in the first row. The first section of the
file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file. There are two
angular units:
AngleUnits
Specifies the units for angular measurements,
e.g. range of stability
GZAreaGMAngleUnits
Specifies the angle units used for area under
GZ graph and for GM.
The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included.
The common parameters for all criteria are as follows:
Type
Describes the type of criterion
RuleName
Text which specifies the rule to which the
criterion belongs
CritName
Text which specifies the criterions name
CritInfo
Verbose description of the criterion
Locked
Whether the criterion may be edited in
Hydromax or not. If Locked is set to true, it is
not possible to edit the criterions parameters
in Hydromax
The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type. The available criterion types
are as follows:

Page 170

Appendix B

Criteria at equilibrium
CTStdEquiAngle
CTStdEquiFreeboard
CTStdEquiGM
GZ curve criteria
CTStdValueOfGMAt
CTStdValueOfGZAt
CTStdValueOfMaxGZ
CTStdRatioOfGZValues
CTStdAngleOfMaxGZ
CTStdAngleOfEquilibrium
CTStdAngleOfDownflooding

CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab
CTStdRangeOfStability
CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits
CTStdHSCMonoAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits

CTStdHSCMultiAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits

Heeling arm criteria


CTStdHeelValueOfGMAtEquilibrium

CTStdHeelValueOfGZAtEquilibrium

CTStdHeelValueOfMaxGZAboveHA
CTStdHeelRatioOfGZValues
CTStdHeelAngleOfMaxGZAboveHA
CTStdHeelAngleOfEquilibrium

CTStdPassengerCrowdingAngleOfEquilibrium

CTStdHighSpeedTurnAngleOfEquilibrium

CTStdDerivedHeelArmAngleOfEquilibrium
CTStdHeelAngleOfVanishingStab

CTStdHeelRangeOfStability

Angle of equilibrium
Freeboard at equilibrium
GM at equilibrium
Value of GM at specified
heel angle
Value of GZ at specified
heel angle.
Maximum value of GZ in
specified range
Ratio of two GZ values at
specified heel angles.
Angle at which maximum
GZ occurs.
Angle of equilibrium.
Angle at which first down
flooding point is
immersed.
Angle of vanishing
stability.
Range of positive
stability.
Area under GZ curve
Area under GZ curve
required area depends on
upper limit, linear
Area under GZ curve
required area depends on
upper limit, exponential
Value of GM at angle of
equilibrium with specified
heel arm.
Value of GZ at angle of
equilibrium with specified
heel arm.

Angle of equilibrium with


specified heel arm.
Generic heeling arm
Angle of equilibrium with
specified heel arm.
Passenger crowding
heeling arm
Angle of equilibrium with
specified heel arm.
Turning heeling arm
Derived wind heeling
Angle of vanishing
stability with specified
heel arm.
Range of stability with
generic wind heeling arm
Page 171

Index

CTStdHeelAreaBetweenGZAndHABetweenLimits
CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas1Turning
CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas1Lifting
CTStdHeelRatioOfAreas2

Multiple heeling arm criteria


CTStdMultiHeelRatioOfGZValues

Area between GZ curve


and heeling arm
Area ratio, method 1
using generic heeling arm
Area ratio, method 1
using sin+cos heeling arm
Ratio of areas based on
US Navy wind heeling
criterion.

GZ ratio for combined


heeling arms
CTStdMultiHeelAngleOfEquilibrium
Angle of equilibrium for
combined heeling arms
CTStdMultiHeelAreaBetweenGZAndHABetweenLimits Area between GZ curve
and heeling arm, for
combined heeling arms
CTStdMultiHeelRatioOfAreas1Turning
Ratio of areas method 1
for combined heeling
arms
Heeling arm, combined criteria
CTStdHeelGenericTurning
Combined criteria for
turning
CTStdHeelGenericLifting
Combined criteria for
lifting of heavy weights
CTStdHeelGenericWindHeeling
Combined angle of
equilibrium, ratio of GZ
values and ratio of areas
criteria for specified
heeling arm; based on US
Navy wind heeling
criterion. Uses generic
heeling arm
CTStdHeelWindHeeling
Combined angle of
equilibrium, ratio of GZ
values and ratio of areas
criteria for specified
heeling arm; based on US
Navy wind heeling
criterion. Uses wind
heeling arm

Page 172

Index

Index
A

About Hydromax, 161


Add, 153
Add Damage Case, 158
Add Load, 122
Add Point, 138
Add Surface Areas, 153
Aft Perpendicular, 14
Allowable shears and moments, 35
Amidships, 14
Analysis, 3
Analysis in waves, 5
Analysis Menu, 155
Analysis Toolbar, 149
Analysis type, choosing, 4
Animate, 160
Arrange Icons, 161

Damage, 21
Damage Case, saving, 41
Damage Window, 124
Data Format, 158
Data layout, 139
Data selection, 139
Delete, 153
Delete Cells, 153
Delete Damage Case, 158
Delete Load, 122
Density, 15, 156
Design, saving, 41
Displacement, 31, 156
Display Menu, 158
Downflooding Angles, 141
Downflooding points, 137
Downflooding points, linking to tanks or
compartments, 137
Draft, 23, 156, 164
DWL, 14, 23

B
Baseline, 14
Beam, 163
Block Coefficient, 164
C
Cascade, 160
Case Menu, 158
Cell Border, 153
Cell Shading, 153
Center of buoyancy, 120
Center of flotation, 120
Center of gravity, 120
Close, 151
Coefficients, calculation of, 158
Colour, 155
Compartment Definition, 19, 125
Compartment definition, saving, 41
Compartment types, 129
Compartments, 130
Compartments, forming, 129
Compartments, tapered, 126
Convergence, 153
Coordinate system, 14
Copy, 42, 152
Corrected VCG, 20
Criteria, 156
Cut, 152

E
Edit Damage Case, 158
Edit Menu, 152
Edit Toolbar, 149
Equilibrium, 5, 26
Equilibrium condition, 5
Error Values, 153
Exit, 152
Export, 151
F
File Menu, 151
File Toolbar, 149
Fill Down, 152
Flooding, 22
Fluid analysis method, 19
Fluid VCG, 20, 123
Fluids, 156
Font, 155
Form Compartments, 129, 157
Forward Perpendicular, 14
Frame of Reference, 14, 159
Free Surface Moment, 20, 123
Freeboard, 142, 143

Page 173

Index

Graph, 161
Graph data, interpolating, 143
Graph type, 143
Graph Window, 143
Grounding, 17, 157
GZ, 5

Margin Line points, 138


Maximum deck inclination, 166
Maximum shears and moments, 35
Merge Cells, 153
Midship Section, 164
Midship Section Coefficient, 165
Modulus points, 139
Modulus Window, 35

H
Heel, 156
Heel angles, 24
Help Menu, 161
Hog and Sag, 17, 156
Home View, 120, 155
Horizontal lever, 122
I
Immersion Angles, 141
Input, 161
Input Window, 125
Insert New Table, 152
Insert Row, 152
Installing Hydromax, 1
Internal Structure, 13
K
Key Point Data, 141
Key points, 137
Key points, adding, 138
Key points, deleting, 138
Key points, editing, 138
KN Values, 31
KN Values, 6
L
Large Angle Stability, 5, 24
Length, 162
Limiting KG, 6, 33
Linked Compartments, 130
Linked Negative Compartments, 130
Linked Tanks, 129
Load, adding, deleting, 122
Loadcase, 18, 161
Loadcase formatting, 124
Loadcase Window, 121
Loadcase, Blank lines, 124
Loadcase, Grouping tanks, 124
Loadcase, Headings lines, 124
Loadcase, saving, 41
Loadcase, Total lines, 124
Loads, distributed, 122
Longitudinal Strength, 7, 35

Page 174

N
New, 151
Non-Buoyant Volume Definition, 19
Non-Buoyant Volumes, 130
O
Open, 2, 151
Opening a design, 2
P
Page Setup, 152
Pan, 120, 154
Paste, 152
Preferences, 1
Preparing a design for Hydromax, 1
Print, 152
Print Preview, 43
Prismatic Coefficient, 165
R
Reference Designs, 167
Relative Density, 15, 19, 134
Report Keystrokes, 147
Report Window, 144
Results, 161
Results Window, 139
Results, saving, 41
Resume Analysis, 38, 157
Row Positioning, 153
S
Save, 41, 151
Save As, 151
Sectional Area Curve, 13
Sections, Checking, 1
Sections, Checking in Hydromax, 10
Sections, Checking in Maxsurf, 12
Sections, Closing, 9
Select All, 152
Select View From Data, 160
Set Analysis Type, 157
Set Home View, 155
Shift Key, 1

Index

Show Grid, 153


Shrink, 120, 154
Simulate fluid movement, 20
Specific Gravity, 15, 19, 134
Specified Condition, 6, 30, 156
Split Cell, 153
Stability, 24
Stability booklet, 20
Stability criteria, 22
Stability Criteria, 140
Stability criteria, Angle of deck edge
immersion, 69
Stability criteria, Angle of downflooding, 69
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium, 68
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium derived wind heeling arm, 97
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm, 95, 96
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium - highspeed turn heeling arm, 97
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms, 104
Stability criteria, Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm, 96
Stability criteria, Angle of margin line
immersion, 69
Stability criteria, Angle of maximum GZ, 68
Stability criteria, Angle of maximum GZ
above heeling arm - general heeling arm, 94
Stability criteria, Angle of vanishing stability,
69
Stability criteria, Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm, 97
Stability criteria, Areas and levers, 86
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general cos+sin heeling arm,
108
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - general heeling arm, 107
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - high-speed turn, 108
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - lifting weight, 109
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - passenger crowding, 108
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 1) - towing, 109
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 2) - general wind heeling arm,
109
Stability criteria, Combined criteria (ratio of
areas type 2) - wind heeling arm, 111

Stability criteria, damage and intact settings,


49
Stability criteria, defining custom criteria, 48
Stability criteria, details, 51
Stability criteria, equilibrium, 62
Stability criteria, General cos+sin heeling arm,
81
Stability criteria, General heeling arm, 81
Stability criteria, Gust ratio, 86
Stability criteria, GZ area between limits general heeling arm, 99
Stability criteria, GZ area between limits multiple heeling arms, 105
Stability criteria, GZ area between limits type
1 - standard, 70
Stability criteria, GZ area between limits type
2- HSC monohull type, 71
Stability criteria, GZ area between limits type
3 - HSC multihull type, 74
Stability criteria, GZ curve features, 57
Stability criteria, GZ, non-healing arm, 63
Stability criteria, Heeling due to bollard-pull,
84
Stability criteria, Heeling due to lifting of
weights crowding, 83
Stability criteria, Heeling due to passenger
crowding, 82
Stability criteria, Heeling due to towing, 84
Stability criteria, Heeling due to turning, 82
Stability criteria, Heeling due to wind, 85
Stability criteria, IMO Code on Intact Stability
A.749(18), 87
Stability criteria, IMO HSC Code MSC.36(63,
89
Stability criteria, importing, 55
Stability criteria, list, 48
Stability criteria, Maximum Freeboard at
equilibrium, 62
Stability criteria, Maximum value of heel,
pitch or slope at equilibrium, 62
Stability criteria, Minimum Freeboard at
equilibrium, 62
Stability criteria, moving criteria, 48
Stability criteria, Other criteria - STIX, 112
Stability criteria, overview, 46
Stability criteria, parent criteria, 48
Stability criteria, pass/fail test, 52
Stability criteria, Range of positive stability,
70
Stability criteria, Range of positive stability general heeling arm, 98
Stability criteria, Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm, 101

Page 175

Index

Stability criteria, Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm, 100


Stability criteria, Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms, 106
Stability criteria, Ratio of areas type 2 general wind heeling arm, 102
Stability criteria, Ratio of GZ area between
limits, 75
Stability criteria, Ratio of GZ values at phi1
and phi2, 67
Stability criteria, Ratio of GZ values at phi1
and phi2 - general heeling arm, 94
Stability criteria, Ratio of GZ values at phi1
and phi2 - multiple heeling arms, 104
Stability criteria, Ratio of positive to negative
GZ area between limits, 78
Stability criteria, report and batch processing,
54
Stability criteria, resizing dialog, 48
Stability criteria, results, 53
Stability criteria, saving, 55
Stability criteria, selecting for analysis, 49
Stability criteria, setting up for analysis, 47
Stability criteria, USL code, 90
Stability criteria, Value of GMt at, 63
Stability criteria, Value of GMt at equilibrium
- general heeling arm, 92
Stability criteria, Value of GMt or GMl at
equilibrium, 63
Stability criteria, Value of GZ at, 64
Stability criteria, Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm, 92
Stability criteria, Value of GZ at specified
angle or maximum GZ below specified
angle, 65
Stability criteria, Value of maximum GZ, 64
Stability criteria, Value of maximum GZ
above heeling arm - general heeling arm, 93
Stability criteria, Value of RM at specified
angle or maximum RM below specified
angle, 67
Start Analysis, 38, 157
Starting Hydromax, 1
Status Bar, 155
Stop Analysis, 38, 157
T
Table, 152
Tank Calibrations, 8, 37
Tank Definition, 19
Tank definition, saving, 41
Tank Fluids, 134

Page 176

Tank loads, 123


Tank, complex, 127
Tank, in Compartments, 132
Tank, Linked, 127
Tank, Ordering, 134
Tank, Permeability, 134
Tank, simple, 126
Tank, Surface Thickness, 134
Tank, tapered, 126
Tank, Visibility, 135
Tanks, 129
Tanks, External, 130
Tanks, Non-Buoyant Areas, 131
Tile Horizontal, 160
Tile Vertical, 160
Time step, 5
Toolbars, 149, 155
Trapezoidal integration, 9
Trim, 15, 156
Trim angle, 166
Trim, fixed, 15
Trim, free, 15
U
Undo, 152
Units, 159
Upright hydrostatics, 5
V
View Direction, 161
View Menu, 154
View Toolbar, 149
View Window, 120
Visibility, 159
Visibility Toolbar, 150
W
Waterplane Area Coefficient, 165
Wave definition, 16
Wave height, 17
Waveform, 156
Waveform, sinusoidal, 16
Waveform, trochoidal, 16
Wavelength, 17
Window Menu, 160
Window Toolbar, 149
Windows Registry, 1
Z
Zero Point, 14, 122, 160
Zoom, 120, 154